LM oder Q Potenzen



Vergleich: Siehe: Mitteln + Einnahme


Meine Erfahrung:

Zupassung von LM oder Q Potenzen ist sehr schwer. Kostspielig und Zeit raubend ist es auch.


[John Morgan M.R.Pharm. S., R.S. Hom/Helios Pharmacy]


Hahnemann completed the 5th edition of the Organon in 1833 and the 6th edition by the end of 1841. He wrote a letter dated 20th February, 1842, to Schwabe, his publisher

in Dusseldorf saying that ' I have now after 18 months of work finished the 6th edition of my Organon, the most nearly perfect of all.' After stating his preference as to type and paper he asked Schwabe if he would publish it, but before the negotiations were completed Hahnemann died on 2nd July 1843. His wife Melanie was pressed by Boenninghausen, Hering and other students of Hahnemann to publish the document after his death, but she would not release the manuscript either because of a desire to protect his name or because of her desire for money! Although most writers favour Melanie's avarice

as the cause of the delay, this is unlikely, as the manuscript was not released, even though she was over 80 when she died, and her greed was thus left unsatisfied. Hahnemann described her as his best ever student and her deep love for him surely withheld the manuscript to deny his critics the opportunity of judging the 6th edition even more eccentric than the 5th. It was only released to the world, after translation, in 1921 when Richard Haehl procured the manuscript from Hahnemann's ancestors by which time there had been a great establishment of homœopathy by J.T. Kent and those who followed him. It is ironic that Kent, such a devoted follower of his master, should have only had the fifth edition, and not the 'most nearly perfect of all' on which to base his teaching. Had the 6th edition been available to him, the whole evolution of homœopathy would surely have been different.

Kent's contribution to the development of the high potencies established an extension to remedy preparation based on the guidelines given by Hahnemann in the 5th edition (published in 1833), namely the centessimal potency scale. By 1921, 5 years after Kent's death, America and Europe were well established in decimal and centessimal remedy philosophy so the discovery, in the 6th edition, of a new method of potentising remedies, the LM (= Q) potencies, did not, at the time, start a revolution towards their use.

In fact it was a further 33 years, in 1954, that Dr. Pierre Schmidt of Geneva published essays about his experiences using the LM scale. Since then only a few have carried the flame in Europe and India, but recently the worldwide growth of homœopathy has started to look again at the

LM potencies which Hahnemann describes, in a footnote to § 270 as being "the most powerful and at the same time mildest in action i.e. as the most perfected"

The evolution of the preparation and application of Hahnemann's remedies passed through several phases. His early use of remedies (from 1784) were small crude doses, of

the drug, in powder or tincture form given according to the homœopathic principle. There were side effects (the poisonous remedies such as Ars., and the desire to eliminate these toxic effects led him to develop, in 1815, the method of trituration and subsequent liquid dilution and succussion, we know as the centessimal potencies.

From 1815 he used potentised remedies for the toxic and insoluble inert materials such as Silica, Carb-v. etc. and dosed directly with drops of the less poisonous mother tinctures such as Bry., Puls., Rhus-t.. By 1834 he was using all his remedies in a potentised form, giving the appropriate potency and the minimum dose (i.e. quantity)

of his medicines to patients by means of the smallest sugar granules available.

These so-called 'pellet' dosages are described in Chronic Diseases p151 as 'the finest, of the size of poppy-seeds, of which about 200 (more or less) weigh a grain' and just

one of these tiny granules, given dry on the tongue, remained Hahnemann's standard solid dose right up to 1837.

It seems that the evolution of his remedy preparation was fuelled by the desire to create, not only, a highly dynamised remedy but also to give it in the smallest dose (quantity) possible to effect a curative response.

Hahnemann's writings clearly show that he differentiates between the level of potency and smallness of the dose i.e. the quantity given.

For example,

Organon 5th edition (1833) §276 "A medicine, even though it may be homœopathically suited to the case, does harm in every dose that is too large, the more harm the larger the dose, and by the magnitude of the dose it does more harm the greater its homœopathicity and the higher the potency selected".

Organon 5th Edition (1833) § 246 footnote "Now, in cases where he was convinced of the correctness of his choice of the homœopathic medicine, in order to obtain more benefit for the patient that he was able to get hitherto from prescribing a single small dose, the idea often naturally struck him to increase the dose ....... and, for instance, in place of giving a single very minute globule moistened with the medicine in the highest dynamization, to administer six, seven or eight of them at once, and even a half or a whole drop. But the result was almost always less favourable than it should have been; it was often actually unfavourable, often even very bad - an injury that, in a patient so treated, it is difficult to repair.

These days we tend to regard the size of a dose of a centessimal remedy as irrelevant. One tablet or ten tablets taken as one dose still only gives one dose of the potency, doesn't it? But there are unanswered questions. For example, why do we not nowadays extensively see remedies causing 'more harm the larger the dose'? After all, the average dose from a tablet used today is approximately 50x the dose of Hahnemann's small granule. Also how far can a remedy be diluted before the remedy is inactive? If we dissolve a tablet in a bath of water will a teaspoonful dose have the same effect as taking the tablet itself? Why should olfaction of a remedy be more suitable to sensitives? Is this because they take in a smaller quantity of vapour or tablet dust? And how far does the vial have to be from the nose before the dose is inactive? As we shall see management of cases using the LM scale is based on the quantity of medicine the patient takes. Its as if Hahnemann takes it for granted that we all understand the importance of quantity, as well as potency, when administering a remedy, but this seems almost a revolutionary new concept to us as we rarely consider this factor when using both low and high potency centessimal remedies.

            Another interesting concept, which H. consistently refers to, is the ability of an increased number of succussions to continually strengthen or intensify the potency without further dilution.

In the 5th edition we find the following footnote to §270

            "In order to maintain a fixed and measured standard for developing the power of liquid medicines, multiplied experience and careful observation have led me to adopt two succussions for each phial, in preference to the greater number formerly employed (by which the medicines were too highly potentised).

There are, however, homeopathists who carry about with them on their visits to patients the homœopathic medicines in the fluid state, and who yet assert that they do not become more highly potentised in the course of time, but they thereby show their want of ability to observe correctly. I dissolved a grain of soda in half an ounce of water mixed with alcohol in a phial, which was thereby filled two-thirds full, and shook this solution continuously for half an hour, and this fluid was in potency and energy equal to the thirtieth development of power."

            It is more likely that, rather than an increase in potency level itself, the large number of succussions produce a lateral intensification or energising of the solution within the confines of the dilution factor - a concept upheld by the LM method. If there was not a 'ceiling' to potency level then serial dilution would not be needed to make a remedy, one could simply shake any dilution for different lengths of time as in the example given above. Also the lower potencies are very limited by the physical molecular presence of the remedy so it is impossible to make a 30c if there is material presence as potencies above 12c have no molecules of the original substance left.

            The question remains, however, as to when a potency level is actually reached and how many succussions are needed to reach it and also whether different dilution factors need different amounts. For example if one succussion will turn a 29c into a 30c then extra succussions will simply intensify on the 30c level. If more shakes are needed then a gradual increase in potency occurs until a saturation point arrives and presumably only intensification takes place. In the sixth edition Hahnemann describes the daily succussion of the LM solutions as 'altering and slightly increasing the degree of potency' §248 suggesting a gradual almost exponential curve of increasing potency which never actually reaches the next degree until a further dilution step is taken.

Hahnemann's thoughts are shown in the following extracts,

            Materia Medica Pura (1827) p46 ....... we must act with moderation in order to avoid increasing the powers of the medicines to an undue extent by such trituration. A drop of Drosera in the 30th dilution succussed with 20 strokes of the arm at each dilution, given as a dose to a child suffering from whooping-cough, endangers life, whereas, if the dilution phials are succussed only twice,

a globule the size of a poppy seed moistened with the last dilution cures it readily.

Organon 6th Edition (1842) § 270 footnote ......with so small diluting medium as 100 to 1 of the medicine, if many succussions by means of a powerful machine are forced into it, medicines are then developed which, especially in the higher degrees of dynamisation, act almost immediately, but with furious even dangerous, violence, especially in weakly patients, without having a lasting, mild reaction of the vital principle.

            On the subject of repetition of a centessimal dose of the same potency Hahnemann shows an important change of mind between the 2 editions. In the 5th edition §246 footnote he advocates that" ...... a single dose of a well selected homœopathic medicine should always be allowed first to fully extend its action before a new medicine is given or the same one repeated.", then continues in this long footnote to give details of certain chronic and serious acute conditions when it is actually necessary to repeat the dose several times to effect a cure, although he advises caution as " he has frequently experienced no advantage, but most frequently, decided disadvantage"

            Whereas in the 6th edition the re-written §246 dismisses the above as " all my experience permitted me to say at the time.." and that his research of the previous five years had wholly solved the difficulties of repetition.

 §247 clearly states his renewed position

            "It is impractical to repeat the same unchanged dose of a remedy once, not to mention its frequent repetition (and at short intervals in order not to delay the cure). The vital principle does not accept such unchanged doses without resistance, that is, without other symptoms of the medicine to manifest themselves than those similar to the disease to be cured, because the former dose has already accomplished the expected change in the vital principle and a second dynamically wholly similar, unchanged dose of the same medicine no longer finds, therefore, the same conditions of the vital force. The patient may indeed be made sick in another way by receiving other such unchanged doses, even sicker than he was, for now only those symptoms of the given remedy remain active which were not homœopathic to the original disease, hence no step towards cure can follow, only a true aggravation of the condition of the patient."

After many years of continued experimentation, Hahnemann published new procedures, which solved some of the problems of dose and repetition. They formed the basis of the LM method, which was to follow after another five years painstaking work.           

This first breakthrough comes in 1837 when the chapter in Chronic Diseases called 'Concerning the technical part of Homœopathy' describes the new plussing method for administering centessimal potencies. He is lead to changes of the dosing of remedies because the " variety among patients as to their irritability, age, spiritual and bodily development necessitate a great variety in their treatment and administration to them of the doses of medicines".   Hahnemann felt that the 'single dose and wait' philosophy left too long a period of inaction and the speed of cure often too slow as the practitioner could do nothing but wait for the remedy to complete it curative curve. Also, from his many comments about violent reactions to remedies, the sensitive patients he saw were producing undesirable aggravations, which he constantly sought to escape from.

He firstly introduces the greater beneficial effects of administering remedies always in liquid form, the reason for this being that the medicine " comes in contact with a much larger surface of sensitive nerves responsive to the medicinal action" (5th edition §286) and because of this the effect of the remedy increases. One of the granules of high dynamisation (he refers mostly to the 30c) is dissolved in 7-20 tablespoons of water with a little alcohol added. The patient then takes, directly from the bottle, a tablespoon of the liquid (a teaspoon or coffee-spoon ful for children) two, four or six hourly for acutes, daily or every other day for chronics. The choice of how many tablespoons to make the solution with depends on how much of the granule is required in each tablespoon dose i.e. 1/7th granule (7 tablespoons) - 1/20th (20 tablespoons), as well as for how many days the remedy is to be given. The differing amount of solution to be made up gives flexibility for each patients needs and infers that the remedy action is different (weaker) in its 'intensity' the more diluted the original granule becomes. Additionally, before each dose is taken " a slight change in the degree of dynamisation is effected if the bottle, containing the solution of one or more pellets, is merely well shaken five or six times, every time before taking it” Thus each days dosage remains homœopathic to the case as the slight increase in the health of the vital force is matched with the slight increase in potency caused by the five or six shakes of the bottle. The regular stimulus of the remedy, which is homœopathic both in pathogenesis and potency, is the key to the speedier cure.

The same chapter in Chronic Diseases highlights this thus " In taking one and the same medicine repeatedly (which is indispensable to secure the cure of a serious chronic disease), if the dose is in every case varied and modified only a little in its degree of dynamisation, then the vital force of the patient will calmly, and as it were willingly receive the same medicine even at brief intervals very many times in succession with the best results, every time increasing the well-being of the patient."

Another method for dosing "careful” patients is also suggested in the same chapter whereby the pellet is dissolved in 200 (approx.8ml), 300 (12ml) or 400 drops (16ml) of a 50% brandy solution, depending on whether it is to be weaker or stronger, and one, two, three or several drops, according to the irritability of the patient, are dropped into a cup containing a tablespoon of water. This well stirred then taken all as one dose or only half is taken if "special care is necessary” The 'stock' bottle is shaken as suggested in the method above.

So here we have as example of reducing the dose further by using drops rather than tablespoons so as to not over stimulate the sensitive or 'careful' patient. I.e. the smaller the quantity of the pellet received in the dose the less its undesirable effects. There is an optimum dosage, which suits each patient as the diluting weakens the potency so it doesn't overstimulate. The optimum dose individual for each case is the smallest amount needed for a gentle but certain remedial effect. These are also the principles on which the LM method is based.

Lastly Hahnemann paves the way for the final step, into his most perfect method, with a famous paragraph concerning the number of succussions given to the vial when preparing centessimal remedies. The homœopathic Pharmacopoeias officially advocate ten succussions as the number to use when preparing C potencies, but I believe they have missed a small point when interpreting Hahnemann’s reasons for change. In Chronic Diseases we are told that when giving remedies in solid form i.e. granules or powders dry on the tongue, Hahnemann found that remedies prepared with more than two shakes were too strong so stayed with two strokes for consistency; but " during the last years since I have been giving every dose of medicine in a solution, divided over fifteen, twenty or thirty days and even more, no potentising in an attenuating vial is found too strong, and again I use ten strokes.  In other words as long as the dose is in liquid form, and can be regulated as to the optimum size and repetition, then no matter how many succussions are used to prepare the original remedy it will not be too much for the patient. This also confirms the idea that the intense action of a highly succussed remedy is diminished by dilution.



            From 1837-1843, as far as is known, all Hahnemann's administration of remedies was done in liquid form using variations on the above themes. The final development to create a more highly dynamised remedy was the change of the dilution factor from 1:100 to 1:50,000. The 3c trituration powder (details of the preparation of this are in §270) is the starting point for the preparation of the LM scale because all remedies are soluble in water at this point; so any remedy can be utilised even the insoluble materials such as Carb-v., Aur-met. etc. A grain in weight (0.06gm) of this powder is dissolved in 500 drops (30ml) of 20% alcohol making a 1:500 dilution of the 0.06gm of 3c, and one drop of this solution is then further diluted in 99 drops of 95% alcohol, filling two thirds of a glass vial, giving a (1 in 500 x 100 = 50,000) solution of the 3c powder. This tube is then succussed 100 times against a firm but elastic object (the famous leather bound bible) to create the LM 1 medicating liquid. Hahnemann's comments on this new method are found in the 6th Edition §270

" .... meticulous experiments have convinced me that this ratio (1:100) between the quantity of diluent and that of the medicine being dynamised is far too low to develop the medicinal substance properly and to a high degree with a large number of succussions unless force is used. .....Whereas in this much higher ratio (1:50,000), between diluent and medicinal substance, a large number of succussions of the vial filled two-thirds with wine spirit can bring about a far greater development of power."

The LM 1 liquid is then poured onto some poppy-seed granules of which a hundred weigh 1 grain (0.06gm). Although this size is larger than those granules advocated in Chronic Diseases (200 to a grain) they are still so small that one drop of the alcoholic LM 1 liquid can completely wet at least 500 of them. Thus just one granule absorbs at least a 500th of a drop. When this granule is dissolved in a drop of water, and 99 drops of alcohol are added to it, the next LM 2 solution contains a 1/500th x 100 = 1/50,000th of the previous LM 1 liquid. The LM 2 liquid is then succussed 100 times also. The process is continued in this way simply using the granule as the intermediary to transfer a 500th of a drop instead of the direct addition of a whole drop, as is the case with the centessimal 1:100 ratio. Hahnemann's practical simplicity is masterful as the small granules not only provide a tiny, manageable dose, for using with patients, but also the smallest practical unit to effect such large dilution ratio. One could theoretically dilute with one drop to 50,000 drops (100 drops of 95% alcohol = 3.6mls) but the bottle to be succussed 100 times would then contain 1.75 litres of alcohol. Not an economic or practical size for the average human being to work with!

            Although the nature of the 1:50,000 potency created is different from that created by a 1:100 ratio (. my new method produces medicines of the highest power and the mildest action .§270)

it is interesting to note the theoretical relationship with the centessimal scale. Each step of 1:50,000 is a rise of approximately C 2.5 so that considering we started with a C 3 a LM 1 is just over C 5, LM 6 = C 17, LM 12 = C 31, LM 30 = C 73 (all approximate figures)

So the granules are wetted with the solution and left to dry after which they are bottled and labelled with the appropriate nomenclature e.g. LM 1, LM 2 or LM 0/1, LM 0/2 etc. the zero signifying the granule, the form in which the final medicine is stored.

            Now we have this highly dynamised remedy our criteria for how to use them are different from those of the centesimal scale. Obviously the indicated similar remedy is still chosen on the same principles as before but choice of potency, up to now our main variable factor for controlling the response to the remedy, is not such as issue when using the LM's. Hahnemann's recommendation is to always start with the lowest degrees (§246). Although not specifically mentioned, this suggests always starting with LM 1, but is often interpreted, by experienced users of LM's, as between LM 1 and LM 6. The choice is based on the health/vitality level, degree of pathology, suppression, sensitivity etc. and provides a variable on which we can individualize.

With the dissolving in liquid, and subsequent shaking of the bottle before each dose, the potency is gradually raised, expanded, and intensified to continually stimulate the vital force at regular intervals. The next potency level is given when the bottle of the previous potency is finished. No leaps in potency are recommended (§246) and if one starts with LM 1, for example, then LM 2 follows and so on. Unless we dissolve a granule directly in 1.75 litres of water we will never actually reach the next LM level but simply continue towards the potency level determined by the dilution factor.

            After we have chosen the appropriate remedy to give in LM form, the first choice, after the potency, is how much of the granule is the patient to take i.e. the dose, how often it is to be repeated and for how many days are they to be on that particular potency. These are the areas where the difficulties of the LM's lie and, as Hahnemann tells us in §278, theorizing is not enough to tell us what the ideal degree of smallness of the dose is to effect a gentle cure, and that "Only pure experiment, the meticulous observation of the sensitivity of each patient, and sound experience can determine this in each individual case".

            Control of the dosage is very similar to the centessimal 'plussing' technique but using the LM granule, instead of a 30c, dissolved in liquid. The directions for making up the solutions for patient use are defined quite clearly in the 6th edition §248 footnote. He states that one rarely needs more than one granule although two or three can obviously be used if a stronger solution is required. The granule is dissolved in forty, thirty, twenty, fifteen or eight tablespoons of water with the addition of a little alcohol to preserve it; 10% is a good guide for solutions designed to last up to two months. The patient takes directly from the 'stock' bottle" one or, increasing progressively, more coffee or teaspoons of this as follows: in chronic diseases, daily or every other day; in acute diseases every six, four, three or two hours...."            Eight, ten, or twelve succussions are given to the bottle before each dose. Again we have here a variable, which we can use to regulate individual needs if required, twelve shakes giving a slightly sharper daily rise in potency than eight. Also note the wording 'one or increasing progressively more teaspoons' which, if appropriate to the case, can speed up cure by giving increased stimulus from the larger dose as well as taking the patient through the higher potencies more rapidly.

To help us decide how much liquid to make up let us look at the appropriate dosages for each of Hahnemann's suggestions.

A tablespoon is considered a 20ml measure, a teaspoon 5ml, and a coffee-spoonful 2.5ml, so a granule dissolved in :-

40 tablespoons = 800ml = 1/800th granule/ml so a 5ml dose contains a 1/160th of a granule. (160 days supply)

30 tablespoons = 600ml = 1/120th of a granule per 5ml dose (120 days supply)

20 tablespoons = 400ml = 1/80th of a granule per 5ml dose (80 days supply)

15 tablespoons = 300ml = 1/60th of a granule per 5ml dose (60 days supply)

8 tablespoons  = 160ml = 1/32th of a granule per 5ml dose (32 days supply)

A coffee spoonful will represent a dosage twice as small as the above i.e. 40 tablespoons = 1/320th of a granule per 2.5ml dose.

As bottles above 300mls are not very practical for patients to use Hahnemann's practicality introduces the use of a drinking glass to further dilute the solution and obviate the need for a large amount of water. The method is given in detail in §248. One granule is dissolved in seven or eight tablespoons of water and after succussion a tablespoonful is put into a glass containing eight to ten tablespoons of water. After vigorous stirring a teaspoon or coffee-spoonful dose is then taken from the glass. Then next dose is prepared in exactly the same way using a fresh glass of water. This method represents the following dose,

8 tablespoons (160ml)= 1/8th granule/tablespoon (20ml) diluted x 10 =1/80th per 20ml so a 5ml dose = 1/320th granule which is the weakest dose Hahnemann recommends

but takes the patient only 8-10 days to finish and be ready for the next potency up.

Dr Pierre Schmidt used one granule in 100mls of water and a coffee spoonful as a dose which represented 1/40th of a granule per 2.5ml dose (40 days supply).

Dr Robert Shore and Dr H Choudhury both dose with one granule in 110ml water putting one tablespoonful in a glass of 110mls of water which represents 1/160th of a granule per 5ml dose (6 days supply).

Other commonly used methods, for preparing weaker solutions, include:

One granule in 150ml stock bottle and a 5ml spoonful in approx.100mls water in the glass, so one 5ml = 1/600th granule per 5ml dose (30 days supply).

One granule in 10mls water then 10 drops in 100mls water in a glass = 1/260th granule per 5ml dose (20 days supply).

Very sensitive patients who quickly become over stimulated by or prove the remedy when given in the standard dose can reduce it, next time, by diluting a teaspoonful from the first glass in a second glass of water thus reducing the dose by a factor of about 20 for each glass used.

            The variations mentioned above provide much flexibility with different combinations of dose and speeds of potency increase reaffirming the importance of 'meticulous observation of the sensitivity of each patient.' §278

            Cases published show Hahnemann used most often the eight-tablespoon stock bottle and glass method in §248 for dosing patients. This provides a weak solution but takes the patient through to the next potency level in only 7-8 days. It is important to remember that the Organon gives many possibilities to tailor dosing to the needs of the patient and experience will show us what is most appropriate. The beauty of the versatile LM method is that we can also just choose one or two methods to gain that experience while still giving our patients the gentle but speedy improvement they desire.


            Many practitioners come to use LM potencies when treating cases which need more care because of risks of aggravation e.g. patients who are very sensitive to remedies, those with very low vitality, cases with severe pathology, history of suppressive treatments etc. But in theory all cases whether acute or chronic, showing pathology or not can be treated with LM's and there are many practitioners who use these remedies exclusively. In practise, however, some patients may need the qualities of the centessimal remedies to awaken their self-healing process. The LM 's give us yet another valuable string to our bow to be chosen appropriately. Alternating periods of treatment with LM's and C's are also possible remembering that the lowest degrees of potency are to be used with each new LM even the last remedy was a high centessimal of the same remedy e.g. Sulphur 10m is followed by the lowest LM (Sulphur LM 1)

             Management of cases with LM potencies is quite simple as long as patient compliance is good and if a few simple guidelines are followed.

            After a suitable solution has been chosen the patient continues to dose appropriately i.e. daily, or every other day etc., while there is improvement to the case and the patient does not show any new symptoms §248. Each dose stimulates a reaction to the vital force, which moves up a level in health only to be further stimulated by the following dose, which matches the favourable change in the patient and remains completely homœopathic as regards symptoms and potency level. The intensity of the potency, determined by the quantity of dose given, is also regulated to the optimum especially if the doses are increased progressively as is suggested .e.g. an extra 5ml spoonful each week. However as no dose can ever be too small then any dosing level will have some effect.

If there is no improvement after a few days then it is either not the appropriate remedy or there are some environmental maintaining causes blocking the remedy action §252.

If new symptoms previously not seen before appear, then the remedy is not the best choice, because the symptoms are not being cured by the remedy, so dosing is stopped. The new picture is then assessed and another remedy given starting at the lowest degrees of dynamisation (LM 1) regardless of what potency level the previous remedy had reached.

Although LM potencies are the most highly dynamised remedies they are much milder than the centessimals in action. However aggravations still do occur and are useful guides to remedy reaction as they are with the C scale. The LM aggravation comes towards the end of treatment and is a return of old symptoms stimulated by the remedy itself. As the curative curve of a particular remedy comes to an end, the vital force has only the excess artificial disease stimulus of the remedy to respond to - susceptibility having been satisfied. The remedy is stopped. If the symptoms disappear in a few days no more medicine is needed, but if the symptoms persist dosing continues as before to complete the cure §281.

An aggravation of symptoms at the beginning of treatment, i.e. with low potencies, is a sign of over-stimulation (too much intensity) and indicates the dose was too high. To alleviate this the amount taken from the stock bottle is reduced to a level, which creates no discomfort, and the remedy is continued using that dosage routine until an increase in dose is appropriate §282. In practise the use of successive dilutions using the drinking glass is the most useful method to effect this or by simply reducing the dose given from the stock bottle e.g. a half-teaspoonful instead of a full one if the medicine is being dosed directly without the use of glasses. Reduction of dose is similarly used for so-called sensitive cases that are immediately over stimulated or prove the remedy during the first days, or hours, of treatment. If treatment is started with higher potencies e.g. LM 3 and above, then initial aggravations could also be due to a too higher potency as with the centessimal potencies.

A SUMMARY OF HAHNEMANN'S DIRECTIONS for the use of LM potencies.

1.            The remedy must be homœopathic §246

2.            The remedy must be highly potentised i.e. prepared by the LM method §246

3.            The remedy must be given in small doses i.e. dissolved in water before administration to the patient §246

4.            The remedy must be repeated at suitable intervals §246

5.            The potency must be altered before each dose i.e. raised by succussion §246. The solution is to be succussed 8, 10, 12x before taking one, or (increasing progressively) more coffee or tea-spoons daily or every other day (for chronic cases), 2, 3, 4, or 6 hours for acutes. §248

6.            Potency must start with the lower degrees (LM 1-6?) and proceed to the higher levels §246 footnote

7.            Even long acting remedies can be repeated §248

8.             Dosing is continued while there is steady improvement and the patient does not experience a symptom he has not had before. §248

9.            If a new set of different symptoms are seen, then another more appropriate remedy must be looked for. §248

10.            If an aggravation occurs i.e. an intensification of the original symptoms, at the end of treatment, then the doses must be reduced in quantity and repeated at longer intervals, or stopped altogether to see if the symptoms will continue to disappear by themselves. In which case either no more medicine will be needed or continuation of the remedy if, after a certain period, symptoms continue. §248

11.            No dose of a highly potentised remedy can be too small that it cannot be stronger than the natural disease, that it cannot at least partially overcome it and that it cannot start the process of cure. §279

12.            If one is sure that the remedy is correct, and there is no improvement then it is likely that a maintaining cause in the patient's way of life or environment is influencing his progress. This must be removed to bring about a permanent cure. §252

13.            Aggravations or ameliorations of the psychic conditions and general demeanour of the patient are a good indication as to the progress of the remedy. §253

14.            If the patient develops some significant new symptoms or symptoms of the remedy then this is an unfavourable response. §256

15.            Do not make favourites of certain remedies, as the smaller lesser-used remedies, which might be more helpful, will be overlooked. §257

16.            It is not necessary to give a patient more than one remedy at a time. §273

17.            If the remedy is homœopathically accurate, it becomes increasingly beneficial as its dose approaches the ideal degree of smallness for gentle action. §277

18.            It is only by experiment, experience and observation of the sensitivity of each patient that can determine the optimum size of dose to give. §278

19.            Dosing continues, increasing it progressively, until the patient, while feeling generally better, begins to manifest one or more of the old, original symptoms. §280

20.            Return of old symptoms is a good sign and the medicine is stopped, as this is an indication that no more is needed as the symptoms are of the remedy. To verify this

the remedy is stopped for a week or two.

If the symptoms are of the remedy they will disappear in a few days and no more medicine may be needed. If traces of the original complaint remain then dosing should be continued from where it was left off. §281

21.            A homœopathic aggravation = intensification of the original complaint, at the beginning of treatment, is a sure sign that the dose (i.e. the quantity of the dissolved granule) is too large and must be reduced. §282

22.            If the smallest doses are given the even if the remedy is inappropriate the harm done is insignificant and the appropriate remedy quickly puts the case in order. §283

23.            Very chronic problems can be speeded up by applying the same solution as that taken by mouth, externally to the back, thighs and lower legs.


                        This article has been an attempt to use Hahnemann's writings to understand the dynamics of potency and, in particular, the LM potencies. It is interesting to note that their evolution was a long and gradual one and not such a revolutionary new concept but simply an extension of where we are now i.e. in centessimal potency (5th edition) philosophy.

Their wide flexibility and safety leave silent many of the old arguments about repetition and potency choice, allowing us all a very free and individual approach to their use. It is also a fact that although 6th edition philosophy is taught and revered, the practical methods given to apply this teaching have been, over the years, sadly neglected. Thankfully the recent revival has generated a new enthusiasm for the use of LM potencies giving us a feeling that, at last, their time has come.


Possible observations after giving the remedy

1.             No change - how long must we wait, how long does a dose take to act?

2.            Very slight change - nothing much, how long to go on for. 2 weeks?

3.            Good start then acute

4.            Aggravation at the start - acute and chronics 6/8/10 days?

5.            Good start then relapse.

6.            Sensitive patient - becomes over stimulated or proves everything feels speedy, queer, quick changes.

7.            Generally better but some symptoms remain. OK to increase the dose?

8.            OK but shows some symptoms of the remedy - reduce the dose or             increase interval between them.

9.            Symptoms but generally worse, no improvement.

a. continue a bit longer or

b. partial remedy.

10.            Aggravation comes at the end of 3-4 weeks after improvement.

11.            New symptoms come up not of the remedy with no change generally - new remedy needed.

12.            As above but feeling better, change remedy if picture changes

13.            Good improvement but slowing down after 3 weeks. Increase dose or raise potency to see what happens.

14.            Remedy aggravates initially and remains aggravated. Antidote with new remedy or low potency of same remedy.


Helios Homœopathic Pharmacy

97, Camden Road, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, TN1 2QR

0892 537254/536393



From the stock bottle take................ teaspoon /tablespoonful and put it in a clean glass containing eight tablespoonfuls of water (spring water is best).

Stir the glass vigorously and take ............ teaspoon/tablespoonful dose, holding it in the mouth for a few seconds before swallowing.

Discard the remainder of liquid in the glass.


Carry out this procedure ........................................................................

Using a fresh glass of water but SHAKE THE STOCK BOTTLE on a BOOK or THE PALM of YOUR HAND 8 to 12x before putting the dose into the glass.



From the stock bottle take ONE teaspoonful and put it in a clean glass containing eight tablespoonfuls of water (spring water is best).

Stir the glass vigorously and take ONE teaspoonful dose, holding it in the mouth for a few seconds before swallowing.

Discard the remainder of liquid in the glass.

Carry out this procedure ONCE A DAY

Using a fresh glass of water but SHAKE THE STOCK BOTTLE ON A BOOK OR THE PALM OF YOUR HAND 8 to 12 TIMES before putting the dose into the glass.


[Deborah Olenev]

LM Potencies vs. Centesimal Scale Remedies

The centesimal scale remedies are the ones you see identified with the letter C after the number.  The dilution ratio is one part medicinal substance to 99 parts water, with a certain number of succussions between each dilution (Different texts give different numbers for the amount of succussions.) The standard interval range for the centesimal scale remedies is : 6C, followed by 9C, 12C, 15C, 30C, 200C, 1M, 10M, 50M, CM, DM. I have heard one teacher say that this is a logarathmic scale, meaning that as you go higher up the scale you need a greater amount of potentization in order to equal the difference that you get from the interval in the lower potencies. Some people contest the intelligence of using this scale and have suggested using the Fibonacci intervals, which is also very interesting and worth exploring.

Enough of the science, so what is the practical application of how to work with centesimal scale remedies: The potencies I work with the most are the 30C, 200C and 1M potencies. I very rarely will go higher than these potencies. When working with remedies of this strength I will give the dose only one time and not repeat until there is definite evidence that the person has been better and is now relapsing. I create a base-line chart of their response at seven weeks from when they took the remedy, which serves as a guide to repetition. I only repeat if symptoms that have been better move backward for a while.

The way centesimal scale remedies work is that they go in, search for the symptoms they need to work on, and get to work. Sometimes the effects are subtle and people may not even notice that there are changes taking place until they are reminded at the follow up of the symptoms they had before they took the remedy. They remember that they used to have headaches, back pain, depression and now they are not experiencing those symptoms. Yes, indeed, their symptoms have improved.

The remedy will bring up symptoms in the person’s health history as a part of the healing process, in order to  address them. If these old severe were very concerning in the past, the patient may be alarmed at their reappearance (such as a history or heart pain or arthritis). It is important not to repeat the remedy when this happens, because this is

a sign that the remedy is on the job and retracing symptoms from the past in order to heal them.. These old symptoms usually cycle through within three to four days.

Symptoms may aggravate or increase in intensity for awhile before they get better. That aggravation can vary in intensity depending upon the potency of the remedy taken, how long the symptom has been there, how much suppressive treatment the person has had, overall health and vitality of the person, and other factors.

The duration of the aggravation or what I call the initial response time on the remedy also varies with the potency of the remedy, the age of the client, how long the symptoms have been present and how deeply rooted they are. The healing process can unfold over the course of  a few days in an acute illness, or over the course of weeks, or months in chronic cases. The lower potencies will often have a shorter aggravation period, and the higher potencies often have a longer aggravation period, but not necessarily so.

How long the single dose centesimal remedy holds also varies with the potency. A rough estimate of the duration of  action of a remedy is approximately three months for the 30C dose, but I have seen 30C dose remedies hold a year and a half and longer. They also can cure the symptoms altogether.

The 200C strength holds on average for six to eight months. For many people it only holds two to three months, and for others it can hold for four or five years, and again it can cure. The higher potencies have the potential to work even longer.

I avoid using very high potency remedies because the aggravations can be very long lasting and very intense, and they can pull anyone under their influence, even if they would not be susceptible to that remedy in lower potency.

Some people prescribe 30C potency and 200C potency remedies daily, and they claim that they do not see any negative affects from doing this. I never practice in this manner, not just because it goes against my training, but also because I feel it is too aggressive. An analogy I have given to many people is that it is like putting your finger on the light switch and turning it on and off constantly to keep the light on, whereas all you really needed to do is flick the switch once and let the light shine. You do not need to flick

the switch again (give another dose of the remedy) until you see that the light is beginning to dim.

Dr. Farokh Master uses the 5 cup method, which you can look up on Youtube. This is his method of repeating daily, as he does not have confidence that the single dose method works. I have thirty years of experience working with the single dose method and I have seen its effectiveness time and again, so I do not agree that daily repetition

is preferable, but he gets good results dosing in this manner, and I get good results dosing the way I do.

Most people on a centesimal scale remedy that is working well may only need to repeat the remedy one to three times in a year. Some people may go many years without needing a repetition.

Many people need more than one remedy to bring about optimum health. One remedy may address certain symptoms, certain states of being, and then an underlying state emerges after the first remedy, and they need another remedy to address that new state. People may cycle through a number of remedy states even in short amounts of time. Each successive remedy bringing greater health.

LM Potencies

LM potencies are also known as Quin potencies and 50 millesimal potencies and referred to by Hahnemann as medicine au globule. LM does not stand for 50,000, but for 950. I learned this from Kim Elia’s class on the History of Homeopathy. No one knew about LM potencies until 1921 when the 6th edition of the Organon of Medicine written by H. was finally published. Prior to 1921 the 4th edition of the Organon was the one people relied upon and the centesimal scale is what it advocated. Great teachers such as James Tyler Kent popularized and explained how to use the centesimal scale remedies.

The LM potencies are not prepared in the same manner as the centesimal scale remedies. One grain of a medicinal substance is triturated with 100 grains of milk sugar for one hour, and then a grain of that is triturated with another 100 grains of milk sugar for an hour, and the process is repeated three times, so that you have three hours of trituration. Then one grain of that is dissolved in 500 drops of a mixture of 90 proof grain alcohol and one part distilled water. A single drop of that is mixed in a vial with another 100 drops of grain alcohol, corked tightly and succussed 100 times.

This is the first degree of dynamization. Then fine sugar globules are moistened with the liquid, dried on blotting paper, put in a corked bottled and labeled the LM1 potency. To prepare the next strength a globule of the previous strength is placed in a new vial with a drop of water to dissolve it, then 100 drops of wine spirit or grain alcohol is added to the vial. The tightly corked vial is successed 100 times, and the process of moistening sugar globules with the remedy and labeling it LM2 is completed. This process is repeated for each subsequent level of dynamization.

Hahnemann felt that in certain chronic cases the LM potencies would speed up the healing process dramatically. The LM potencies are administered in water, and doses can be taken daily or at longer intervals. He emphasized that it was never admissble to repeat the remedy in an exactly identical form. By shaking or succussing the stock bottle that holds the remedy before taking each dose, the medicine was slightly altered with each dose.

By using this method of administration the remedy could be repeated at frequent intervals without any detriment. This is what Hahnemann says about frequency of repetition for LM potencies in aphorism 248, paragraph 2:

“In protracted diseases, give the medicine daily or every second day. In acute diseases, give the medicine every six, four, three or two hours. In the most urgent cases, give the medicine every hour or even more frequently. In chronic diseases, every correctly chosen homeopathic medicine, even one whose action is of long duration. may be repeated daily for months, with ever-increasing success [when fifty-millesimal potencies are used].

How do LM potencies work in practice?

In practice I have noticed that LM potencies can be very efficient, but they can also present challenges when the dosing is not quite right. It often takes people about 3 - 4 weeks working with the remedy to figure out the best frequency of repetition and dosing. Some people do very well taking the remedy daily for months, and other people are very sensitive to the remedy, and have to be careful with how to take it.

The way I work is that I start with the LM1 bottle, and when that is finished move to the LM2 bottle, and then the LM3 and so forth. Each successive bottle is stronger than the previous one, so you move up in potency as you move to the higher bottles. (Hahnemann, however, says that it is okay to move to the next higher strength after 7 or 8 doses from the LM1 bottle. I only realized this after rereading the Organon this week).

LM or Quin Potency Instructions

These directions are constantly evolving. I revise them as I gain more experience using LM or Quin Potencies. This is my latest revision. My goal is to make the instructions clear and understandable. It has taken me many years to understand how to work with LM or Quin potencies safely. I appreciate any suggestions you have to improve them.

1.    Succuss the stock bottle 5x before each use.  You do this by hitting the bottle against a book.  (Note: It is best to take the remedy at the time of the day when you feel at your best. Please don’t take it at the same time you are eating. Give it about 1 hour away from meal times).

2.    Pour a teaspoon of liquid from the stock bottle into a cup with 4 oz. of water in it, and stir.  (Please see Various Dosage Quantity Examples below to learn about adjusting the quantity you take to your needs).

3.    Drink one teaspoon of the 4 oz. mixture (or the amount recommended by your homeopath).

4.    Discard the remainder of the liquid on the ground, or pour the liquid into a sealed container that you can dispose of at your convenience. Please prepare the medicine in

the bathroom, so as to avoid exposing other family members to the remedy, and set aside special cups and a spoon for this purpose. You may also use disposable cups.

5.    Take only one dose and do not repeat the remedy. Please be in contact with me by sending me weekly progress reports in the first month of treatment. My goal is to identify two or three symptoms that we can use as markers that will help us determine when you should repeat the remedy. A single dose of an LM or Quin potency remedy can hold many months, and can potentially cure. These remedies need to be repeated with as much care and caution as when working with centesimal scale remedies.

When repeated too soon, they can  cause severe aggravations of your symptoms, which we want to do our best to avoid.

When you first begin taking LM potencies I recommend that you take one dose and evaluate yourself three days later. Do not repeat in the meantime. At the end of the third day ask yourself if you see improvement in any symptoms. If you do see improvement, do not repeat the remedy, because the remedy is working and the healing process is unfolding on that first dose.  That one dose you took is capable of holding for weeks or even months. The only reason to repeat is if you start to see that the symptoms that you saw an improvement in have been moving backward for awhile.

It is important that you do not repeat the remedy before clear evidence of a relapse is evident, because repeating too soon can cause an aggravation of symptoms that can last awhile.

Another thing to note is that is that if you see an aggravation of symptoms by day three,  that is another indication that the remedy is on the job and looking for symptoms that it needs to work on, and bringing them up for treatment. You should not repeat the remedy while symptoms are aggravating. The aggravation should be followed by an amelioration. You would only repeat the remedy

if symptoms that got better after the aggravation started to relapse for a while.

Some people need to take the remedy at frequent intervals and others need to repeat the remedy very rarely. Here are common intervals at which people take their LM or Quin potency remedy doses:

Common Intervals at which People Take Their LM Potency Doses

Some people benefit from taking the remedy daily. These people have to be aware that a point will come when they need to stop. That point is when they feel an amelioration of symptoms or an aggravation of symptoms. They should then follow the rules of repetition I have described above.

Some people take the remedy 2x a week.

Some people take the remedy 1x a week.

Some people take the remedy once every two weeks.

Some people take the remedy once a month.

Some people take the remedy at 45, 60, 120, or 180 day intervals and longer.

Some people need only one dose of the remedy in total.

If you need the remedy frequently, you may need to order more of it. Here is information on how to order, and going up in potency:

When you come close to the end of the stock bottle, please send me an e-mail to let me know. You can get the next bottle from Hahnemann Laboratories. Their phone number is 1-888-226-6483.

You may also purchase the remedy from other reputable homeopathic pharmacies.  Each time you order a bottle it has to be one strength higher than the previous bottle, so LM1 will be followed by LM2, and then LM3.

Another thing that is important is that I will ask you not to completely finish the LM1 bottle, but leave about a teaspoon in the bottom. The reason for this is that for some people the LM2 from the pharmacy is too strong. In that case we can prepare an LM2 from the remains of what is in the LM1 bottle. I will explain how to do that.


Protocol for the Sequence of Bottles:

The LM1 is usually followed by the LM2, the LM3 and so forth, so that you move up consecutively in the sequence. From my experience, however, I have found that people may resonate better to certain potency levels than others. I can often test that intuitively when I see them in person. So for some people it is more beneficial to go from an LM1 to an LM3 and skip the LM2.

Do We Have to Finish a Bottle Before Going to the Next Level Up?

If you feel that the benefit from the remedy is plateauing, meaning that you do not experience increasing benefit from continuing with that dose of the remedy, it is okay to go up to the next level of the LM potency without finishing the bottle at the level where you are at.

Different people need different dosage quantities depending upon their sensitivity to the remedy. Here are some examples of various dosage quantities:

Various Dosage Quantity Examples

One teaspoon from the stock bottle into 4 oz. of water in a cup.

Half a teaspoon from the stock bottle into 4 oz. of water in a cup.

Double dilute by taking one teaspoon or half a teaspoon or a quarter of a teaspoon from the stock bottle and putting it in 4 oz. of water in a cup, stirring, and then transferring one teaspoon or half a teaspoon or a quarter of a teaspoon into another cup and stirring. Very sensitive people can also triple or quadruple dilute.

The important thing is for you to determine how much and how often to take the remedy to keep the healing process moving forward, while keeping aggravations to a minimum. Aggravations can be reduced by decreasing the quantity of remedy used, and by double and triple diluting.

Aggravations on LM or Quin Potencies and What they Mean

People can definitely have aggravations of their symptoms on LM or Quin potencies equal and even exceeding in intensity to what people have on centesimal scale remedies. This is why dosage and frequency or repetition have to be monitored very carefully.

Generally speaking an aggravations of symptoms is an indication that the remedy has found the symptoms it needs to work on and is working on them. It is important not to interrupt this process, but allow the aggravation to play itself out. The aggravation should be followed by an amelioration. The goal of using LM or Quin potencies is to keep the healing moving forward, while keeping the aggravations to a minimum.

If you experience a strong aggravation of symptoms it can mean that you need to decrease the quantity of the dose the next time you take it. For example: go from 1 teaspoon from the stock bottle down to a 1/4 of a teaspoon from the stock bottle and triple dilute, transferring only a 1/4 of a teaspoon from each dilution cup.

If you experience an amelioration of symptoms after taking a remedy, you should not repeat the remedy until the symptoms that have gotten better have relapsed for four to five days. Repeating before you are supposed to can trigger a strong aggravation that can take up to three weeks to recover from, so be careful.

Here are some ways to decrease the strength of the dose:

a) Give fewer succussions or shakes to the bottle.

b) Dilute twice by taking one teaspoon from the first cup and putting it in another cup with four ounces of water and then drinking a teaspoon from that. You can even dilute three or four times, if you are very sensitive

c) Use less than a full teaspoon from the stock bottle.

d) Reduce the frequency of taking the dose.

Here are some ways to increase the strength of the dose:

a) Increase the number of succussions to the bottle.

b) Increase the frequency of taking the dose.

c) Increase the number of teaspoons that you drink from the cup (not the stock bottle).

The beauty of the LM or Quin potencies is that you can monitor yourself, preferably with the help of your homeopath, and take your remedy when you need to.  You are not supposed to develop a dependency on the remedy.  It is designed to bring you to health and independence.  When you no longer have any symptoms you may discontinue

the remedy, and only resume if the symptoms start back up again.

Please call or send me an e-mail if you have any questions about your response to the remedy, or whether you should start or stop. It usually takes people about four weeks to figure out exactly how best to take the remedy, so there is a learning curve. The goal is to keep aggravations to a minimum, while maintaining the effectiveness of the remedy.

I would be happy to help you with fine tuning the remedy to your needs.

When to use LM Potencies and when to use Centesimal Scale Remedies?

This is the million dollar question?

LM Potencies:

I usually use LM potencies for people who are taking allopathic medication or are using a few health modalities at the same time that they are using homeopathy.

I often use LM potencies for people with eczema and other skin conditions, though I may prefer a centesimal scale remedy..

I often use LM potencies for older clients where I am concerned that they may have a hard time tolerating an aggravation.

I often use LM potencies for people who are in pain from various causes, where you want them to have more control over frequency of repetition.

I often use LM potencies when there are tissue changes and you want the person to have a continuous regular stimulus.

I often use LM potencies for people who tend to have frequent acute illnesses.


Centesimal Scale Remedies:

I usually use centesimal scale remedies when I feel the person has a strong vital force, and they are not taking other medications, or using other health modalities simultaneously.

I will often ask people do you prefer to take a one shot deal dose or a daily dose, and if they say one shot deal dose, I will give them the centesimal scale remedies.

Many people just like the convenience of taking the remedy once and not having to think about it again for a long time.

The decision is often also an intuitive one based on factors that I would have a hard time enumerating.


I know I have said way too much, and I should have stopped long ago. I hope you enjoy a lifetime of good health, aided by homeopathy, or any modality that works for you when you need it.


[Ashley Hilton Adrian Ross]


An Evaluation of Hahnemannian quinquagen millissimal potencies using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy


Aanalysis and comparison the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra of samples of LM potencies of homoeopathic Sulphur and a lactose-based control produced according to Hahnemann,

in order to evaluate homoeopathic medicines thus prepared.

Potency - a state of altered remedial activity to which a drug is taken by means of a measured process of deconcentration and the introduction of kinetic energy through succussion or trituration.

3 rates of deconcentration are used in preparation of homoeopathic potencies.

Quinguagenimillesimal - a homoeopathic potency scale, introduced by Hahnemann, in which the rate of deconcentration at each potency stage is 1:50 000. Deconcentration

is effected in two stages:

the initial being 1:100 (with 100 succussions) and the second being 1:500 (without succussion) [a.k.a. LM).

Succussion - the action of shaking up vigorously a liquid dilution of a homoeopathic

medicine in its viallbottle, where each stroke ends with a jolt; usually effected by pounding the hand engaged in the shaking against the palm of the opposite hand or on a book with soft cover.

Trituration - the act of prolonged grinding with a mortar and pestle to reduce an insoluble homoeopathic drug to a fine powder while amalgamating it thoroughly with lactose by rubbing.

The quinquagenimillesimal (LM) potency scale described by Hahnemann (1986: 196) as "the most nearly perfect of them all". However, this potency is only rarely employed

in present-day homoeopathic practice and even dismissed by some (Schare, 1990). Barthel (1991) believes that this circumspection is due to failure to reproduce the clinical results claimed by Hahnemann, due to remedies not having been prepared according to Hahnemann's directions.


Measurement of the phenomenon of homoeopathic potency poses particular problems due to the absence of any molecules of the base substance in solutions above the 12CH, 24DH and LM4 potency levels. In Smith (1989:113), Gaier (1991 :446) and Bol (1997) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy cited as a valuable method of measurement of structural changes in homoeopathic solutions.

Bamard (1965) demonstrated the formation of giant water polymers by succussion. Smith and Boericke (1968) confirmed this research and demonstrated that changes increased as potency increased, and that there was increased interaction between water structures and the hydroxyl radical of ethanol in ethanolic homoeopathic solutions. More recently Sacks (1983) used NMR spectroscopy to demonstrate differences between various remedies and control. Weingartner (1991) compared CH2, H20 and OH signals in decimal potencies of Sulphur and a control. More recent still is the research of Demangeat et al. (1992) in which relaxation times in various centesimal Silicea potencies were compared. No NMR research has been conducted on quinqaugenimillesimal (LM) potencies

It is within this context that an analysis and comparison of NMR-spectra of LM potencies of Sulphur and a control, (prepared according to Hahnemann) assumes great importance. The positive results of such an investigation will allow for greater understanding of the distinct physico-chemical identity of such potencies, and.indirectly lead

to more widespread use of this scale where indicated (Schare 1990) as a result of greater credibility brought about through scientific evaluation.

Likewise a negative result will provide a more objective basis for non-inclusion of this potency in the practice of the individual homoeopath.


If one assumes that homoeopathic remedies do have specific effects on the human body and mind, and further, that these effects are due to the very substance of which they consist then two questions demand an answer:

1. What is the physical or material difference between a homoeopathic remedy prepared in the prescribed way and the pure solvent or a mere dilution?

2. How are these physical differences transmitted to the human body?

Question 1. is the foundation out of which this investigation is built. What is the nature of homoeopathic potency? Do all prescribed methods of preparation produce remedies distinctly different from a mere dilution, or the pure solvent? How does one best measure these differences if they do exist? Research has been conducted with a view to addressing these questions, a brief review follows:


Vithoulkas (1980 : 101) states that the technique of homoeopathic potentisation (producing a homoeopathic 'potency') is Samuel Hahnemann's second ingenious contribution to medicine (after 'The Law of Similars', a fundamental law routinely applied in the practice of Homoeopathy). This has its origin in Hahnemann's attempts at reducing the toxicity of homoeopathic substances by dilution.

The result was decreased toxicity but also a proportionately reduced therapeutic efficacy. Somehow Hahnemann came to refine this technique by the introduction of kinetic energy through succussion +/o. trituration. The resulting combination of serial dilution and serial succussion (and/or trituration) brought Hahnemann to the crucial observation that the more a substance is diluted and succussed the more

effect it has therapeutically, while simultaneously nullifying any toxic effect. He describes this for the first time in his "Organon" (1831).

The initial scale of deconcentration employed by Hahnemann was 1:100 (Barthel 1991) meaning that each potency is 10-2x that of the previous potency.(designated 1CH, 2CH etc. as each successive potency is produced). Avogadro's Constant (6,023 x 1023) is therefore exceeded by the 12CH potency (a deconcentration of 10-24), meaning that statistically there is no possibility of any molecule of the original substance existing in the 12CH 'potency.


Homoeopathic potentisation is effected in two different media. The first medium of potentisation employed by Hahnemann was that of a mixture of ethanol and water (Barthel 1991). Potentisation of alcoholic plant extracts (mother tinctures) and soluble mineral substances was effected by serial dilution of the base substance in a determined percentage ethanol solution, followed by succussion of the liquid. This medium and method of potentisation was employed exclusively between 1796 and 1818 (Barthel 1991). The second medium, pure lactose powder, was introduced into homoeopathy by Hahnemann in 1818. Its use was predominantly as a vehicle for potentisation of insoluble substances (previously potentised by liquid-medium dilutions and succussions of alcoholic suspensions) especially metallic gold (Dellmour 1994).

The method of potentisation in this solid medium was by trituration, by mortar and pestle, of the insoluble base substance with lactose (as a diluent) for a determined period of time (one hour). The notion and technique of trituration was drawn from the writings of Arab physicians in the 12th Century (Barthel 1991). The preparation of homoeopathic potencies by trituration became increasingly more routinely employed by Hahnemann. The result of this trend was that, in 1835, he abandoned entirely the use of mother tinctures, and prepared all substances'.

sealed tube of water which produced no clinical effects on an electrically sensitive allergy patient would, after being exposed to a magnetic field at one of the patient's allergy neutralising frequencies, function as an allergy neutralising dilution. This induced 'potency' is furthermore, able to maintain the effect for a period of weeks or months.

An alternative model is provided by Anagnostatos et al. (1991) in which research suggesting that the therapeutic power of the remedy lies in the solvent (Barnard 1965) rather than the diluted substance,

is explained by a three step hypothesis.

The model is based on

i)               the formation of shells of organised hydrogen-bonded molecules of the solvent (clathrates) around aggregates of a small number of molecules of the base substance;

ii)             because of the force of succussion and the different inertial properties, clusters of base molecules move out of their clathrates, to have new clathrates form around them. The initial clathrate is now hollow (called a "core clathrate") and an additional "mantle" forms around this "core";

iii)            at the point at which no base substance is present, the application of succussive force causes core clathrates to move out of their mantle clathrates and stimulate the formation of new mantle clathrates. Old "mantle" clathrates become "core" clathrates and new "mantle" clathrates form around these.

The notion of hydration shells is supported by Antonchenko and IIyin (1992) who, elaborate that the structure of water may be viewed as a set of flickering clusters ("embryos") of possible hydration shell structures which, upon addition of a· dissolved substance, undergoes "(relative) fixation of a specific kind of hydration structure corresponding to the given dissolved substance" (Antonchenko and "yin 1992: 91).

The LM potency scale, is described in Aphorism 270 of the Sixth edition of Hahnemann's Organon (written 1842), which regrettably, Gaier asserts (1991 : 463), was only published seventy-eight years after Hahnemann's death (ie 1921). The consequence of this fact is that the potency scale which Hahnemann believed, at the very end of his life, to be "the most nearly perfect of them all" (Hahnemann, 1986 : 196) is only rarely employed in present-day homoeopathic practice (Vithoulkas, 1980: 164) and even dismissed on the basis of conclusions



Vorwort/Suchen.                                Zeichen/Abkürzungen.                                    Impressum.