Group Analysis Evaluation Anhang


[Nershada Harkhu]

Until recently homoeopathic remedies have been studied and understood by considering each remedy in isolation (Scholten, 1993). In the last few years a

new method of understanding homoeopathic remedies, called group analysis, has emerged (Sankaran, 2002).

This method involves an understanding of remedies in terms of characteristics common to a group of related remedies (Leisegang, 2007).

Remedies are grouped according to natural classifications [or according to experience of homeopaths (Teste)].

Using the information available in computer repertories, searches are systematically performed to identify rubrics which are common within the group.

This type of data analysis yields common characteristics which can be applied to lesser understood groups of remedies. This study was an investigation of the

common characteristics of the remedies from the Class Aves, using the method according to Sankaran. The investigation was carried out by applying the group

analysis method to the available data.

Remedies from the Class Aves are relatively new additions to the material medica, with the first of these proved in 1995. There is relatively little information

available about this group and thus group analysis would be a valuable method of understanding these remedies (Fraser, 2009).

A search was performed to determine which bird remedies were best represented in the repertory program Radar 10. Based on these results the sample group was selected.

The rubrics of these remedies were then analysed to determine common sensations within the group. These sensations were then defined and synonyms were determined.

These common sensations were then confirmed by searching for the keywords and synonyms in the available data. Second and third order analyses were performed based on the results.

The resultant sensations were also compared with those proposed by Shore (2004) and Fraser(2009), to determine whether these theories on bird characteristics are consistent.

Pathological tendencies of the Class Aves were found to involve the throat, female reproductive area, eyes and vision, skin, musculoskeletal system and mental disorders. Clinically there

was strong indication for these remedies in cases of depression and anxiety, acne and dermatitis, dysmenorrhoea and disorders of vision such as blurred vision and eyestrain.

The results of this study appeared to confirm the validity of theories on group analysis according to Sankaran (2002). The results further confirmed many of the characteristics attributed

to the bird remedy group by Shore (2004) and Fraser (2009). Several new common characteristics of remedies from the Class Aves were deduced from the results of the analysis.

The study also produced a proposed vital sensation and showed evidence linking several sensations in the process of reaction to the vital sensation.




As our homoeopathic materia medica has continued to expand over the years identifying the simillimum remedy for a patient out of the thousands of known homoeopathic remedies has

become an increasingly complex task (Wulfsohn, 2005). Until recently homoeopathic remedies have been studied and understood by considering each remedy in isolation (Scholten, 1993).

By this method a homoeopath must match the very specific symptoms of their patient to one of the vast number of remedies available (Weston, 2010).

In the last 20 years a new method of understanding homoeopathic remedies, called group analysis, has emerged (Sankaran, 2002). This method involves an understanding of remedies in

terms of characteristics common to a group of related remedies (Leisegang, 2007).

Remedies are grouped according to natural classifications, such as mineral groups (carbonicums); plant families (Graminae); animal groups (snakes).

Due to the huge number of new remedies the group analysis method provides a valuable tool to enable the homoeopath to refine the search to the correct group of remedies in which to find

the patients simillimum (Wulfsohn, 2005).

The group analysis method can therefore contribute to a greater understanding and systematisation of the increasing amount of information gathered from homoeopathic proving information and clinical experience (Weston, 2010:143).


Homoeopaths such as Sankaran (2005) and Scholten (1993) have been able to determine symptoms common to a group of remedies (grouped according to biological classification) and thus gain a greater understanding of the remedies in that group. This enables them to predict, with some degree of accuracy, the characteristics of a fairly poorly described remedy by applying the characteristics of the group of remedies to which it be longs, together with characteristics specific to that remedy (Scholten, 1993). This is particularly relevant in the case of smaller groups of remedies, such as bird remedies, which have in the past been used relatively less often (Fraser, 2009).

Bird remedies, like many groups of animal remedies, have been poorly represented in the materia medica (Shore, 2004). Thus there is a great need for a clearer  representation of bird remedies (Fraser, 2009). Proving data on bird remedies shows a great number of common symptoms between bird remedies, with a comparatively smaller number of characteristics unique to single bird remedies. Therefore family grouping when studying the bird remedies is potentially a very valuable tool (Shore, 2004:16).


The aim of this qualitative research is to extract common characteristic symptomatology in the homoeopathic remedies belonging to the class Aves as represented in the known materia medica and repertory. This will be performed analysing the class Aves according to the Sankaran (2002) method of group analysis.

A further aim of this research is to compare the resultant group of common characteristics with those ascribed to the bird group by Shore (2004) and Fraser (2009).

The objectives of this study are:

1. Identify a set of characteristic sensations common to bird remedies using the rubric extraction process.

2. Determine reactions to these characteristic sensations.

3. Classify each individual bird remedy used in the study according to miasm, using Sankarans’ extended miasmatic model (Sankaran, 2005).

4. To compare the results of the characteristics extracted using the group analysis method with those in existing literature published by Shore (2004) and Fraser (2009).


Rationale for the group analysis evaluation of remedies belonging to the Class Aves

1. Group analysis according to the method described by Sankaran (2002) has been performed at the Durban University of Technology on several plant and animal groups

such as Arachnida (Weston, 2010), Insecta (Vogel, 2007), Fungi (Leisegang, 2007) and Graminae (Wulfsohn, 2005).

No formal group analysis of bird remedies according to this method has been published; therefore this study will contribute to homoeopathic knowledge on bird remedies.

2. Homoeopath Jonathan Shore (2004) has written on characteristics of the bird group, based on provings and his own experience with these remedies. Some bird characteristics have also been proposed by Fraser (2009). This analysis will be a useful comparison with their work, to help to confirm or to highlight any possible inconsistency with their theories on bird characteristics.

3. Bird remedies have been used to treat a number of medical conditions (muscle pain, headaches, cardiac problems and neurological problems among others);

therefore further studies on these remedies will provide more information necessary to help homoeopaths prescribe these valuable remedies (Shore, 2004).

Application of the group analysis will aid the understanding of the Class Aves and increase the usage of homoeopathic remedies from this group in current clinical practice.

recognised by certain physical, mental and general characteristics (Kumar, 2006:64 - 65).

By treating according to miasm the “obstacle to cure” was removed and the patient recovered fully when treated with simillimum thereafter. This also brought about a further method of distinguishing the correct remedy. By recognising the characteristics of the patient’s miasm, the suitable remedy could be found within the group of remedies considered to correspond with that miasm based on their general characteristics (Vithoulkas, 1980). Not all homoeopaths utilise miasmatic theory in their practice of homoeopathy. In fact there are several schools of thought regarding miasms, some of which disregard them completely (Vithoulkas, 1980).

In the years that followed further developments in this field were conceived of by homoeopaths such as Leeser, who grouped remedies relative to their position on the

periodic table in 1930 (Winston, 2004). Farrington began differentiating remedies according to kingdoms in the 19th century (Winston, 2004).

Common characteristics of remedies based on their botanical family (in the case of plants), or the characteristics of the elements which they constitute (in the case of minerals) also began to emerge in the 19th century. A large number of homoeopaths continued to differentiate remedies according to miasmatic classification.

Sankaran (2005) incorporates the use of ten miasms, including acute, malarial, ringworm, typhoid, leprosy, cancer, and tubercular, in addition to Hahnemanns’

original three. These new miasms are not accepted by all homoeopaths, some choose to disregard all but the original miasms as described by Hahnemann (Vithoulkas, 1980).

There was and continues to be criticism and, in some instances, rejection of these new miasmatic theories, they became widely known and taught as part of homoeopathic studies (Wulfson, 2005).


2.3 Present Day Group Analysis Scholten (1993) was one of the first homoeopaths to develop a method of analysing homoeopathic remedies by inferring characteristics of a mineral remedy from its grouping on the periodic table of elements. Scholten’s theories on mineral characteristics as related to their grouping on the periodic table formed part of the initial progress made toward the modern approach to group characteristics.

Sankaran (2005) first groups patients according to their characteristic features in terms of the kingdom to which their remedy will belong, either the animal, mineral or plant kingdom.

In this way he refines the possible choices of remedy. He then further distinguishes the biological group within that kingdom (e.g. the Compositae family within the plant kingdom), where the correct remedy is likely to be found, based on features of the case which have characteristics of that certain group. In order to do this Sankaran emphasises the importance of identifying a characteristic sensation in the case.

Sensation can be defined as “consciousness off perceiving or seeming to perceive some state or condition of one’s or its parts or senses or of one’s mind or its emotions...” (Allen, 1990:1102).

Sankaran (2005: 290) describes sensation as “discernment or consciousness of any experience” where the experience itself and the nature of the experience qualify the sensation. This vital sensation can be described as the sensation that pervades the entire case; it is the core disturbance of that patient.

Remedies from a particular family share a common sensation, for example, plant remedies from the group Loganiaceae share sensations of shock, shattered, torn to pieces (Sankaran, 2002).


Having established the sensation, characteristic reactions to it; which are passive, reactive or compensatory, must be identified.

According to Sankaran (2002:26) “Each action arises in response to a corresponding sensation and each sensation must usually excite a particular action, even if one does not actually perform that action...In this way sensation and action (or the urge to action) are always equal and opposite”.

Reactions to a sensation can be described as “active” for example a vital sensation of “burning” may have an active reaction of “irritation”. A “passive” reaction to “burning” might be “numbness”.

A compensatory reaction is one which allows the organism to adapt to the presence of the vital sensation and turn that sensation into something more acceptable, for example a compensatory reaction to “burning” could be “increased sexual desire” (Sankaran, 2005), (Leisegang, 2007).

Taking into consideration the miasm that is evident in the case (also determined from characteristics of those patients’ responses);

he is able to select the correct remedy from within that group (Sankaran, 2005). In his book “An Insight into Plants” Sankaran provides many in depth case studies which support the use of characteristics of a group of remedies to determine the correct remedy (Sankaran, 2002).

Further research on groups of remedies in the animal kingdom has been done by Nancy Herrick (1998) who explored themes of animal remedies.

Inspired by Sankarans’ work, Herrick conducted provings of mamals using their milk and used the proving data to extract and interpret themes of these remedies relating to their natural way of life, as well as human attitudes toward those animals (Herrick, 1998).

Investigation of related remedies not strictly grouped according to scientific classification, notably those of spider group and snake group, has been done by Mangialovori, who documented basic themes common to these groups, in addition to the individual materia medica of each remedy (Wulfson, 2005).

Farokh Master (2002) has compiled information linking common themes of remedies made from animal milks (lacs), also relating this to themes of the animal kingdom.

Several Group analysis studies based on Sankarans method have been conducted at Durban University of Technology; these include group analysis of the Graminae

(Wulfsohn, 2005), Insecta (Vogel, 2007), Fungi (Leisegang, 2007) and most recently the Class Arachnida (Weston, 2010). These studies have provided valuable method

of exploring biological groups of remedies and contributed more substantial information on remedies that had been poorly represented in the materia medica (Liesegang, 2007). The group analysis method was found to be a valid approach to exploring materia medica; however it has been emphasised that this method must be applied with caution to avoid bias and inaccuracy (Vogel, 2007).

Crucial to this method of case taking and analysis is sufficient information on the characteristics of a group (Wulfsohn, 2005). Without a method of identifying which group within the specific kingdom the remedy might be found, the homoeopath will be seriously disadvantaged in practising this method of homoeopathy. Therefore group analysis research needs to be done, and is being conducted around the world.

2.4 Sankaran’s methods and grouping

2.4.1 Group analysis developed by Sankaran

Sankaran (2002:19) observed that even experienced homoeopaths often come to different remedy prescriptions for the same case. With this in mind he investigated the idea of developing a “map and system” to help navigate the expanse of material medica in a systematic way. He began developing his ideas on group analysis in 1999, combining the classification of remedies according to miasm with the classification of remedies according to their biological kingdom and subclassifications within each kingdom (Sankaran, 2002). These two directions are united by the sensation in the case and the reaction to that sensation. Sankarans’ investigation suggests that remedies in the same biological family, for example patients needing a remedy from the Loganiaceae plant family, share a common sensation such as “shocked”. Once this sensation is observed through the case, the specific remedy within that family can be identified by observing the reaction to the common sensation. According to Sankaran (2002),

different patterns or modes of reaction can be attributed to different miasms. By identifying the reaction as belonging to a specific miasm, it is possible to refine the search to those remedies within the appropriate family which fall within that miasm.

The focal point of the case, according to Sankaran (2004), is sensation, which he termed the vital sensation. This vital sensation can be described as the sensation that pervades the entire case; it is the core disturbance of that patient. Sankaran describes the disease state as the place where the intersection of the miasm and the family occurs, i.e. the common sensation (which is common to remedies within a specific biological family), combined with the mode of reaction (common to remedies within a specific miasm).Therefore the remedy can be identified if these two factors can be correctly determined from the case. Vital sensation is a description of the root of what is being experienced and is more than merely emotional, mental or psychological but something which can be experienced on physical, mental and spiritual levels (Vogel, 2007).


2.4.2 Kingdom Analysis according to Sankaran

One of the most important factors in using the group analysis method, as described by Sankaran (2002), is the classification of the case as needing a remedy from the

correct biological group. Therefore the characteristics which determine that classification have to be properly understood. Sankaran broadly categorises remedies into those of animal, plant or mineral kingdoms. Each kingdom has specific characteristics associated with it, which are linked to the role those kingdoms play in the natural word

(Sankaran, 2005).

The underlying theme in the mineral kingdom is structure. Minerals are very structured and ordered in their atomic structure, and the mineral kingdom as a whole is organised into the structure of the periodic table. The sensation in a mineral remedy shares this theme, which can be expressed in many ways. The issues affecting these remedies can be of a lack of structure - where there is something missing or lacking (or potentially so), or possibly issues with the position or role of the individual within social structure. The mineral remedies will display characteristics associated with the mineral kingdom such as neatness and orderly behaviour, organisation of their lives,

and defining their role within social structures.

However it must be noted that the mineral characteristics must be present at the level of sensation to be relevant. It is certainly possible for a plant or animal remedy

to be neat or orderly; therefore these characteristics have to be seen in combination with a clear mineral theme at the core of the case to classify the case as mineral.

Minerals on different groups on the periodic table have certain common characteristics within the broad mineral theme of structure (Sankaran, 2005).

The plant kingdom is characterised by sensitivity to outside influences. The plant kingdom in nature reacts and changes according to outside influences such as temperature, light and moisture, but can not escape these influences. Similarly the characteristics of remedies from this kingdom will be of sensitivity and reaction to

something outside of themselves.

The plant remedies will feel that specific sensation very acutely and be affected by it. Every area of the being can be affected by the sensation. They may also express sensitivity in an emotional and physical way, being soft and easily strained or hurt. The plant remedy is less focussed on the people or forces around them and more aware of their own reactions to these things (Sankaran, 2005).

Within the animal kingdom in nature there is a theme of “survival of the fittest”. Animals compete for food, water, shelter and (in some cases) position in the social

hierarchy. They also compete to find and keep a mate. Many animals have to display their attractiveness to a mate in order to be chosen over the others. Animals fight

each other to survive in many cases, also to assert their dominance in the social structure. The themes of animal remedies are similar to these natural characteristics

of animals. There is an emphasis on being affected by another entity; there is struggle and competition with others. These remedies have a focus on competing with others for survival, there is a theme of “kill or be killed”, and thus the emphasis is on the “other” which is affecting them. Unlike plants which focus on their own reaction to an outside force, the animal remedies react to the source of the outside force and their ability to combat it. Animal remedies also tend to be more focused on competition and can be more focused on sexuality than plants or minerals. They may display these traits in their way of dressing (attractiveness) or in their competitiveness at work.

They tend to be more aggressive and prone to jealousy. Again it is possible for these traits to be shown by remedies from other kingdoms, so they must be accompanied by characteristic animal themes of competition and survival throughout the case to be relevant (Sankaran, 2005).


2.4.3 Miasmatic classification according to Sankaran

Sankaran (2005) incorporates ten miasms in his method of group analysis, each with its own characteristic mode of reaction. The miasm is the perception of the sensation

as experienced by the patient. Many patients may share the same type of sensation, for example “shocked”; but not all will perceive and react to that sensation in the

same manner. Some may start and feel frightened at the sudden shock, others may consider the shocked feeling as a permanent stress -  so there are many ways to perceive the sensation of “shocked”. This reaction, which must be found as a direct reaction to or perception of the vital sensation, determines the miasm (Sankaran, 2005).

Sankaran describes the mode of reaction of each miasm in detail, but a few keynotes of each can be described here (Sankaran 2005: 268 - 280).

Acute Miasm: The sensation is experienced as temporary, sudden, dangerous and life-threatening. As the situation is temporary there is hope of recovery. The reaction is usually a reflex or instinctive one, either panic (escape to safety or fight the situation) or a feeling of helplessness (Sankaran 2005:268 - 280).

Psoric Miasm: The sensation is felt as a permanent stress, which often results in anxiety. There is a feeling of struggle and effort with some hope of recovery. There is an element of self doubt and stress (Sankaran 2005:268 - 280).

Sycotic Miasm: The sensation is perceived as permanent and fixed, something that cannot be overcome but is not destructive. Therefore the reaction is one of acceptance and hiding or covering up. The incapacity is there, so it must be hidden and compensated for in some way. There is a feeling of guilt and disguised weakness (Sankaran 2005:268 - 280).

Syphilitic Miasm: The sensation is deep, destructive and permanent. The situation is perceived as hopeless and destructive. The reaction is usually desperate and extreme, often violent or drastic. There is an associated feeling of complete isolation and hopelessness (Sankaran 2005:268 - 280).

Typhoid Miasm: This is described as being between the acute and psoric miasms. There is a perception of a sudden and temporary situation (as in the acute miasm), but it requires more sustained effort (as in Psora). Thus the situation is like a crisis, intense but temporary requiring a period of sustained effort (Sankaran 2005:268 - 280).

Malarial Miasm: This is described as being between the acute and sycotic miasms. The sensation is felt as fixed and permanent (as in Sycosis) but there is also a perception of intermittent attacks, which are more sudden and acute (as in acute miasm). This results in a perception of being persecuted or hindered (Sankaran 2005:268 - 280).

Ringworm Miasm: This is described as being between the psoric and sycotic miasms. The sensation is considered fixed and permanent (as in Sycosis) yet there is hope of recovery (as in Psora). Therefore the reaction is of intermittent acceptance followed by hope and struggle, in a constant cycle (Sankaran 2005:268 - 280).

Cancer Miasm: This is described as having the fixed nature of Sycosis combined with the destructive nature of syphilis. The sensation is perceived as chaos which has to be controlled by a superhuman effort (Sankaran 2005:268 - 280).

Tubercular Miasm: This miasm also lies between the sycotic and syphilitic miasms. The characteristics of this miasm are more desperate and oppressive than in the cancer miasm. There is a reaction of hectic activity to escape oppression, but without much hope (Sankaran 2005:268 - 280).

Leprosy Miasm: A sense of destruction, desperation and hopelessness in this miasm (as in syphilis) combined with the desperation and intensity found in the tubercular miasm. The resultant characteristic reactions are of desperation, despair and complete isolation. There is a strong sense of being shunned and isolated which may be projected outwardly or perceived inwardly (Sankaran 2005:268 - 280).


2.5 Opinions on Group Analysis in the Homoeopathic Fraternity

Despite the growing popularity of this method of understanding homoeopathy, there are several well respected homoeopaths who are not in favour of this method. In an article entitled “Homoeopathy versus Speculative medicine” Saine (2001) denounced the approach of homoeopaths such as Rajan Sankaran as “incompatible with Hahnemann’s specific method of healing” and dismisses it as “speculative”.

Vithoulkas (2008) expressed similar sentiments to the effect that the new ideas of homoeopaths such as Scholten and Sankaran are “dangerous” and without any factual basis. Vithoulkas (2008) further denounces Sankarans “sensation method” by stating the following: “Projecting the "sensations" of the patient is a slippery path for a homeopath to take because these "projections" are not recorded in the materia medica, and every practitioner will be tempted to find another underlying "context" in the feelings of the patient. The fact is that we have to match the patient's symptoms

to the remedy proving symptoms and for such a work we have both tools and rules”. Vithoulkas (2008) also harshly criticises the more unorthodox methods of proving, such as meditation proving, dream provings and group proving the experiences of provers in the group who have not been given the proving substance are taken as proving data, all of which are used by Shore (2004).

Winston (2004) questioned the validity of incorporating new ideas such as grouping remedies by kingdom into homoeopathy, indicating that these new ideas strayed from his definition of what homoeopathy comprises.

However Sankaran specifically states that this method by no means takes the place of the proper study and understanding of traditional material medica repertory, but rather is a new idea built

on the foundation of traditional homoeopathic learning and methods (Sankaran, 2002).

Despite the voices of criticism many homoeopaths throughout the world have embraced the group analysis approach and are experiencing positive results.

In a letter to Homeopathy Today, twenty one prominent homoeopaths signed a letter in defence of the new developments by Shore, Sankaran, Herrick and several other homoeopaths who have developed methods of grouping according to biological classification (Morrison, 2001). These homoeopaths considered the new developments as adding to the tools available to homoeopaths,

and instead of taking the place of traditional materia medica studies they are a refinement of the process.

The need for evidence to validate or refute the new methods is evident from this controversy.

Studies conducted at DUT all conclude that the method is valid and applicable (Wulfsohn, 2005), (Vogel, 2007), (Leisegang, 2007) and (Weston, 2010).

There are still many biological groups which have yet to be thoroughly tested in the method described by Sankaran (2002). The bird remedies are often confused with those

from other groups and thus a thorough investigation of this group will contribute not only to knowledge on bird remedies but also to the evidence of the effectiveness and

relevance of the group analysis method in general (Fraser, 2009).


[Dr. Jörg Haberstock]

Alle Arzneimittel, die leicht miteinander zu verwechseln sind und sich entsprechend ähneln, werden gemeinsam als Familie vorgestellt. Einige Familienzusammenhänge

entsprechen gewissen biologischen Gemeinsamkeiten, wie bei den Spinnen, den Schlangen oder den Insekten. Andere sind komplexer und erst bei der Vorstellung

der einzelnen homöopathischen Arzneien zu verstehen, wie bei den manchen sepiaähnlichen Meerestieren oder den Lycopodiumverwandten.

Schlangen und Schlangenähnliche

Lachesis - Crotalus horridus - Crotalus cascavella - Vipera berus u. aspis - Cenchris contortrix - Bothrops lanciolata - Heloderma (keine Schlange, sondern sehr altes Reptil) -

Salamandra - Zincum phosphoricum.


Spinnen und Spinnen-ähnliche

Tarentula hispanica - Mygale lasiodora - Latrodectus mactans u. hasselti – Theridion curassavicum - Aranea diadema - Buthus australis - Rhus toxicodendron


Staatenbildende und andere Insekten

Apis - Vespa - Formica rufa - Cantharis - Coccus cacti - Coccinella septempunctata. 



Medusa - Spongia tosta - Asterias rubens - Alloxanum - Aqua marina



Psilocybe - Opium - Anhalonium - Camphora - Nabalus serpentaria - Cannabis sativa u. indica - Piper methysticum - Erythroxylon Coca.



Homarus - Epiphegus - Sanicula aqua - Calciumsalze: Calcium jodatum, Calcium sulphuricum., Calcium phosphoricum., Calcium bromatum, Calcium silicatum u.a.



Digitalis purpurea - Myrica cerifera - Kalium jodatum.



Colocynthis - Scrophularia nodosa - Chelidonium - Dioscorea villosa



Allium cepa - Aloe socotrina - Nuphar luteum - Arsenicum sulfuratum flavum - Mephitis putorius - Tellurium metallicum - Selenium metallicum



Kalium silicatum - Cobaltum nitricum - Kalium sulfuricum



Calendula - Bellis perennis - Achillea millefolium - Hamamelis - Chamomilla - Cuprum und Salze.



Hyoscyamus - Stramonium - Mandragora - Capsicum - Lyssinum - Gallicum acidum



Taxus baccata - Sabina - Juniperus - Cupressus - Abies sylvatica, nigra und canadiensis



Eryngium aquatica und maritima - Foeniculum - Asa foetida - Oenanthe crocata - Phelandrium - Sumbulus



[Ashok Rajguru]

Regarding “Families”, the discerning practitioner must realize that even in personal life, members of the same family can be so different. It was Wittgenstein (1889-1951), German philosopher, who had popularized the philosophical idea of “family resemblance”. He argued that things which may be thought to be connected by one essential common feature may in fact be connected by a series

of overlapping similarities, where no single feature is common to all. Interestingly, Generality as defined by Boenninghausen (1785-1864) comes close to this definition. Contrariwise, it has also been argued that members exhibiting family resemblance may share properties with each other, but have no properties that are singly necessary and jointly sufficient for family membership.

Heuristik = die Kunst, mit begrenztem Wissen (unvollständigen Informationen) und wenig Zeit dennoch zu wahrscheinlichen Aussagen oder praktikablen Lösungen zu kommen. Es bezeichnet ein analytisches Vorgehen, bei dem mit begrenztem Wissen über ein System mit Hilfe von mutmaßenden Schlussfolgerungen Aussagen über das System getroffen werden. Die damit gefolgerten Aussagen können von der optimalen Lösung abweichen. Durch Vergleich mit einer optimalen Lösung kann die Güte der Heuristik bestimmt werden. Bekannte Heuristiken zum Beispiel Versuch und Irrtum (trial and error), statistische Auswertung von Zufalls-Stichproben und das Ausschlussverfahren. Heuristische Verfahren basieren auf Erfahrungen; sie können auch auf „falschen“ Erfahrungen (z.B. verzerrte Wahrnehmung, Scheinkorrelation) basieren.

Ultimately all methodologies in Homeopathy are heuristics; be they the Keynotes, Delusion, Miasm, Sensation, Periodic Table, Repertories and the like. Disease names, diagnosis and similar clinical labels are heuristic devices too -they help identify or categorize- to define taxonomy or an order of sorts. So let us not miss the woods for the trees -heuristics are neither the truth nor the science- they are tools that lead us on our path, like a map and a compass. To argue that this or that is “Not Homeopathy” is a limited view. Newtonian physics had to come to terms with Quantum Mechanics, but that does not make Newtonian physics irrelevant - it can still take us to the Moon, and beyond. Medical Art is not a logical science, because what is logical is not always true. “Truth” in Medical Art is that which is seen, felt and experienced objectively as well as subjectively. Medical practice relies heavily on heuristics. However, the heuristic component of the reasoning process inherently encourages us to accept the conclusions we believe in, and reject the conclusions we don’t believe. So those of us, who have a belief in the New Method, will be inherently biased towards fitting the facts to the model. Thus, for one to assume that the New Method is the final resting place in our search for the simillimum would be a fallacy, because, each of these methodologies is just another piece in the multi-dimensional mosaic presented by the person in disease. Perhaps this is what prompted Hahnemann to underline the importance of the unprejudiced observer.

Ultimately all methodologies in Homeopathy are heuristics; be they the Keynotes, Delusion, Miasm, Sensation, Periodic Table, Repertories and the like. Disease names, diagnosis and similar clinical labels are heuristic devices too - they help identify or categorize - to define taxonomy or an order of sorts. So let us not miss the woods for the trees -heuristics are neither the truth nor the science-  they are tools that lead us on our path, like a map and a compass. To argue that this or that is “Not Homeopathy” is a limited view. Newtonian physics had to come to terms with Quantum Mechanics, but that does not make Newtonian physics irrelevant - it can still take us to the Moon, and beyond. Medical Art is not a logical science, because what is logical is not always true. “Truth” in Medical Art is that which is seen, felt and experienced objectively as well as subjectively. Medical practice relies heavily on heuristics. However, the heuristic component of the reasoning process inherently encourages us to accept the conclusions we believe in, and reject the conclusions we don’t believe. So those of us, who have a belief in the New Method, will be inherently biased towards fitting the facts to the model. Thus, for one to assume that the New Method is the final resting place in our search for the simillimum would be a fallacy, because, each of these methodologies is just another piece in the multi-dimensional mosaic presented by the person in disease. Perhaps this is what prompted Hahnemann to underline the importance of the unprejudiced observer.

Understanding patterns

As humans, we have a brain that is constantly seeking patterns - that can either lead to superstition or science. Even superstitions have value in survival. A rustle in the grass can be just a current of wind, or it may be a snake. If the cost of believing a superstition is less than the cost of disbelieving it in the context of survival, then the superstition has value. In a life threatening situation - better superstitious than sorry! Francis Bacon had observed, “Humanity has a proclivity to suppose the existence of more order and regularity in the world than it finds.” Patterns are perceived order from which we build concepts, but patterns are not concepts by themselves. That is why different individuals may conceptualize the same pattern in completely different ways. In his editorial Alan Schmukler has rightly pointed out that, “Sensation is a skill and discipline that requires much study and practice to master. As with all difficult tasks, some people are tempted to look for short cuts”. Paradoxically, the New Method was supposed to make the task of finding the simillimum more certain and more simple. This only means that there is more ground to cover. As Sankaran candidly admits, “I know that the Sensation idea holds true but I am not rigid about the approach of case-taking”, and further, “Sometimes I need to tell them that I do not fully believe in Sankaran!”

How to Work more important than How it Works?

In all fairness Sankaran has put in immense intellectual effort and his professional reputation at stake in developing a heuristic tool to deal with the fundamental problem of arriving at the simillimum. But clearly we are now well past the need of being convinced about its worth! What is needed now is a collation of the integrated view. Dr. Bach (of Bowel Nosode and Bach Flower Remedies fame) was wont to destroy all copies of his older editions when new editions were published, so as to unburden the reader of the history of evolution of his method. Critical-mission industries like aviation archive all old publications and only allow access to the current version available for reference. Indeed reading through all of Sankaran’s works may prove to be an exciting journey for

a student of the History of the New Method. What a practitioner needs is a precise, concise, crisp, and succinct crystallization of his ideas at one place.

Repertorization had fallen out of favor till the advent of computerized programs that integrated Materia Medicas, Repertories, Provings and a slew of homeopathic literature which allowed the practitioner to go beyond mechanical repertorization. It was possible to form your own rubrics based on the language of the patient. In fact, the New Method was possible only because of these tools. So it is time this heuristic is formalized into a useable tool. The airplane invented by the Wright Brothers, was a contraption only they could fly. It was a few decades before it became a machine that could be handled by others too. The process has been perfected to the extent that we take the landing of an airplane with 500 souls on board, in unforgiving weather and zero visibility conditions

to be just another routine, non-reportable event. Ask any aviator - every landing is as just unique and individual as each of our patients. The New Method needs to graduate to that level, where successful cases are routine and rarely make it to seminars and conferences. At this point of time, we ought to have a simple way to work with the New Method, rather than knowing How it Works.

Overcoming our hemispheric (= halbkugelförmig) asymmetry

To work effectively with his Method, Sankaran has pointed out that in perceiving a case, the left and the right brain both need to be active, because you are getting both conceptual as well as factual information. That may appear to be a tall order, but it can be achieved, only if the student of homeopathy moves out of the confines of a rigid strait jacket of logical science and dons the mantle of humanities as well. Only with practice and training can the two halves of the brain be harnessed. Is that achievable? Is the Method replicable? I think we ought to take a serious look at what we teach our students. Is it the educational foundation and the primary outlook of our practitioners that needs some improvement?

Healing and Humanities go together

To begin with, the reader is requested to peruse through the syllabus of a Central Council of Homeopathy approved BHMS program at a typical Homeopathic Medical College in India. In the rigorous 4 year course (followed by one and a half years of clinical internship), the subjects covered include Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Materia Medica, Organon, Pathology, Parasitology, Forensic Medicine, Toxicology, Microbiology, Surgery, and only in the Final Year, Repertory and Case Taking. Out of a maximum total of 4,400 marks that can be scored over 4 years, the Repertory and Case taking are worth only 200 marks (approx. 4.5 % only).

Shouldn’t Homeopathic education include subjects like History of Science, a short course in Philosophy, some exposure to appreciation of Literature, and a methodical approach to inquiry and discussion to promote critical thinking through dialectics? A report on nursing education in the US revealed that the majority of nursing programs (77%) include content and/or experiential learning in complementary health and healing in the curriculum. A wide range of content related to mind-body healing, alternative medicine, herbal supplements, manual and energy healing, and environmental modalities is included [5]. If we seek acceptance from the allopathic school, shouldn’t we educate ourselves with supportive methodologies in healing? This will not only widen the intellectual horizon of young entrants in our profession, but also equip them to bear the brunt of assault from pharmaceutical industry and allopathy. All this must be viewed in context - students who enter a Homeopathic Medical School (in India) are typically 17-19 year olds, and their last brush with subjects related to Humanities has been at Year 10 of High School (ages 15-16 years). How can we expect our budding homeopaths to at the very least, “entertain without accepting” the ideas of Scholten and Sankaran, or appreciate Vermeulen’s rich Arcana of Materia Medica, without a dialectic examination of mythology, ethno-medicine, even astrology?


Classification and group analysis

In the past, many practitioners used symptoms as the only (or almost only) guide to the remedy without really considering the source of the drug (Scholten, 1993:23). Due to the similarity between remedies and the rate at which new remedies are constantly being proven and added to the Material Medica, it often made it difficult to distinguish the correct remedy.

Therefore, there is a need to organize and categorize the information in the homoeopathic Materia Medica (Wulfsohn, 2005:5 - 6).

Scholten: classification of remedies always occurred according to their chemical and biological properties, miasmatic theory or through repertorization.

Farrington: study remedies according to relationships to each other. He arranged remedies into three divisions according to the kingdom of nature from which they were derived: Animal, Vegetable and Mineral Kingdom. Farrington felt that remedies that belong to the same family must have a similar action (Farrington, 1992:23 - 24). Farrington also further analyzed the remedies in a manner which also served as a comparative materia medica (Farrington, 1992:14).

Candegabe: developed a process to simplify and facilitate the selection of the correct remedy. Candegabe based his work on polychrests. He describes each polychrest and presents all the rubrics and characteristic symptoms that are inter-related and which define the remedy well. He then selects five to ten characteristic symptoms of the remedy called the Minimum Characteristic Syndrome (MCS).

The polychrest remedy is then analyzed against other remedies whose themes closely overlap with the MCS of the relevant polychrest (Candegabe, 1997: - 3). Therefore, this method can help differentiate between similar remedies and to prescribe more accurately.

Kent: many remedy pictures by combining specific constituent components of certain polychrest mineral remedies.

For instance, he was able to depict the themes of Kalium silicatum (Silicate of Potash) based on information from Silicea terra (Silica) and potassium salts like Kalium bichromicum (Potassium bichromate) (Watson, 2004:25).

Over the last two decades, new methods of classification have emerged. The modern way of working with classification is called Group Analysis.

[Sankaran] classification of kingdoms, family themes and miasms, while Scholten classified remedies from the mineral kingdom and the theory of elements (Scholten, 2005:38 - 39).

[Mangialavori] themes of the spider and snake groups (Wulfsohn, 2005:14).

[Nancy Herrick] themes of mammals through provings of their milk (= lacs.x).

The Lacs include        

Lac Loxodonta Africana (African Elephant),

Lac Leoninum (Lion),

Lac Lupinum (Wolf),

Lac Delphinium (Dolphin)

Lac Equinum (Horse) (Herrick, 1998: xi).

[Farokh Master] refined the work on milks by connecting common themes from all nine animal milk (lac) remedies:

Lac caninum (Dog),

Lac caprinum (goat),

Lac delphinium (dolphin),

Lac equinum (horse),

Lac felinum (cat),

Lac humanum (human),

Lac leoninum (lion),

Lac lupinum (wolf), and

Lac vaccinum defloratum (skimmed milk).

Farokh discusses six themes amongst the milks:

1. relationship and separation,

2. emotional turmoil (forsaken feelings),

3. friends (desires to belong to a group),

4. falling down (physically falling and falling down into an animal state),

5. impulsiveness under control (rage and sexuality, with a history of abuse),

6. antagonism (Yasgur, 2006:51).

 (Yasgur, 2006:51).


In homoeopathy, groups of remedies are often referred to as a family of remedies. Grouping remedies has allowed family pictures to be developed as the  family picture is a thematic expression, which all the members of the family have in common. The family picture will be more generalized, while the pictures of each member will be seen as specializations of the general family picture. For example, the family picture of the Gold series has the theme of responsibility and leadership.

Aur-met. (metallic gold) shares the thematic expression of the Gold series, but with the specialization of maintaining and preserving their power and responsibility, which is not part of the general family picture. Therefore, the family picture is developed first, and then the differentiation between the family members is analyzed (Scholten, 2005:44).


Group analysis can enhance our insight and understanding of well known and relatively unknown remedies (Scholten, 1993: 289). It enables the prediction of a remedy picture without actually conducting a proving. This can accelerate the pace at which remedies are added to the homoeopathic Materia Medica. Group analysis also expands the number of possible symptoms and expressions of a case, which will enable more cases to be understood and differential diagnoses can also become simpler and clearer (Scholten, 2005:40).

Sankaran: group analysis should be used in conjunction with the traditional homoeopathic learning of homoeopathic Materia Medica and repertory as this method cannot replace the older methods of learning. It merely gives an opportunity to look at remedies and cases from several viewpoints, as compared to only one viewpoint. Group analysis seems to be a natural and inevitable progression of homoeopathy (Sankaran, 2005b:667 - 668).


Group analysis according to Jan Scholten

Scholten (1993) focused on the use of the periodic table in homoeopathy to classify and group mineral remedies. Scholten’s method involves studying groups of chemically related elements where common symptoms are extracted (Scholten, 1993: 11).


For example,

Kalium muriaticum = potassium chloride,

Kalium sulphuricum = potassium sulphate

Kalium phosphoricum = potassium phosphate

are minerals containing the element Potassium.

The themes and characteristics that are common to the whole group are distilled out of the overall picture, and subsequently applied to the unknown Kalium (potassium) salts (Scholten, 1993:68).

In his work Homoeopathy and the elements (Scholten, 1996), Scholten developed a theory regarding the use of the periodic table in homoeopathy.

The periodic table consists of seven horizontal rows and eighteen vertical columns. Scholten refers to the horizontal rows as series, while he refers to the vertical columns as stages. Scholten proposes that each row (series) in the periodic table corresponds to a basic life theme or period of development, with a progressive line of development from one series to the next, from conception in row one to disintegration and destruction in row seven. Each series is named after the most prominent element found in the row: hydrogen series, carbon series, silicum series, ferrum series, silver series, gold series and uranium series (Scholten, 1996:18 - 28).


Each series represents a period of development, with each period having a rise or beginning, a summit, and a decline or fall. According to Scholten, this rise and fall can be divided into eighteen stages (columns). Each stage or column (from one to eighteen) corresponds to the individual phase of development of that row. All the elements prior to stage ten represent a gradual development of a particular quality; with the development reaching its peak or success at stage ten; and then the gradual decline and loss of that quality from there onwards through to the seventeenth stage (Welte, 2006:76).


With a greater understanding of the periodic table, one can see how minerals relate to each other laterally and vertically (Scholten, 1996:8). One can also begin to predict trends developing within each row and predict themes of relatively unknown mineral remedies (Weston, 2010: 12).


For example, he develops the theme of Ferrum metallicum (iron) by taking the themes of stage eight and combining them with the characteristics of the ferrum series. The themes of stage eight are of perseverance, maintaining, force, resistance, planning etc. The ferrum series has themes of task, duty, work, craft, rules etc. By combining the themes from stage 8 and the ferrum series, the theme of

Ferrum metallicum (iron) can be developed namely, persevering in ones job and being firm (Scholten, 1996:400).

Scholten also introduced new Lanthanide mineral remedies which are elements of the periodic table with atomic numbers from fifty seven to seventy three. Scholten correlates the ascent and descent of Lanthanides in their respective stages from stage 4 - 14.

Louis Klein: the discovery of the Lanthanides offers a broader therapeutic model for application as Scholten suggests that Lanthanides may be used to treat auto-immune diseases (Scholten, 2005:10-13).

Scholten’s method of group analysis has allowed for the extrapolation of remedy pictures which have not been proven yet, even though Scholten still believes that these remedies should be proved (Scholten, 1993).

However, as homoeopathy is science based, Scholten’s method needs to be validated through proving’s. This can provide an area for future research.


Group analysis according to Massimo Mangialavori

Mangialavori emphasizes the importance of the ‘essence’, which, according to him, describes a set of symptoms which need to be present in a case for the prescription of a certain remedy.

Sets of symptoms from many cases are grouped, analysed and concluded to be central to the essence of a particular remedy. This technique shares similarities with group analysis in terms

of application and readiness to arrive to a remedy. Another important aspect Mangialavori agrees upon is that there is a dire need for a system similar to miasmatic theory and the repertory

that would be used to assemble lots of symptoms into a system such as group analysis which is user friendly to the homoeopathic practitioner. The group analysis tool is recommended to

be used with the full knowledge of materia medica and homoeopathic philosophy, not in a reducing manner (Mangialavori and Zwemke 2004).

[Edward Peter Phahamane]

However successful group analysis may have been with the majority of homoeopathic practitioners, there have been controversies, debates and heated criticism. regarding the group analysis

approach. According to this criticism, group analysis is viewed as a new method therefore as such it is perceived in some quarters to be based on non-homoeopathic principles, making it a threat to the dogmatic principles set out by Hahnemann and therefore not an acceptable way to arrive at a remedy. Even so, group analysis has sustained itself through this criticism because

it follows on from the principles of miasms and the repertory which are forms of systematized grouping methods consistent with the works of the great old masters of homoeopathy which are still in use today. Robust science welcomes criticism and group analysis embraces the development of homoeopathy as an objective, competitive science suitable for the current era

(Moskowitz 2002; Vithoulkas 2000 and Gray 2000).

Contrary to many homoeopaths, Mangialavori believes that provings are not the ideal source to study homoeopathic materia medica, as they only yield long lists of detailed, subjective, symptoms (Moskowitz, 2012).

Hence, he is of the view that information from traditional books like repertories; homoeopathic materia medica’s and provings is not accurate (Hayes, 2000). Instead, a person should rather know the importance of each symptom used for prescribing the remedy (Moskowitz, 2012).

This requires a system for organizing and priorizing the data.


Mangialavori’s system emphasized clinical, cured cases as a foundation for expanding our knowledge of homoeopathy (Ihrig, 2012).

According to Mangialavori, themes, rather than rubrics or provings, are a preferred method of organizing information and systemizing remedy states (Ihrig, 2010).

One can also connect the themes that lead to the prescription of a remedy, as well as apply it to other patients needing the same remedy (Moskowitz, 2012).

Mangialavori considers a theme or concept to be an aspect of the remedy if that remedy expresses the same concept throughout the entirety of its symptoms (mental, emotional, and physical).

Recording themes also enables one to differentiate remedies into families which are similar to each other.

These themes are defined by the general themes that characterize them homoeopathically, and not necessarily by a connection between their chemistry, botany, zoology, etc (Hayes, 2000).

Mangialavori refers to themes as a ‘checklist’ which he can consider as a means of differential diagnosis in prescribing (Hayes, 2000).

Unlike Sankaran and Scholten who identify homoeopathic remedies according to their taxonomy (their place in nature), Mangialavori’s concept of homoeopathic families intersects genus and even kingdoms. Mangialavori’s “Praxis” Volume II consists of case studies of ‘drug family’ remedies

Anhalonium lewinii,

Psilocybe caerulescens,

Agaricus muscarius,

Lycoperdon bovista,

Convolvulus duartinus

Nabalus serpentaria (Ihrig, 2012).

The choice of these ‘drug’ remedies were intentional, as Mangialavori wanted to demonstrate that various remedies may be closely related despite not belonging to the same botanical group or kingdom. In the preface of Praxis, John Sobraske mentions that Mangialavori’s method also demonstrates the need to create a classification based on pertinent themes derived from remedies and clinical case studies, rather than based on assumptions about similarities or differences based on taxonomy (Mangialavori, 2010:xix).

Mangialavori believes in classification based solely on the homoeopathic characteristics of the remedies themselves (Moskowitz, 2012).

An advantage of Mangialavori’s method is that his understanding of remedies is based on his clinical experience and is not just based on literature. However, Mangialavori’s ongoing process of integrating data from various sources is a complex method of classification and may lead to confusion for the neophyte homoeopath.

Mangialavori describes explains his approach by referring to the “horizontal” and “vertical” axises of classification. Horizontal classification relates  to taxonomy in the case of plants and animals and periodic table organization in the case of the mineral kingdom. This classification occurs if the substances are biologically related. Vertical classification depends on coherent symptom groups, themes (characteristic and fundamental keynotes) and structural symptoms of a patient (Ihrig, 2010).

A coherent group of symptoms involves grouping logical symptoms together.

For instance, in the Arsenicum group, there is a characteristic burning pain. If a patient has a symptom of burning pain in the elbow, and one cannot find it in the repertory or materia medica, Mangialavori believes that it will be more helpful to understand that the feeling of burning pain is found in the Arsenicum group. It is more helpful to understand the characteristic theme of burning pain than to remember the specific symptoms of a remedy (Mangialavori, 2002:7 - 9).


Group analysis according to Sankaran

Homoeopathic practice is generally based on identifying the symptoms of a remedy.

Sankaran takes this further by stating that the symptomatology of any remedy is intimately related to the source it is drawn from, as each remedy has an essence and connection with its source

(Sankaran, 1999:313).

Bearing this in mind, Sankaran wanted to differentiate between a person requiring a plant remedy from one who needs an animal or mineral remedy.

He decided to observe hundreds of patients in his practice to see if the “spirit” and character of a substance can be expressed in a human being.

He found this to be the case, and went on to classify remedy states into different kingdoms: mineral, plant and animal (Sankaran, 2005b:46 - 48).

latest symptom is removed first, then the one which preceded it and so on) (Guavante, 2002:12).

While Hering’s Law demonstrates only the direction of cure, diadoxis explains a disease or pattern that can be transferred or translated from one level to another (Scholten, 2004:231).

For example, a problem on an emotional level can be transferred to the physical level, producing a physical ailment - grief from the loss of a spouse can lead to the development of cancer. This principle

is also known in conventional medicine, through terms like “syndrome”, “suppression”, “conversion” and “metastasis”

(Scholten, 2004:231).

One such example is asthma alternating with atopic eczema (Scholten, 2004:231).

De Schepper (1994:82) also describes this phenomenon giving examples such as the development of a tumour in the liver or other organs after a person has undergone a mastectomy with radiation

and chemotherapy.

Homoeopathy, according to the principle of diadoxis, can be re-defined as “the science of the pattern behind the disease, and how patterns are translated into different forms” (Scholten, 2004:231).

The Durban Institut of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Dr Ashley H. A. Ross - Head of Department and Senior Lecturer.

Has started Group Analysis Evaluation according to Sankaran’s teachings.

I found a total of 8 dissertations made and written according the principles of this Group Analysis Evaluation.

       Only one text, An investigation of the concept of homoeopathic imponderabilia.x using a H. proving of focused pink.x light by Somaru, Nevorndutt,

       is found in this system in its full length to show the principles of these processes.        

a) Rajan Sankaran has developed a methodology of group analysis based on the natural biological classification of organisms. This methodology has been applied to a number of plant families with apparent success (Sankaran, 2002).

b) Other methodologies of group analysis have been proposed by various noted authors - such as Scholten (1993) and Mangialavori (Hiwat et al., 1996) - as a means of extending the understanding

of remedy relationships (Wulfsohn, 2005).

c) The application of the methodology, as proposed by Sankaran (2002), to the Kingdom Fungi is needed in order to increase the homoeopathic understanding of the group as a whole and to increase

the utilization of the individual under-represented remedies belonging to the Kingdom. Therefore this study aims to subject a poorly understood biological kingdom with a view to extend the overall

group understanding as-well-as the individual remedies within the group.


Recent Advances in Homoeopathic Prescribing - Group Analysis

The group analysis approach to homoeopathy is not new. Farrington used kingdom analysis in 1880 and Leeser used periodic table information in 1935 (Winston, 2004: 36). However, it was not until

the 1990’s that the first modern application of group analysis began to emerge. Group analysis is an attempt to identify a mechanism for understanding groups of related remedies according to natural classification of the various sources used in homoeopathic practice. Until recently the most important method of studying homeopathic remedies has been to look at each remedy separately and not

in the context of a particular group to which it belongs.


The prime movers of group analysis of the modern era are Scholten and Sankaran (Wulfsohn, 2005). Scholten (1993: 23) has defined group analysis as the process of looking at a group of remedies and extracting what is common from that group. Therefore, by extracting the common theme‟s within a particular group of remedies, the understanding of both particular remedy groups as a whole as-well-as the individual remedies belonging to each particular group is enhanced, which has subsequently added another invaluable tool for accurate remedy selection available to the homoeopathic practitioner. Scholten (1993: 23) realized that homoeopathic practitioners have generally used symptoms as the only, or almost only, guide to the remedy, without really considering the source of the drug. It is, however, becoming very clear that the symptomatology of any drug is intimately related to the source it is drawn from, and that each drug has in it the essence of its source. However, this knowledge has not been actively or systematically used in differentiating remedies by studying their origin.

If properly understood, this study could enable us to think directly of the kind of remedy needed for the patient, a sort of direct application of the law of similars.


Kingdom Analysis in Homoeopathy

Sankaran (1994:313) classified patients in terms of kingdoms by identifying the main differentiating features of each kingdom (plant, animal and mineral kingdom).

This makes it possible to determine which kingdom the practitioner is to choose his remedy from. The classification of each kingdom included the nature of the complaint, the nature of the individual (disposition), pace and causation factors of complaints, fears, dreams and interests, cravings/aversions and even handwriting and words used by a particular patient.

Minerals: „structure‟ and „organization‟, and the problems of mineral remedies/personalities arise from a break in this structure and organization, breaking in relationships or failure in performance.

Are very systematic and tend to be highly organized (Sankaran, 1997: 229). Sankaran continues to classify mineral remedies into metals, cations, anions, salts and acids.

Plants: „sensitive‟ nature. They are affected by changes in the external environment and are capable of adapting to these changes. They are disorganized when compared to a mineral type personality,

and are sensitive, soft and emotional beings. Complaints usually present with rapid onset and are changeable with many modalities. They are easily affected emotionally and have abrupt mood changes (Sankaran, 1997: 233).

Animals: „conflict‟ which has at its basis a „split‟ in the self - the animal side and the human side. The animal side is concerned with competition and a need to attract attention and these personalities

are therefore attractive in their behaviour and appearance. They can also be deceitful, malicious and aggressive (Sankaran, 1997: 233).

These criteria were utilized because the group analysis method is mainly focused on characteristic, well-defined features which are poorly represented in the ‘smaller’ remedies (Sankaran, 2005).

Data processing Information from various materia medica, provings, Radar 10 and rubrics were used for extraction purposes. The selected remedies were subjected to a manual extraction and only rubrics that contained at least 2 of the selected remedies were utilized. The extraction process produced mental, physical and general symptoms.


Determination of the common group sensation

The selected rubrics were analyzed for common sensations in the group.

All data was analyzed in terms of Sankaran’s model of Vital Sensation.

If the sensation was represented by a rubric that was present in at least 2 of the selected remedies, it was considered to be common to the group.

Sensations from mental symptoms, general symptoms and symptoms particular to various parts of the body were included. The results are listed in Table 3 (Sensation rubrics for the synthetic recreational drug isolate group).

1st order analysis

The extracted sensations were defined using a dictionary and thesaurus (Collins, 2006).

The same text was used to identify synonyms relating to the sensation.

The extracted common sensations and corresponding synonyms were subjected to a homoeopathic literature search. This tested and confirmed the accuracy and validity of the selected set of sensations. This also ensured that the sensation relates to the group as a whole. This was termed the first order analysis.

2nd order analysis

The approved sensations extracted from the 1st order analysis were subjected to a definition development process using a dictionary (Collins, 2006) and a synonyms

development process using a Thesaurus (Collins, 2006).

Each synonym was examined and homoeopathic literature was searched to test its validity. This was termed the second order analysis. This method verified the first order sensations, while the second order sensations could be established.

3rd order analysis

If any new sensations emerged as a result of the second order analysis, these were then subjected to a third order analysis. The new sensations were also subjected to a literature search, allowing 2nd order sensations to be verified and new 3rd order sensations to be established.



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