Carcharhinus leucas (Carch-l.) = liver from bull shark/= Zambezi shark/= Lake Nicaragua shark
The Carcharhinus family have a streamlined body tapering in front of the tail, pointed and rounded snouts, a curved mouth line laden with sharp teeth, a distinct triangular
dorsal fin, five gill slits and a nictitating membrane on the eyes (Bannister 1989: 10).
The Carcharhinus leucas presents as a grey topped off-white under bellied marine inhabitant covered externally by minute thorn like backward facing denticles. The skeleton
of the shark is comprised of flexible cartilage only. The robust stocky body in juveniles has dusky fin tips, which fade as the shark ages and develops. The snout of the shark
is short and round with the nostrils having a blunt, triangular lobe.
No inter dorsal ridge is present.
There are broad based inferolateral pectoral fins located behind and below gills, the slits of which are always erected to promote stability and motion.
The paired pelvic fins located about midpoint of the underside of the shark are modified and specialised in males forming erectile claspers utilised in copulation to hold onto
females during sperm transfer. Anal and dorsal fins prevent rolling. The caudal heterocercal tail fin has a larger upper lobe than lower lobe and bears great importance in
The perpendicular height of the second dorsal fin divides into the perpendicular height of the first dorsal fin three times or less allowing the bull shark to be differentiated and distinguished from other species in the family Carcharhinus (Wallett, 1983: 159).
The bull shark is a warm water shark and inhabits numerous warm shallow waters from the southern Mozambique coast along the east coast of Africa to KwaZulu-Natal.
The Carcharhinus leucas species is unique in that it not only travels and swims across fresh water but also lives in it as well with their presence being recorded in numerous
rivers such as the Ganges, Tugela, Zambezi, and Limpopo around the world. Movement into estuaries to drop of their young are short lived as they soon return to the sea
(Wallett, 1983: 160).
The shark was once believed to have two variations of the species; one which dwelt in the seas. The other was land-locked until it was discovered that Carcharhinus leucas
is capable of moving between fresh and seawater through mechanisms that allow them to regulate urea and salt levels in their blood and body fluid preventing dehydration.
They are able to maintain a viable osmotic balance to changes in aquatic environment with only minor alterations in water content and intracellular and extracellular changes.
This is done mainly through a specially adapted excretory system that retains nitrogenous waste ultimately maintaining total osmotic pressure and allowing them to function
normally in salt brackish and fresh water (Steel, 2009: 108).
Sharks are apex predators at the top of the food chain, being vital in the regulation of other aquatic populations and maintaining the ocean ecosystem (Benchley 2002: 112).
Considered to be one of the most dangerous shark species in the world, this carnivore feeds principally on a multitude of fish, and secondarily on various rays, skates, squids, crustaceans and other smaller shark species including hammer heads, and are known for various attacks on humans (Wallett, 1983: 160). Being described as a species that
would eat almost anything, it is known to even eat young of its own kind either its own or other offspring (Readers Digest, 1990: 176). The shark presents with a long gut
system starting with a mouth and ending in an anus. Components such as an elastic stomach digest food while the short intestine absorbs nutrients (Bannister, 1989: 17).
Mating like that of other mammals occurs through introduction of sperm from a male directly into the female reproductive tract via male sex organs called claspers allowing
internal fertilisation to take place (Readers Digest, 1990: 26).
Pregnant females prefer warmer waters. Females carefully choose nursery environments which can provide food, security and protection from being eaten by other sharks,
and a suitable temperature to give birth to young and to allow development of the juvenile state (Steel, 2009: 103). Young are born in summer months in the large estuaries
of Northern KwaZulu-Natal and the litter size varies in number from 6 - 12 pups. The young are born when they reach an embryo size of between 60 - 70 centimetres.
Young grow up without nursing. Males’ mature when reaching approximately 220cm while the females mature at a slightly longer length of 225cm. The sharks reach a
maximum-recorded length of around 300cm (Wallett, 1983: 160).
During the summer seasons, the bull shark range increases southward but rarely if ever reaches Cape waters (Wallett, 1983: 160). They occupy shallow waters or surface layers preferring warmer climates and frequent fresh water (Steel, 2009: 105).
Along the South African coast between December and March when the Zambezi, Limpopo and other estuaries are in flood, the bull shark congregates in large numbers to
scavenge food carried by the rivers (Bannister, 1989: 88).
Nature of the animal
The bull shark is beautiful and efficient, having survived for hundreds of millions of years, but the bull shark has accrued a bad reputation over the years.
It has been described as fearless, aggressive, dangerous and territorial (Benchley, 2002: 56), and is responsible for a minimum of 21 documented cases of attacks on humans,
with many other attacks attributed to the species throughout the world. The bull shark is very dangerous to humans (Readers Digest, 1990: 20).
The Carcharhinus family are known to have bigger brains among sharks. They learn play and are even able to be trained on a reward basis. They are sentient having the
five senses of taste, touch, smell, sight, hearing, and can detect electromagnetic waves beyond human range (Bannister, 1989: 21).
The Carcharhinus leucas is an elegant sinuous swimmer with a hydro dynamically efficient body. Movement takes place via the various paired and unpaired fins strategically
situated throughout the body of the shark both superiorly and inferiorly, and caudal tail.
The shark moves between rivers, lakes and oceans. They may occur as far as 3700km from sea. They negotiate rapid waters and return to sea. Is often abundant in areas
where large amounts of people use the sea or rivers (Readers Digest, 1990: 176). Implementations of shark nets have dramatically reduced movements and human attacks.
Teeth and hunting apparatus
The shark has a keenly developed sense of smell, excellent adjusting eyesight and efficient hearing particularly sensitive to low frequency sounds which can travel long
distances in the sea. These enhance hunting capacity allowing the shark to hunt at night (Steel, 2009: 105). The jaw muscles are powerful and bite easily. The razor-sharp
enamel covered teeth of the predator used for seizing and cutting are larger in the upper jaw being broadly triangular and narrower in the lower jaw.
Sharks teeth continuously being replaced throughout their lives. Teeth form behind the jaw cartilage and push forward replacing worn or loose teeth that drop out at the
front of the jaw (Bannister 1989: 16).
Among the oldest of mythology associated with sharks are the legends narrated by the Warran Indians of South America and “the missing leg of Nohi-Abassi”.
Legend: Nohi-Abassi rid himself of his mother-in-law by teaching a shark to attack and devour her. This resulted in Nohi-Abassi’s sister-in-law being angry and retaliating
by transforming herself into a shark and severing his leg with a single bite.
Consequently, he bled to death and his leg lay adrift in one part of the heavens and his body in another. If you look up at the star filled night sky you may be able to identity
and bear witness to this truth now being identified through Greek nomenclature as the constellation of Orion the Hunter (Cafiero and Jahoda 1994: 22).
In Japanese mythology, the God of Storms is described as a shark-man bearing the name Same-Hito. Traditional Japanese legends of sharks were so terrifying that during
conflicts that sharks with teeth were painted on military vehicles such as aeroplanes. An ancient underwater amphitheatre in which Hawaiian kings ordered gladiators armed
with a dagger made of shark teeth to fight sharks was discovered during the construction of Pearl Harbour.
Among others, the Solomon Islands regard sharks as deities. Special provision made for them to occupy underwater grottoes carved out (in coastal regions).
Vietnamese fishermen till today still pray to the whale shark as “Lord Fish”. (Cafiero, and Jahoda, 1994: 22).
Doctrine of signatures
The Doctrine of Signatures was developed in the middle ages. It suggests and corresponds the external features and characteristics (including colour) of a plant or substance to that
of a disease as an indicator of therapeutic abilities action and effects of a plant or substance (Yasgur, 1998: 70). In this research, we attempt to elaborate and consolidate the nature
of the proving substance in relation to symptomatology derived from the proving study. This discussion will delve not only into the proving remedy substance which will be analysed
in terms of its size, colour, shape, markings/patterns, consistency of secretions and constituents, but will also be interpreted in terms of the entire bull shark and its life, behaviour and
prominent features. Along with this we will discuss the associations to its habitat, the oceans and lakes, and to a more expansive degree themes of the animal kingdom and sea
kingdom (as defined by Sankaran  and Mangialavori  ) and other aquatic remedies which aid to define the sphere of action of the remedy. These all coalesce as integral
components, significant to the Doctrine of Signatures.
The physical substance
The sample used for the proving was a piece derived from the lobe of a bull shark liver. The liver contains a multitude of minerals and fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamin A and water-
soluble vitamins as well as stores carbohydrates, fats, oils and it synthesises proteins from amino acids. In the bull shark, the liver accounts for up to 10% of the shark’s total body
weight and contains large amounts of oils which include squalene, pristane, triglycerides, diacyl glyceryl ethers among other molecular substances.
Traditionally these oils have been used in physical dosage to treat respiratory and digestive system problems and heal wounds among other diseases and more commonly as a dietary
supplement (Baldridge, 972: 306).
Being the largest organ of the shark body with significant regenerative properties, various elements associated to the liver are seen in the symptomatology of
the Carcharhinus leucas proving. Specific to the liver we see the presence of pain in the right hypochondrium where the liver is located, and a myriad of gastrointestinal symptoms
which are discussed below. A mental picture associated to the liver where anger and themes of confidence, courage and strong feelings and self-worth and self-image were present.
The Bull Shark
Bull sharks are known as euryhaline from Greek meaning they can tolerate a wide range of salinity (Oxford University Press, 1999: 492). They are also known as elasmobranch
which describes how it is cartilaginous in nature with lateral and ventral gills, comprising the sharks, rays and skates. (Oxford University Press, 1999: 459; Anderson et al., 2005: 1)
Carcharhinus leucasis described as an elasmobranch species in that they can live in both marine and fresh water environments. Responding to changes in salinity the species
achieves osmoregulation through the kidney rectal gland and liver as well as gills which play key roles in this. This is believed to take place via several ion transporters in the
form of ion pumps and exchangers (Reilly, 2011: 1). Correlating to this we see numerous bladder and urine symptoms in the proving with alterations in time and frequency as
well as changes in urine colour and smell. The gastrointestinal tract was host to a wide variety of symptoms including nausea vomiting and pain among numerous others
mentioned above particularly in association to the liver and its function. Similarly, more specific to the rectal region we see issues of diarrhoea and constipation with regulation
The bull shark maintains its osmoregularity due to its ability to manage urea and electrolytes in the body fluids. Central to this is the regulation and influx of NaCl ions.
In homoeopathy NaCl (sodium chloride) is known as Natrum muriaticum. In various literature such as Homoeopathic Materia Medica and Repertory (Boericke, 2013: 464) and
Concordant Materia Medica (Vermeulen, 2015: 1473), Natrum muriaticum is described as predominantly a grief remedy as well as being a polychrest (= acting on many areas
of the body). Throughout the proving various mental emotional and physical symptoms appeared which resemble Natrum muriaticum. In Natrium muriaticum we see themes of
grief, sadness, isolation, depression and weeping where the person is irritable and gets into a passion about trifles. There are aetiologies of grief, anger and fright and a desire for
isolation and wanting to be alone. There are also similarities to Carcharhinus leucas 30CH on the physical plain where we see numerous headaches and abundant watery coryza.
A major theme seen is the idea of self-preservation where we find the provers isolating themselves and drawing away from people, ready to attack and scream and fight
(Mangialavori, 2002: 99). Multiple provers experienced an increase in thirst closely resembling the materia medica of Natrium Muriaticum
‘Unquenchable thirst’ (Boericke, 2013: 465)
Correlation of the animal kingdom themes to the nature and symptomatology of Carcharhinus leucas as per Sankaran’s Schema (2005) we see in the animal kingdom that mental
themes are numerous and those that arise are associated with issues of survival, strength, weakness, competition, dominance, predatory instinct, conflict, and camouflage.
There are issues of sexuality and attractiveness in all facets of life even dressing, along with a killer instinct, contradiction of will, group behaviour and connection to the source.
The bullshark is one of the most violent and aggressive shark species with numerous attacks being associated with it. The anger and aggressive nature present in the shark is clearly
manifest in the reports of the provers.
Irritation presented as a precursor to anger in provers. Of note is the rapid onset of being irritated and the extreme intense nature of the remedy picture whereby provers were
irritated by everyone and everything and experienced unusual, unexplained, irritability.
Anger featured prominently in the materia medica of Carcharhinus leucas, with its manifestation varying between provers. It presented with several provers getting angered easily,
expressing very intense levels of anger, holding in anger as well as experiencing anger to such an extent that they experienced physical symptoms such as heat and pain.
Some reaching close to the killer instinct where they were dangerously on the verge of expressing their anger in the form of violent outbursts and desiring to be physically violent.
This is characteristic of an animalistic nature commonly seen in the animal kingdom.
In the animal kingdom, we find that specific keywords are expressed which define and shape the understanding of the kingdom. These keywords reflected through the substances,
which are potentised and administered as remedies. We find that active verbs such as jump’ and ‘beat’ are used and introspection is present with questions pertaining to self-worth,
winning and survival being asked (Sankaran, 2005: 2). In the proving of Carcharhinus leucas we see dramatic aggressive dreams with themes of attacking and violence.
Words such as biting and screaming and hitting are used which reaffirm the presence and influence of the animal kingdom over the remedy.
The phylum Mollusca is the largest marine phylum. In the behaviour and nature of this phylum we see a duality where if the outside is threatening they go into a shell to hide
or retreat. Paradoxically they find that inside is claustrophobic (Sankaran, 2005: 48). This theme predominates throughout the materia medica of Carcharhinus leucas.
We see that initially group behaviour which involves spending time with friends and family.
Then there is a reaction of irritation, anger and outbursts with a desire to do violence in Provers 7a, 9 and 10.
This results in the desire to be alone, withdrawal, and isolation often associated with grief. This is a cycle expressed by several provers.
There is a suggestion of lack of trust with Prover 3 and her co-workers, and Prover 10 and his friend. The sensation of claustrophobia was also expressed by provers requiring open
spaces due to feeling closed in. On an emotional level, we see emotional withdrawal due to heart ache and heart break more commonly in the female provers, feeling anger and
desiring to escape.
A central theme in the animal kingdom is the perception of self and self-esteem.
Love is quite a big theme present in the symptomatology. We see a strong desire for love and attention, and a movement between lack of confidence and over confidence.
There is hatred of self, insecurity and aversion to criticism resulting in reactions or compensations such as anxiety and shyness.
The presence of these issues points to an inner struggle in the prover to attain an inner stability and a desire to develop the self emotionally and intellectually
Animal kingdom remedies communicate in writing and speech in ways that seek to attract the attention of others by being bright and colourful, and being excited and animated
moving at a moderate to fast pace. They show a more visceral emotional response and nature in comparison to the other kingdoms. Jumping between highs and lows, being
affectionate, expressive, and communicative (Sankaran, 2005: 2)
Dreams and interests
Sankaran (2005): the dreams of the animal kingdom show a specific pattern and theme which defines the kingdom.
In this proving we find dreams and interests of animals, snakes, pursuit, being attacked, amorous, flying which are all significantly associated to the animal kingdom.
Dreams of animals were a very prominent feature manifesting during this proving where numerous animals were dreamt of as seen in Provers 14 and 24 including those of snakes
in Provers 24, 3, 14, 22. The nature of the animals in the dreams were often aggressive and attacking.
The theme of violence and being attacked resonated in Prover 24 who dreamt armed assailants were attacking her and her brother. Provers 9 and 14 experienced dreams of a more
amorous nature during which Prover 9 searched for an ex-girlfriend and on two occasions stated that he “needed her in that instance in time”, while Prover 14 felt unusually desired,
dreaming of “girls that want me”. Prover 16 dreamt of emotional fulfilment where he had “finally found my own girlfriend and that she was everything I had hoped for and prayed
about”. Sankaran (2005: 2) states that issues of attraction, competition and sexuality feature prominently in the animal kingdom. This is presented in many ways in this proving such
as in the dreams but also innately in the disposition of the provers as seen in Prover 7a where he remarks:
“I don’t know what is wrong but somehow I am more attracted to women today. It’s not a usual thing. I’m attracted to them but today it’s like they read my thoughts they keep
checking me out.”
Here we see a heightened sexual awareness of the opposite sex and possibly an increase in libido. Provers 3 and 24 both experienced what they described as a ‘floaty’ or a floating
sensation due to an improvement of mood. This can be associated with the issue of the liver being involved in buoyancy through urea and ion regulation which will be further
elaborated on below (Sankaran, 2005: 2).
Two provers dreamt of the beach waves and tsunamis. The dream of a tsunami involved visiting the beach and seeing large waves resulting in feeling threatened and fearful,
with themes of survival and fight central to the animal kingdom.
Subconsciously one can say that such dreams are referring to the home of Carcharhinus leucas.
Sharks are apex predators at the top of the food chain (Benchley 2002: 112). feeding principally on a multitude of fish, and secondarily on various rays, skates, squids, crustaceans
and other smaller shark species including hammer heads (Wallett, 1983: 160).
They are described as a species that will eat almost anything (even the young of their own kind, either their own or other offspring (Readers Digest, 1990: 176).
During the proving we saw many voracious appetites with numerous cravings.
Many provers noted either an increase or a decrease in appetite and thirst (one of many polarities/opposites seen throughout the materia medica of this remedy).
Provers experienced a myriad of gastrointestinal sensations and gastrointestinal symptoms associated to the bullshark having a through-gut system similar to humans.
Provers craved: cake, chocolate, coffee, cold water, eggs, fried chips, fruit, lemon, oranges, salt, sour, spice, tea and vinegar. The gastrointestinal system presented with 62 rubrics
The euryhaline bull shark is viviparous, retains the young and nourishes them through a yolk-sac placenta, giving birth to them either in lakes or moves them to lakes shortly after birth
(Jenson, 1976: 539). Sharks rarely display courtship behaviour, and mate outside the edge of lakes with breeding taking place throughout the year (Jenson, 1976: 554).
The theme of love and sex is central to the proving of Carcharhinus leucas. We see desire for love and attention by provers as well as an increase in sexual perception of the opposite
sex and an increase in libido. Two dreams of babies and reproduction were noted by Prover 24 in which she exhibits an instinctual protective motherly nature over her unborn baby
and a playful affectionate nature towards babies.
Buoyancy and floaty sensation
The shark liver is rich in oils and fats which act as a fat reserve. The levels of fats may reach up to 90% of the total liver weight.
The shark is able to use the liver oils and fats to modulate body density so as to regulate hydrostatic balance and buoyancy, as well as a blood purging agent for removing
chemicals and toxins (Baldridge, 1972: 306).
As mentioned in Dreams and Interests we see Provers 3 and 24 both experience a ‘floaty’ or floating sensation due to an improvement of mood, associated with
growing love which can be likened to this buoyancy effect experienced by the shark.
The regulation of plasma urea levels through hepatic function significantly contributes to the maintenance of bull shark’s hydrostatic balance, buoyancy and osmoregularity.
Research has shown that there is an increase in plasma urea concentration levels with an increase in salinity which was directly linked in part to increased hepatic urea production confirming its role in buoyancy regulation (Anderson et al., 2005: 1).
The process of urea regulation echoes strongly in the symptomatology seen in the proving through various systems such as the skin where we see profuse perspiration and perspiration at varying times due to varying neurogenic causes where urea is known to be excreted in perspiration. Similarly, this proving has numerous symptoms associated with the kidneys,
bladder and urine which are also known to regulate water and electrolytes.
Many other symptoms were expressed through the liver in this proving.
Good versus evil and the connection to a higher source
As mentioned above, in various cultures we see that sharks, due to their characteristic size as well as attributes of speed and strength in the water and their powerful violent nature,
instil fear among the population and are seen and worshipped even today as Gods and protectors (Cafiero and Jahoda, 1994: 22).
This knowledge and universal understanding is manifested in the proving as spirituality and dreams.
The developments of a religious disposition, a desire to be close to and connect with God, is present throughout the materia medica arising from the provers’ symptoms.
There is as desire to feel blessed and gain heavenly blessings and experience divine serenity.
Provers 3, 4a, and 12 visited religious institutions such as churches and temples and noted an improvement and elevation in mood, and a sense of calmness within.
Prover 12 “felt so blessed at church”, and Prover 4 a woke up feeling happy and blessed”.
Prover 24 experienced a bad dream and rebuked her dream in the name of Jesus.
Prover 20 on a different yet still associated level, experienced a terrifying dream of a God-created natural disaster in the form of a giant powerful wave or tsunami creating
in her a fear of the water and fear of death.
All of which serve to strengthen and substantiate the correlation of the symptomatology of Carcharhinus leucas with the Doctrine of Signatures.
Losing oneself and being lost
The metaphor of being lost literally and figuratively is present abundantly throughout the materia medica of Carcharhinus leucas.
This is particularly evident in Prover 4a where she expresses: “Ever since I started taking the remedy I am losing part of myself” and expresses her fear for life and
everything and a feeling of being lost. On a more physical level she says: “felt like my head was going to come out”, suggesting a physical loss of parts. Prover 6 in response
to the changes that have occurred in her home town on returning, gets mentally lost forgetting where she is and on a separate occasion wakes up feeling lost, marvelling at how everything has changed and looks different.
This makes her feel “As if she does not belong at home”. Prover 24 had a dream where her index finger is being cut off. This is suggestive of her physically losing a part of
herself in a violent and dramatic manner. This theme also draws attention to the capacity of a shark to gain a sense of direction and home in on their pray by being able to
sense the electromagnetic fields emitted by other animals in the water through their own electrosensory structures (Fields, 2007: 74-81).
In analysing the oceans and seas we see a vast expanse of predominantly unchartered and unexplored territory.
The sea is abundant in incalculable life, wealth and danger where many have been lost and even died.
This danger has given rise to many fears and horrors which today are often expressed in literature, song and film, as well as numerous sayings and folk tales.
“Until you have the courage to lose sight of the shore, you will not know the terror of being forever lost at sea”
Summary of the polarities of symptomatology that emerged in the proving of Carcharhinus leucas
Increase in Appetite-Hunger Decrease in appetite-Satisfaction
Restful Sleep Sleep Unrefreshed/Disturbed
Thirst Thirst less
Affection and Desire for Family & Friends Aversion to Family and friends
Loneliness Group Activity
Stomach Bloating/ Distension Stomach Cramping
AILMENTS FROM – (suppressed) anger/disappointed love/from contradiction
ANGER – from disappointed love/sudden/at trifles/violent/on waking
ANXIETY [after dreams/about health; about of others/about/presence/before travelling/on waking]
AVERSION to friends
CHEERFUL [causeless /with dancing, laughing, singing/on waking]
COMPANY - aversion to (> when alone/desires solitude)/desires company and > in company
COMPLY to the wishes of others; feeling obliged to
CONCENTRATION - active/difficult (cannot fix attention/studying)
CONFIDENCE – feeling of inadequacy/want of self confidence
CONFUSION of (reading)
CRITISISM – aversion to
DELUSIONS: being alone/is dirty/body looks ugly/floating in air/head is separated from body/is lost/someone is present/another person is in the room/
Time (seems earlier/exaggeration of time)/she is being watched/has done wrong
DISCONTENTED with himself
ESCAPE, attempts to – to run away
EXERTION physical >
FASTIDIOUS – for cleanliness
FEAR [of corpses/constant of everything/of failure (in examinations)/in narrow places/of losing control of self/of the unknown]
FORSAKEN feeling (“As if isolated”)
HATRED of self
HELPLESSNESS; feeling of
HOME – desires to go
HORROR MOVIES – loves
HURRY (“As by imperative duties”/eating)
HURT; easily mentally hurt
IRRITABILITY [in daytime/morning on waking/at night/from everything/during headache/with people/when spoken to/from trifles]
LOVE for family
MEMORY – weakness of memory for persons/for places
MOOD – agreeable/alternating/changeable
ORIENTATION; sense of decreased
POSITIVENESS of mind
PROSTRATION of mind (after writing)
RELIGIOUS AFFECTIONS (want of religious feeling)
SYMPATHY from others desire it
TIMIDITY (In company)
Vertigo MORNING (on waking)
DRINKING water >
NAUSEA (with in morning/on waking)
OIL, fumes of
TURNING; “As if everything were turning in a circle”
HEAT in Forehead
HEAVINESS (from headache)
PAIN: in morning (hammering/on waking)/+ lachrymation/+ nausea/+ sneezes frequent/+ eye complaints (+ inflamed eyes)/>/< in open air/after anger/> closing the eyes/< cold air/constant, continued/< during cough/dull/during diarrhoea/< exertion/heavy/increasing gradually/< from (artificial) light/in head < during menses/< motion/< noise/< strong odor/
> pressure/> sitting (sharp)/> after sleep/surging/< warmth/ext. vertex/in forehead (burning/pulsating/after sleep/on waking/in occiput/in r. side/in r. temple bursting pain
PERSPIRATION of scalp during sleep
Eye: > CLOSING during vertigo
HEAT in r.
INFLAMED (morning/lower lid)
Pain - morning/aching/< closing/during lachrymation/< from light/< motion/< slight pressure/< touch/> warm applications/< warmth
PAIN - In inner canthi - r./”As from a foreign body”/in lids – (lower) r./l.
PHOTOPHOBIA < from (artificial) light/< from sunlight
“As if SMALLER”
STYES - appearing gradually/on r. upper lid
SWELLING – r./l./inner canthi
Nose: CONGESTION (at night/+ cough/> cold/< heat)
CORYZA (morning on waking)
DISCHARGE (morning/clear/constant/copious/> motion/> warmth/watery)
SNEEZING (morning/in open air/< cold air/frequent/< odours/with sleepiness)
Face DISCOLORATION – bluish/around in circles
ERUPTIONS – acne/pimples (on chin/forehead/around nose)/on waking/Jaws ext. joints
Mouth: DRYNESS on waking in morning
SWELLING of gums
Teeth: LOOSE – falling out/painless
Pain – morning on waking/ext. ear/after cough/with dryness/”As if raw”/< sneezing/sore/< after swallowing
SWALLOWING difficult of liquids
External Throat: STIFFNESS of sides
Stomach: APPETITE - diminished (in morning)/increased (after eating)/insatiable/ravenous
DISTENDED < after eating
EMPTINESS + burning/+ weakness/< after eating
FULLNESS, sensation of < after eating
NAUSEA < beginning of menses
PAIN – cramping/during nausea
THIRST – in morning on waking/night/> cold water/extreme/< heat/during heat/for large quantities/for small quantities/unquenchable
ULCERS painful – burning
VOMITING bright blood
Abdomen: DISTENDED/< during menses
PAIN – cramping/from flatus/before passing flatus/< lying on back/sharp/in r. hypochondria
In pelvic region
Rectum: CONSTIPATION (insufficient/painful/travelling
DIARRHOEA (after farinaceous food/during headache/from pain/from spices
PAIN – (< burning) after stool/stinging
URGING (< during stool)
Stool: DARK/DRY/GRANULAR/LIGHT COLORED
ODOR – offensive/sour
SMALL in quantity
Bladder: URINATION - frequent (in morning/in daytime/at night)
Urine: COLOUR greenish
Male genitalia: ITCHING - on scrotum (l./r./sides #/after eating/< warmth/between thighs
Female genitalia/sex: LEUKORRHEA copious
MENSES - bright red/clotted/copious (at night)/painful (+ nausea/> bending double/< cold/with fever/> motion/> warmth/thick/< after menses
PAIN – sharp/in uterus (cramping/pulling/sharp)
Cough: in early MORNING
MUCOUS in chest
CONSTRICTION (on waking/at night
PAIN in mammae
PALPITATION of heart (+ anxiety)
PERSPIRATION in axilla
Back: PAIN (l./morning/on waking/ext. scapula/cervical region (l.)/lumbar region (morning/on waking/at night/burning/< during menses aching)
STIFFNESS in cervical region during headache
Extremities: ERUPTIONS (on feet itching)
HEAVINESS (in upper limb)
INFLAMMATION of feet
ITCHING on thighs
LAMENESS of legs
PAIN – morning on wakinghot/> pressure/< standing/r. forearm/> pressure/sharp/r. hand/burning/in knees (< bending/< walking/in r. leg)/in legs (< becoming cold/< motion/pulling/> warmth)/in lower limbs/in shoulders (> motion)/thighs (l./r./continuous/intermittent/> lying/pressing/> pressure/sharp/tied/”As if tired”/Toes (l.burning)/Upper limbs (< motion/stabbing)
PARALYSIS of lower limbs
SHAKING of lower limbs
SWELLING – of feet itching/r. toes
WARTS on first fingers
WEAKNESS of legs
WEAKNESS of legs - > in sleep/< standing
Sleep: DREAMING in daytime during sleep
POSITION - on abdomen/changes frequently
PROLONGED/SHORT (in catnaps/on waking
SLEEPINESS – in daytime/morning (on waking)/in afternoon – 17.30h/early evening/< during fever/on waking
SLEEPLESSNESS (at night (sleeps by day)/after dispute/from dreams/from irritability/+ sleepiness
UNREFRESHING – in morning
WAKING – cheerful afterwards/difficult in morning/too early/frequent/with excess energy/from perspiration
WEAKNESS - in legs > sleep/< standing
Dreams: ANIMATIONS/PARTS OF BODY removed/newborns/CLAIRVOYANT/COMPANIONSHIP/COMPUTER GAMES/CONFUSED/CROCODILES/DOGS/
He is DESIRED/unfortunate EVENTS/missing an exam/own FAMILY/seeing friends/HAPPY/MONKEY/NIGHTMARES/PREGNANT/being PURSUED/wild animals/
Being ROBBED/SEA/SEARCHING for someone/SNAKES/UNREMEMBERED/VIOLENT/from danger in water
Fever: + nausea
INTENSE heat at night
< during SLEEP
Skin: ERUPTIONS - pimples
Generals: ACTIVITY – increased/desires COLD - > air/desires cold bathing/< BECOMING COLD of part of body (feet)
FAINTNESS (with vertigo)
FOOD and DRINKS : <: beans/bread/milk/oatmeal;
Desires: cake/cheese/chocolate/french fried potatoes/eggs/salt/sour drinks/sour drinks/spices/tea/vinegar;
>: cold drink, cold water/fruit/lemons/oranges/warm drinks/water;
FULLNESS; feeling of – internally
HEAT - flushes of (ext. downwards)/lack of vital heat/sensation of heat/flushes of heat + vertigo
INFLAMED – sinuses (> in open air)/< odors
NUMBNESS – during/of muscles
> SITTING DOWN
SWELLING of glands
WARMTH < (air)/> bathing
WEARINESS (in afternoon/> in open air/< after waking/on waking
< hot WEATHER/> rainy WEATHER/< wet weather
Carcharhinus leucas represented by its rubrics seems to act principally on the (129), (55), extremities (50), and eyes (34). From the 594 rubrics produced, 45 new rubrics emerged further defining the remedy . What follows is an amalgamation of the main effects, themes and polarities expressed through the rubrics, unifying the symptomatology into one cohesive prover experience allowing for a clearer understanding of the remedy essence for potential clinical therapeutic indications (Sherr, 1994: 32).
Anger and irritability is a prominent theme in the materia medica of Carcharhinus leucas.
Several provers expressed the feeling of anger and irritability, being of similar expression and sensation in different intensities manifesting in various results. The anger which originated due to numerous reasons manifested on different levels and planes ranging from just a thoughtful reflection to irritation and frightfully so, in extremes or more
intense cases, the physical need to be violent and express violence.
All expressed anger which culminated in physical outburst or the need to outburst
Prover 24 experienced anger on a level where she felt her rights and personality were being infringed upon
Prover 24 expressed anger which manifested in the emotional plane expressing ugliness.
Aversion to and Desires solitude vs Desire for company
Numerous polarities have emerged during this proving. One such polarity is associated with people and social interaction. On the one hand, an aversion is seen,
while on the other hand there is a desire for and interaction.
The following symptoms are a direct expression for a need to be alone underlining an aggravation from social interaction possibly with a desire to escape.
Confusion (present with regard to space and time)
A wide spectrum of was experienced.
Prover 9 and 24 experienced a delusion of ugliness and dirtiness causing a withdrawal from others
while Prover 7a in contrast experienced a heightened psycho-sexual connection to the opposite sex.
Prover 4a experienced loneliness while
Prover 16 experienced the presence of a malevolent spirit
Prover 3 expressed a diverse distortion of time [03F 32]
Prover 3 and 24 both noted a sensation of floating
Prover 12 experienced delusion on a much more insidious level feeling as if she had done something bad with resulting guilt
Prover 4a experienced a quizzical separating of sensation and a confusion and a sensation of being emotionally and psychologically lost
Desire to go home + Escape
Prover 6 experienced nostalgia and excitement at the idea of returning home when she wrote “Slept like a baby. Don’t know if I was dreaming or thinking I was just
seeing myself at home with everyone”, as well as “I was so excited when I woke up today. It’s my last day in DURBAN Finally
Prover 4a expressed a desire to escape.
The general theme of love and its various facets of disappointment, heart break, increased affection, familial love and weeping emerged in the proving, with
experiences of feeling weighted and burdened: “My heart literally felt like it was heavy and squeezed”,
Losing energy: “I don’t even have the energy to pick myself up” and feeling tired as well as resulting in physical and numbness: “I can’t tell how I feel it’s like I’m numb”
Disappointed love predominated among provers, where betrayal and heart break were also present.
Prover 3 experienced a rejuvenation of warmth and friendliness.
Prover 4a experienced a rekindling of love toward her mother via a dream.
Prover also experienced weeping and crying as a sequela to loss of love.
Happiness versus Sadness
(Elation + Laughter + Cheerfulness & Weeping + Sadness)
Another polarity seen is that between happiness and sadness. The following examples express and represent a good feeling akin to happiness on different levels
experienced excitement for various reasons such as celebrations, meeting with others and physical activity.
Provers 1 and 8 expressed experienced laughter in symptoms and.
In the following symptoms, the provers expressed a happiness for unknown reasons and on waking.
In Provers 6 and 9 we see happiness manifesting through diet, with an increase in the diet and desire to eat,
Prover 12 in symptom experienced happiness due to an unknown reason.
Provers 1a and 4a expressed happiness in terms of God and happiness because of being brought closer to God.
In Prover 10 we see the happiness perpetuated over a longer period of time which was observable by the prover’s colleagues. In Prover 6 we see happiness expressed through
and from dance and music in contrast to this, Prover 24 expresses sadness and the desire to cry.
More so several provers experienced grief in the form of feeling down and emotionally hurt which resulted in fatigue.
Fear + Horror
A wide spectrum of fear was experienced in provers 4, 12, 15 and 28. Fears ranged from the tangible to the intangible. Prover 15 expressed a more general fear + with confusion.
Prover 4a expressed a fear of dead people and cutting.
Several provers professed a fear of failure.
Provers 15 and 28 indicated a very distinct fear of closed or narrow places as claustrophobia.
Fear of the unknown is verbalised by Prover 15 when he states: “Irrational unknown fear inside”, and “Fear of the unknown”.
Prover 4a developed a fear of herself. Excitement and enjoyment developed in Prover 8 towards movies in the horror genre.
The topic of being abandoned and deserted was touched upon by Provers 9, 4, 12 and 19 where the provers felt alone:
“I felt alone in the world” and separated from everyone:
“I feel very distant from everyone”.
“I was feeling like no one cares about me”, to the point where they felt as if everyone was after them:
“Felt like the world was against me”.
The theme of a negative self-image emerged with components of insecurity, self-hatred, aversion to criticism and timidity being prominent. Prover 4a
questioned herself continuously and expressed self-hatred
Insecurity developed in Prover 3 from a poor self-image sparked by an acne outbreak.
Prover 9 felt overly sensitive to personal remarks and criticism, while Prover 3 showed a strong irritation to and aversion to criticism, desiring to escape. On several
occasions prover 12 directly expressed a passive shy nature which hindered her socially: “My personality is shy and passive”.
Confidence (Confidence + Determination vs Inadequate Confidence + Anxiety)
Provers 4 and 24 experienced an increase in confidence.
Prover 9 experienced an increase in motivation and determination.
By contrast, Prover 1a noted a want of confidence in intellectually demanding situations.
Anxiety was expressed over numerous issues by several provers, ranging from general anxiety, to anxiety over others and anxiety in specific situations such as exams.
Overwhelmed vs Hopeful + Positivity of Mind
Provers 4a, 18 and 24 expressed a sense of being overwhelmed and helpless.
Prover 1a was surprised on feeling hopeful on waking.
On the other hand, Prover 9 showed alertness and positivity.
Hurry + Impatience vs Patience
Both topics show an awareness of time and a desire to do more during that time or a sense of urgency. Provers 1a and 3 noticed hurrying during activities.
Prover 3 and 25 suggested a developing impatience.
In contrast, Prover 12 developed an increase in patience during the proving.
Mental activity featured as a prominent theme in the section with facets of increased concentration, stress, weakness of memory, difficulty in concentration,
decreased focus and distraction developing during the proving.
Provers 6 and 7 remarked at the increase in concentration they experienced, with enhanced learning.
Provers 4, 8, 14 expressed stress over exams and events.
Provers 6 and 24 marvelled at the loss of memory.
Provers 3, 6, 7, 9,12, 24, 30 experienced difficulties in concentrating with a tendency towards scattered thoughts and distraction.
(Occupation ameliorates + Physical exertion ameliorates versus Laziness)
Prover 6 noted a desire to do house chores which relaxed her.
Prover 12 similarly engaged in physical activity which made her feel better.
On the other hand, several provers discussed feeling lazy on multiple occasions.
Mood fluctuations Agreeable
Prover 19 and 6 perceived an improvement of mood.
Provers 7, 9 and 10 experienced mood swings with multiple changes in mood.
Provers 7, 9 and 10 experienced distinct mood swings between two extremes with varying triggers.
Obligation to others & Helping others
Prover 3 displayed an overwhelming obligation to help others regardless of the detriment to herself.
Prover 6 displayed a servile nature to help others.
Communication (Loquacity versus Taciturn)
Prover 9 on several days portrayed talkativeness in association with happiness and an increase in energy.
Prover 7a curiously became noisy, while Prover 4a showed a verbally aggressive nature shouting at people.
Provers 26 and 27, in contrast, expressed an aversion to talking to others.
Provers 3, more so than Prover 8, experienced severe exhaustion and being energetically drained on all levels.
In various cultures, we see that sharks’ due to their size as well as attributes of speed and strength in the water and their violent nature instil fear among the
populous and are seen and worshipped even today as Gods and protectors.
In line with this ideology we see the development of spiritual dispositions where
Provers 3, 4 and 12 visited religious places of worship:
“Woke up and went to the temple. The sense of calm and stillness is phenomenal and I wanted to start of the ast month on a good note”.
and: “I felt so blessed at church and my day was awesome”.
and expressed a heightened spirituality: “I woke up feeling happy and blessed and the only thing I could think about is going to church”.
Provers 1, 4a, 28 all perceived a heightened feeling of relaxation and calm with an improvement in state.
In the vertigo section, we find 18 symptoms noted by Provers 4a, 8 12, 14 and 20 resulting in the development of 13 rubrics.
Vertigo, motion and sea sickness, featured prominently, being a symptom common to other sea remedies. Provers expressed and noted that the vertigo was caused
through long periods of travelling.
Prover 12 contributed the vertigo also to the smell of petrol.
Prover 12 experienced that the vertigo was accompanied by nausea and a headache, as well as perspiration.
Stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract through ingesting various items proved beneficial as Prover 8 was ameliorated by eating.
“I had breakfast at 7 h. then the dizziness went away”, as well as:
“I felt dizzy but it went away after eating”
Prover 12 was ameliorated by drinking cold water.
Provers 8 and 20 were also ameliorated by sitting.
Prover 8 described the sensation of the vertigo as:
“felt like the earth was spinning”.
A few time descriptions noted by Provers 4 and 8 experiencing vertigo in the morning and on waking, suggesting a disposition for occurrence in the earlier part of the day.
In the section, we find 98 symptoms noted by Provers 1a, 3, 4a, 7a, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30 resulting in the development of 55 rubrics.
Emotional and mental causes of headache predominated over physical causes as seen in Prover 1a who attributed the cause of a headache to anger and frustration.
Appearing in solitary as well as concomitantly, a multitude of provers experienced headaches with concomitants in the form of sneezing, fatigue, watery eyes, nausea,
swollen eyes and period, which also affected the intensity of the experienced.
The being a somewhat smaller area and with fewer, well defined surfaces gave rise to in most of the regions with an abundance in the forehead/frontal region.
Most provers experienced headaches located at the forehead, some at the occiput, of the several on the sides of the head, and a few at the temples.
Several modalities further differentiated and defined the provers’ headaches which were ameliorated by cold fresh air, closing eyes, sitting down, applying pressure
Symptoms were aggravated by cold air, physical exertion, light, physical and mental exertion, noise indoors and warmth, music and warmth, heat and sleep.
Prover 27 is an example of a clear description of a with clearly defined modalities:
“I also have headache. It is located in front of the in the sides. It started in the afternoon. I can feel my forhead hot.
Better: open air, not listening to music”;
Several sensations emerged in relation to the such as dryness, heat, experienced on the forehead, swelling and heaviness.
Pain, being the defining symptom of headaches, was experienced in all regions of the
The times that the symptoms occurred in the few instances that they were noted, varied. Several occurred in the afternoon, and others in the morning and on waking.
In the eye section, we find 44 symptoms noted by Provers 4a, 7a, 8, 10, 18, 24, 27, 15, 30 resulting in the development of 34 rubrics.
Prover 30 experienced lachrymation together with an itchy blocked nose.
Provers experienced symptoms in various areas of the eye such as the inner canthi, right and left lower and upper eye lids and the eyes themselves.
The aggravations for eye symptoms outnumbered the ameliorations, with < being caused by closing the eyes, light motion, touch, and application of pressure
Symptoms were ameliorated by closing the eyes and warm applications.
Irritation, heat, heaviness, inflamed, itching, redness, photophobia, pain, redness, sensation of shrinking, styes and swelling Very few time modalities
were noted with some of the provers noting that the symptoms occurred in the morning.
Particularly prominent in the eye section we see sensations such as: “right eye feels like there’s something in it – it feels heavy, and: “It’s not burning but feels
hot – Only the right eye”
Here we see that heat and a sensation of something being present in the eye are a feature.
Very few time modalities were noted with some of the provers noting that the symptoms occurred in the morning.
Particularly prominent in the eye section we see sensations such as: “right eye feels like there’s something in it – it feels heavy”, and “It’s not burning but feels hot – Only the right eye”.
Here we see that heat and a sensation of something being present in the eye are a feature.
In the vision section, we find one symptom noted by Prover 15 resulting in the development of one rubric. We see that Prover 15 experienced the unusual
presentation and sensation of blurred vision on the first day of the journaling:
“Unusual symptom. My vision seems blurry”, swelling.
In the vision section, we find one symptom noted by Prover 15 resulting in the development of one rubric. We see that Prover 15 experienced the unusual
presentation and sensation of blurred vision on the first day of the journaling:
“Unusual symptom. My vision seems blurry”.
In the nose section, we find 65 symptoms noted by Provers 4a, 6, 7a, 10, 14, 15, 18, 26, 27, 30 resulting in the development of 30 rubrics
The nose is a characteristic feature of the shark and is the feature from which the shark’s name is derived.
Symptoms from this area would play a significant role in the shark symptomatology. Provers experienced concomitants of cough and sleepiness.
Nose symptoms were ameliorated by modalities such as exposure to air, cold applications, motion, and application of warmth.
Some symptoms were aggravated by heat and odours.
Several sensations were experienced by the provers’ noses such as congestion, coryza, dryness, heaviness, itching, obstruction and sneezing.
The predominance of the symptoms of discharge, itching and congestion produced by the nose give us a picture better described and associated
with coryza, influenza even allergic rhinitis, and suggests an important area where the remedy might be beneficial due to the prevalence and volume
of symptoms in this region.
Several symptoms occurring predominantly in the morning were noted by provers such as “I’m producing discharges on my nose. They are clear
<: morning/sitting down/face down; while others noted symptoms at night giving us a clearer understanding and better defining of time modality.
In the face section, we find eight symptoms noted by Provers 3, 12,14,15,16 resulting in the development of eight rubrics.
The location of facial symptoms varied with provers experiencing symptoms all over the face including the forehead, around the eyes, the cheeks,
mandible and around the nose.
Facial symptoms were minimal with provers experiencing sensations such as facial discolouration:
“skin–dark blue around the eyes” and facial due to acne“
Pimples small around nose sore to touch red”, and irregularities with the jaw and the temporomandibular joint which is significant considering that
the jaw one of the key identifying features of Carcharhinus leucas.
Prover 16. “Temporomandibular joint still gives some grief but not as bad as before” and Prover 14:
“I slept for 10 hours when I woke up my jaw on the left side hurt. It lasted for 20-25 minutes”.
In the mouth section, we find five symptoms noted by Provers 1a, 12, 14, 20 resulting in the development of 3 rubrics.
Symptoms derived from the mouth region were few in number although various sensations of dryness and thirst, swollen gums,
abnormal tastes in the mouth such as sour, and development of a lump under the throat were experienced.
In the teeth section, we find one symptom noted by Prover 12 resulting in the development of two rubrics.
Sharks are carnivorous predators with sharp triangular teeth that are continuously replaced, so when Prover 12 reports experiencing painless removal
of her tooth after taking the remedy saying “
I took out my tooth because it was loose. It was painless”, we can naturally associate it with the continuous removal and renewal of shark teeth
which occur at regular intervals for sharks.
In the male genitalia/sex section, we find 12 symptoms noted by Prover 7a resulting in the development of seven rubrics.
The sample used for the liver remedy was taken from a male shark. There were thirteen males on the proving of which only one male prover produced or reported
symptoms significant to the genitalia/sex. Prover 7a produced several symptoms over the course of the proving, perceiving an irritation in his testis and pelvic region
which defined itself as being an irritation which was aggravated by various foods and heat.
He described the irritation as a distractingly severe itch occurring several times throughout the day.
There was also the development of increased and heightened sexual awareness of himself and the opposite sex with an increase in libido:
“I don’t know what is wrong but somehow I am more attracted to women today. It’s not a usual thing. I’m attracted to them but today it’s like they read my
thoughts they keep checking me out”.
Heightened and increased sexuality were discussed and interpreted in the section.
In the female genitalia/ sex section, we find 30 symptoms noted by Provers 1a, 4a, 6, 12, 19, 24, 26 resulting in the development of 19 rubrics.
Prover 6 experienced her period together with a fever and nausea.
Prover 26 experienced symptoms only in the region of the uterus.
Symptoms were ameliorated by bending double, motion and warmth, while being aggravated by the cold.
Several descriptions and sensations were expressed such as that of bright red blood, clots, copious leucorrhea, copious menses, and thick flow, was one of the
most common symptoms reported in the female region, associated mainly with menstruation and differentiated further into: general pains,
and specific pains such as sharp menstrual, prolonged, uterine cramping, pulling uterine pains, and sharp uterine pains.
Symptoms were noted to have been experienced at night.
In the cough section, we find five symptoms noted by Provers 7a and 18 resulting in the development of four rubrics.
Few symptoms were noted in this section.
Provers noted a cough with chest, heat, and mucus.
Prover 7a took particular notice of the morning during which the cough occurred.
In the chest section, we find eight symptoms noted by Provers 3, 15, 19, 24, resulting in the development of seven rubrics.
Prover 3 experienced chest and breathlessness as part of a series of panic attacks.
Prover 24 nervousness resulted in a sympathetic neuronal response manifesting as perspiration.
Sensations such as palpitations, and constriction were present.
Symptoms were prominent during the night and in the morning on waking.
In the back section, we find 21 symptoms noted by Provers 1a, 7a, 10, 14, 15, 16, 18, 24 which resulted in the development of 14 rubrics.
Prover 15 experienced a headache with back stiffness.
Back symptoms varied and presented in several areas with a higher rate in the cervical region, left side, left scapula, lumbar region.
Prover 24’s back ache was aggravated by menstruation.
Sensations varied from burning and perspiration.
Symptoms manifested on waking in the morning and at night.
In the extremities section, we find 56 symptoms noted by Provers 1a, 3, 4a, 7a, 9, 12, 15, 16, 18, 24, 25 resulting in the development of 50 rubrics.
Various symptoms were elicited on the extremities namely the feet, the forearm, the hands. The legs, the lower limbs, the shoulders, toes, thighs
and the upper limbs.
Multiple aggravations and ameliorations cropped up describing numerous modalities such as the aggravation of bending, cold, motion,
standing, and walking. Conversely there were many ameliorations such as that of laying down, motion, application of pressure, sleeping and the
application of warmth.
The extremities are a section where there were a higher number of symptoms in comparison to the other sections with a generous variety of sensations
such as heaviness: itching, lameness, a burning sensation, heat, intermittent, pressing, pulling, sharp, stabbing, paralysis, shaking,
swelling, tiredness of parts, the presence of warts and lastly weakness.
Only prover 12 differentiated a morning time for presentation of symptoms.
In the sleep section, we find 80 symptoms noted by Provers 1a, 3, 4a, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27 resulting in
the development of 32 rubrics.
Provers experienced concomitants of daytime dreaming, fever and perspiration together with sleep symptoms.
Provers complained of fever aggravating sleep, sleeping on the abdomen and frequently changing position in sleep.
Several sensations were reported, such as early waking, easily falling asleep, frequent waking, difficulty waking, disturbed sleep,
energy on waking from sleep, restlessness, short sleep, sleepiness, sleeplessness, waking up unrefreshed, and waking up cheerful.
Sleep symptoms and times were diverse and ranged from the afternoon, to catnaps throughout the day, daytime sleeping and evening sleeping.
Symptoms occured in the morning night wakefulness with day sleeping.
Waking too early and symptoms on waking up.
Searching for Loved ones
Water & Tsunamis
It is significant that there are dreams of animals, particularly snakes, raising themes of the animal kingdom. Dreams of water and tsunamis directly relate to the ocean
and aquatic remedies. The dreams of companionship, being desired, happy, searching for loved ones and involving people are associated to the group behaviour
of animals as well as the heightened sexual nature attributed to animals (Sankaran, 2005)
In the fever section, we find two symptoms noted by Provers 12 and 14 resulting in the development of two rubrics.
Fever is primarily associated with the onset of an infection as well as an increase in hepatic metabolic activity again showing the influence and affinity of the remedy.
Prover 14 experienced a fever with nausea and sleepiness: “I am having very high temperatures on my head. They are causing me to be sleepy and nauseous”.
Prover 12 was the only prover to note a time in terms of the fever which was experienced at night.
In the perspiration section, we find six symptoms noted by Provers 1a, 3, 7a, 12, 15, 24 resulting in the development of four rubrics
Prover 24 experienced perspiration with nervousness. Prover 1a named the back as a location for perspiration, while sleep aggravated Prover 7a’s perspiration.
Several provers experienced profuse sweating.
Prover 1a noted the afternoon as a significant time of sweating.
In the skin section, we find five symptoms noted by Provers 3, 14, 24 resulting in the development of three rubrics. Few skin symptoms were noted.
Prover 3 noted the development of acne on the and forehead.
A sensation of itchiness of the skin, as well as the presence of warts were diarised.
In the generals’ section, we find 115 symptoms noted by Provers 1a, 3, 4a, 6, 7a, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30 noted in 65 rubrics.
Heat and weakness appeared concomitantly with vertigo.
Food featured distinctly in the materia medica as a part of generals, through the gastrointestinal tract, as well as being mentioned in modalities.
Numerous food aggravated the body. Prover 6 was ameliorated by warm water.
There was an aversion to coffee and several desires were noted such as those for cake, chocolate, coffee, cold water, eggs, fried chips, fruit, lemon,
oranges, salt, sour items, spices, tea, vinegar, and water.
Noteworthy is the prominence of sour themed food where sour and bitter present in the form of the cravings of lemon, oranges, salt, sour, vinegar
which all fall in the repertory group of ‘Sour’ and is seen similarly in the materia medica of the homoeopathic remedy Sepia and Natrium muriaticum,
‘craving for salt’ (Boericke,
Sensations experienced were those relating to increased and decreased energy and activity, relating to cold, energy, faintness, fullness, heat,
Amelioration from pressure, change in pulse, swelling of glands, warmth, weariness and affectations of weather