Families

           

http://www.wholehealthnow.com/homeopathy_pro/wt0.html                                  

 

Vergleich: Siehe: Terms in Homeopathy

 

[Will Taylor].

I have expended a good deal of time and passion over the past year refining and developing a remedy families database, in order to meet the growing interest among homeopaths in investigating concordances between remedies bearing relationships to one another by way of taxonomic classification, chemical composition, source, or other forms of presumed resemblance.

I began by working with the existing "families of remedies" repertory in RADAR, bringing in other sources from our homeopathic literature, but soon determined that, in order to catch the inevitable errors and omissions, I would need to start this project from scratch.

I developed this database within the repertory structure of RADAR. It is available as the Families of Remedies Repertory vers.1.40, incorporated into RADAR 9 and Encyclopedia Homeopathica 2.0.

The Synthesis Repertory database lists a total of 2276 remedies, with 1632 remedies represented in 3 or more rubrics. The amount of information on each listed remedy varies tremendously, from 12,326 rubric-entries for Sulphur, to fewer than 10 rubric-entries for 1,011 of these remedies.

For this work, I limited my attention to those 1632 remedies listed in 3 or more rubrics. The 600+ remedies this eliminated are typically listed only for a gross clinical indication from eclectic or domestic medical or toxicological experience, and lack known characterizing symptoms essential for homeopathic prescribing.

In addition, I found that many of the plants among these barely-described remedies are difficult to clearly identify, with names not reconcilable with contemporary lists of named species, and insufficient information in our literature to guide identification.

Types of Families

In this article, I will confine myself largely to the consideration of taxonomic families - groupings created on the basis of presumed phylogenetic/evolutionary relationships for plants and animals, or on the basis of chemical composition for minerals. Many other forms of classification of remedies have been or could be described - e.g., groups based on habitat or bioregion ("sea remedies."), groups based on strategy ("predators" "scavengers"), groups based on external appearances ["trees" (trees. do not represent a taxonomically-meaningful group, but rather a growth strategy of plants that evolved autonomously in several independent lineages) "vines"], groups based on the part of the source used ("roots.x " "barks.x " "venoms."). Groupings of this sort have been included in the Families Database discussed in this article, but I will defer discussion of these to a future installment.

 

Names of Plant Families

As with the names of plants, the names of families have undergone and continue to undergo revision. Looking for a standardized reference, I have used two sources:

 James Reveal (University of Maryland) - position paper on Vascular Plant Family Nomenclature

 Watson & Dallwitz - The Families of Flowering Plants.

Theses sources also were used as references for historical and contemporary synonyms, and for common English names for plant families.

I have applied common English names only when these are in common use within the homeopathic +/o. botanic communities; there is no formal assignment of common English names to plant families

apart from colloquial usage, and these are usually merely based on a "typical" or commonly-known member of the group. E.g., the family to which Conium maculatum and Cicuta virosa belong is termed the Umbelliferae (Umbelliferae = Apiaceae as a synonym in historical and occasional contemporary use.)

Although this has sometimes been called the "carrot family" or the "parsley family", these names are merely derived from commonly known members of this family, which are not necessarily typical of the group; these common English names hold no formal significance and are not in widespread use, and so were not included in my database.

In contrast, the common English name for the Solanaceae, the nightshade family, is more descriptive of the family as a whole and is in widespread common use both by botanists and by homeopaths.

Placement in Plant Families

Once botanical names were defined, I used principally internet-based resources to identify placement of the species in botanical families. My principal resources were:

 International Organization for Plant Information Database

 Plants for a Future Database

In the rare cases where these groups did not concur with a placement to a family, I pursued a variety of alternate references to reconcile their differences. Some of the plant species -particularly the

S. American and Indian species- needed to be researched separately, on sites with regional plant descriptions.

Meaningful Plant Families

Many botanical taxonomic families will prove useful to our purposes of classifying remedies, and many will not. I will discuss this at length in my next installment, but for now, let it suffice to note that many of our botanical families contain only one known remedy, or a few poorly known remedies.

It is tempting in these cases to move up the taxonomic tree, to look at the remedies classified at the Ordinal level or even higher levels of the classification hierarchy, as groups that might be meaningful

to our work.

In a very few places I have done this (see the non-flowering plants and fungi, further on in this installment; and the two brief examples near the end of the Botanical Families section on the next page.)

But in most cases, these higher taxonomic levels are too large, or comprise remedies of diverse and unrelated action, to be useful to our purpose.

 

Most of the useful concordances between taxonomically-related plant remedies that have been described, have been at the level of botanical family.

Botanical Taxonomic Schemes

Botanical taxonomists, like any other group of people I know, seem to have trouble agreeing with one another. This is compounded by the reality that plant classification is based on numerous subjective criteria. Several different systems of plant classification exist, and three of these appear to dominate the scene at present. These are the systems of Arthur Cronquist, RMT Dahlgren, and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). The latter incorporates data from DNA and protein analysis, to supplement the relationships implied by structural similarities that characterize the first two systems.

With a few notable exceptions, these systems recognize the same botanical families, and organize membership within these families in nearly identical manners. They differ largely in how they relate plant families one to another - the affinities between families, and the organization of plant families within higher taxonomic structure.

A Best Scheme for Homeopathy?

Which of these systems makes the most sense for incorporation into a Homeopathic Remedies Family Database? At first glance, the "more objective" APG system may feel more compelling in its ability

to assess real phylogenetic/evolutionary relationships between plants. DNA affinities seem more compelling than structural similarities. Yet for the purposes of botanists, this classification system is in its infancy, and is not universally embraced.

And for our purpose as homeopaths, we need to ask whether we are interested primarily in the phylogenetic/evolutionary relationships of plants, or in features which lead plants to bear resemblances one

to another - will medicinal properties follow phylogenetic and evolutionary lines, or structural lines, or chemical and pharmacological lines?

My choice was to incorporate all three systems - separately, so that the user could choose which to use, even look at relationships from three differing perspectives in any given instance.

 

Cistus, Viola odorata and Viola tricolor

Example: in the APG scheme, the remedy Cistus canadensis (Helianthemum canadensis, Rockrose) is placed in the family Malvaceae, of the Malvales, Eurosids II.

Dahlgren scheme, it is in the family Cistaceae, Malvales, Malviflorae.

Cronquist places it in the Cistaceae, Violales, adjacent to the family Violaceae (Viola odorata, Viola tricolor) - which allows us to reflect upon some fascinating concordances with these latter 2 remedies, helping us to appreciate the scope of action of this relatively small (657 rubric) remedy.

Conversely, in the APG scheme, Paeonia officinalis (family Paeoniaceae) and Hamamelis virginiana (Hamamelidaceae) are both classified in the order Saxifragales. Although the Dahlgren and Cronquist schemes classify these remedies in those same respective families, they do not relate these two families closely to one another; and hence fail to bring these two remedies of very similar properties together for comparison.

The classification schemes discussed above apply to the Angiosperms or Flowering Plants. The non-flowering plants were organized according to the families and taxonomic scheme outlined in the Tree of Life Web Project.

We have only 32 remedies in this group - most of these only scantily described in our literature:

The reasonably described non-flowering plants basically comprise Lycopodium clavatum; Thuja occidentalis, Sabina and a few fragmentarily described conifers and their products (including a few with extensive, but recent provings with little clinical verification); and Equisetum hyemale, which although poorly-described, has a few strongly characterizing symptoms.

I broke this group down into some smaller subgroups, largely above the level of botanical family, but feel that the meaningful groups here consist of "non-flowering plants" and its subgroup "coniferophyta."

 

Pflanzenfamilien                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Teilweise übernommen aus: http://www.homoeomedia.de

                                  

Familie                       Akut               Typhus                       Malaria            Ringworm         Sycose           Tuberkulin    Krebs             Lepra                         Syphilis

 

Anacardiaceae.            gepackt/steif/gespannt/festgesetzt/Krampf/Drücken

 

 

                                                           Rhus-t.                        Rhus-r.                  Rhus-v.                  Mangi.                                               Anac.              Com.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Rhus-g

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Araceae.

                                                           Arum-t                                   Arum-m                                             Calad.

 

Asclepidiaceae.

 

                                                           Asc-t.                                                                                                                                               Cund

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Berberidaceae.          Plötzliche/intensive/schnelle Veränderung auf psychischer +/o. körperliche Ebene.

 

Berbin             Podo.                          Berb.                                                   Caul.                                                                                                  Berb-a.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Cactaceae.                 Zusammengezogen/kleiner gemacht/geschrumpft/Kontraktion/gebunden/in der Falle/(nieder)gedrückt (= downtrodden)/gepackt/unterrückt/Constriction versus expansion. Element: Wasser

 

Ranunculacae: Rhytmischer Teil = Hauptteil/Sonne und Mond in Gleichgewicht (Cactaceae: Sonne und Mond im Kampf)

 

Cactin.            Carn-g.                       Cact.                   Opun-v.                  Tub.                    Cere-b.                       Anh.               Cere-s.

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Campanulaceae.                                                                                                                                                                                       Lob.

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Compositae.              Verletzt/wehgetan o. beleidigt/schockiert/verbrannt oder verbrüht/Furcht vor Berührung/vor Annäherung/< Winter/> Sonne

 

Arn.                Cham.                                     Cina                                    Tarax.              Senec.                             Abrot.                     Bell-p.                         Inul.                       Echi

Calen.                         Mill.                            Eup-per.                                                                                                                           Lact                Absin.

                                                           Eup-pur.                                                                                                                                    Lappa.

                                                           Calen

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Coniferae.                  Zerbrechlich/zerbrochen/verbunden/ungebunden/leer/voll/abgeschnitten/fragmentiert

 

                                   Agath-a.          Ter.                             Abies -n.             Pseuts-m.                Thuja                   Pix              Sabin.

                                                                                                                                                        Thuj-l.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cruciferae. (Brassicales)

 

                                   Lepi.               Sin-n.                          Iber.                            Sina-a                Coch                 Thios                       Thlaspi            Raph               Brass

 

Familie                       Akut               Typhus                       Malaria            Ringworm         Sycose           Tuberkulin    Krebs             Lepra                         Syphilis

 

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Dioscoriaceae.

                                   Diosin                                                 Dios                           

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ericaceae.

                                   Arbu.               Gaul.                           Kalm.                                                 Rhod                                                  Chim               Led.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Euphorbiaceae.         Zuge-/aufgebunden/zuge-/aufgewickelt

 

Crot-t.             Manc.                         Casc.                                                  Tub                                                     Euph.              Hura                Still.

                                                           Merl.                                                  Acal

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Fungi.

                                   Muscin                                               Bol-e.                                                 Bov.                    Ust.                         Agar.               Sec.                 Psil

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sol-t-ae?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Familie                       Akut               Typhus                       Malaria            Ringworm         Sycose           Tuberkulin    Krebs             Lepra                         Syphilis

 

Hamamilidae.            Komprimiert/schwer/drückend/Last/begrenzt/schleppen/fixiert/eingesperrt/Gegenteil ist leicht/fliegen  Fic-i                      

Myric/Cann-s.      Fagu.                     Cann-i.                        Jug-c.                         Ulm.                Cast-v.             Jug-r.

 

 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Labiatae.                   Große Familie (3000 Typen) alle medizinal. Brauchen WÄRME/haben ätherische Öle              EGO

 Acknowledgement 1. not being acknowledged (at work/at home/in the family/with friends/with parents/orphan), 2. full of emotions + can’t express them/holding-on to and

penting up of feelings/puts feelings into words. Ambitious + NEED of acknowledgement. Element: Feuer

Flowers resembling the lips of a mouth. and four-lobed ovaries.

excitability #/+ being numb for the world/(self)control (others)/Pathology: Labia and vagina.

Tuberkulin

SENsitivity to touch

Coll.: Anerkennung durch Schwangerschaft, Orig-v. Anerkennung/Genuss im Sexuellem finden Oci-b.: Anerkennung in Religiösem, Oci-s: Angst vor Unfälle

(Träume)/will Anerkennung in Erste Hilfeleistung, Melissa. officinalis: = machtlos wenn nicht anerkannt/wird ärgerlich

 

Menthol          Lycps.                                    Coll.                                    Teucr.              Lam.                   Teucr-s.                      Agn.                Oci-s.              Orig.

Family has many members!! Just: Beschwerden Atemwegen    /           Scut empfindLICH wie Valer.

 

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Leguminosae. = Fabales

                                   Meli                Bapt                            Rob                             Chrysar           Cop.                           Bals-p.            Phys.               Caesal.             Der.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lath.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Lilales. = Liliflorae

Vergleich.: Lilienähnliche (= Liliopsida) + Lilienartige (= Liliales) + Lilien (= Liliaceae)

                                   Aspar.             Paris                            Colch.                         Sars.                Croc-s.                        Agraph.           Orni.               Aloe.

                                   Colchin.          Verat-v.                      Iris.                                                     Helon.                                                Squil.  

                                   Verat.                                                                                                           Sabad.

                                   Verin.                                                                                                           Lil-t.               

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Loganiaceae.                         Einen Helden sein oder nicht sein. Ursache: Zivilisation/Großstadt

                                   torn to pieces

 

Stry.                Nux-v.                        Spig.                           Upa.                Gels.                                                  Ign.                 Cur.                 Ho.

Bruc.

 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Familie                       Akut               Typhus                       Malaria            Ringworm         Sycose           Tuberkulin    Krebs             Lepra                         Syphilis

 

Magnoliacae             Verwirrung/Verdutzt/Benommen/“Wie fremd“/Umgebung ist verwirrend/1. fühlt sich isoliert und nicht damit verbunden, 2. Rückzug in eine vertraute Umgebung

 

Camph.           Nux-m.                       Magn-gr                      Asim            Cinnm             Myris.                         Asar.                      Arist-cl.

                       Camph-ac.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Malvales.                   Angeheftet und entfernt. Verbunden und dann getrennt. Zusammen und dann auseinander

 

Choc.              Abel.                           Abrom-a.                    Goss.               Til.                                                                             Kola

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Menispermacae.

                                   Pico.                                                   Cocc.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Nepenthales.

                                                                                              Sarr.                                                   Dros.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Nymphaeales. = Seerosengewächsen

Pond lilies = ectomorphic: characterized by long and thin muscles/limbs and low fat storage; receding chin, usually referred to as slim - their spirituality the way they reach out Negative side: all the muck and dirt and the feelings about that/feel being victimized

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Papaveraceae.           1. Unlust zur Tätigkeit, 2. Unfähigkeit zur Tätigkeit, 3. Flucht von Schmerz und Arbeit.

SCHMERZ jeglicher Art + intenSIV. Qual/LeiDEN. Strafe/Krieg/Mörder/Hinrichtung/Gewalt/Furcht + Schock/Agonie + höllischer Zustand.

 

Morph.            Arge.                          Chel.                          Sanguin-n.      Sang.                          Suc-ac.       Op.                  Cod.                Cory.

Morph-s.                                                                                                                                                                                         Fum.

Apom.

Cryp.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Phytolaccaceae

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Phyt.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Familie                       Akut               Typhus                       Malaria            Ringworm         Sycose           Tuberkulin    Krebs             Lepra                         Syphilis

 

Piperaceae                 Lysim.                                                                                                           Pip-n.                                                            Pip-m.                           Cub.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Primulaceae              Kann während Beschwerden nicht bewegen + FieBER (schläft fortwährend). Möchte Zuhause bleiben/ausgehen abgeneigt versus Verlangen zu reisen/zu bewegen

 

.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ranunculacae                       Polar zwischen oben + unten wie im Mensch zwischen Nerven und Blut./zwischen Element Wasser und Element Luft

Ranunculacae: Rhytmischer Teil = Hauptteil/Sonne und Mond in Gleichgewicht (Cactaceae: Sonne und Mond im Kampf)

Sharp, sticking, stinging, stitching pains; Raw nerves „As if without insulation“ mentally/emotionally/physically; Shock-like pains; easy excitement; Morbid sensitivity;

Vexed/distressed/annoyed/harassed/insulted/sensitive to trifles/bursting.

 

Acon.              Hell.                            Ran-b.                         Act-sp.             Puls.                Cimic.                                    Staph.             Hydr.             Clem

Aconin.           Acon-ac.                      

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Rosaceae

                                   Hydr-ac.         Pyr-a.                                                            Amyg-p.                     Amyg.                                                Prun-c.                        Ros-c.             Laur.                           Crat.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Prun.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Rubiaceae                 Überstimulation verschlechtert/viele Bedürfnisse/viele Ideen/Einbildungen/Phantasien/Tabak/Alkohol/< Stimulantia (Sex)/< Freude/stimuliert o. beseitigen Hunger

 

Coffin.            Ip.                               Chin-s.                                    Cain.                        Yohim.                     Coff.                        Galium

                                                                                  Chin.                                                                                                             Chin-ar.

                                                                                  Chin-m.

                                                                                  Chin-sal.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Rutaceae

                                                           Ail.                              Ang.                           Aegle.                         Ptel.                                                            Ruta                Xan                       Jab.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Scrophulariaceae      Bindungen sind nicht stark/also wollen sie alles ganz festhalten und wenn Verbindungen brechen, kommen Furcht/Schreck und Wahnideen

                                  

                                   Es gibt viele Mittel in diese Familie

                                  

                                   Digin.              Euphr.                                    Chelo.             Vero-o.                       Dig.                        Verb.                          Scroph-n.        Grat.                        Lept.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Solanaceae                 Gewalt/plötzliche/Zersplittern/Bersten/exponiert/krampfhaft/zuckend/schießend/Appoplexie/Terrorgewalt/verfolgt/Mörder/Leben und Tod/getötet/

                                   Schlangen/Themen von schwarz und weiß/Licht und Dunkelheit.

 

Bell.                Hyos.                          Caps.                          Dulc.               Fab.                 Atro.                           Tab.                 Mand.                         Franc.

Hyosin.

Nicot.

Stram.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Theales

                                   Hyper                                                                                                           Gamb.                                                                                   Thea.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Thymelaceae                        

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Mez.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Trachiobionthae

 

Zuordnung von Pflanzen klassen zu den vier Elementen

Menschen, die konstitutionell auf pflanzliche Arzneien ansprechen, sind empfänglich für vielfältige Gefühle und sind mehr stimmungsgeleitet als mineralische

Typen, sie verlieren häufiger die mentale Kontrolle und leiden unter vielfältigen Befindlichkeitswechseln. Pflanzliche Typen sind schnell berührt, betroffen, beeindruckt,

verärgert, verletzt durch äußere Eindrücke und das Verhalten anderer und leiden seelisch an diesen Dingen.

Wenn wir pflanzliche Arzneien den vier Elementen zuordnen, ist, wie auch im Falle der Mineralien, sowohl deren psychisches als auch körperliches Wirkprofil

berücksichtigt. In diesem Zusammenhang lässt sich auch auf Erfahrungen der traditionellen Vier-Elemente-Medizin zurückgreifen, die Attribute von Pflanzen

wie Farbe, Geruch, Erscheinungsform untersucht hat. Pflanzen mit Nähe zum Feuerelement gelten z.B. als scharf, bitter, würzig, intensiv; sie haben eher leuchtende

Farben (gelbe oder rote Blüten).

Zunächst ein Beispiel einer Elementzuordnung:

Der Lebensbaum gehört zu den Zypressengewächsen innerhalb der Ordnung der Kiefernartigen (= Coniferae, = Pinales). Die Kiefernartigen wiederum sind

Teil der Nacktsamer (Gymnospermae). Das Persönlichkeitsprofil des typischen Thuja-Patienten lässt sich folgendermaßen umreißen:

Psyche: Empfindsame Menschen, die sich oft in einer diffusen Weise wertlos oder schuldig fühlen. Sie entwickeln eine Abneigung gegen sich selbst, die im Extremfall

bis zum Selbst-Ekel gehen kann. Thuja zieht sich gerne in seine Privatsphäre zurück und kapselt sich ab. Mitunter kann er ungeduldig, bockig oder wütend reagieren.

Diese Leute haben häufig einen Bezug zum Spirituellen bzw. eine stark intuitive bis mediale Wahrnehmung. Im weiteren Verlauf der Störung werden sie zunehmend unsicher,

konfus und depressiv.

Körperliche Beschwerden: verfroren, träge-blockiert oder in Eile, trockene, gespaltene Haare, weißliche Lippen; gelbe, blasse, fleckige, ölige Haut, oft mit Pickeln;

Warzen im Gesicht und an Extremitäten

Die Nähe zum phlegmatischen Temperament/WASSER-Element sticht ins Auge; der Bezug zu den flüssigen Verteilersystemen, die Beschwerden in den

Bereichen WASSER l, WASSER 2 und WASSER 3 werden deutlich; auch die Signaturen des immergrünen Baumes deuten in diese Richtung. Wir ordnen den

Thujabaum, wie auch andere Vertreter der Kiefernartigen, dem Wasserelement zu.

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Umbelliferae                         Viele Begegnungen ohne Tiefe   einseitig/< einsam, > Zerstreuung/schwarz. Element: Luft

 

Oena.              Aeth.               Sumb.                                                            Asaf.               Phel.                          Con.                Cic.                 Hydrc.

Conin                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Cori.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Violales                      Elat.                Bry.                 Coloc.                        Viol-t.                         Luf-op.           Cist.                        Viol-o.                                                                       Passi.

 

 

 

The Fungus.x Among Us

The five-kingdom scheme of classification of the living world places fungi in their own kingdom, distinct from the plants. Homeopaths, however, have become accustomed to classing the fungi with the plants in a somewhat different 5-kingdom scheme of substances (minerals, plants, animals, imponderables, nosodes). I've placed the Fungi as a subgroup of the Plant Kingdom, in parallel with the non-flowering and the flowering plants.

Agaricus (Amanita muscaria)

Although this is not consistent with strict contemporary taxonomic thinking, it meets our needs as homeopaths well - aligning the fungi more closely to the plants than to the animals and the non-living substances, recognizing that the classifications useful to us are in part, but not strictly, taxonomic.

I created subgroups of the fungi consisting of the Ascomycota, Lichens, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota; but of these, we only possess reasonable information about a few members of the Basidiomycota, which basically defines our knowledge of the group of fungi as a whole. Classification of the fungi into these subgroups was guided by information from the Tree of Life Web Project.

Bacteria and Viruses.x

I pondered carefully the position of the "bacterial" and "viral" remedies, and decided to not create a special classification for these in the "kingdoms" section. In the scheme I followed, I placed these remedies in several locations, based on function rather than on taxonomy:

The bowel nosodes.x

The disease nosodes.x (with several subgroups)

Decaying animal tissue.x

It is my impression that the "bacterial/viral remedies" do not form a group large enough, or cohesive enough, to warrant consideration as a "kingdom" of remedies. And with the exception of the bowel nosodes, these all involve diseased tissues in addition to the suggested pathogen.

 

The Animals.x

[C. Hering, Guiding Symptoms]

Identification and classification of the animal remedies posed a generally greater puzzle than that of the plants. Many of our heritage were amateur or professional botanists, and the conventional medicine of the 18th early 20th centuries was largely botanical; so the details and importance of botanical classification were not far from the reach of homeopathic practitioners. The technical classification of remedies from animals however appears to have been a different matter altogether.

Tracking down the identification of Theridion. Hering introduced this spider to our materia medica in 1832, while in Surinam. He described it as Theridion curassavicum, the 'Orange Spider'.

 "A small spider known to people as very poisonous, chiefly found in the island of Uraçoa. This spider, about the size of a cherry stone, is found upon orange trees in the West Indies.

 When young it is velvety-black in appearance, marked with antero-posterior lines composed of white dots; on posterior part of body there are three orange-red spots, while upon belly there is a large square yellow spot."

 

Theridion A review of the arachnological literature revealed no contemporary or historical use of "Theridion" as a genus name. There is, however, a family Theridiidae, comprising the cobweb-weavers and the black widow spiders - these latter closely resembling Hering's description of his critter. Scouring the arachnology literature for widow spiders from the Caribbean region matching Hering's description,

I found the spider Latrodectus curacavensis.

In his Cyclopaedia of Drug Pathogenesy, Hughes wrote,

 "Hering admits that his 'Theridion curassavicum' is very similar in many respects to the Aranea tredecim-guttate, by which name Fabricius has designated the Latrodectus malmignattus of Volterra and other places" - this latter spider being the black widow spider of central Europe.

Tracking Down More Spiders.

Other animal remedies gave me an even better chase, notably a few more of the spiders.

Tarentula cubensis is described by MacFarion, its prover, as:

"...found in Cuba and Mexico. It belongs to the same family as the Tarantula hispana."

Clarke records it as:

"Mygale cubensis. Aranea peluda. Cuban Tarantula."

Lippe describes it as a:

"...large, dark-brown and hairy spider of Cuba."

According to Hering's collaborators,

"The Mygale Cubanensis, which may be called the Cuban Tarantula, also found in South Carolina and Texas, is a larger spider of a dark-brown color, not so poisonous, and covered with more hairs than the Tarantula hispanica. Dr. Howard had some specimens sent from Cuba..."

These descriptions indicate that it is not of the same family as Tarantula hispanica (the Lycosidae, or wolf-spiders), but rather is a new-world Tarentula, a Mygalomorph.

My research identified 21 species of tropical tarantulas in Cuba, none having borne the names used for this spider in our literature. We have no better description of our "Tarentula cubensis" in our literature - which is compounded by the fact that when MacFarion saw this spider, it was macerated and partially decomposed. (Mathur tells this story in his Systematic Materia Medica:

 "The Tarentula cubensis was being shipped into this country (USA) in a container with alcohol to preserve it. The container broke on the way up, the alcohol ran out, and the specimen decomposed.")

 

Mygale lasiodora is described as another Cuban tarantula, yet its identification is even more problematic. Mygale was introduced to our practice by John Houard, and described only as "a large black Cuban spider". The two "provings" recorded in Allen as Mygale are both the results of accidental bites; one is recorded as "Mygale lassiodora" and the other as "Mygale avicularia."

 

Even a brief review reveals very different symptom complexes in these two "provers," leading one to question the identity of the two spiders involved. Compounding this, Hering's collaborators refer to "Tarentula cubensis" as being the spider introduced by "Howard" - yet Howard's introduction was our "Mygale".

About all we can really say about these spiders, is that they represent 2 (perhaps 3?) of the approximately 21 Cuban theraphosid mygalomorphs, or tropical tarantulas (caranguejeiras); most likely of the genus Phormictopus, Citharacantus, Avicularia, or perhaps Cyrtopholis or Holothele. And that Tarentula cubensis needs also to be placed as well in a small "family" of "decaying animal tissue" remedies, along with Pyrogenum.

The Ambush Spider

" Aranea scinencia" was one of the most entertaining remedies to research. The best description offered in our literature is from the prover, Wm.Rowley, "A gray spider found on old walls in Kentucky. It does not spin a web; it employs a springing lunge to take its prey." A search of the arachnology literature for Aranea scinencia failed to bring this up as a described specie, either current or historical; which was not surprising, as the genus Aranea is known for its classical orb webs.

To track this critter down, after becoming increasingly frustrated with my text- and internet-based research sources, I subscribed to an Internet discussion group of museum curators and university arachnology specialists. It was an incredible ride. After posting my brief description of our spider with a query for possible identification, I sat back to a flurry of postings of suggestions followed by crossfire of professional insults - reminiscent of a Gary Larson cartoon!

I finally received an apparently sane post from the curator of arachnids at the University of Kentucky Museum of Natural History.

He suggested that a spider, found on old walls and building foundations, that does not spin a web, but rather ambushes its prey, would most likely be a member of the family Salticidae, the jumping spiders.

Perusal of an old arachnology text revealed a small grayish spider of this family currently named Salticus scenicus, a native of Kentucky.

 

Snakes.

The snakes were much easier to work with, thanks largely to the EMB Reptile Database. In addition to providing taxonomic classifications, this site lists historical records of Latin names that have been applied to given specie over time.

 

Meaningful Animal Families

The animal kingdom has not been investigated nearly as thoroughly or systematically for medicinal substances as has the plant kingdom. Most of the higher levels of the taxonomic hierarchy have only

one or a few representatives, and in only a few instances - specifically, for the snakes and spiders - is it useful to break things down to the level of the zoologic family.

I have introduced lower levels of the taxonomic hierarchy only where this provides useful discrimination between remedies; e.g., the Ophidia (snakes) of the Reptilia are broken down to the family level,

while the Aves. (birds) are left as a non-subdivided group (?Greifvoegel + Wasservögel?). This avoids "hierarchical level clutter" while allowing finer discriminations where these are truly useful.

 

The Minerals.

Bermhard Blosey did much of the work on the minerals, and particularly on classification of the Organics. The inorganic minerals, with their relatively simple structure, lent themselves more easily to classification. The principal classifications were by atomic constitution, according to periodic table organization. Additional categories were added for common functional groups (e.g., acids) and complex anions and cations such as nitrites, nitrates, hydroxides, ammonium salts, etc.

A few substances normally regarded by homeopaths as simple substances needed to be classified as the complex substances they truly are. Arsenicum album is the white oxide of Arsenic, As203; and is functionally an inorganic acid.

Our information on Mercurius, for which Merc (Mercurius solubilis) and Merc-v (Mercurius vivus) are often employed interchangeably, is based principally on Mercurius solubilis. This is a complex compound 2[NH2Hg2)NO3-H2O] which is both a nitrate and an ammonium salt, and needed to be placed in these "families," as well as classified under the obvious element Mercury.

[Ulrich Welte]

Familien und Farben.: Auch wenn eine Theorie der Farben noch fern scheint, ist es immerhin gelungen, Zusammenhänge von Familien und Farben zu erkennen. Es war schon lange klar, dass bestimmte Familien wie die Dolden blütler (Apiaceae) meist Schwarz bevorzugen, die Calciumsalze Rot, die Lacs Rot oder Magenta, einige Aktinide offenbar Blau. Die Schlangenmittel sind mit besonders augenfälliger Häufung im Türkis zu finden. Offenbar bevorzugen einzelne Mittel einer Familie innerhalb einer größeren Farbgruppe wie Türkis ein ganz bestimmtes Türkis: zum Beispiel mag Crot-h.

meist Blautürkis 17C, während sich Lach. lieber Grüntürkis 19C aussucht. Praktisch alle Schlangen tummeln sich jedoch am liebsten im Pool der gesamten Türkisgruppe von 17AB bis 19CD.

So augenfällig wie bei den Schlangenmitteln ist es nicht bei allen Familien. Dennoch liegen z.B. die meisten Solanaceae im Dunkelblau (Caps. Dulc. Lycop-v. Phys. Solan-c. + n. + t-ae.), während andere, akutere Vertreter auch in anderen Farben zu finden sind:

Bell. und Hyos. im Gelb, Stram. in blutigem Dunkelrot und Mand. im Dunkelgrün. Die Häufung der Solanaceae in den dunkelsten Farben (D-E-Reihe) ist auffällig, was durchaus zum Naturell der Nachtschatten passt. Dieses Thema hat bisher im Farbrepertorium noch keinen Eingang gefunden und konnte nur vom Nutzer, der sich mit den Familienzugehörigkeiten schon auskennt, selbst

erschlossen werden. Wegen der augenfälligen Zuordnungen enthält die neue Ausgabe des Farbenbuches auf S. 47-49 nun erstmals eine Liste der bisher gefundenen Beziehungen von Familien und Farbgruppen. Sie ist sowohl nach Farben als auch alphabetisch angeordnet.

 

Familien und Farben

Acidums = Säuren                                                    Orange

Aluminiums                                                             Weiß

Ammoniums                                                            Braun

Anacardiaceae                                                         Türkis, Gelb

Antimoniums                                                           Türkis, Violett

Apiales = Umbelliferae                                               Schwarz

Arachnida = Spinnen                                               Orange, Olive

Araliaceae                                                                Braun

Argentums                                                               Schwarz, Silber

Asteraceae = Compositae                                               Weiß, Gelb

Aurums                                                                    Grün, Dunkelgrün

Aves = Vögel                                                            Hellblau, Hellgrün

Bariums                                                                    Rot

Bismuthums                                                             Grün

Boriums                                                                    Grün, Türkis

Brassicaceae = Cruciferae                                               Braun

Cadmiums                                                                Dunkelviolett

Calciums                                                                  Rot

Carbos                                                                      Rot, Violett

Carduoidae                                                              Rosa

Chininums                                                               Rosa, Grün

Cobaltums                                                                Rot, Blau

Compositae = Asteraceae                                               Weiß, Gelb

Cruciferae = Brassicaceae                                               Braun

Cuprums                                                                  Blau

Drogenmittel                                                            Gelb

Euphorbiaceae                                                        Orange

Ferrums                                                                   Rosa

Fungi = Pilze                                                            Gelb

Halogene                                                                  Orange

Heliantheae                                                              Rosa

Iridaceae                                                                  Olive

Kaliums                                                                    Blau

 

Uses of Remedy Families

With the development of a comprehensive remedy-families database, it is possible to investigate remedy concordances based on such relationships.

In the instalments to follow, I will explore the creation and rationale of remedy "families" based on relationships other than taxonomic.

I will also investigate how taxonomic and non-taxonomic remedy relationships may be gainfully applied in case analysis and in the comparative study of materia medica.

 

[Paul Herscu] Vipera and other close remedies: Lachesis, Pulsatilla, and Hamamelis

 

 

 

Vorwort/Suchen  Zeichen/Abkürzungen                                   Impressum