A group analysis evaluation of selected psychoactive plant remedies in terms of known materia medica

http://ir.dut.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10321/1771/HULL_2016.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

 

Vergleich: Siehe: Stimulantia (JJ Kleber)

 

[Ruth Heather Hull]

A group analysis evaluation of selected psychoactive plant remedies in terms of known materia medica

Scholten (1993), Sankaran (2005a) and Mangialavori (2010) developed different methods which can now be collectively referred to as “group analysis”.

The aim of group analysis is to find symptoms, sensations and pathological tendencies that are common to all remedies within a group. This study involved applying Sankaran’s group analysis approach to the psychoactive plant drug remedies with the rationale of filtering and organizing the mass of data we now have available on this group. This will enable both students

and professionals of homoeopathy to develop a deeper understanding, and hence greater utilization, of the psychoactive plant drug remedies.

The following five homoeopathic remedies were chosen for this study on the grounds that they have all been extensively proved through both homoeopathic provings and cured clinical

cases and there is a vast amount of literature available on these remedies in materia medica and repertories:

Anhalonium lewinii (Cactaceae)

Cannabis indica (Hamamalidae)

Coffea cruda (Rubiaceae)

Nux moschata (Magnoliacae)

Opium (Papaveraceae)

A computer repertory search was conducted using to extract all rubrics containing the selected remedies. All Data have been found with RadarOpus (Archibel, 2014)

Parameters were set to retain only rubrics that have less than 50 remedies and at least two of the selected psychoactive plant remedies in them. This was to ensure that only well -defined, characteristic remedies were looked at. The rubrics were visually analyzed, compared and contrasted to determine the common sensations within them and mental, general and particular symptoms were analyzed in terms of Sankaran’s model of Vital Sensation (2005a).

The vital sensation of the psychoactive plant drug remedies was found to be that of horror, fear or fright. All the remedies belonging to this group experience the sensation of horror either through their perception of pain or through dreams, visions, hallucinations or anxiety. This sensation pervades all these remedies which are constantly trying to escape this sensation by either increasing or decreasing their activity and sensitivity.

The active reaction to the sensation of horror is to increase activity. This is expressed through increased sensitivity; mental clarity; sensations of contraction, fullness, heaviness, heat or moisture; delirium, hallucinations and instability. The passive reaction to the sensation of horror is to decrease activity. This is expressed through insensitivity; lack of mental clarity; sensations of expansion, emptiness, lightness, cold or dryness; sleep, stupor and unconsciousness.

The compensation, or coping mechanism that psychoactive plant drug remedies develop, is a transcendence of their condition: they transcend, or escape, their condition by no longer feeling

or doing anything, by becoming numb and insensitive.

The researcher suggests that although the remedies of the psychoactive plant drug group can be classified according to different miasms, the over-riding miasm of this group is the sycotic

miasm with its fundamental sense of having a ‘fixed weakness’ within themselves.

The researcher also proposes that the psychoactive plant remedies have an affinity for the central nervous system and for ailments caused by strong emotions such as joy, anger,

excitement, fear or fright. These remedies tend to produce pathologies of the central nervous system and sleep including increased reflexes, involuntary motions, trembling, jerking;

weakness, atrophy, slowness, paralysis; unconsciousness; catalepsy; Autism Spectrum Disorders; hypersensitivity; insensitivity or absence of sensitivity; pain; formication; mental

confusion, poor comprehension, nonsensical speech; memory disorders; delirium, hallucinations, schizophrenia; mood disorders; behavioural disorders; anxiety; insomnia,

narcolepsy and nightmares.

The researcher found group analysis to be a powerful methodology that, if employed correctly, can aid homoeopaths to learn and understand remedies in their ‘totality’.

 

However, a formal analysis using Sankaran’s approach has not yet been conducted on the remedies derived from psychoactive plants, known as the plant drug remedies.

Hence, this was a literature based, qualitative study in which the following plant drug remedies were analyzed and evaluated in terms of known materia medica according to Sankaran’s

methodology of group analysis:

 

Rationale of the Group Analysis Study

Psychoactive plant drugs have been used throughout history and across many different cultures.

These plants have formed intricate parts of cultural, religious and mystical rituals as well as played vital roles in the building of economies. However, some of them are highly addictive and

have destroyed families, relationships and individuals. In South Africa today drug abuse is a significant problem with the Central Drug Authority (2013: 44) finding that 65% of respondents

to a 2013 survey reported that they had a substance user/abuser in their home.

Psychoactive plant drugs are also highly controversial. For example, peyote is illegal in the U.S. except to people belonging to Native American traditional religious groups (Turner, 2008);

Cannabis illegal in many countries yet is becoming increasingly recognized and used for its analgesic effects and therapeutic uses in diseases such as AIDS and M.S.;

Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, yet it is a mind-altering substance that is arguably more physically addictive than cannabis or peyote;

Nutmeg is available for purchase in most supermarkets yet if taken in excess it induces psychosis and can be fatal;

Opium is the base of heroin, its opioids are also used medically for their analgesic and cough suppressant effects.

These same psychoactive plant drugs are widely used in homoeopathy and there is now an immense amount of data on some of them, but little data on others. In addition, there is no clear picture

of exactly what these psychoactive plant remedies can treat clinically or of where their sphere of action lies. Hence, the rationale behind this study was to filter and organize

the masses of data we now have available on these remedies and bring meaning, association and context to them. This will help students to improve their understanding of, and therefore learn, these remedies, and homoeopaths both locally and internationally to more easily prescribe the remedies.

In this way homoeopathic practice will be enriched through better understanding, and utilization, of the ‘smaller’, less well-documented, psychoactive plant remedies.

Sankaran (2005a) and Mangialavori (2010) have published work on the remedies that have been analyzed in this research. They have taken different approaches to these remedies.

Sankaran (2005a) analyzed them in terms of their taxonomical plant families,

Mangialavori (2010) analyzed them in terms of their structure, strategy and themes as homoeopathic remedies.

This study draws on the work of both these approaches, taking remedies that belong to the Plant Kingdom only but classifying them as psychoactive plant remedies because of the effect they have on the mind, regardless of their taxonomical classification.

 

Objectives of the Group Analysis Study

The objectives of this study were to apply Sankaran’s methodology of group analysis to the following psychoactive plant remedies:

Anhalonium lewinii, Cannabis indica, Coffea cruda, Nux moschata and Opium and in so doing:

Analyze and describe common sensations in the psychoactive plant remedies according to known materia medica symptomatology.

Analyze and describe reactions to the sensations (be they active, passive or compensatory).

Analyze and classify individual remedies under Sankaran’s homoeopathic miasms.

Identify the themes which emerge from the psychoactive plant remedies.

Sources used incl. documented provings, materia medicas and which is an electronic database consisting of repertories, materia medica, books and journal articles.

The researcher is in agreement with Mangialavori and has chosen to analyze a group of remedies which, although they come from different plant families and are chemically and morphologically different, they all have psychoactive effects on an individual and are grouped together as plant drugs.

In addition, the remedies analyzed in this research are “popular” remedies that are regularly prescribed by homoeopaths and hence there exists extensive literature and cured clinical cases from which the researcher may draw information.

Mangialavori (2010) developed the “Method of Complexity” which encompasses understanding remedies and their sources on several levels, through “fields as diverse as anthropology, folk medicine, physiology, biochemistry, toxicology, classical homoeopathy and the art of clinical medicine, which ties them all together and arises from acquaintance with human nature more than book learning” (Moskowitz, 2010).

Although his work has greatly contributed towards group analysis, Mangialavori differs from Sankaran and Scholten in that they identify families taxonomically while he classifies remedies on their

homoeopathic characteristics (Moskowitz, 2010). However, similar to Sankaran and Scholten, Mangialavori finds that working with themes of families helps one learn about smaller remedies and rule out remedies that may have similar symptoms but not similar themes to the simillimum.

Mangialavori has completed ‘group’ work on the Plant Drugs: Solanaceae family, Cactaceae family, Spiders, Sea Remedies, Snakes and Reptiles, Milks, Insects, Precious and Base Metals, Silicium and Related, and Magnesium and Related.

His book Praxis Volume II contains case studies (but not a formal group analysis) of the following ‘drug’ family remedies:

Anhalonium lewinii, Psilocybe caerulescens, Agaricus muscarius, Lycoperdon bovista, Convolvulus duartinus and Nabalus serpentaria.

He chose these remedies according to their ‘drug’ action/theme rather than based on taxonomy and reiterates that “themes which emerge in the study of the substance tend to mirror themes found in the remedy” (Mangialavori and Marotta, 2010: xxvi). Hence, he finds that both plant drugs and the remedies derived from them share the themes of escapism, omnipotence, creativity, altered sensory perception, hyperactivity/apathy and problems of personality structure (Mangialavori and Marotta, 2010:21-32).

 

Homoeopathy and Psychoactive Plant Drug Remedies

Psychoactive remedies are those remedies made from source substances that affect mood, perception and behavior. These include remedies made from plants, for example Coffea cruda, as well as remedies derived from synthetic recreational drugs as Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). According to Traub (cited in Lewis, 2007), general characteristics associated with psychoactive remedies include:

Avoidance/numbing of pain;

Escapism;

That which is forbidden or prohibited;

Desire to experience;

Rebellion;

Self-destruction;

Hallucinations;

Distorted perceptions of space and time or sensations of being spaced out, dreamy, out of this world, disoriented, confused, “high”;

Ecstasy/euphoria;

Meditation;

Isolation;

Addiction and dependence;

Withdrawal: nervous, jittery, depressed, coming down (Traub, cited in Lewis, 2007).

 

To date, group analysis work on remedies made from psychoactive substances have been researched by Sankaran (2005a), Mangialavori (2010) and Chhiba (2013).

Sankaran (2005c: 4) found that remedies belonging to the Plant Kingdom share the following features:

They have a basic sensation and its opposite sensation.

There is sensitivity and reactivity.

Speech varied and they use words and phrases such as “I am affected by”, “I am sensitive to”, “this hurts me”, “this touches me”, “I can’t bear”, and “I am immediately affected by”.

Nature and disposition is soft, sensitive, emotional and sentimental yet they can be disorganized, easily influenced, adaptable and at times irritable. They often take up professions such as nursing or art.

Their key fear is of hurt and pain.

They present their complaints in a ‘haywire’, rounded, wandering, descriptive manner and do not describe their symptoms clearly.

Complaints often come on rapidly with great variety, many modalities, much sensitivity and quick reactions.

Causation almost always lies in emotional or physical hurt or shock.

Although Sankaran’s (2005a: 513) group analysis is generally based on the taxonomical classification of plants, he refers to psychoactive plant remedies as plant drug remedies and found that despite coming from different botanical families, these remedies seem to have the following qualities in common:

Alienation - a sense of being isolated and removed from the rest of the world, of living in one’s own world.

Upliftment - the feeling that the world is beautiful and the sense of being uplifted through music, beauty or open spaces.

Benevolence - the need to do something to belong in this world.

Sensitivity - either hypersensitivity or lack of sensitivity.

Activity of the mind - too many thoughts.

Mangialavori (2010) established the following themes of the Homoeopathic Drug Family:

Flight from reality, avoidance and sense of isolation.

Problems of personality structure.

The sense of omnipotence.

Altered sensory perception in terms of:

Visual and auditory perception;

Hyperesthesia/analgesia;

Sense of time and space;

Coldness.

Hyperactivity/Apathy -

Mangialavori (2010: 30): “In my own experience, a true Drug remedy is almost always hyperactive, appearing apathetic only in decompensated phases when all activity and creativity turns inward and withdrawal becomes pathological”.

Creativity. Chhiba (2013) used Sankaran’s methodology to conduct a group analysis of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group, including the remedies

Cocainum hydrochloricum,

Heroinum,

Methylenedioxy-n-methylamphetamine (MDMA),

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum (MPH) and LSD.

The following common themes emerged from this research:

Anxiety

Difficulty in concentration - with increased mental activity

Suppression of emotions

Fearlessness

Feelings of indifference and apathy

Loquacity

Restlessness

Feelings of tranquility, serenity and calmness

Ecstasy, euphoria, cheerfulness, elation, excitement, joy

Dryness of the throat

Diminished appetite

Nausea

Cramping pain in the stomach

Distension of the stomach

Desire for sweets

Sleeplessness.

As mentioned above, although he has not formally classified them together, Sankaran found that the ‘plant drug remedies’ do share common themes and, although no formal group

analysis has yet been conducted on them, Chhiba (2013: 169) suggests that the synthetic recreational drug isolate group be compared to plant derived ‘drug’ remedies. There is, therefore,

an academic need for a formal group analysis of the psychoactive plant drugs. In addition to this academic need, there is also a practical need for an analysis of these drugs.

Psychoactive drugs have a deep history of use and abuse. They have formed intricate parts of age-old spiritual traditions and medicinal practices and have been integral to the development

of great economies. Yet they can have severe, even fatal, side-effects if taken in excess and many of them are highly addictive, illegal drugs.

In modern homoeopathic practice there seems to be a significant need for remedies that can help with mental/emotional conditions such as anxiety, depression, hyperactivity,

mood/behavioral disorders and sleep disorders as well as the effects of injury, trauma, surgery, allopathic medications and drug abuse. Sankaran’s, Mangialavori’s and Chhiba’s work suggests

that remedies derived from psychoactive plant drugs can assist in this regard.

This study applied Sankaran’s methodology of group analysis to the following plant drug remedies:

Anhalonium lewinii produced from Lophophora williamsii = peyote (Cactaceae)

Cannabis indica produced from Cannabis sativa subsp. Indica = cannabis. (Hamamalidae)

Coffea cruda produced from Coffea arabica = coffee. (Rubiaceae)

Nux moschata produced from Myristica fragrans = nutmeg (Magnolianae)

Opium produced from Papaver somniferum = opium. (Papaveraceae)

The 5 remedies chosen for this study are not small, seldom-used remedies but are, instead, used regularly and successfully by many homoeopaths. They have all been extensively proved through

both homoeopathic provings and cured clinical cases and there is a vast amount of literature available on these remedies in materia medica and repertories. They also have many mental and

emotional symptoms and hence a central theme/sensation should be clear when analyzed as a group. Although they are all from the Plant Kingdom, they are being grouped according to their similar characteristics (all being psychoactive plants) and not taxonomically.

 

Psychoactive Drugs

The use of hallucinogenic substances goes far back into human prehistory. There have been suggestions that even the idea of the deity might have arisen as a result of their weird and unearthly effects on the human body and mind.

Narcotic and other drugs have been reported by many writers in many cultures, since the very invention of writing” (Schultes 1969, cited in Clarke and Merlin, 2013: 212).

According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, the word psychoactive means “affecting the mind” (Allen, 1992: 964) and psychoactive drugs are those drugs that act on the central nervous system

to alter one’s mood, perception or consciousness.

They are classified as follows:

Depressants - slow down the central nervous system. Examples: tranquillisers, alcohol, opiates such as heroin or opium and cannabis in low doses.

Stimulants - excite the nervous system. Examples: nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine and caffeine.

Hallucinogens - distort how things are perceived. Examples: LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide), mescaline, 'magic mushrooms' and cannabis in high doses (N. Territory Government, 2015).

Psychoactive, mood-changing drugs such as opioids, anxiolytics and hypnotics are medically prescribed for injury, surgery, cancer pain, chronic pain, anxiety, depression and insomnia and although they offer relief, there is great potential for their abuse. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2015), “nearly two million Americans, aged 12 or older, either abused or were dependent on opioids in 2013”.

In addition to prescription drugs, psychoactive drugs are taken illicitly for other reasons incl. pleasure, pain relief, to alleviate boredom, to help cope with problems, to give one a sense of belonging or as part of religious/cultural ceremonies (Northern Territory Government, 2015).

The use of psychoactive drugs is a significant problem in South Africa today and the abuse of drugs is changing both our culture and the society in which we live. Researchers have found that “substance abuse is often a primary underlying contributor to or cause of bio-psycho-social debility; culture and the acceptance of substance use and abuse are linked to each other; low quality of life is linked to substance abuse; and changes in the patterns of substance use and abuse imply a culture change over a long period of time” (National Drug Master Plan, 2013: 49). In order to help decrease substance abuse in South Africa, it is not enough to simply reduce the availability of these drugs. Far more important, is to develop an understanding of why eople use drugs and to look at who is at risk of abusing drugs.

 

Homoeopathy and Psychoactive Plant Drug Remedies

Psychoactive remedies are those remedies made from source substances that affect mood, perception and behavior. These include remedies made from plants, for example Coffea cruda, as well as remedies derived from synthetic recreational drugs such as Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). According to Traub (cited in Lewis, 2007), general characteristics associated with psychoactive remedies include:

Avoidance/numbing of pain

Escapism

That which is forbidden or prohibited

Desire to experience

Rebellion

Self-destruction

Hallucinations

Distorted perceptions of space and time or sensations of being spaced out, dreamy, out of this world, disoriented, confused, “high”

Ecstasy/euphoria

Meditation

Isolation

Addiction and dependence

Withdrawal: nervous, jittery, depressed, coming down (Traub, cited in Lewis, 2007).

To date, group analysis work on remedies made from psychoactive substances have been researched by Sankaran (2005a), Mangialavori (2010) and Chhiba (2013). Sankaran (2005c: 4) found that remedies belonging to the Plant Kingdom share the following features:

They have a basic sensation and its opposite sensation.

There is sensitivity and reactivity.

Their speech is varied and they use words and phrases such as “I am affected by”, “I am sensitive to”, “this hurts me”, “this touches me”, “I can’t bear”, and “I am immediately affected by”.

Their nature and disposition is soft, sensitive, emotional and sentimental yet they can be disorganized, easily influenced, adaptable and at times irritable. They often take up professions such as nursing or art.

Their key fear is of hurt and pain.

They present their complaints in a ‘haywire’, rounded, wandering, descriptive manner and do not describe their symptoms clearly.

Complaints of ten come on rapidly with great variety, many modalities, much sensitivity and quick reactions.

Causation almost always lies in emotional or physical hurt or shock.

Sankaran’s (2005a: 513) group analysis is generally based on the taxonomical classification of plants, he refers to psychoactive plant remedies as plant drug remedies and found that despite coming from different botanical families, these remedies seem to have the following qualities in common:

Alienation - a sense of being isolated and removed from the rest of the world, of living in one’s own world.

Upliftment - the feeling that the world is beautiful and the sense of being uplifted through music, beauty or open spaces.

Benevolence - the need to do something to belong in this world.

Sensitivity - either hypersensitivity or lack of sensitivity.

Activity of the mind - too many thoughts.

Mangialavori (2010) established the following themes of the Homoeopathic Drug Family:

Flight from reality, avoidance and sense of isolation.

Problems of personality structure.

The sense of omnipotence.

Altered sensory perception in terms of: of visual and auditory perception; of hyperesthesia/analgesia; of sense of time and space; of coldness.

Hyperactivity/Apathy -

Mangialavori (2010: 30): “In my own experience, a true Drug remedy is almost always hyperactive, appearing apathetic only in decompensated phases when all activity and creativity turns inward and withdrawal becomes pathological”.

 

Creativity. Chhiba (2013) used Sankaran’s methodology to conduct a group analysis of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group, incl. the remedies Cocainum hydrochloricum, Heroinum, -Methylenedioxy-n-methylamphetamine (MDMA), Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum (MPH) and LSD.

The following common themes emerged from this research:

Anxiety

Difficulty in concentration - with increased mental activity

Suppression of emotions

Fearlessness

Feelings of indifference and apathy

Loquacity

Restlessness

Feelings of tranquility, serenity and calmness

Ecstasy, euphoria, cheerfulness, elation, excitement, joy

Dryness of the throat

Diminished appetite

Nausea

Cramping pain in the stomach

Distension of the stomach

Desire for sweets

Sleeplessness.

As mentioned above, although he has not formally classified them together, Sankaran found that the ‘plant drug remedies’ do share common themes and, although no formal group analysis has yet been conducted on them, Chhiba (2013: 169) suggests that the synthetic recreational drug isolate group be compared to plant derived ‘drug’ remedies. There is, therefore, an academic need for a formal group analysis of the psychoactive plant drugs. In addition to this academic need, there is also a practical need for an analysis of these drugs.

Psychoactive drugs have a deep history of use and abuse. They have formed intricate parts of age-old spiritual traditions and medicinal practices and have been integral to the development of great economies. Yet they can have severe, even fatal, side-effects if taken in excess and many of them are highly addictive, illegal drugs.

In modern homoeopathic practice there seems to be a significant need for remedies that can help with mental/emotional conditions such as anxiety, depression, hyperactivity, mood/behavioral disorders and sleep disorders as well as the effects of injury, trauma, surgery, allopathic medications and drug abuse.

Sankaran’s, Mangialavori’s and Chhiba’s work suggests that remedies derived from psychoactive plant drugs can assist in this regard.

This study applied Sankaran’s methodology of group analysis to the following plant drug remedies:

Anhalonium lewinii produced from Lophophora williamsii = peyote.

Cannabis indica produced from Cannabis sativa subsp. indica = cannabis.

Coffea cruda produced from Coffea arabica = coffee.

Nux moschata produced from Myristica fragrans = nutmeg.

Opium produced from Papaver somniferum = opium.

The five remedies chosen for this study are not small, seldom-used remedies but are, instead, used regularly and successfully by many homoeopaths. They have all been extensively proved through both homoeopathic provings and cured clinical cases and there is a vast amount of literature available on these remedies in materia medica and repertories. They also have many mental and emotional symptoms and hence a central theme/sensation should be clear when analyzed as a group. Although they are all from the Plant Kingdom, they are being grouped according to their similar characteristics (all being psychoactive plants) and not taxonomically.

 

Psychoactive Plant Remedies

In biology, organisms are arranged into groups based on their relationships with one another and their evolutionary origin. The traditional Linnaean system of classification categorizes

living organisms into five kingdoms according to their cellular organization and method of nutrition.

These kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.

Organisms belonging to Kingdom Plantae, or the Plant Kingdom, do not have the ability to move themselves around their environment and they use photosynthesis to produce new cell matter

out of inorganic material (O’Neil, 2013).

This study investigated homoeopathic remedies that belong to the Plant Kingdom and specifically affect mood, perception and behavior. These remedies are called psychoactive plant remedies

and are derived from a diverse range of families within the Plant Kingdom.

 

Sample Selection

Previous researchers (Chhiba 2013; Harkhu 2011) conducting group analysis warn against basing their research sample on remedies that are not well-proven or well-presented in repertories as this makes it difficult to identify common sensations. Hence, the sample for this study was selected on the basis that they are the most well represented psychoactive plant remedies in the materia medica and repertory; are the most extensively proven; and the most popularly clinically applied:

 

Rubric Extraction

A computer repertory search was conducted using to extract all rubrics containing the selected remedies. Parameters were set to retain only rubrics with less than 50 remedies and at least two of the selected psychoactive plant remedies in them. This was to ensure that only well-defined, characteristic remedies were studied. In order to evaluate their relative significance, the rubrics were arranged in order from those containing the least remedies to the most remedies. The rubrics containing the least remedies were considered the most significant as these tend to contain the characteristic nature of remedies while rubrics containing many remedies tend to be more ‘broad’ in nature (Vogel, 2007: 36).

3.4

Data Analysis

3.4.1

Determination of the Common Group Sensations

1: Determination of Sensations

The retained rubrics were visually analyzed, compared and contrasted to determine the common sensations within them. According to The Concise Oxford Dictionary, a sensation is “the consciousness of perceiving or seeming to perceive some state or condition of one’s body or its parts or senses or of one’s mind or its emotions” (Allen, 1992: 1102).

The determination of sensations was accomplished by listing mental, general and particular symptoms and analyzing them in terms of Sankaran’s model of Vital Sensation (discussed in

Chapter 2). In order to be considered a common sensation, the sensation need to be represented by a rubric that was present in at least two of the selected remedies.

1st Order Analysis

A first order analysis was then carried out. This was a test to determine the accuracy of the extracted sensations by cross-checking them and their synonyms in homoeopathic literature.

Sensations were defined using The Concise Oxford Dictionary and their synonyms and antonyms were determined using a thesaurus. Keywords descriptive of these sensations and

their synonyms and antonyms were then used in a keyword search using RadarOpus (Archibel, 2014). This search was restricted to literature pertaining to the five studied

psychoactive plant remedies only and the following texts:

ALLEN H. C., Keynotes and Characteristics with Comparisons

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica

CLARKE J. H., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica

KENT J. T., Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica

KENT J. T., New Remedies Clinical Cases Lesser Writing

PHATAK S. R., Materia Medica of Homoeopathic Medicines

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica

2nd Order Analysis

New sensations and their subsequent synonyms and antonyms that emerged during the first order analysis were subjected to the same process of confirmatory analysis as described in

This is known as second order analysis and was performed to verify the first order sensations as well as establish second order sensations.

3rd Order Analysis

The above process was repeated again and a 3rd order analysis was established in order to confirm second order sensations and establish third order sensations.

Only one sensation emerged during this third order analysis and the researcher proposed this sensation to be the underlying sensation pervading the psychoactive plant drug remedies. In order to support this proposal, a manual repertory search of this 3rd order sensation was carried out using Schroyens’ Synthesis (2004) and the presence of psychoactive plant drug remedies within these

results was analyzed.

Following on from the results of this manual search, a computer repertory search was employed to extract all rubrics in which the psychoactive plant drug remedies studied in this research

were the only ones to appear.

This search was carried out because rubrics containing only one remedy are thought to be highly characteristic of that remedy and the researcher wanted to establish whether or not the sensation in these‘ highly characteristic’ rubrics was the same as the common sensation that emerged during the 3rd order analysis.

Determination of the Reactions to the Common Sensations of the Group

Once a set of common sensations of the group had been identified, the reactions to these sensations were analyzed in accordance with Sankaran’s (2006) methodology and categorized as either active, passive or compensatory.

3.4.3

Determination of the Miasmatic Classification of the Remedies

Each of the five chosen psychoactive plant remedies were then individually studied and classified according to Sankaran’s (2005c) extended miasmatic model as follows:

Sankaran’s miasmatic key words were identified and tabulated. See

Appendix B.

For each remedy, a miasmatic keyword search of was performed and the remedy’s possible miasm determined.

Literature from the homoeopathic materia medica, provings and rubrics was then searched for these key words.

Each remedy’s miasm was finally determined depending on the predominance of the keywords of a particular miasm in the literature of the remedy.

Determination of Themes of the Group

A theme is “a subject or topic on which a person speaks, writes or thinks” (Allen, 1992: 1265) and in group analysis it is the common characteristic sensation that pervades all the remedies in that group. The sensations that were identified for the selected remedies were used to formulate the basic themes of the psychoactive plant remedies. Miasmatic

classification of these remedies was used to support these themes and results are discussed in Chapter 5.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1

Extraction and Analysis of Common Psychoactive Plant Remedy Rubrics

A computer repertory search was conducted as outlined in Chapter 3. However, due to the vast quantity of rubrics that were extracted, the process had to be repeated by extracting each

psychoactive plant remedy individually for each chapter of Schroyens’ Synthesis.

To evaluate their relative significance, the rubrics were then arranged in 3 tables (Mentals, Generals and Physicals) in order from those containing the least remedies to the most

remedies. The results are listed in Appendix A.

4.2

Determination of the Common Group Sensations and First Order Analysis

Sankaran (2005c: 13) describes a sensation as “What you feel. What you perceive. What you experience. ‘What’ of any phenomenon”.

The retained rubrics were visually analyzed, compared and contrasted to determine common sensations within them. The researcher noticed that sensations of these psychoactive plant remedies can

be paired: there is always a basic sensation and its opposite (for example, activity and inactivity). This pairing of sensations is, according to Sankaran (2005c), peculiar to the Plant Kingdom only.

The common sensations extracted were:

Activity / Inactivity

Sensitivity / Insensitivity

Confusion / Clarity

Expansion / Contraction

Emptiness / Fullness

Lightness / Heaviness

Heat / Cold

Dryness / Moisture.

In order to confirm the extracted sensations, they were defined and their synonyms listed. To prevent duplicating a single concept, synonymous sensations were taken as one.

For example, restlessness and increased efficiency are taken to be one with the sensation of ‘activity’. A keyword search of them was then carried out using to search homoeopathic literature and material medica. Note that this search also searches all the derivatives of the inputted words. For example, if the word sleep is inputted, then the words sleeping, sleepy and asleep is also searched.

4.2.1

The 1st order analysis of the sensation Activity - Inactivity:

SENSATION                        DEFINITION

Activity                                  Active - Consisting in or marked by action; energetic; diligent. Able to move about or accomplish practical tasks. Working, operative.

Originating action; not merely passive or inert.

Activity - The condition of being active or moving about. The exertion of energy; vigorous action.

Inactivity                                Inactive - Not active or not inclined to act. Passive. Indolent.

Sensation                        SYNONYMOUS SENSATIONS FOUND IN RUBRICS

Activity                                  Involuntary motions, restlessness, cannot sleep, increased efficiency, increased reflexes, convulsive motions, jerking, trembling, vigor,

agility, crawling, shaking, tingling, surging, rattling, moaning, heat is active (burning, boiling), electric shock sensations, pains are

active (tearing, stitching, cracking, boring, cutting, drawing), ailments from activity (from motion, riding in a boat, travelling), mind (vivacious,

extravagant, talking in sleep, abundant ideas, laughing, elated, mania), attempts to escape, hurry, thoughts rush, undertaking many things, desire

for amusement.

Inactivity                                Paralysis, atrophy, unconscious, torpor, faint, weak, softening, incoordination, sleepiness, morphinism, death apparent, facial expression shows inactivity

                                               (vacant, stupid, desire to close eyes, intoxicated, sleepy, besotted), confusion and loss of memory shows weakness/inactivity of mind, depersonalization,

                                               laziness, dullness of mind, slow speech.

 

SYNONYMOUS SENSATIONS FOUND IN RUBRICS

The most prominent sensations found related to activity and inactivity and these sensations pervade many of the other extracted sensations. For example, expansion, contraction, heat,

pain, sensitivity, clarity and confusion of mind are all active sensations while sensations such as emptiness, numbness and insensitivity are inactive.

Physical sensations are active: trembling, jerking, crawling, shaking, surging, tingling, rattling; heat is experienced as burning, boiling; and pains are tearing, cracking, cutting.

Mind there is also increased activity: vivacity, extravagance, abundance of ideas, restlessness and sleeplessness, the undertaking of many things, hallucinations and visions.

Examples of objective signs of increased activity incl. perspiration, flushing or red discoloration of the face and a “wild” facial expression.

The opposite of activity and inactivity, or decreased activity, is found physically in paralysis, weakness, softening, incoordination, sleepiness, sopor, impotence and unconsciousness

whilst in the mental sphere there is loss of memory, slow speech, dullness of mind and laziness. Patients requiring the psychoactive plant remedies also show objective signs of

inactivity: facial expression is dull, stupid or vacant, eyes droop and there is a look of intoxication. Furthermore, a major modality in these remedies is that of motion: conditions are either

< o. > by motion.

Psychoactive plants and hallucinogenic substances affect mood, perception and behaviour by inducing either activity or inactivity.

For example:

Peyote (Anhalonium lewinii) has a hallucinatory effect and induces a sense of wakefulness and hypersensitivity, increasing the pulse rate, blood pressure and body temperature;

The extracted rubrics show that the sensation of activity-inactivity is present in Anhalonium lewinii in the form of increased reflexes, sleeplessness, crawling sensations, numbness of the skin and the modality of being aggravated by movement. The literature search via supported this with phrases such as:

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Great disinclination to move. > lying down.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Eyelids droop; they scarcely move the lips.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Lazy contentment; "a land where it is always afternoon."

Cannabis (Cannabis indica) induces a sense of relaxation and calm; has the common sensation of activity in the form of increased reflexes; surging sensations; trembling and shaking; pains

that are fore-jerking, pressing, drawing, cutting, stitching, electric-like shocks; and tingling. On the other hand, it also has many inactive sensations: numbness, sleepy expression,

sleeplessness, atrophy, intoxicated expression, weakness, vacant expression, paralysis, unconsciousness, softening and the modality of being ameliorated by rest.

The literature search demonstrates this with phrases such as:

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - at night, restless sleep, frequent waking, confused, sometimes anxious dreams

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Rest gives general relief; great desire to lie down in daytime.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - During sleep: starting; talking; grinding teeth; nightmare.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Felt so weak that he could scarcely speak, and soon fell into a deep sleep.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Lazy and indolent throughout the body.

Coffee (Coffea cruda) has an excitatory effect, increasing alertness, arousal and basal metabolism;

Coffea cruda has rubrics of active sensations such as surging; restlessness and sleeplessness; tingling; pains that are stitching, pressing and tearing; vigor; trembling; agility and shaking.

It also has inactive sensations: waking impossible; emaciation of mammae; faintness; sleepiness; dullness; and paralysis. Modalities include aggravations by movement or excitement. The literature search via included some of the following phrases:

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Unusual activity of mind and body.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Great flexibility of the muscles, and activity of the whole body.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Shuddering with colic and violent agitation.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Mind ... clear and is active, he feels strong enough to do anything, feels impelled to push things

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Cheerfulness; lively temper; mirthful.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - from every motion, violent pain in groins, fever, bright red face.

Nutmeg - Nux moschata

Activity is found in Nux moschata in terms of: pains that are stitching, pressing, boring, pressing, electric-shock like, cramping, cutting and jerking; there is shaking, trembling,

twitching and crawling; involuntary motions; sleeplessness; and falling sensations and rolling motions of the head. < from motion is present. However, the sensation of inactivity is far more dominant in this remedy: there is faintness, emaciation, sleepiness, dullness, atrophy, weakness, paralysis; a sleepy, besotted or intoxicated expression; relaxation of limbs; difficult speech; tremulous voice; softening and torpor.

Nutmeg (Nux moschata) is hallucinogenic and in large doses can lead to seizures;

Examples taken from the literature search are:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Great agitation of muscular system.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Spasms, hysterics in inner parts; chronic hysteric fits; convulsive motions.

PHATAK S., Materia Medica of Homoeopathic Medicines - Brain feels loose; striking the sides, on motion.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - All ailments + by sleepiness.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Lassitude, esp. in loins and knees, as after a long journey, with inclination to sleep.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Affections + a desire to sleep and a tendency to faint away.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Great sleepiness with all complaints, particularly with pains.

Opium (Papaver somniferum) is one of the best known narcotics (drowsiness, sleep and stupor).

With the purpose of validating the common sensations of activity and inactivity, the following words were used as a keyword search:

Opium is a well-documented homoeopathic remedy and hence there were many rubrics containing the sensations of activity and inactivity.

However, what is interesting in this remedy is that there is a merging of these two opposing sensations.

The following examples taken from demonstrate this:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Seems sleepy but cannot sleep.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Urgent inclination to sleep, with absolute inability to go to sleep.

In the remedy there is much sleeplessness, restlessness, vigor, increased activity, agility, increased efficiency, increased reflexes, electric-like shocks, jumping movements, twitching,

trembling, shaking, motions of hither and thither, rattling, motions of wagging, falling or rolling of head, involuntary motion and convulsions.

Opium is an important pain remedy and used for ‘active’ pains such as those that are tightening, cramping, pressing, cutting, tearing and jerking.

In his Materia Medica Pura, Hahnemann wrote that “opium eaters are always lazy and intoxicated” and when used as a psychoactive drug, is a great narcotic, inducing sleep and stupor. This lack of activity is evident is sensations of faintness, paralysis, sleepiness, relaxation, weakness, falling asleep, comatose, softening, torpor, being unable to hold one’s head up, impossible waking, semi-consciousness, thick/slurred speech, atrophy and numbness. The facial expression in these rubrics is stupid, besotted, sleepy or intoxicated. An important modality of Opium is that it is < during and after sleep.

The following phrases demonstrating this activity/inactivity in Opium are taken from the literature search :

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - convulsive movement of muscles of face, corners of mouth, and limbs.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Sleeplessness, with anxious tossing, restlessness, and delirium.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - much raving, hot skin and stupefaction, during which he lies in a heap.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Activity of mind.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Cheerfulness, liveliness, contentment, increased strength.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Constipation from inactivity of the intestines.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Retention of urine, as from inactivity of the bladder.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - greatest anxiety and restlessness; constantly changing position; face hot; pulse slow.

 

Sensitivity / Insensitivity

The first order analysis of the sensation

Sensitivity - Insensitivity is shown as follows:

SENSATION                                    DEFINITION

Sensitivity                                          Sensitive - Very open to or acutely affected by external stimuli or mental impressions; having sensibility. Easily offended or emotionally hurt. Readily

                                                           affected by or responsive to external action.

Sensitivity The quality or degree of being sensitive.

Insensitivity                                       Insensitive - Unfeeling, boorish, crass. Not sensitive to physical stimuli.

Insensibility - Unconsciousness. A lack of mental feeling or emotion; hardness.

SENSATION                                    SYNONYMOUS SENSATIONS FOUND IN RUBRICS

Sensitivity                                          Oversensitive to, ailments from injuries or emotions, acute, ailments aggravated or person disturbed easily (by temperatures, noise, odors, emotions,

excitement, joy, anger, fright), easily disturbed, irritability, waking from slight noise, shock, emotional (fears, sadness, weeping, laughing, hysteria, benevolence).

Insensitivity                                       Indifference, want of sensitiveness, vanishing of senses.

 

According to Sankaran (2006), the essence of the Plant Kingdom is that of sensitivity and sensitivity-insensitivity are essential sensations found throughout all five psychoactive plant

remedies. These sensations pervade many of the other common sensations, for example, sensitivity is connected to activity and pain while insensitivity is connected to inactivity and numbness. The psychoactive plants from which these remedies are derived are also known for their ability to either increase or decrease an individual’s sensitivity.

Both peyote (Anhalonium lewinii) and nutmeg (Nux moschata) produce hypersensitivity while the caffeine in coffee increases alertness, visual acuity and auditory vigiliance.

The THC in Cannabis indica has an analgesic effect and sufficiently high doses of it heighten and even distort the senses. Opioids such as morphine are used medically as analgesics.

 

This sensation of sensitivity - insensitivity is seen in the extracted rubrics:

The rubric ‘Mind, Ailments from, joy, sudden’ has only two remedies in it and both of these are psychoactive plant remedies, Coffea cruda and Opium.

The rubric ‘Hearing, Acute - stepping - every step; at’ also only has two remedies in it, both of which are psychoactive plant remedies, Coffea cruda and Nux moschata.

The rubric ‘Hearing, Acute, Voices and talking’ contains four out of the five studied psychoactive plant remedies (Anhalonium lewinii, Coffea cruda, Nux moschata and Opium) as well as other psychoactive plant remedies including Asarum europaeum and Atropa belladonna.

To validate the common sensations of sensitivity and insensitivity, the following words were used as a keyword search in RadarOpus (Archibel, 2014):

Sensitive, tender, delicate, aware, perceptive, feeling, reactive, vulnerable, responsive, touchy.

Insensitive, insensible, imperceptive, obtuse, impassive, unaware, oblivious, drugged.

Anhalonium Lewinii Vermeulen (2000: 106). writes that Anhalonium lewinii’s most striking effects appear in the auditory nerve for it makes each note upon the piano a center of melody” and that hearing becomes an “an exaggerated reverberation of ordinary sounds”.

Anhalonium lewinii has acute hearing and is aggravated by noise.

It also has the sensation of numbness, which is a lack of sensitivity, in its skin rubrics. In the literature search , sensitivity in this remedy is seen in the following:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Generalities - Extreme muscular depression; don't want to stir; whole body feels relaxed.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Characteristics ... shares the feeling of an electric current of X-ray.

Cannabis indica is extremely sensitive to noise, touch and light and “all sensations and emotions are exaggerated to the utmost degree” (Vermeulen, 2000: 369). Like Anhalonium lewinii, it is also found in the rubric ‘Skin, Numbness’ and the sensations of sensitivity - insensitivity were evident in the literature search.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathcicateria Medica - all perceptions and conceptions, all sensations and all emotions are exaggerated.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Clairvoyance and clairaudience; extreme sensitiveness to noise.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Soreness of scalp to touch.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Sensitiveness of right eye to light.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Lips feel as if glued together.

PHATAK S., Materia Medica of Homoeopathic Medicines - Acute stage of gonorrhoea, - urethra sensitive; walks with legs apart

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Hearing - Extreme sensitiveness to noise. Hearing very acute.

Coffea Cruda

Recognised by its extreme sensitiveness and all senses are heightened to the point that it has extremely acute hearing and noise becomes painful.

Coffea cruda’s unusual sensitivity leads to illness and pain and it develops ailments from emotions such as joy, fright, anger or excitement (‘Rectum, Diarrhoea - joy; from sudden’);

ailments < emotions as well as noise, touch and cold air; and its sleep is easily disturbed by even the slightest sound. Moreover, Coffea cruda is so sensitive, and feels things so acutely, that it cannot tolerate pain and they become beside themselves with pain and despair.

The search revealed the following:

ALLEN H., Keynotes and Characteristics with Comparisons - all the senses more acute, sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Extreme sensitiveness characterises this remedy.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Generalities ... the pains are felt intensely, driving to despair, and inclination to weep.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Oversensitiveness.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Great sensitiveness to touch or contact.

KENT J., Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica - It is most astonishing sometimes about this great sensitiveness.

KENT J., Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Coffea has a painful sensitiveness of the skin beyond comprehension.

Nux moschata

Nutmeg a remedy used for extreme sensitivity and Vermeulen (2000: 1144) writes “One hypersensitive patient to whom I gave a single dose of Nux-m.30, said it seemed

to put a coat of cotton wool over her”.

Like Coffea cruda, Nux moschata’s whole body is oversensitive; they have very acute hearing; and very sensitive to emotions, cold and touch. The following evidence was found.

ALLEN H., Keynotes and Characteristics with Comparisons - Oversensitive: to light; of hearing; of smell; to touch.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Materia Medica - Sensitive to slightest touch in a draught of air.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - The symptoms are aggravated by touch.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Excessively painful sensitiveness of whole body; even on lying on a soft couch.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - stupor, insensibility, and unconquerable desire to sleep

Opium

Opium is extremely sensitive to emotions, with ailments either developing from, or < joy, fright, anger, grief and excitement (for example, ‘Head, Pain, joy - from excessive’).

Also < noise and, like Coffea cruda, sleep is quickly disturbed by even the slightest noise (‘Sleep, Light - hears every sound’).

Opium is sensitive to pain (‘Head, pain - tearing asunder’) and can feel pain so acutely that it can become unconscious with the pain, hence moving into the sensation of insensitivity.

Evidence from includes:

ALLEN H., Keynotes and Characteristics with Comparisons - Ailments with insensibility and partial or complete paralysis; that originate from fright.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - shown in the insensibility of the nervous system, the depression, drowsy stupor.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Want of susceptibility to drugs; want of vital reaction.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - fancy, with faint-heartedness along with over-sensitiveness of the general sensibility

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medic - exalted sensitiveness and timidity; sensitiveness to fright and other emotions.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Bed feels so hot she cannot lie on it.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Insensibility to modesty and the finer feelings

KENT J., Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica - increases sensitiveness to noise, so that he says he can almost hear the flies walking

PHATAK S., Materia Medica of Homoeopathic Medicines - Deceptive; vision, taste, touch; perversion of all senses.

 

Pain - Numbness

The first order analysis of the sensation

Sensation of Pain - Numbness

SENSATION                        DEFINITION

Pain                                        Pain - The range of unpleasant body sensations produced by illness or harmful physical contact. Mental suffering or distress.

Numbness                              Numb Deprived of feeling or the power of motion. To make numb. Stupefy, paralyze.

SENSATION                        SYNONYMOUS SENSATIONS FOUND IN RUBRICS

Pain -                                      Tearing, stitching, cracking, boring, cutting, drawing, moaning.

Numbness -                            Painless, analgesia.

 

Plant drugs such as Opium, Nux moschata and Cannabis indicus are used for their analgesic effects, yet incorrect doses or withdrawal from addiction induces hypersensitivity and pain.

Moreover, these drugs are often used by people seeking escape from pain, be it physical or psychological/emotional. Pain and numbness are common sensations found in the

psychoactive plant remedies and, once again, they can be connected to the sensations of activity - inactivity and sensitivity - insensitivity. Pains in these remedies are active pains such

as cutting, boring, cramping, tearing, pressing, bursting and stitching and they are felt with such sensitivity and acuteness that individuals cry out, cannot sleep or become unconscious

with the pain (moving into the sensations of inactivity and insensitivity).

In order to validate the common sensations of pain and numbness, the following words were used as a keyword search:

 

Pain, discomfort, malaise, distress, stress, hurt, suffering, anguish, agony, torture, torment, ache, pang, tenderness, grief

Numbness, insensitive, insensible, anaesthesia, analgesia, unfeeling, impassive, deadened

 

Anhalonium Lewinii

Results of the keyword search for the common sensations of pain and numbness include the following examples for the remedy Anhalonium lewinii (RadarOpus: Archibel, 2014)

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Head: Persistent ache and tired feeling

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - symptoms such as numbness, formication and anaesthesia

Cannabis indica

Results of the keyword search for the common sensations of pain and numbness include the following examples for the remedy Cannabis indica (RadarOpus: Archibel, 2014)

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Piercing pain, with great oppression.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Pain across shoulders and spine; must stoop; cannot walk erect.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Pains in kidneys when laughing.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Head ...dull, heavy, throbbing pain, with sensation as from a blow, on back of head and neck.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Constant pain on the top of the head, as if a stone lay on it.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Pain behind the right ear as if a blunt point were violently thrust in.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - In the right hypochondrium a painful hard swelling.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - whole penis pains when walking as if excoriated and as if scalded.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Left: weariness and paralysis of legs; numb feeling in foot.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Skin ..pricking over whole body with numbness, often pleasurable.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Tension in skin of head and face. Skin clammy, insensible.

Coffea cruda

Results of the keyword search for the common sensations of pain and numbness include the following examples for the remedy Coffea cruda.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - All kinds of pains are intolerable; and are accompanied with fear of death.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - sometimes burning, integument of head very sensitive and painful

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - as if intestines were being cut; as if body would burst; "tight" pain; sensation of warmth.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - throbbing toothache; run about crying and complain of insupportable pain

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Tears, howls, cries, tossing and discouragement, esp. during the paroxysm of pain.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Laming pain: in small of back.

KENT J., Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Coffea has a painful sensitiveness of the skin beyond comprehension.

Nux moschata

Results of the keyword search for the common sensations of pain and numbness include the following examples for the remedy Nux moschata.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Pains as if bruised, sprained, wrenched; as if bones smashed.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Coldness and fainting with pains; esp. headache.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - as if brain struck against sides of head; temples sensitive to touch, his head felt hot.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Crampy, forcing down pains in bowels and anus.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Pain in legs from knees to ankles, as if bone had been smashed, could hardly walk.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Driving - asunder pain: in occiput.

KENT J., Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica - there is numbness, tingling, prickling, paralytic weakness; there is threatened paralysis

PHATAK S., Materia Medica of Homoeopathic Medicines - Mouth: Tongue numb, paralyzed, speech difficult.

Opium

Results of the keyword search for the common sensations of pain and numbness include the following examples for the remedy Opium.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Violent pain in rectum, as if pressed asunder.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - sharp pain which caused vomiting and a desire to sit doubled up and keep warm

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Pressive pains in the abdomen, as if the intestines would be cut to pieces.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Squeezing pains as if something were forced through a narrow space; shooting pain...

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - pain so severe as to compel him to lie on floor

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Absence of pain during attacks.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Paralysis without pain.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Generalities: General insensibility of whole nervous system.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Generalities: Feeling of numbness in the outer parts; of some kind of obstruction of inner parts

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - The pupils are dilated and insensible to light, contracted or sluggish.

KENT J., Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica - numbness or lack of sensibility in the ulcer that ought to be sensitive

KENT J., Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Insensibility in parts that are in a high grade of inflammation.

PHATAK S., Materia Medica of Homoeopathic Medicines - producing insensibility of nerves; painlessness, depression; drowsy stupor; torpidity

 

Confusion - Clarity

The first order analysis of this sensation

SENSATION                                    DEFINITION

Lack of Clarity / Confusion                   Confuse - Disconcert, perplex, bewilder, embarrass. Mix up in the mind, mistake. Make indistinct. Mentally decrepit. Throw into disorder.

Confusion - The act of confusing. An instance of this; a misunderstanding. The result of confusing; a confused state; disorder; a disorderly jumble.

Clarity                                               Clear - Lustrous; shining; free from obscurity. Not dull. Distinct, easily perceived by the senses. Unambiguous, easily understood. Manifest; not

                                                           confused or doubtful. That discerns or is able to discern readily and accurately. Confident, convinced, certain. Free from guilt.

Clarity - The state or quality of being clear (sound or expression).

SENSATION                                    SYNONYMOUS SENSATIONS FOUND IN RUBRICS

Confusion                                          Delusions, hallucinations, weakness of memory, forgetful, vanishing of thoughts, does not recognize well known streets, delirium, answering

                                                           incorrectly, insanity, everything seems strange, confused speech, nonsensical speech, as if in a dream, everything seems unreal, mind runs about.

Clarity                                               Acute, alert, easy comprehension, mental power increased, vivid, lucid

 

The sensations of clarity and lack of clarity/confusion are evident in the studied psychoactive plant remedies as well as in the effects of the plant drugs themselves: Anh., Cann-i., Nux-m. and Opium all induce ‘highs’, delusions and hallucinations; long-term side effects of cannabis, nutmeg and opium include problems with memory and cognition; and coffee increases mental clarity and alertness.

A lack of clarity pervades these plant remedies as delusions, hallucinations, weakness or loss of memory, vanishing of thoughts, delirium, insanity, confused or nonsensical speech and the experience of everything being in a dream or unreal. On the other hand, clarity is evident in alertness, acuteness, easy comprehension and increased mental power.

The following rubrics contain only three remedies, all of which are psychoactive plant remedies (two included in this study):

Mind: DELUSIONS - familiar things seem strange - ludicrous, are (Cann-i. Nux-m. Hyos.).

Mind: SPEECH - unintelligible speech with vertigo (Nux-m. Op. Bell.).

Four out of the five psychoactive plant remedies are found in the following rubrics taken from the Mind chapter:

COMPREHENSION - easy

CONFUSION of identity, sense of duality

To confirm the common sensations of confusion and clarity, the following words were used as a keyword search:

Confusion, uncertain, doubt, bewilderment, shock, disorder, chaos, turmoil, unintelligible, puzzlement, daze.

Clarity, clear, intelligible, certain, understand, recognize, express, lucid, transparent, accurate, coherent.

4.2.4.1

Anhalonium Lewinii

In terms or rubrics, both Anhalonium lewinii and Cannabis indica are full of delusions pervaded by the sensation of confusion: believes hearing music, has two wills, is merging with his/her environment, is transparent, has wonderful visions, is out of the body, is double, errors or confusion of personal identity, time is exaggerated, everything is strange or unreal. They also have a sense of confusion as to time and space and a weak memory.

On the other hand, they both have the rubrics of easy comprehension and increased mental power. In addition to these rubrics, the following examples taken from the literature search validate the sensations of confusion - clarity in Anhalonium lewinii:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Senses, disordered.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Visions, disorders of; coloured.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - time sense disordered; fantastic visions.

4.2.4.2

Cannabis Indica

The following examples taken from the literature search validate the sensations of confusion-clarity in Cannabis indica:

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Anaesthesia; while standing is not conscious of touching ground.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - time sense disordered.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Mind: Very absent minded. Every few minutes he would lose himself, and then wake up

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Confusion and dullness of the head.

4.2.4.3

Coffea cruda has rubrics pertaining to easy comprehension, wittiness, mental agility, alertness, abundance of ideas, making many plans and clarity of mind as well as clarity of

chill and perspiration. However, it also has rubrics of dullness on reading, vanishing of senses, weakness of memory, lost control of thoughts, instability of thoughts, confusion of

not knowing where he/she is and confusion of chill. Examples taken from the literature search via include:

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Mind: Memory active, easy comprehension; increased power to think.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Eyes lively and red, with unusually clear sight; can read small writing more distinctly.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Memory becomes very acute.

4.2.4.4

Nux moschata

Confusion predominates in Nux moschata. There is weakness of memory, lost control of thoughts, confusion of walking, instability or vanishing of thoughts, confusion of not

knowing where he/she is, dullness while reading or with sleepiness, vanishing of senses, confusion of his/her identity, confusion as to time and space and the making of mistakes in

time or space.

Nux moschata also has many delusions pertaining to confusion: such as delusions of being out of the body or of being double; and sensations that everything is strange or ludicrous.

Clarity is not found in Nux moschata and it is the only analyzed psychoactive plant remedy that is not found in the rubric ‘Mind: Comprehension - easy’.

The sensation of confusion was validated by the literature search :

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Mind: stands in a dazed condition.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - does not recognize well-known streets.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Mind: as from absence of mind; vanishing of thoughts in reading.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - forgetfulness; absence of mind; gradual vanishing of thoughts when reading

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Mind: remains standing in one place, absent-minded; appears quite changed to his companions.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica: Mind as from complete absence of mind, does not know where he is nor what to answer.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Mind: Senselessness, intoxicated condition, with absence of mind.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Sensorium... lightness and emptiness of head; reeling when walking in open air; swimming in head.

ALLEN H., Keynotes and Characteristics with Comparisons - Absence of mind; cannot think; great indifference to everything.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - One man had complete loss of memory of his past life, and did not recover it for a week.

KENT J., Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica - appears to be dazed; there is a complete loss of memory; she is automatic in her actions.

4.2.4.5

Opium contains rubrics that demonstrate clarity or a lack of clarity. It has absurd and ludicrous delusions, insanity, irrationality, delirium, confused memory, inability to answer,

instability or vanishing of thoughts, answering incorrectly and speech that is delirious, confused or unintelligible.

Opium also says he/she is well when very sick, does not recognize his/her relatives and finds familiar things strange or ludicrous. On the other hand, clarity in eloquence, wittiness, abundance of ideas, mental agility, the making of many plans, easy comprehension and clarity of mind, chill and perspiration. Examples from the literature search include:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Head bewildered, as after intoxication.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - thought and writing difficult.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - uncommonly accurate judgment.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - weakness of the understanding.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - a stupid expression.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - cannot recognize people.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Confusion in head, with sensation of heat in eyes, and necessity to shut them.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Head: Great confusion, dullness and heaviness of head making thought and writing difficult.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - he is sleepy, dazed, stupefied, sad, and his memory fails him.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - dullness, sadness, weak memory; after mental shocks or injuries.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Sleepless night with restlessness and talking nonsense.

This lack of clarity/confusion is also seen in Opium’s insensibility to his/her own condition.

For example, his/her mouth is dry but he/she has no thirst or his/her mind is tranquil despite his/her sufferings:

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - dryness of the fauces without thirst, and liveliness of the ideas and memory.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Tranquillity of mind, with agreeable reveries, and forgetfulness of sufferings.

 

4.2.5

Expansion - Contraction

The first order analysis of the sensation

Expansion - Contraction

is

Sensation of Expansion - Contraction

SENSATION                                                           DEFINITION

Expansion                                                                 Expand - Increase in size or bulk or importance. Give a fuller description or account.

Become more genial or effusive; discard one’s reserve.

Expansion - The act or an instance of expanding; the state of being expanded.

Contraction

Contract - Make or become smaller.

Contraction - The act of contracting. Shrinking, diminution.

SENSATION                                                            SYNONYMOUS SENSATIONS FOUND IN RUBRICS

Expansion                                                                 Distension, enlargement, swelling, spaced-out.

Contraction                                                               Constriction/convulsion/convulsive motions/stiffness/spasmodic/tightening/obstructed/drawing up/cramping/stricture/paroxysmal, > loosening

                                                                                  clothing, pinched face.

 

Psychoactive drugs induce a sense of expansion, of emptiness and lightness in the ‘high’ they give and antithetical sensations to this often occur when they ‘come down from the high’ and return to a normal state. These sensations are evident in rubrics extracted from all five drugs. For example, there are sensations of expansion, distension, enlargement, swelling, being ‘spaced-out’, emptiness and lightness. The following rubrics validate this sensation of expansion and enlargement. Note that other psychoactive plant drugs were also found in these rubrics.

Mind: DELUSIONS - parts of body seem too large: Anh. Cann-i. Nux-m. Op. Bapt. Bell. Hyos.

Mind: DELUSIONS - parts of body enlarged: Anh. Cann-i. Nux-m. Op. Bapt. Bell. Hyos. Stram.

Mind: DELUSIONS - space expanded: Cann-i. Nux-m.

Mind: DELUSIONS - is three persons: Cann-i. Nux-m. Bapt. Anac.

Mind: DELUSIONS - everything looks: Cann-i. Op. Atrop. Hyos.

Mind: DELUSIONS - is swollen: Cann-i. Op. Bapt.

Mind: DELUSIONS - objects are: enlarged: Cann-i. Anh. Atrop.

Note: this rubric contains only 4 remedies: 3 being psychoactive plants or their derivatives and the 4th Agar. = a psychoactive fungus

 

Opposite sensations were also found in the rubrics: contraction, constriction, convulsion, convulsive motions, stiffness, spasmodic motions, tightening, being obstructed, drawing up,

cramping, strictures, paroxysms, heaviness, oppression, sensations of having a ball or lump or being impeded, stopped, obstructed or bursting. Objective symptoms reiterating this

sensation are that certain conditions are better for loosening clothing and some rubrics describe a ‘pinched’ facial expression.

In order to validate the common sensations of expansion and contraction, the following words were used as a keyword search in RadarOpus (Archibel, 2014):

 

Expand, enlarge, increase, distend, dilate, inflate, swell.

Contract, lessen, deflate, decrease, shrink, shorten, condense, compress, stenosis, constrict, atrophy, cramp.

 

4.2.5.1

Anhalonium Lewinii

The following example, found , demonstrates the common sensations of expansion and contraction:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Eye: Pupils dilated.

4.2.5.2

Cannabis indica

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of expansion and contraction:

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Sensation of extreme tension in abdominal vessels - feel distended to bursting.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Mind ... gradually swelling, his body becoming larger and larger.

KENT J., Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica - The limbs and parts seem enlarged.

KENT J., Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Flatulence, distending abdomen, > eructations.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Male sexual organs: Penis relaxed and shrunken.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Stupefying compressive pain on the left side of the chin.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Cramp-like pain in the teeth on the left side of the lower jaw.

4.2.5.3

Coffea cruda

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of expansion and contraction:

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Sight and eyes: Pupils dilated.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Distended abdomen, extreme emaciation; in summer complaint. Incarcerated hernia.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Upper limbs: Cramp-like contractions of the fingers.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Voice and larynx: Spasmodic constriction of larynx.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Sensations Constriction: of chest; of larynx.

4.2.5.4

Nux moschata

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of expansion and contraction:

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Feeling of expansion, with sleepiness.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Enormously distended.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Pupils dilated, eyes staring, face pale, respiration laboured.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Puffiness, swellings, dropsy of outer parts.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Sensation of swelling of cheek; sensation of lump in abdomen

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Head:convulsively drawn from one side to the other, distorts his face.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Face: Compression of jaws.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Sight and eyes: pupils dilated and immovable or contracted, with sensation of fullness in eyes.

4.2.5.5

Opium

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of expansion and contraction:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Head ... shut, pupils dilated and insensible, foam at mouth, convulsive movements of limbs.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Eye: Swelling of lower lids.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Abdomen hard, and distended, as in tympanites.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica Generalities: Dropsical swelling of whole body.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Constriction of anus.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Eye: Pupils contracted.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Face: Cramps in jaw.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Tension and constriction of chest.

 

4.2.6

Emptiness- Fullness

The first order analysis of the sensation Emptiness - Fullness is shown.

Sensation of Emptiness - Fullness

SENSATION                                               DEFINITION

Emptiness                                                      Empty - Containing nothing. Without substance or purpose. Devoid, lacking.

Fullness                                                         Full - Holding all its limits will. Abundant, copious, satisfying, sufficient. Complete, perfect, reaching the specified or usual or utmost limit.

Fullness - Being full.

SENSATION                                               SYNONYMOUS SENSATIONS FOUND IN RUBRICS

Emptiness                                                      No synonymous sensations were found in the original rubrics, only emptiness was found.

Fullness

Ball, lump, stopped, bursting, obstruction, impeded.

The sensations of emptiness and fullness are found in the psychoactive plant remedies, for example:

The rubric ‘Extremities: Emptiness; sensation of - upper limbs’, contains 2 remedies and both of them are psychoactive plant remedies:

Op. and Coff.

In the rubric ‘Abdomen: Ball, sensation of a - liver - in’, 2 of the 4 remedies are psychoactive plant remedies: Nux-m. Op.

3 of the 5 psychoactive plant remedies studied here are found in the rubric ‘Vertigo: Walking - gliding in the air; with sensation “As if feet did not touch the Ground”.

In the mental plane, these remedies also experience emptiness and fullness.

For example, there is: Absence of sexual enjoyment in Cann-i. and Nux-m.; Vanishing of thoughts in Cann-i. and Nux-m.;

 

Abundance of ideas at night in Coffea cruda and Opium.

In order to validate the common sensations of emptiness and fullness, the following words were used as a keyword search.

Empty, vacant, absent, void, featureless, unoccupied, hollow.

Full, complete, saturated, integrated, whole, comprehensive, plump, resonant.

4.2.6.1

Anhalonium Lewinii

The following example, found demonstrates the common sensations of emptiness and fullness:

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Characteristics ... Complete absence of will.

4.2.6.2

Cannabis indica

The following examples, found, demonstrate the common sensations of emptiness and fullness:

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Mind... brain. Very absent-minded. Every few minutes he would lose himself.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Fullness and throbbing in both ears.

KENT J., Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica - His mind is full of unfinished ideas, and phantoms.

4.2.6.3

Coffea cruda

The following examples, demonstrate the common sensations of emptiness and fullness:

ALLEN H., Keynotes and Characteristics with Comparisons - Full of ideas; quick to act, no sleep on this account.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Heart, pulse ...Pulse full and frequent.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Mind ... ideas, as from absence of mind; vanishing of thoughts

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Head: Emptiness and faint feeling at 17.30 h.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Male sexual organs...Absence of erections, even while indulging in voluptuous thoughts.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Sensorium... lightness and emptiness of head; reeling when walking in open air; swimming in head.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Head feels full, expanded; as if it would burst.

4.2.6.4

Opium

The following examples demonstrate the common sensations of emptiness and fullness:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - inertia, torpor, absence of sensation, absence of reaction.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Respiratory organs:Violent, dry, hollow cough, < after repose.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Time...morning: distressing feeling of emptiness in stomach.

Light, weightless, floating, buoyed, rarefied.

Heavy, gravity, weight, ponderous, cumbersome, dense, oppression, burden.

4.2.7.1

Anhalonium Lewinii

Although the literature search did not substantiate the sensations of lightness - heaviness in Anhalonium lewinii, the initial rubric extraction did and this remedy experiences heaviness

in the face and tongue.

4.2.7.2

Cannabis Indica

The following examples, found, demonstrate the common sensations of lightness and heaviness:

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Sensations: Feeling of lightness or buoyancy; as if he was raised from ground and could fly away.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Mind ... vertigo as if floating off.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Head: Heavy pressure on the brain, forcing him to stoop.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Chest...oppression of chest, with deep, labored breathing.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - After a meal her feet are very heavy.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Head feels heavy, loses consciousness and falls.

4.2.7.3

Coffea cruda

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of lightness and heaviness:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Abdomen: Anxiety and oppression in the region of the epigastrium.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Abdomen: clothes are oppressive.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Respiration: Oppression of chest; short inspiration; chest heaves visibly.

4.2.7.4

Nux moschata

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of lightness and heaviness:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Limbs as if floating in the air.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Vertigo ... nausea. With lightness and emptiness of head; weak, limbs numb, feels as if floating in.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - obliged to move her head with her hands, "it being too large and heavy for her body."

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Upper face: Eyes dull, heavy looking; distressed look.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Hypochondria... Diaphragmitis; oppression of chest, like a pressive load, dry cough, loss of breath

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Nerves: Unconscious, rigid; slow, heavy breathing; writhing in clonic spasm; opisthotonos.

4.2.7.5

Opium

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of lightness and heaviness:

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - as if he flew or floated in the air

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Mind ... delusion body is lighter than air.

Sees masks. Amorous ecstasy.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Vertigo... with sensation as if flying or hovering in air.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Sleep: Falls into a heavy stupid sleep.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Abdomen: Weight in abdomen, as of a load.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - The head is heavy, and as if intoxicated (for 12 hours).

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - days very heavy head, the occiput like lead, so that the head always fell back.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - As of a weight in abdomen (as from a stone in umbilical region).

 

4.2.8

Heat - Cold

SENSATION                                               DEFINITION

Heat                                                              Heat - sensation or perception of being hot.

Cold                                                              Cold - of or at a low or relatively low temperature, not heated, feeling cold.

SENSATION                                               SYNONYMOUS SENSATIONS FOUND IN RUBRICS

Heat                                                              Burning, boiling.

Cold                                                              Coldness.

 

The sensation of heat is an active sensation that is also connected to those of expansion and lightness: when a substance is heated its particles become more active, tend to rise, and

the substance expands. Likewise, the sensation of cold is connected to those of contraction and heaviness or density. Heat and cold are found in all five psychoactive plant remedies

both as sensations and modalities. For example, the extracted rubrics demonstrate that:

Nux moschata and Opium experience heat in the head: ‘

Head, heat - vapor, “As from warmth”’

Cold weather < toothache: Coff. Nux-m.

A burning pain on the tongue “As if from pepper”: Cann-i- Op.

 

In order to validate the common sensations of heat and cold, following words were used as a keyword search.

Heat, warm, hot, temperature, passion, intensity, excitement, agitation, anger, fury.

Cold, cool, fresh, chilly, numb, unfriendly, frigid, indifferent, unfeeling.

4.2.8.1

Anhalonium lewinii

The literature search did not substantiate the sensations of heat and cold in Anhalonium lewinii; however, the initial rubric extraction did:

‘Mouth, Coldness - tongue’.

4.2.8.2

Cannabis indica

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of heat and cold:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica: Neck and back: warmth in spine extending to head.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Agreeable warmth in the brain.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - a furious passion over it; during the rigor, some warmth in the back and feet.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - The whole body is cold, but the face grows always warmer and warmer.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Sensation of warmth in stomach.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Modalities: >: fresh air/cold water/rest.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Urine loaded with slimy mucus after exposure to damp and cold.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - At the anus a sensation as if something cold dropped out on the skin.

4.2.8.3

Coffea cruda

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of heat and cold:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Heat of the face, with redness of the cheeks.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Fever...Internal chilliness, with external heat of the face and body.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Fever...Dry heat in the evening after going to bed, with chilliness in the back.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - .toothache, entirely > by holding cold water in mouth, returning as this becomes warm.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Trembling of hands, with heat in palms and coldness of backs of hands.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - The body is colder than usual though no chills are experienced

4.2.8.4

Nux moschata

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of heat and cold:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - There is a cough occurring only when warm in bed, or < then

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Heat; < hot summer (summer complaint of children)

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Headache from inward heat, with burning.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Heat in face with slight redness of cheeks.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Stomach: Sensation of heat, and of burning pain in stomach.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - The symptoms < cold air.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Heat and pressure on top of head; pain over right eye, with sleepiness.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Hands feel cold as if frozen, with tingling under nails, on entering warm room.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Hot weather < loose feeling of brain

4.2.8.5

Opium

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of heat and cold:

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Heat in chest; burning about heart.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Bed feels so hot cannot lie on it.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Heat extending over body.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Modalities: < heat, during and after sleep.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Very hot, sweltering perspiration.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Heat in heart.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Mind...fright with fear; is followed by heat in the head and convulsions.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - a burning heat in the face and feeling of heat especially in the eyes, without thirst.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - sheets so hot that she has to change to a cooler place every little while.

 

4.2.9

Dryness - Moisture

The first order analysis of the sensation Dryness - Moisture is shown in Table 8.

SENSATION                                               DEFINITION

Dryness                                                         Dry - Free from moisture. Not wet.

Moisture                                                        Moisture - Water or other liquid diffused in a small quantity as vapor, or within a solid, or condensed on a surface.

SENSATION                                               SYNONYMOUS SENSATIONS FOUND IN RUBRICS

Dryness                                                         None

Moisture                                                        Thirst, perspiration.

Clarke wrote that “an opium eater’s face glistens with fine perspiration” and increased perspiration and hypersalivation are regularly experienced when taking peyote buttons,

smoking cannabis can often induce sweating, the diuretic effect of caffeine tends to increase one’s thirst, and side-effects of nutmeg consumption or opium use are also dehydration

and a dry mouth.

In order to validate the common sensations of dryness and moisture, the following words were used as a keyword search.

 

Dry, thirst, wither, shrivel, wilt, waterless, dull, uninteresting, boring, unexciting, unimaginative, unemotional, indifferent.

Moist, damp, wet, vapor, humid, perspire.

4.2.9.1

Anhalonium lewinii

Neither the repertory nor literature extractions showed evidence of the sensation of dryness - moisture being present in Anhalonium lewinii. However, it is mentioned in Vermeulen’s

Prisma where he refers to Anhalonium lewinii’s “perspiration of hands” and “strong salivation” (2004: 96).

4.2.9.2

Cannabis indica

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of dryness and moisture:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Mind: unquenchable thirst.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Throat...the throat is parched + intense thirst for cold water.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Dry feeling and heat in the nose.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Dry, very violent cough.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Dryness of mouth, without thirst.

PHATAK S., Materia Medica of Homoeopathic Medicines - drops of cold water were falling; on head;from the anus, from the heart.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Respiratory: Humid asthma.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Urine loaded with slimy mucus after exposure to damp and cold.

4.2.9.3

Coffea cruda

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of dryness and moisture:

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Dry heat, with red cheeks.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - delirium, with dry heat; toothache agg; excessive dryness of mouth wakens him.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Frequent:profuse micturition; short, dry cough.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - thirst, after heat and during sweat

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Fever: Cold, clammy perspiration over body, but chiefly in palms of hands.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Fever: Perspiration of affected parts.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Inner head... intolerable, head feels small and as if filled with a fluid; as if it would burst or fly to pieces.

4.2.9.4

Nux moschata

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of dryness and moisture:

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Modalities: > warmth, dry weather.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - tongue so dry it adheres to the roof of the mouth.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Eyes: dry; too dry to close the lids.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Throat dry without thirst.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Sensation of dryness in inner parts; buzzing, humming, or "funny feeling" in body; dry....

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - After drinking:pain in abdomen; dry cough.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - < Damp, wet weather; cold weather; getting wet; before a shower; washing.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Sensitiveness of skin, especially to cold, damp air.

4.2.9.5

Opium

The following examples, found , demonstrate the common sensations of dryness and moisture:

ALLEN H., Keynotes and Characteristics with Comparisons - Marasmus; child with wrinkled skin, looks like a little dried up old man.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica -Mouth: Dryness of mouth, with violent thirst.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Appetite: Burning thirst, esp. beer

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Respiratory organs: Violent, dry, hollow cough, < after repose.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Fever...perspiration of upper part of body, with dry heat of lower part.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Feeling of dryness of the anterior part of the tongue, without thirst.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - increased thirst, tongue almost clean, with dark red border and dry cracked lips.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Stoppage of nose; dry coryza.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Internal dryness. Complaints appear with sweat.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - (of stool) little, hard, dry, black balls.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica -Very hot, sweltering perspiration.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - < perspiring.

 

Delirium and Instability.

These words were then defined using a dictionary and their synonyms listed with the use of a thesaurus. A keyword search using these words was carried out using

the results of which are discussed below.

It is important to note here that sensations do not appear to be paired as the above sensations were (i.e. there is only one basic sensation found, not it’s opposite as well).

They are, however, connected to the original sensations of activity - inactivity, sensitivity - insensitivity and confusion - clarity.

It appears that these three are the most common sensations that have emerged so far in this analysis.

4.3.1

Formication

The second order analysis of formication is shown in Table 9.

Sensation Formication

SENSATION                                                           DEFINITION

Formication                                                               “As if insects or snakes are crawling over the skin”; a common side-effect of extensive use of cocaine or amphetamines

(Princeton University, 2006).

SENSATION                                                           SYNONYMOUS SENSATIONS FOUND IN LITERATURE

Formication                                                               Stinging, smarting, buzzing, crawling, as if he had bees in a great hollow in his head, as if something alive in abdomen

Formication is “As if insects or snakes are crawling over the skin” a common side-effect of drug use.

It is a very active sensation that demonstrates an individual’s sensitivity and hence reinforces the sensations of activity-

inactivity and sensitivity - insensitivity.

Coff. and Op. have the delusion that they see insects while Anh. and Op. have delusions of snakes. Formication is evident in many of the psychoactive plant drugs and their derivatives:

 

Skin: Formication: Anh. Bell. Cann-i. DCann-s. Caps. Coca, Cocainum, Op. Morph. Stram. (and Agar. a psychoactive fungus).

In order to validate the sensation of formication, the following words were used as a keyword search in RadarOpus (Archibel, 2014):

 

Formication, alive, insect, bee, sting, smart, buzz, crawl.

4.3.1.1

Anhalonium Lewinii

The following example, found , demonstrates the sensation of formication:

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Characteristics... numbness, formication and anaesthesia, esp. of tongue and limbs.

4.3.1.2

Cannabis indica

The following examples, found , demonstrate the sensation of formication:

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Formication, itching, and smarting as from salt, in the face.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - something alive was in it

4.3.1.3

Coffea cruda

The following examples, found , demonstrate the sensation of formication:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Ear: Hardness of hearing, with buzzing in the ears.

4.3.1.4

Nux moschata

The following examples, found , demonstrate the sensation of formication:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Ear: Buzzing in ears; “As if stopped”

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Stomach: Crawling from pit of stomach to throat.

4.3.1.5

Opium

The following examples, found , demonstrate the sensation of formication:

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Disagreeable formication in the hands and feet, which changed into a frightful, intolerance...

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - frequent cutaneous eruptions and smarting itching on the skin.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Head: Felt as if he had bees in a great hollow in his head.

4.3.2

Delirium

SENSATION                                    DEFINITION AND SYNONYMS

Delirium                                                                    Delirium - An acutely disordered state of mind involving incoherent speech, hallucinations, and frenzied excitement, occurring

in metabolic disorders, intoxication, fever etc. Great excitement, ecstasy.

Synonyms - mental disorder, fantasy, lack of meaning, illness, fantasy, imagination, carphologia, queer, fantasia, fancies, drunk, dream, imbecile, visions, images, hallucination.

SENSATION                                    SYNONYMOUS SENSATIONS FOUND IN LITERATURE

Delirium                                             Carphologia, queer feeling, fantasia, lively fancies, hypochondriac, imagination, drunkenness, imbecility, dreamy, full of dreams, visions,

 images, hallucinations

An effect of taking psychoactive drugs is that they induce delirium and this is evident in the remedies made from these drugs.

For example, hallucinations, intoxication, imbecility,

dreams, visions, carphologia, fantasia and lively fancies are found in these remedies.

The sensation of delirium reinforces the sensations of activity - inactivity, sensitivity - insensitivity and confusion - clarity.

The following rubrics have only two remedies in them, both of which are psychoactive plant remedies:

Mind: DELUSIONS - of dragons, Cann-i. Op.

Mind: DELUSIONS - people want to execute him: Nux-m. Op.

Mind: DELUSIONS - sees faces, like masks: Anh. Op. (Coff. also has delirious delusions).

Mind: DELUSIONS - has visions of magnificent: grandeur

Four out of the five analyzed remedies are found in the rubrics:

Mind: DELUSIONS - beautiful:

Mind: DELIRIUM - maniacal:

Although it is a very large rubric, ‘Mind: Delirium’, contains all the psychoactive plant remedies studied in this thesis as well as many others.

Some of these remedies are graded as a three (incl. Bell. Cann-i. Hyos. Op. Stram.).

 

In order to validate the common sensation of delirium, the following words were used as a keyword search in RadarOpus (Archibel, 2014):

Delirium, fantasia, drunk, queer, imagination, hallucination, carphologia, fancies, imbecile, dream, visions, images

4.3.2.1

Anhalonium Lewinii

The following examples, found , demonstrate the sensation of delirium:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - coloured visions of most over-powering brilliancy, associated with moving shapes ...

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Delirium.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Hallucinations.

4.3.2.2

Cannabis indica

The following examples, found , demonstrate the sensation of delirium:

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - wakes at night out of slumber with horrible dreams, and cannot remember where he is.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - every night confused dreams, which are, however, remembered after awaking.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Mind... trembling; hallucinations; tendency to become furious; nausea; unquenchable thirst.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica ... unusual excitement with loquacity

4.3.2.3

Coffea cruda

The following examples, found , demonstrate the sensation of delirium:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Mind: Sentimental ecstasy; excited imagination.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - sleeplessness from excitement of the imagination, flow of ideas, and fantastic visions.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Dry, at night, and delirium. With thirst. Hot flushes to face, hot cheeks and delirium.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Sentimental ecstasy; excited imagination; increased power to think.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Sleeplessness from excitement of the imagination, flow of ideas, and fantastic visions.

4.3.2.4

Nux moschata

The following examples, found , demonstrate the sensation of delirium:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - As if drunk.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Mind: Hallucination, that she has two heads.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Vertigo, as from drunkenness, with delirium and mumbling, giddiness or insensibility.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - As if drunk and sleepy; drunken feeling in head; drunken appearance.

4.3.2.5

Opium

The following examples, found , demonstrate the sensation of delirium:

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - occupied with a number of visions and fancies in sleep.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - unwelcome visions and full of fantasies.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - dreams and visions of dragons, skeletons, and horrible ghosts

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Great excitement almost amounting to frenzy; most furious delirium

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica-Burning heat in body, with great redness of face, anxiety, delirium, and agitation.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Sleeplessness, with anxious tossing, restlessness, and delirium.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Deep sleep; pleasant, fantastic, or frightful dreams; delirium like delirium tremens

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Drunkenness with stupor as from smoke on the brain; eyes burning, hot and dry.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - delirium; great excitement of mind, with constant talking and motion of head

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Delirium: muttering; violent, with red face, glistening eyes and great physical activity.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Sleeplessness, full of unwelcome fancies and imaginations

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - open eyes, contracted or sluggish pupils, carphologia and touching surrounding objects.

4.3.3

Instability

The second order analysis of instability is shown in Table 11.

Table 9: Sensation Instability

SENSATION                                               DEFINITION AND SYNONYMS

Instability                                                      A lack of stability; unpredictability in behaviour.

Stable - firmly fixed or established; not easily adjusted, destroyed, or altered; firm, resolute; not wavering or fickle.

Synonyms - constancy, permanence, steadiness, balance, unchangeable, obstinate, resolute, predictable, reliable, unchanging, uniform, fixed,

changeable, inconsistent, inconstant, irregular, instable, imbalance, unsteady, transience, wavering, irresolute, moody, unpredictable,

unaccountable, unexpected, ever-changing, volatile, mercurial, fickle, whimsical, capricious

SENSATION                                               SYNONYMOUS SENSATIONS FOUND IN LITERATURE

Instability                                                       Inquietude, anxiety, nervous, nervousness, vexed and angry over trifles, tolerance, intolerance, contentment, indifference, weeping mood,

fury, joy, pleasurable surprise, deathly anxiety, excessive anguish, indescribable uneasiness, cheerfulness, liveliness, contentment, hilarity, happy thoughts, full of fun and mischief then perhaps moaning and crying, laughs immoderately nonsensical and irrational behavior, exaltation, hysterics, hysteria, hysterical, furious passion, angry and uncontrollable, angry savageness, tearful sorrow.

 

Instability a common sensation that pervades the psychoactive plant remedies and that can be connected to the sensations of activity - inactivity, sensitivity - insensitivity and confusion - clarity. Even the sensation of heat discussed earlier correlates to the hysteria, passion and fury experienced by these remedies. This sensation of instability is seen in the inconstancy and unpredictability of their behavior and their oscillating moods. The following rubrics have only five remedies in them, two of which are psychoactive plant remedies:

            Mind: IRRITABILITY # joy: Coff. Op.. The other three remedies in this rubric are also plant remedies (Acon. Croc-s. Cycl.).

Mind: AILMENTS FROM surprises - pleasant: Coff. Op.

Although instability seems most common in the mental/emotional sphere, it is also evident in physical symptoms: there is much restlessness in the remedies; pains are wandering or fleeting; and sensations are felt suddenly, instantaneously and unexpectedly. Examples from the literature search via are:

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Head: Shocks through brain: Cann-i.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Ear: Otalgia, with shooting pains: Nux-m.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - emotions, fear, grief, fright, which acted like a blow, stunning whole nervous system: Op.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Instantaneous pain as if the auricle were drawn out of the head: Cann-i.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Vertigo on rising, with stunning pain in back part of head, and he falls: Cann-i.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica: Pain in lumbar muscles as from a blow of the fist: Nux-m.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica: Eyes: ... dilated, sensitive to light; at night complains of sudden loss of vision: Op.

 

In order to validate the common sensation of instability, the following words were used as a keyword search in RadarOpus (Archibel, 2014):

Inquietude, anxiety, nervous, nervousness, vexed, angry, trifles, intolerant, indifference, fury, unstable, instability, unpredictability, irresolute, wavering, fickle, unsteady,

imbalance, changeable, unreliable, changing, moody, whimsical, mercurial, capricious, cheerful, content, lively, hilarity, laugh, joy, hysteria, passion, savage

4.3.3.1

Anhalonium Lewinii

The following examples, found , demonstrate the sensation of instability:

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - kaleidoscopic changes.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Mind: Distrust and resentment. Lazy contentment. Difficult enunciation.

4.3.3.2

Cannabis indica

The following examples, found , demonstrate the sensation of instability:

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Hesitation and unsteadiness of the mind

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Wavering and uncertain humour.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Very vexed and angry about trifles.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Exaltation of spirits, with great gayety and disposition to laugh at the merest trifle.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Full of fun and mischief, and laughs immoderately.

KENT J., Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Pulse, slow or rapid and irregular; fluttering; a nervous pulse.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Disposition in the forenoon dejected, in the afternoon cheerful.

4.3.3.3

Coffea cruda

The following examples, found , demonstrate the sensation of instability:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Mind: Over-sensitiveness; weeping mood.

ALLEN H., Keynotes and Characteristics with Comparisons - Laughs immoderately at every trifling word spoken to him.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Mind: Excessive weeping and lamentations over trifles.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Mind ...throw themselves about crying violently. Fear of fresh air and of least noise.

ALLEN H., Keynotes and Characteristics with Comparisons - weeping from delight; laughing # weeping.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - spasms brought on by excessive laughing and playing, in weakly, excitable children.

4.3.3.4

Nux moschata

The following examples, found , demonstrate the sensation of instability:

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - especially in nervous subjects, hysterical and pregnant women; unpleasant men

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - hysterical and nervous, turned deathly pale or faint on slightest excitement.

ALLEN H., Keynotes and Characteristics with Comparisons - one moment laughing, the next crying

4.3.3.5

Opium

The following examples, found , demonstrate the sensation of instability:

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - reputation for fickleness

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Unsteadiness; he cannot walk without staggering.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - they became angry and uncontrollable, after which they again become sad

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - Ailments from excessive joy, fright, anger or shame.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Alternating state of careless sullenness and cheerfulness.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - increasing hilarity and happy thoughts pass into nonsensical and irrational behavior.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - riotous hilarity with buffoonery and subsequent angry savageness or tears

4.4

Third Order Analysis

The Second Order sensations of formication, delirium and instability, as well as their antonyms and synonyms, were used in a keyword search, to verify their legitimacy.

During this process only one new sensation clearly emerged. This sensation was that of horror

4.4.1

Horror

The 3rd order analysis of horror:

SENSATION                        DEFINITION AND SYNONYMS

Horror                                    Horror - a painful feeling of loathing and fear, a terrified and revolted shuddering

Horrible - causing or likely to cause horror, hideous, shocking, unpleasant

Synonyms - unpleasant, frightening, hateful, distressing, terrifying

SENSATION                        SYNONYMOUS SENSATIONS FOUND IN LITERATURE

Horror                                    Horrible, diabolic, horripilation, horrible dreams, dreams of misfortunes happening to others, vivid dreams of a horrible character, dreams of

a terrifying nature, dreams of being pursued, frightful dreams, uneasy dreams, the saddest dreams, anxious dreams, unwelcome visions, dreams and visions

of dragons, skeletons and horrible ghosts, horrible pictures of fancy, dead bodies, danger, perils, suicidal, horrible anxiety

 

In order to validate the common sensation of horror, the following words were used as a keyword search:

All the analyzed psychoactive plant remedies have dreams, delusions or hallucinations that are terrifying, horrifying or greatly distressing and words such as “diabolic”, “horripilation”,

“terrifying”, “frightful”, “uneasy”, “saddest” and “horrible” are repeated in the literature of these remedies. On a physical level, the intensity and depth of their pains can be utterly

horrifying, driving patients to despair while their heightened sensitivity makes even sounds or the slightest touch unbearably distressing.

The researcher proposes that the sensation of horror is the underlying feeling that pervades the psychoactive plant drug remedies. With this proposal in mind, the researcher did a manual repertory search of the sensation of horror using Schroyens’ Synthesis (2004). The following was noted:

‘Mind, Horror’ refers one to the rubric

‘Mind, Anxiety: Fear, with’ - contains many plant drug remedies including Acon. Anac. Coff. Hyos. Nux-m. Op.

‘Mind, Delusions, Visions, horrible incl. the plant drug remedies Bell. Camph. Hell. Ign. Op. Stram.

‘Mind, Delusions, Visions, monsters of’includes the plant drug remedies Anh. Bell. Camph. Cann-i. Cic-v. Cimic. Stram.

‘Mind, Frightened easily

‘Mind, Ailments from fright includes the plant drug remedies Acon. Bell. Camph. Cann-i. Cham. Cic-v. Cimic. Coff. Hyos. Nux-m. Op. Stram.

‘Mind, Fright, previous fright, because of; has 6 remedies, 4 are plants: Acon. Bell. Op. Verat.

‘Mind, Anxiety, Fright, remains, anxiety if the fear of the fright: only one remedy Op.

Interestingly, there is only one remedy that loves horror movies and it too is a plant drug: Stram.

In addition, the researcher performed a computer repertory search using: extractingl rubrics in which each analyzed remedy was the only remedy. A rubric containing only one remedy suggests that the rubric is highly characteristic of the remedy and each of the psychoactive plant drug remedies were found to be the only remedies in rubrics whose underlying sensation was that of horror. Hence, the researcher found that the sensation of horror is highly characteristic of each analyzed psychoactive plant drug remedy. These rubrics are listed below under each remedy.

4.4.1.1

Anhalonium Lewinii

The sensation of horror in demonstrated through it being the only remedy in the following rubrics which were found.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica- Mind, Delusions, scheming faces.

VERMEULEN F., Concordant Materia Medica - Mind, Delusions, visions of monsters and various gruesome forms.

4.4.1.2

Cannabis indica

The following rubrics contain only the remedy Cannabis indica and are, therefore, highly characteristic of this remedy:

MIND - DELUSIONS - sees dead persons at midnight on waking

MIND - DELUSIONS - about to die; one was - dissected; and soon will be

MIND - DELUSIONS - “As if flying from a rock into a dark abyss on going to bed”

MIND - DELUSIONS - shadows; of demoniac hell at midnight on waking

MIND - DELUSIONS - muffled man starts from the wall when walking in the streets;

MIND - DELUSIONS - will be murdered - persons are bribed to murder him

MIND - DELUSIONS - room falling to pieces

MIND - DELUSIONS - he saw a huge tankard, chased with dragons

MIND - DELUSIONS - disasters by water

MIND - DELUSIONS - vomitus is a bunch of worms

MIND - ESCAPE, attempts to run away to find a female in estrus

MIND - FEAR of coal scuttle

MIND - FEAR of using voice

DREAMS - NIGHTMARES periodical at night on going to sleep

A literature search revealed the following pertaining to Cannabis indica:

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Eyes: Spectral illusions without terror.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Sleep: Dreams of dead bodies; prophetic.

PHATAK S., Materia Medica of Homoeopathic Medicines- sometimes the hallucinations may be of agonizing terror and pain; horror of darkness.

4.4.1.3

Coffea cruda

The sensation of horror is found in Coffea cruda’s experience of pain. It is the only remedy in the rubric:

Female Genitalia/Sex, afterpains with of death

The literature search

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica -All kinds of pains are intolerable; and are accompanied with fear of death.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Disturbed by dreams of a terrifying nature, like those met with in alcoholism.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - horripilation, anxiety and violent tossing of limbs, during paroxysm.

ALLEN H., Keynotes and Characteristics with Comparisons - Pains are felt intensely; seem almost insupportable, driving patient to despair.

4.4.1.4

Nux moschata is the only remedy in the following rubrics:

MIND - DELUSIONS - brain is cracking;

MIND - DELUSIONS - head would fall off

MIND - FEAR of death in afternoon - 17.30 h

The sensation of horror is evident in the following results of the literature search:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Dreams :of falling from high places; of being pursued.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Stomach: Deathly nausea if her head were raised from pillow.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Face hippocratic; singular; silly, and occasionally would give a diabolic grin.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Heart and pulse ... trembling, fluttering of heart, as from fright, fear, or sadness.

4.4.1.5

Opium

The sensation of horror is prominent in Opium and is found in many rubrics in which Opium is the sole remedy:

MIND - ANGUISH - in shock from injury

MIND - ANXIETY - anxiety if the fear of the fright remains

MIND - ANXIETY in pregnancy, fear of abortion in latter part;

MIND - DEATH - contempt of

MIND - DELIRIUM - sees devils

MIND - DELIRIUM sees spectres

MIND - DELUSIONS surrounded by devils in bed.

MIND - DELUSIONS is to be executed as a criminal

MIND - DELUSIONS sees devils about his bed

MIND - DELUSIONS everyone around him is a murderer

MIND - DELUSIONS sees scorpions

MIND - DELUSIONS “As if somebody threatened to stab him”

MIND - DELUSIONS - has done wron and is about to be punished

MIND - FEAR at night from intestinal spasms

MIND - amenorrhea from fear

MIND - FEAR of extravagance

MIND - FEAR of sleeplessness

MIND - sudden FEAR followed by diabetes mellitus

MIND - FEAR - retention of urine from fear

MIND - MOROSE by dreams

DREAMS - CIVIL WAR

DREAMS - horrible GRIMACES

GENERALS - DEATH APPARENT in children

GENERALS - DEATH APPARENT - hanged, strangled persons; of

This sensation was also evident in the literature search:

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Diseases that originate from fright.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - sleeping dreams and visions of dragons, skeletons, and horrible ghosts.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - the saddest dreams.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - waking and sleeping dreams and visions of dragons, skeletons, and horrible ghosts.

BOERICKE W., Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Horrible labor-like pains in uterus, with urging to stool.

HAHNEMANN S., Materia Medica Pura - Horrible pressing - asunder pain in the rectum.

HERING C., Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica - speechless; eyes half open; mild delirium or loud talking, fury, singing, desire to escape.

4.5

Summary of Data Analysis

4.5.1

Common Sensations

The common sensations that were identified during the extraction process:

Note that as the analyzes progressed, the sensations moved more into the sphere of the Mind, into delusions and dreams.

4:

Common Sensations of the Psychoactive Plant Remedies

FIRST ORDER ANALYSIS

SECOND ORDER ANALYSIS

THIRD ORDER ANALYSIS

Activity - Inactivity

Sensitivity - Insensitivity

Confusion - Clarity

Expansion - Contraction

Emptiness - Fullness

Lightness - Heaviness

Heat - Cold

Dryness - Moisture

Formication

Delirium

Instability

Horror

 

The purpose of this research was to identify a vital sensation that runs through all the psychoactive plant remedies. The vital sensation underlies everything a person does, thinks

and feels and communicates itself through patterns of symptoms, these symptoms being merely expressions of what lies beneath. The vital sensation that runs through these remedies

is that of Activity - Inactivity and the other sensations identified in this research embody this vital sensation.

Proposed Sensations and Reactions of the Psychoactive Plant Remedies

SENSATION

PASSIVE REACTION

ACTIVE REACTION

COMPENSATION

ORIGINAL SENSATIONS AND FIRST ORDER ANALYSIS

Activity - Inactivity

Sleep, unconsciousness

Paralysis, weakness

Weakness or loss of mind

Mental confusion

Alertness

Increased physical ability

Abundant ideas

Mental clarity

Escape

Sensitivity - Insensitivity

Numbness (inactivity due to insensitivity OR due to excessive pain)

Pain (pain is active and increases activity to the degree that people become beside themselves with pain)

Escape in order to not feel emotions or pain.

Confusion - Clarity

Similar to activity - inactivity: weakness or loss of mind, mental confusion

Similar to activity - inactivity: abundant ideas, mental clarity

Escape

People escape their own emotions by either becoming confused and forgetful or by ‘losing themselves’ in ideas and the sphere of the mind.

These three sensations are similar:

Expansion - Contraction

Emptiness - Fullness

Lightness - Heaviness

A person contracts into themselves and shuts off the world (constrict, tighten, obstruct, cramp, stop, impede, oppress, heavy).

A person ‘opens up’ to something greater than themselves. They ‘merge’ with the universe. They become ‘high’.

Escape

They escape the physical world in which they should be living by either shutting it off or merging with the universe.

Heat - Cold

Dry - Moisture

These are very physical symptoms which cannot be classified according to Sankaran’s model.

However, on a metaphysical level, heat is connected to activity and emotions whilst cold is connected to inactivity, lack of emotions and lack of feeling. Dryness is an inactive sensation which can be connected on the emotional plane to indifference and lack of imagination or on the physical plane a lack of secretions (inactivity). Moisture, on the other hand, is associated with increased physiological secretions and physical activity, for example, perspiration and salivation.

SECOND ORDER ANALYSIS

Formication

Delirium

Instability

The sensations extracted in the second order analysis are closely connected to the three primary sensations of activity, sensitivity and confusion.

THIRD ORDER ANALYSIS

Horror

The essential compensation of the psychoactive plant remedies seems to be that of escape: they are trying to escape something through either increasing their activity, their productivity and their mental clarity or through completely numbing themselves to what is going on around them and separating themselves from who they really are.

The sensation of horror that emerged in the final analysis seems to be the underlying feeling that pervades all these remedies and it is this horror that they are constantly trying to escape.

4.5.2

Themes of the Psychoactive Plant Remedies

The following themes have emerged from the analysis of the psychoactive plant remedies:

1. A marked increase in physical activity seen through restlessness, involuntary motions, increased reflexes, trembling, jerking OR a complete lack of physical activity or a marked decrease in it seen through paralysis, atrophy, unconsciousness, torpor, faintness, weakness, slowness.

2. Sleep disturbances, insomnia and the inability to sleep peacefully OR sleepiness, sopor, torpor and the inability to keep awake.

3. Pains that are active (tearing, stitching, cracking, boring, cutting, drawing).

4. Ailments caused or aggravated by motion.

5. Oversensitivity with pains that are felt intensely and acutely causing agony, torture, anguish and suffering OR numbness, insensitivity and a lack of pain where there should be pain.

6. Ailments caused by emotions, be they positive or negative emotions. For example, ailments caused by excess excitement or joy.

7. Ailments caused by, or conditions aggravated by, over-sensitivity of the sense organs.

For example, pain caused by noise or pain aggravated by touch.

8. Mental confusion expressed as forgetfulness, nonsensical speech, poor comprehension, the feeling that everything is strange or unreal.

9. Mental alertness, clarity and increased mental power.

10. Sensations of expanding, growing, enlarging, swelling, of merging with something greater, of emptiness, of lightness - of being ‘high’.

11. Constrictive, contractive, compressive, spasmodic, cramping, obstructing, heavy sensations.

12. Sensations of warmth or cold pervading a part of the body or the entire body.

13. Conditions being < o, > heat or cold.

14. Sensations of dryness or moisture in body parts or an increase or decrease in normal perspiration and salivation.

15. Formication.

16. Delirium - hallucinations, visions, fancies, many dreams or a sense of intoxication.

17. Instability and unpredictability of behavior and moods.

18. A deep sense of horror, an almost painful feeling of loathing and fear revealing itself through terrifying dreams, visions, hallucinations, delusions or anxiety OR a lack of

horror or fear where there should be.

 

CHAPTER 5

ANALYSIS OF THE PSYCHOACTIVE PLANT REMEDIES

The aim of this study was to identify themes belonging specifically to the psychoactive plant remedies with the rationale being that these themes should be applicable to any patient

requiring a psychoactive plant remedy. The objectives of the study were to:

 

Analyze and describe common sensations in the psychoactive plant remedies according to known materia medica symptomatology.

Analyze and describe reactions to the sensations (be they active, passive or compensatory).

Analyze and classify individual remedies under Sankaran’s (2006) homoeopathic miasms.

Identify the themes which emerge from the psychoactive plant remedies.

The researcher feels these objectives have been reached and discusses them below.

5.1

The Psychoactive Plant Drug Group

5.1.1

Common Sensations and Reactions of the Psychoactive Plant Drug Group

All the psychoactive plant remedies analyzed in this research revealed the following sensations. It is observed that these sensations are similar to those produced when a person

takes a psychoactive drug.

a. Increased or decreased activity, or complete absence of activity The most common sensation pervading all the other sensations found in psychoactive plant remedies is that of activity

- either in-/decreased activity. Psychoactive drugs act directly on the central nervous system as stimulants, depressants or hallucinogens and so either stimulate or decrease activity. Patients requiring

a remedy from the psychoactive plant drug group will always show an increase or decrease in activity, be it physical, mental, emotional or purely physiological.

For example, patients requiring Coffea cruda would be excitable, have nervous palpitations, trembling hands and be unable to sleep at night due to a rush of ideas (Boger, 2011:89) while patients

who suffer from an overpowering drowsiness, who faint frequently and have a weak pulse may require Nux moschata (Boger, 2011: 198).

A patient who is in a coma or paralysed may require Opium (Boger, 2011: 205).

In order to find the similimum, homoeopaths need to develop an overall impression of their patient. If this overall impression is that of a significant increase or decrease in activity, then the homoeopath should consider remedies belonging to the psychoactive plant drug group.

The sensation of increased activity is an active reaction and is evident in involuntary movements, tremors, heightened reflexes, increased sensitivity, increased mental clarity,

sensations of expansion or contraction, increased heat, increased perspiration or salivation, formication, delirium, hallucinations and mood swings. On the other hand, decreased activity

is a passive reaction and is evident in sleepiness and sopor, paralysis, decreased or absence of sensitivity, mental slowness and apathy, sensations of heaviness, decreased body warmth and decreased physiological secretions resulting in dryness. This increased or decreased activity is a form of escapism, or compensation, for the psychoactive plant remedies - they lose

themselves in increased physical activity and ‘keeping busy’ or they escape into sleep or a loss of consciousness.

b. Increased or decreased sensitivity, or complete absence of sensitivity

The psychoactive plant remedies have increased or decreased activity because of their extreme sensitivity. Sensitivity is a primary sensation in all remedies derived from the Plant

Kingdom and is evident throughout the psychoactive plant remedies.

Sensitivity to pain, be it physical, emotional or mental, either stimulates or depresses activity in these remedies. The active reaction to sensitivity is pain and individuals requiring the psychoactive plant remedies experience pain to such a degree that it becomes horrifying to them. For example,

Coffea cruda experiences despair, weeping, lamenting and tossing about from pain (Vermeulen, 2004: 511). On the other hand, they can react passively to their sensitivity by becoming

numb and insensitive to what should be painful. For example, Opium is indifferent to joy and suffering and also to pain where there should be pain. The psychoactive plant remedies

compensate for their extreme sensitivity by escaping and not feeling anything. Burrough’s (as cited in Vermeulen, 2004: 1020) description of morphine encapsulates this escapism:

“Morphine alters the whole cycle of expansion and contraction, release and tension. The sexual function is deactivated, peristalsis inhibited, the pupils cease to react in response to light

and darkness. The organism neither contracts from pain nor expands to normal sources of pleasure”.

c. Increased mental ability and clarity of mind, or decreased clarity and a tendency towards mental confusion

The sensation of activity - inactivity is also evident in the mental state of the psychoactive plant drug remedies.

Psychoactive drugs act on the central nervous system to alter one’s mood, perception or consciousness, all remedies in this group experience a notable change in their mental state.

When taking a case, a homoeopath needs to be aware of the general impression the patient gives them - if the homoeopath finds himself wondering if perhaps the patient has been “taking drugs” or “drinking too much coffee” then the homoeopath should consider remedies belonging to the psychoactive plant drug family.

These remedies present with either marked clarity of mind, abundant ideas, creativity and lucidity, or the opposite -weakness or loss of mind and mental confusion.

For example, Coffea cruda has mental agility, clarity and an abundance of ideas to such an extent that they cannot sleep at night because of all the ideas rushing through their mind;

Anhalonium lewinii and Cannabis indica often appear confused, losing their sense of proportion, time and space (Boger, 2011: 61);

Nux moschata is forgetful, suffers from vanishing thoughts and gets lost in streets that they know well; and Opium can appear as dreamy, dull and stupid.

The researcher proposes that this increase or decrease in mental acuity is a compensation or form of escapism-these patients escape their own emotions and pain by either becoming

mentally confused and forgetful or by ‘losing themselves’ in ideas, creativity and the sphere of the mind.

d. Sensations of expansion, emptiness, lightness or their opposites: contraction, fullness, heaviness

The psychoactive plant remedies experience sensations that are constricting, tightening, obstructing, cramping, stopping, impeding, oppressing or heavy and these sensations enable

individuals to contract into themselves, shut off the world and hence escape it. On the other hand, they can experience sensations opposite to these. For example, expansion, emptiness,

lightness - sensations that enable an individual to ‘open up’ and merge with something greater than oneself, to escape reality.

The researcher proposes that the essence behind these sensations is that of trying to escape something and Mangialavori (2010: 23) wrote: “The theme of avoidance, characterised by

isolation and a flight from reality, is fundamental to Drug remedies....

I wish to emphasise this feature because it helps to differentiate Drugs from similar (non-Drug) remedies which do not have this theme as a central component”.

This sensation of expansion and contraction is clearly seen in the physical symptoms of the psychoactive plant drug remedies.

For example, they all experience either a dilation or contraction of their pupils; Cannabis indica, Coffea cruda, Nux moschata and Opium suffer with distended abdomens; and Nux

moschata and Opium also suffer from fluid retention and swelling. On the mental plane, Anhalonium lewinii, Cannabis indica, Nux moschata and Opium have delusions that parts of their body are enlarged and Cannabis indica has the unique sensation that their vertex is opening and shutting.

Patients requiring these remedies will also describe their sensations and pains in terms of how they feel things are constricting, tightening or expanding inside them.

e. Sensations of heat or cold, or modalities (< o. >) from heat or cold

The psychoactive plant remedies experience sensations of either heat or cold or modalities from heat or cold.

Coffea cruda, for example, has the unusual symptom of toothache being ameliorated when cold water or ice is held in the mouth. Once this water warms up, the toothache returns. Nux moschata is so sensitive to cold weather that she becomes “dazed and sleepy” when walking in it (Kent, 2013: 803);

while Opium, on the other hand, can’t bear warmth, kicks off the covers, wants a cool room and can often be recognized by his/her dark-red perspiring face and very hot skin (Nash, 2013: 287).

f. Sensations of dryness or moisture, or modalities (< o. >) from dryness or moisture

Psychoactive drugs affect the central nervous system having a marked effect on diuresis, hidrosis and salivation. Similarly, the psychoactive plant drug remedies experience

sensations of either dryness (for example: thirst, dry mouth, dry cough, lack of secretions) or moisture, especially increased perspiration.

For example, Opium is indicated where there is noticeable perspiration; Nux moschata’s mouth can becomes so dry that the tongue sticks to the roof yet there is absolutely no desire to

drink; and Cannabis indica suffers from urinary disorders when urine is passed “drop by drop” (Boger, 2011: 61).

g. Formication, delirium, hallucinations or mental and emotional instability and mood swings

Formication, delirium, hallucinations and mental or emotional instability are experienced by individuals who use psychoactive plant drugs and these sensations are common to remedies

made from these drugs. They are especially evident in the mind symptoms of a person requiring these remedies and in their delusions, fears and dreams. Although these

psychoactive plant remedies may experience delightful or fantastical hallucinations such as Anhalonium lewinii’s wonderful visions, remarkably beautiful and varied kaleidoscopic

changes” Boericke, 2005: For example, Kent (2013: 812) wrote of how an Opium prover saw “frightful images, black forms, visions of devils, fire, ghosts, someone carrying her off,

murder”.

Patients requiring psychoactive plant drug remedies can also be irritable, uncontrollable, often sad and so sensitive that even positive emotions (such as joy) can make them ill. This is especially seen in Coffea cruda, who develops “sleeplessness, nervous excitement, neuralgia, twitching of muscles, toothache, face-ache, red face and hot head” after a joyful or

pleasant surprise (Kent, 2013: 456).

The sensations of formication, delirium, hallucinations and instability are all closely connected to the sensations of activity, sensitivity and confusion.

h. A deep sense of horror, fear or fright “People are disturbed not by a thing, but by their perception of a thing.”

Epictetus

The psychoactive plant remedies appear to be trying to escape something through either increasing their activity, their productivity and their mental clarity or through completely

numbing themselves to what is going on around them and separating themselves from who they really are. Mangialavori (2010: 23) claims that the tendency to escape points to an

individual’s underlying vulnerability and is a characteristic defense mechanism, a defensive strategy that “does not disappear, but rather evolves through various compensations”.

The researcher proposes that these remedies, and individuals who use these drugs, are trying to escape a deep horror within themselves.

This horror can stem from a physical, mental or emotional trauma or it can develop because of an individual’s sensitivity. A person needing the remedy Coffea cruda, for example,

will be more sensitive to pain than most people and will experience pain as something utterly terrifying and horrifying.

A person requiring the remedy Opium, on the other hand, may have survived such a horrifying or near-death experience that they can no longer feel pain.

All the psychoactive plant remedies experience the sensation of horror either through their perception of their pain or through their dreams, visions, hallucinations or anxiety.

Opium is the only remedy in the rubric

“MIND - ANXIETY - fright remains; anxiety if the fear of the fright”, yet this rubric is representative of the core issue of the psychoactive plant drugs as a whole. Each of these drugs experiences something so frightening (be it physical, mental or emotional), and something that they are so acutely sensitive to that they develop a deep sense of horror that pervades their entire being.

According to Boericke (2005), Anhalonium lewinii has visions of monsters and various gruesome forms; Cannabis indica can suffer from depression and a constant fear of becoming insane; Coffea cruda has great nervous agitation, restlessness and is driven to such despair by physical pain that he can be seen to toss about in anguish;

Nux moschata is bewildered, confused, laughs and then cries; and Opium becomes ill after a frightening event.

This thread of horror reveals itself not only through their dreams and delusions, but also through their increased sensitivity or lack of sensitivity to physical pain.

Coffea cruda cannot bear any pain and has what Kent (2013: 456) describes as “a painful sensitiveness of the skin beyond comprehension”

Opium lacks all sensitivity whatsoever. Nash (2013: 289) writes that Opium renders the organism “incapable of sensing pain” and Kent’s (2013: 811) following description of a patient demonstrates how Opium escapes their condition through simply not feeling: “Often there is a state of peace. Wants to be let alone. She tells you she is not sick; and yet she has a temperature of 105° - 106°, is covered with a scorching hot sweat, has a rapid pulse; is delirious. You ask her how she is and she says she is perfectly well and happy; no pains or aches; wants nothing and has no symptoms... .The face looks besotted, bloated, purple; the eyes are glassy and the pupils contracted”. Opium’s insensitivity brings to mind the concept of being ‘frozen with fear’ and the researcher proposes that the three responses to stress (Fight, Flight or Fright) are seen in the psychoactive plant drug remedies.

The alarm stage, or Fight or Flight response, of Hans Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (Tortora and Derrickson, 2009: 676) is clearly seen in the psychoactive plant drug remedies.

For example, in all these remedies can be found rubrics pertaining to constriction or dilatation of pupils, increased or decreased salivation, increased or decreased pulse or respiratory rate, increased or decreased digestive activity, and relaxed or contracted rectum. These remedies also demonstrate the third response that is common to this syndrome: Fright. When faced with stress people react either by going into a Fight or Flight response where sympathetic activity is increased, preparing them to either stay and ‘fight’ their stressors or to ‘flee’ from, or escape their stressors. The third response, particularly clear in Opium, is that of ‘freezing’ and going into a ‘fright’ response in which the body cannot react to the stressor:

 

5.1.2

Proposed Vital Sensation of the Psychoactive Plant Drug Group

VITAL SENSATION

Horror, Fear, Fright

ACTIVE REACTION                                                 PASSIVE REACTION

Activity                                                                    Inactivity

Sensitivity                                                                Insensitivity

Mental clarity                                                           Lack of mental clarity

Contraction                                                              Expansion

Fullness                                                                    Emptiness

Heaviness                                                                 Lightness

Heat                                                                          Cold

Moisture                                                                   Dryness

Delirium                                                                   Sleep

Hallucinations                                                          Stupor

Instability                                                                 Unconsciousness

COMPENSATION

Transcendence

5.1.3

Compensation of the Psychoactive Plant Drug Group - Transcendence

MIND:

DELUSIONS - out of the body - Anh. Cann-i. Nux-v. Op.

DELUSIONS - beautiful visions - Anh. Cann-i. Coff. Op.

DELUSIONS - without form in vast space - Cann-i.

WELL - when very sick, says he is well: Coff. Op.

MERGING OF SELF, with one’s environment - Anh. Cann-i.

FEARLESS - Anh. Cann-i. Op.

DREAM; as if in a - escapes in a world of dreams - Anh.

LAUGHING - at every word said - Cann-i.

INDIFFERENCE - to external things - Cann-i. Op.

DELUSIONS - separated from the world, he is separated - Anh.

It is not surprising, therefore, that a common thread amongst the clinical cases of people who have been cured by the psychoactive plant remedies is that they tend to use, or have at least tried, psychoactive drugs as a form of escape or are on chronic anxiolytic, antidepressant or analgesic medication. Hence, it is important for a homoeopath to keep in mind this group of remedies when working with a person who is on chronic pain medication, anxiolytics, anti-depressants or who uses/abuses recreational drugs.

Bearing in mind these remedies’ Fight, Flight or Fright response to stress and their underlying sensation of horror, the researcher proposes that they could be used in treating

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). According to the National Institute of Mental Health (online, 2016), PTSD develops in individuals who have witnessed or survived a shocking or

frightening event and continue to experience problems or feel stressed or frightened when they are no longer in danger - similar to Opium’s “complaints from fear when the fear remains,

or the idea of the fear remains, or the cause of it comes before the eyes” (Kent, 2013:812). In order to be diagnosed with PTSD, a person needs to re-experience their trauma through flashbacks, bad dreams or frightening thoughts; demonstrate avoidance mechanisms such as staying away from certain places, not being able to remember events, losing interest in what were once enjoyable activities, or becoming emotionally ‘numb’; demonstrate abnormal reactivity through being easily startled, having difficulty sleeping or having angry outbursts; and have cognitive and mood changes such as negative thoughts or anxiety disorders.

Children with PTSD may develop secondary involuntary urination or become mute. All of these symptoms are seen in the psychoactive plant drug remedies who suffer from frightening hallucinations, nightmares, poor memory, emotional and physical oversensitivity or insensitivity, insomnia and mood disorders. - Cann-i. Nux-m. Op. are also indicated for involuntary urination and mutism.

With its history of oppression and segregation though Apartheid and its current climate of crime, South Africa is now often referred to as a ‘traumatised nation’ and, according to the South African Depression and Anxiety Group (2016), it is estimated that approximately 400 women are raped a day and 70% of people living in Soweto suffer from PTSD. Substance abuse disorder (SUD) is also linked to PTSD and according to Schäfer and Najavits (2007, online), “among people with lifetime PTSD, lifetime SUD is estimated at 21 - 43%, compared with 8 - 25% in those without PTSD”.

5.1.4

Miasmatic Classification of the Psychoactive Plant Drug Group Sankaran (2005c) describes the vital sensation as “what the patient feels” whilst the “intensity, pace and depth of this sensation, how it is coped with” is the miasm. Sankaran has already classified the plant remedies studied in this thesis into miasms as follows:

Anhalonium lewinii - Cancer (a combination of the sycotic and syphilitic miasms)

Cannabis indica - Sycotic miasm

Coffea cruda - Tubercular (a combination of the sycotic and syphilitic miasms)

Nux moschata - Typhoid miasm

Opium - Cancer (a combination of the sycotic and syphilitic miasms)

Fraser (2002: 55) suggests that the drug remedies are important to consider when treating the AIDS Miasm because “the themes of isolation and disconnection, and particularly of

disconnecting from the pain of modern existence, are found throughout the drug remedies, as are feelings around the need for spiritual meaning”.

The researcher concurs with this, but proposes that the overriding miasm of the psychoactive plant drug group is, in fact, the sycotic miasm.

Fundamental to this miasm is an individual’s sense of having a ‘fixed weakness’, of having something essentially weak within oneself that needs to be kept hidden. ‘Neurosis’, ‘guilt’ and ‘avoidance’ are some of Sankaran’s (2005c: 1227) keywords used to describe this miasm and these feelings are seen in the psychoactive plant drugs who have a deep sense of horror and constant need to escape. For example:

MIND: - DELUSIONS - he is a criminal, he is tó be executed - Op.

HIDING - himself in old people -Op.

Psychoactive plant drug remedies hide their inner weakness by increasing their activity and productivity or they avoid facing their weaknesses by becoming numb, detached, sleepy, laughing or ‘merging with something bigger than themselves’.

They are neurotic remedies, filled with formication, delirium and mood swings yet their dreams, delusions and fears also demonstrate a deep inner sense of weakness and vulnerability.

For example,

Op. and Nux-m. have delusions of people wanting to execute them,

Anh. sees scheming faces,

Cann-i. has the delusion that he/she is soon to be dissected and will die

Coff. fears he/she will die from pain.

In order to confirm Sankaran’s classification of the studied psychoactive plant drug remedies, a keyword search was carried out using and various materia medica were also searched manually.

5.1.4.1

Anhalonium Lewenii.

Inherent to the cancerinic miasm is the feeling that one has a fixed weakness within, that “everything is going out of control and I can do nothing” and that “everything around him is chaotic and he is too small to gain control over the chaos” (Sankaran, 2005c: 10). This is evident in Anh. who has delusions of surrounding objects being enlarged and that he/she is transparent and losing control:

Mind: DELUSIONS - objects are enlarged

DELUSIONS - he is transparent

Mind: SELF-CONTROL - loss of selfcontrol

Yet, despite this fixed weakness, cancerinic individuals are always striving for perfection and stretching themselves beyond what they are capable of. Anh. has increased physical abilities and increased reflexes which demonstrate how they are attempting to go beyond their own natural capacity and Sankaran’s (2005a: 143) following description of Anhalonium lewinii’s core sensation highlights its cancerinic nature: “In Anhalonium lewinii, everything is getting narrow and shrinking, and I have to expand or I will disappear”.

5.1.4.2

Cannabis indica

The sycotic miasm is similar to the cancerinic miasm in that there is that essential feeling of being weak, of having something wrong deep within him/herself. However, in the sycotic

miasm, there is acceptance of this weakness and the sycotic individual accepts and lives with his/her weakness, simply covering it up and hiding it. The cancerinic individual, on the other

hand, continually tries to be more than he/she is, to control things and be superhuman.

Cannabis indica is a sycotic remedy, not only because it is one of the most important remedies used to treat gonorrhea, but also because there is acceptance of one’s weakness and

the subsequent hiding of it. Has the delusions that he/she has no weight and is transparent

DELUSIONS - has no weight

DELUSIONS - he is transparent which demonstrate an awareness of a fixed weakness, yet he/she is eloquent, witty, has pleasant fancies and extravagant speech - all mechanisms that cover up

his/her essential weakness. He/She also has delusions of the presence of another being, as if he/she is being watched in his/her attempts to hide his/her weakness and this other presence is often

dark and demonic, suggesting a sense of guilt:

DELUSIONS of dragons

DELUSIONS - devil is present

DELUSIONS - absurd, ludicrous figures are present

DELUSIONS - visions of monsters

5.1.4.3

Coffea cruda

Sankaran describes the attitude of the tubercular miasm as “Time is short; too much to be done in too little time” and there are few words than can better describe the remedy

Coffea cruda (or the reason why people so fervently consume coffee).

Coffea cruda is full of rubrics pertaining to hyperactivity and sleeplessness, often due to excited emotions or to having too many thoughts and fancies rushing through one’s mind. It is also a remedy that oscillates between irritability and joy and core features of the tubercular miasm are its “desperate desire for change” and hectic activity (Sankaran, 2005c: 10).

Sankaran (2005a: 506) also writes that Coffea cruda is given for lung conditions (Tb.)

Another feature of the tubercular miasm seen in Coffea cruda is the sensation of feeling compressed and suffocated, of intense oppression and this is evident in the literature on this remedy:

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Abdomen: Anxiety and oppression in the region of the epigastrium.

CLARKE J., Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica - Abdomen: The clothes are oppressive.

The researcher proposes that Coffea cruda also contains elements of the typhoid miasm which combines the instinctive, sympathetic ‘fright -or- flight’response of the acute miasm

with the ongoing struggle of psora.

The following rubrics in which Coffea cruda is the only remedy demonstrate this response:

GENERALS - ACTIVITY increased - vascular

GENERALS - ACTIVITY of organs increased

SLEEP - SLEEPLESS after surprising news

GENERALS - TWITCHING from excessive joy

GENERALS - WEAKNESS from a pleasant surprise

MIND - AILMENTS FROM sudden excitement

VISION - ACUTE reading of small print easier

RECTUM - DIARRHEA from domestic cares

MIND - DELUSIONS whirling in head thinking;

MIND -MEMORY active - evening until midnight

The following miasmatic keywords (Sankaran, 2005c: 7) pertaining to the typhoid miasm are also evident in

Coffea cruda: crisis, intense, intense short effort, subacute, emergency, intense struggle, critical period, impatience, demanding.

5.1.4.4

Nux moschata belongs to the typhoid miasm whose reactionary mode is that of an intense struggle against what is seen as a critical, threatening, but short lived situation

(Sankaran, 2006: 57).

Develops ailments from loss of position and the following rubrics demonstrate the intensity of their struggle:

Mind: fears death

Mind: DELUSIONS - people want to execute him

Mind: Hurry - everybody must hurry

Mind: Distances are

Exaggerated

In the typhoid miasm, those individuals who do fail in all their efforts collapse and give up, becoming depleted, weak and prostrate. This is also seen in Nux moschata

which has many rubrics pertaining to weakness of memory or forgetfulness, collapse and sleepiness.

5.1.4.5

Opium

Belongs to the cancerinic miasm in which one feels inherently weak, yet is always trying to retain control. Quinn (2008: online) writes that “the disposition underlying the

cancer miasm is that of having lost the ability to be oneself.

Everything cancer is generated from this feeling of ‘lostness’ whether it has occurred emotionally or as a consequence of being poisoned bodily”. This loss of the self and inherent sense of weakness is seen in Opium

Mind: DELUSIONS - has no weight

Mind: SELF-CONTROL lost

Mind: DELUSIONS - is out of the body

Opium develops ailments from fright, grief, reproaches and shame - from situations in which he/she feels small and weak. Yet, unlike many cancerinic remedies which attempt to control

the world around them through being fastidious perfectionists,

Opium’s “reaction almost invariably is flight (rather than fight) leading to withdrawal into an inner world” (Vermeulen, 2004: 1019).

Jenni’s (as cited in Vermeulen, 2004: 1021) description of Opium encapsulates the essence of the cancerinic miasm, or mode of reaction: “An Opium state is the well known state of coma

or of ‘having almost died’. Body and soul are almost separated from each other, life is hanging by a thin thread. If such a person comes back into life, everything seems to him as if

in a dream. The connection between body and soul remains loose as during sleep. Feelings are numb and dominated by fear. The body feels as if it doesn’t belong to him”.

 

Proposed Themes of the Psychoactive Plant Drug Group

 

SENSATION

 

MENTALS

 

GENERALS

 

PHYSICALS

 

Activity

Vivacity, extravagance,

abundance of ideas, undertaking of many things, hallucinations,

visions, delirium, formication

 

Ailments are aggravated

or ameliorated by

motion.

Restlessness,

sleeplessness.

 

Trembling, jerking, crawling, shaking,

surging, tingling, rattling.

Heat is burning or boiling.

Pain is tearing, cracking, cutting

Inactivity

Loss of memory, slow speech, dullness of mind, laziness.

 

Sleepiness, sopor, sluggishness,

incoordination, unconsciousness.

Dull facial expression,

ptosis, paralysis,

atrophy,

weakness,

softening, impotence,

constipation.

 

Sensitivity/ Pain (with Horror)

 

Ailments from emotions.

Oversensitivity/easily

roused, disturbed or

angered.

Irritability.

Wakes from slight noise.

Beside oneself with pain/intolerant of pain.

 

Hypersensitivity -

Sensitive to/easily < light/temperatures/noise/odours/emotions;.

Hearing acute

Sensitivity of parts to

touch.

Insensitivity / Numbness (due to Horror)

Indifference, want of sensitiveness when it should be

experienced.

Hyposensitivity - Lack of senses (to odours,

tastes, physical sensations).

Unconscious with pain.

Analgesia, anaesthesia -

pain is not experienced when it should be

Mental confusion

Delusions,

hallucinations,

weakness/loss of

memory,

vanishing of

thoughts, delirium,

insanity, confused or

nonsensical speech,

sensation as if in a

dream, confusion of

identity, disordered

sense of time.

n/a

Seen as dull or bewildered facial expression.

Mental clarity

Alertness, acuteness,

easy comprehension,

increased mental power,

increased creativity,

eloquence, wittiness,

abundance of ideas,

making of many plans.

n/a

n/a

Expansion, emptiness, lightness

Sensation of being high or spaced out, of having no weight

flying/floating.

Delusions of

increased space or time, of expanding or being double

Sensations of bursting, swelling, distending

Mydriasis

Enlargement of body

Swelling of parts, oedema/dropsy.

Distended abdomen.

Contraction, fullness, heaviness

Delusions of being small.

Convulsions, convulsive motions

Sensations of tightness, obstruction, contraction,

constriction, drawing up, cramping, heaviness, oppression.

Miosis, Stiffness of parts

Spasmodic motions, paroxysms

Strictures, cramps

“As is having a ball or lump (in abdomen, chest or

throat).

Heat

Anger, volatility of

emotions, intensity of emotions, passion, excitement,

 

<< or >> from warmth.

Sensations of burning, warmth, boiling

Fever

Parts being hot to touch.

Redness of face or flushing of skin.

Cold

Lack of emotions, ‘cold-heartedness’,

indifference.

<< or >> from cold, Sensations of cold or iciness.

Chills.

Parts being cold to touch.

Impotence.

Dry

Unimaginative,

unemotional, indifferent.

<< or >> from dry weather

Sensations of dryness. Thirst

Suppressed menses

Dry mouth

Dry cough

Dry skin

Constipation

Moisture

n/a

<< or >> from getting wet or from damp, wet weather.

Sensation of drops of cold water falling or of being filled with fluid.

Perspiration

Excess mucous

Profuse micturition

Diarrhoea (from fear

Formication

Delusions of having

something alive within.

Sensations of crawling, buzzing, stinging, smarting.

Skin eruptions that smart and itch.

Tinnitus/buzzing in ears.

Delirium

Delusions, visions,

carphologia, queer

inexplicable feelings,

fantasia, lively fancies,

hypochondria, increased

imagination,

drunkenness, imbecility,

dreaminess,

hallucinations.

Person behaves as if intoxicated

Person looks as if intoxicated

Instability

Rapid mood changes,

inquietude, irrational or uncontrollable

behaviour.

Rapid mood changes, inquietude, irrational or uncontrollable behaviour.

Suddenness of symptoms or pain (pains are instantaneous, shocking, shooting, stunning).

Pains are wandering or fleeting.

Restlessness.

Vertigo

Lack of balance.

Horror

Terrifying visions,

hallucinations or

nightmares.

Fear of dying from pain.

Great despair, distress, inability to bear one’s situation.

Suicidal.

Pains are intolerable.

Screaming from pain.

Violent restlessness and tossing about

when in pain.

 

5.1.6

Sphere of Action and Pathological Tendencies of the Psychoactive Plant Drug Group

As discussed in Chapter 2, psychoactive plant drugs act on the central nervous system altering mood, perception and consciousness.

The researcher proposes that remedies made from these drugs also have an affinity for the central nervous system and can therefore be used to treat disorders of the central nervous system.

The researcher bases this proposal on the fact that the extractions carried out in Chapter 4 resulted in sensations pertaining to the functioning of the nervous system (for example, increased and decreased activity, increased and decreased sensitivity, mental confusion and clarity etcetera)

Thus, the sphere of action of the psychoactive plant drug remedies is the central nervous system and they can be used for the following pathological tendencies:

 

Disorders of the central nervous system: - increased reflexes, involuntary motions, trembling, jerking;

- Weakness, atrophy, slowness, paralysis;

- Unconsciousness;

- Catalepsy;

- Autism Spectrum Disorders;

- Hypersensitivity;

- Insensitivity or absence of sensitivity;

- Pain;

- Formication;

- Mental confusion, poor comprehension, nonsensical speech;

- Memory disorders;

- Delirium, hallucinations, schizophrenia;

- Mood disorders;

- Behavioral disorders;

- Anxiety.

Disorders of sleep:

- Insomnia;

- Narcolepsy;

- Nightmares.

Ailments caused by strong emotions (including joy, excitement, anger, fear and fright).

5.2

Comparison of the Psychoactive Plant Drug Group to General Drug Remedy Themes

Prior to this research, drug remedies had been explored by Sankaran (2005a), Mangialavori (2010) and Chhiba (2013). Sankaran (2005a) has also differentiated between the Plant,

Animal and Mineral kingdoms. However, no formal group analysis of the psychoactive drug remedies derived from the plant kingdom had been conducted and it has, therefore, been

difficult for homoeopaths to recognise when a patient requires a psychoactive plant drug remedy specifically.

This study confirms that most of Mangialavori’s (2010) general drug themes are present in the psychoactive plant drug remedies including: a flight from reality, avoidance, sense of

isolation; problems of personality structure; altered sensory perception; hyperactivity/apathy; and creativity. It also confirms Sankaran’s (2005a) common plant drug themes of alienation,

sensitivity and activity of mind as well as his general Plant sensations, especially of heightened sensitivity. However, there are a number of significant differences between

remedies derived from psychoactive plants and the synthetic recreational drug isolate group researched by Chhiba (2013). The researcher proposes that the following factors are

necessary to differentiate between psychoactive plant drug remedies and other drug remedies:

 

Ailments from hurt or shock

- Sankaran (2005c: 4) noted that particular to the Plant Kingdom is their fear of hurt and pain and that causation of ailments almost always lies in emotional or physical hurt or shock.

This is evident in psychoactive plant drug remedies specifically and not other drug remedies. According to Chhiba (2013: 163), “the synthetic recreational drug isolate group does not have a main theme of intense suffering, pain and agony”.

The underlying sensation of horror - Sankaran (2005a: 513) suggests that the plant drug remedies share the sensation of upliftment and Chhiba recognised this in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group as feelings of joy, euphoria, excitement and contentment (Chhiba, 2013: 152). Although the researcher noted qualities of joy and euphoria in the analyzed

psychoactive plant drug remedies, there was simultaneously the common sensation of horror.

Upliftment is essentially the feeling that the world is beautiful and Sankaran (2005a: 513) suggests that plant drug remedies are uplifted through music, beauty or open spaces.

Of the remedies included in this study, Anh. is often considered to be full of ‘uplifting’ or ‘beautiful’ delusions whilst the other studied remedies are well-known for their confusion and pain. Yet on closer analysis, Anhalonium lewinii is, like the other remedies studied is a fearful and ‘dark’ remedy, filled with pain and confusion.

Anh.’s colourful visions and hallucinations are not necessarily uplifting and can, in fact, be confusing or unpleasant for the individual.

Anhalonium lewinii is the only remedy to appear in the rubrics

          MIND - EXECUTION lost as the result of overpowering visual sensations’,

MIND - THINKING unable for abstract thinking/unable for conceptual thinking about environment

These rubrics (which can be considered highly characteristic of Anhalonium lewinii, it is the only remedy in the rubrics) indicate that the colourful and rhythmical hallucinations that

Anhalonium lewinii is well known for actually lead to confusion and the inability to think as opposed to a sense of upliftment. above their condition and become omnipotent.

The following rubrics demonstrate this sense of omnipotence:

MIND, DELUSIONS - is all powerful (Cann-i.)

MIND, DELUSIONS - is Mary Virgin (Cann-i.)

MIND, DELUSIONS - he possesses infinite knowledge (Cann-i.

MIND, DELUSIONS - is an emperor (Cann-i.)

MIND, DELUSIONS - being divine (Cann-i)

MIND, DELUSIONS - is Christ (Cann-i.)

MIND - DELUSIONS of immortality (anh.)

MIND - DELUSIONS - body covers the whole earth (Cann-i.)

 

Sensation of heat - Mangialavori (2010) suggests that the sensation of cold is common to drug remedies. Research revealed the psychoactive plant drug remedies can experience either cold or heat.

Patients requiring remedies derived from psychoactive plant drugs experience localised sensations of warmth (for example, (Cann-i.) experiences an agreeable warmth in the brain) or sensations of both heat and cold simultaneously (for example, Coffea cruda has trembling of hands with heat in palms and coldness of backs of hands (Hering in RadarOpus). These remedies are also ameliorated or aggravated by heat or cold (for example, in Nux moschata, hands feel cold as if frozen with tingling under nails on entering warm room (Hering in RadarOpus).

Sensation of moisture - Chhiba (2013) noted dryness as a sensation of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group. This is present in the psychoactive plant drug remedies, yet so is its opposing sensation - moisture. Moisture is especially evident in increased perspiration (for example, Opium has a very hot, sweltering perspiration [Clarke in RadarOpus]) or sensitivity to, or aggravations from, damp weather or getting wet (for example, Nux moschata is aggravated by damp, wet weather and getting wet [Clarke in RadarOpus]).

Opposing sensations - Sankaran (2005c: 4) found that remedies belonging to the Plant Kingdom share the feature of experiencing a basic sensation and its opposite sensation. This is unique to the psychoactive plant drug remedies who are able to experience two opposing sensations simultaneously. For example:

Heat and cold - Cann-i. the whole body is cold, but the face grows always warmer and warmer (Hahnemann in RadarOpus).

Sleep and wakefulness - Opium has the urgent inclination to sleep with an absolute inability to go to sleep (Clarke in RadarOpus).

Hyperaesthesia and analgesia - Opium experiences a numbness or lack of  sensibility in the ulcer that ought to be sensitive (Kent in RadarOpus).

Dryness and moisture - Coffea cruda has a dry cough but profuse micturition (Hering in RadarOpus);

Nux moschata develops a dry cough after drinking (Hering in RadarOpus); and Opium has perspiration of upper part of body with dry heat of lower part (Clarke in RadarOpus) and internal dryness but complaints appear with sweat (Vermeulen in RadarOpus).

Positive and negative emotions - Cann-i.’s disposition in the forenoon is dejected, yet in the afternoon is cheerful (Hahnemann in RadarOpus);

Coffea cruda alternates laughing and weeping (Allen in RadarOpus);

Nux moschata is one moment laughing, the next crying (Allen in RadarOpus); and both Coffea cruda and Opium become ill from joy.

5.2.1

Comparison of the Psychoactive Plant Drug Group to the Synthetic Recreational Drug Isolate Group Remedies

Psychoactive plant drugs differ from synthetic recreational drug isolates in many ways.

Psychoactive plant drugs have formed an intricate part of cultural and religious practices for thousands of years, helping to connect people not only to one another but also to

something ‘greater than themselves’, to an inner spirituality or to an external (transcendent) god. They are often used to engender a sense of togetherness or belonging and taken as part of spiritual or cultural rituals. Even coffee, at first glance nothing more than a stimulant, has been used for centuries to bring people together and as Fuller (cited in Vermeulen and Johnston, 2011c: 629) said:

“The popularity of coffeehouses reveals a continuing connection between coffee and spirituality - and more particularly, a spirituality that flourishes outside our official

religious institutions. Corner coffee shops, sixties-ish coffeehouses, and even the neighbourhood “kaffeeklatsch” provide a forum of spirited - and spiritual - human exchange”.

Synthetic recreational drugs, on the other hand, are mainly used for recreation, for ‘fun’, to get ‘stoned’, and their use lacks the deeper spiritual connection that plant drugs offer.

Instead, they engender a sense of isolation and disconnection. Even the apparent ‘connection’ that synthetic drugs can give is often what Fraser (2002: 76) terms “inappropriate bonding”, where “the lack of boundaries can also result in connections, and so in relationships, that are not suitable and can be harmful”. During the production of synthetic drugs, the active component is isolated and synthesised while when psychoactive plant drugs are used in their wholeness and totality they have hundreds of different active ingredients that buffer one another and work together synergistically as a whole. According to university researchers in Arizona (cited in Mangialavori and Marotta 2010: 18), peyote contains a wide

spectrum antibiotic component which can inhibit at least 18 strains of penicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus and “many constituents contribute to the peyote experience which is

different from the experience of mescaline alone”. Synthetic recreational drugs embody what their name implies, disconnection, dissociation and isolation, while psychoactive plant drugs

hold a deeper spiritual connectivity.

Not only do the drugs themselves differ, but so do the remedies derived from these two different groups of drugs. According to Chhiba (2013), the common sensations of the

synthetic recreational drug isolates are:

Anxiety;

Restlessness;

Fear;

Excitement;

Dryness;

Indifference;

Isolation.

Although these sensations are also present in the psychoactive plant drug group, the core issues of each of these groups differ. Intrinsic to the psychoactive plant drug group is a deep

sensitivity and pervading feeling of horror. It is this extraordinary sensitivity that causes either an increase or decrease in activity.

It is this extreme sensitivity that makes them so reactive, or, if they can bear their pain no more, unreactive and detached.

Hence the remedy Opium insensitive to pain, but only because he/she has already born so much pain that he/she has now become numb to it (Sankaran, 2005b).

On the other hand, the synthetic recreational drug isolates seem to lack emotional sensitivity and appear indifferent. Although their physical senses may be heightened (senses of taste,

hearing, vision, touch), they lack emotional awareness and reactivity and are generally more detached than the psychoactive plant drug remedies. According to Chhiba (2013),

indifference, isolation, disconnection and separation are all themes in the synthetic recreational drug isolates. Although these themes may appear in the psychoactive plant

remedies they are in fact reactions, or compensations, for too much sensitivity and too much feeling.

5.3

The Application of Group Analysis to the Psychoactive Plant Remedies

As the analysis of this group of remedies progressed, the researcher found herself repeatedly asking the same questions which she feels are necessary in determining the validity of the

group analysis method as a whole. If group analysis is to be considered a reliable method of decision-making and clinical reasoning then it needs to be applied systematically and

logically. If a homoeopath applies group analysis to a case and concludes that the patient in front of them needs a psychoactive plant remedy then they should to be able to clearly

demonstrate how they came up with the remedy by answering the following questions:

1. Why does the patient require a remedy sourced from ‘drugs’ specifically?

2. Why does the patient require a remedy sourced from the ‘Plant Kingdom’ specifically?

3. Why does the patient require a ‘psychoactive plant drug remedy’ specifically? To test the application of group analysis, the researcher systematically applied the above questions to published cured cases of the five psychoactive plant remedies analyzed in this research study.

Below are the case studies followed by their analyses in terms of the above questions. above their condition and become omnipotent.

The following rubrics demonstrate this sense of omnipotence:

MIND, DELUSIONS - is all powerful (Cann-i.)

MIND, DELUSIONS - she is Mary Virgin (Cann-i.)

MIND, DELUSIONS - he possesses infinite knowledge (Cann-i.)

MIND, DELUSIONS - is an emperor (Cann-i.)

MIND, DELUSIONS - being divine (Cann-i.)

MIND, DELUSIONS - himself to be Christ (Cann-i.)

MIND - DELUSIONS - of immortality (Anh.)

MIND - DELUSIONS - body covers whole earth (Cann-i.)

Sensation of heat - Mangialavori (2010) suggests that the sensation of cold is common to drug remedies. This research revealed that the psychoactive plant drug remedies can experience either cold or heat. Patients requiring remedies derived from psychoactive plant drugs experience localised sensations of warmth

(for example, Cann-i. experiences an agreeable warmth in the brain) or sensations of both heat and cold simultaneously, for example, Coff. has trembling of hands with heat in palms and coldness of backs of hands (Hering in Radar Opus).

These remedies are also > or < by heat or cold (for example, in Nux moschata, hands feel cold as if frozen with tingling under nails on entering warm room (Hering in RadarOpus).

 

Sensation of moisture - Chhiba (2013) noted dryness as a sensation of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group.

This is present in the psychoactive plant drug remedies, yet so is its opposing sensation - moisture. Moisture is especially evident in increased perspiration

(for example, Opium has a very hot, sweltering perspiration [Clarke in RadarOpus]) or sensitivity to, or aggravations from, damp weather or getting wet (for example, Nux moschata

is aggravated by damp, wet weather and getting wet [Clarke in RadarOpus]).

 

Opposing sensations - Sankaran (2005c: 4) found that remedies belonging to the Plant Kingdom share the feature of experiencing a basic sensation and its opposite sensation. This is unique to the psychoactive plant drug remedies who are able to experience two opposing sensations simultaneously.

 

For example:

Heat and cold - in Cannabis indica the whole body is cold, but the face grows always warmer and warmer (Hahnemann in RadarOpus).

Sleep and wakefulness - Opium has the urgent inclination to sleep with an absolute inability to go to sleep (Clarke in RadarOpus).

Hyperaesthesia and analgesia - Opium experiences a numbness or lack of sensibility in the ulcer that ought to be sensitive (Kent in RadarOpus).

Dryness and moisture - Coffea cruda has a dry cough but profuse micturition (Hering in RadarOpus);

Nux moschata develops a dry cough after drinking (Hering in RadarOpus); and

Opium has perspiration of upper part of body with dry heat of lower part (Clarke in RadarOpus) and internal dryness but complaints appear with sweat (Vermeulen in RadarOpus).

Positive and negative emotions - Cannabis indica’s disposition in the forenoon is dejected, yet in the afternoon is cheerful (Hahnemann in RadarOpus);

Coffea cruda alternates laughing and weeping (Allen in RadarOpus);

Nux moschata is one moment laughing, the next crying (Allen in RadarOpus); and both Coffea cruda and Opium become ill from joy.

5.2.1

Comparison of the Psychoactive Plant Drug Group to the Synthetic Recreational Drug Isolate Group Remedies

Psychoactive plant drugs differ from synthetic recreational drug isolates in many ways. Psychoactive plant drugs have formed an intricate part of cultural and religious practices for

thousands of years, helping to connect people not only to one another but also to something ‘greater than themselves’, to an inner spirituality or to an external (transcendent) god.

They are often used to engender a sense of togetherness or belonging and taken as part of spiritual or cultural rituals. Even coffee, at first glance nothing more than a stimulant, has been used

for centuries to bring people together and as Fuller (cited in Vermeulen and Johnston, 2011c: 629) said: “The popularity of coffeehouses reveals a continuing connection between coffee

and spirituality - and more particularly, a spirituality that flourishes outside our official religious institutions.

Corner coffee shops, sixtiesish coffeehouses, and even the neighbourhood “kaffeeklatsch” provide a forum of spirited - and spiritual-human exchange”.

Synthetic recreational drugs, on the other hand, are mainly used for recreation, for ‘fun’, to get ‘stoned’, and their use lacks the deeper spiritual connection that plant drugs offer.

Instead, they engender a sense of isolation and disconnection. Even the apparent ‘connection’ that synthetic drugs can give is often what Fraser (2002: 76) terms “inappropriate bonding”, where “the lack of boundaries can also result in connections, and so in relationships, that are not suitable and can be harmful”. During the production of synthetic drugs, the active component is isolated and synthesised while when psychoactive plant drugs are used in their wholeness and totality they have hundreds of different active ingredients that buffer one another and work together synergistically as a whole.

According to university researchers in Arizona (cited in Mangialavori and Marotta 2010: 18), peyote contains a wide spectrum antibiotic components which can inhibit at least 18 strains of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and “many constituents contribute to the peyote experience which is different from the experience of mescaline alone”. Synthetic recreational drugs embody what their name implies, disconnection, dissociation and isolation, while psychoactive plant drugs hold a deeper spiritual connectivity.

Not only do the drugs themselves differ, but so do the remedies derived from these two different groups of drugs. According to Chhiba (2013), the common sensations of the synthetic recreational drug isolates are:

Anxiety;

Restlessness

Fear;

Excitement

Dryness

Indifference

Isolation.

Although these sensations are also present in the psychoactive plant drug group, the core issues of each of these groups differ. Intrinsic to the psychoactive plant drug group is a deep sensitivity and pervading feeling of horror. It is this extraordinary sensitivity that causes either an increase or decrease in activity.

It is this extreme sensitivity that makes them so reactive, or, if they can bear their pain no more, unreactive and detached. Hence the remedy Opium is insensitive to pain, but only because he/she has already born so much pain that he/she has now become numb to it (Sankaran, 2005b).

On the other hand, the synthetic recreational drug isolates seem to lack emotional sensitivity and appear indifferent. Although their physical senses may be heightened (senses of taste, hearing, vision, touch), they lack emotional awareness and reactivity and are generally more detached than the psychoactive plant drug remedies. According to Chhiba (2013), indifference, isolation, disconnection and separation are all themes in the synthetic recreational drug isolates. Although these themes may appear in the psychoactive plant remedies they are in fact reactions, or compensations, for too much sensitivity and too much feeling.

 

5.3

The Application of Group Analysis to the Psychoactive Plant Remedies

As the analysis of this group of remedies progressed, the researcher found herself repeatedly asking the same questions which she feels are necessary in determining the validity of the

group analysis method as a whole. If group analysis is to be considered a reliable method of decision-making and clinical reasoning then it needs to be applied systematically and logically.

If a homoeopath applies group analysis to a case and concludes that the patient in front of them needs a psychoactive plant remedy then they should to be able to clearly demonstrate how they  came up with the remedy by answering the following questions:

1. Why does the patient require a remedy sourced from ‘drugs’ specifically?

2. Why does the patient require a remedy sourced from the ‘Plant Kingdom’ specifically?

3. Why does the patient require a ‘psychoactive plant drug remedy’ specifically?

To test the application of group analysis, the researcher systematically applied the above questions to published cured cases of the five psychoactive plant remedies analyzed in this

Research study. Below are the case studies followed by their analyses in terms of the above questions.

 

5.3.1

Anhalonium Lewinii

Why does the patient require a remedy sourced from ‘drugs’ specifically?

Rodolfo is a creative, sensitive being who feels isolated and alone in the world. This is seen in his being an exceptionally creative musician who plays “metaphysical” music “masterfully

and sensitively” yet also chooses to play almost exclusively solo an instrument that is usually played in a group. Since his youth he has had “extreme difficulty in relating to people - to almost everyone” and also has altered sensory perceptions: “I see things that other people cannot see”; “it seems like my whole life has lasted less than five minutes”; “when I step outside my mind, objects lose their shape and everything enters an immaterial dimension.”

Drug remedies are often indicated in patients who lose their sense of identity, experience depersonalization and a merging with something greater than themselves. Rodolfo says, I feel as though people look straight through me, that there’s no boundary between myself and the space around me, no boundary between anything” and “I used to feel distant from this world, but now I know that not even the world has existence any more. Everything is everything; it’s a form without form, a world within a speck of dust”. This disoriented ‘spaciness’ and merging with the world around one resembles a drug-induced ‘high’ and his flight from reality and sense of isolation are key indicators for drug remedies (Mangialavori, 2010: 23).

His story also “bears an astonishing resemblance to a psychedelic experience”.

All of these symptoms point towards his requiring a remedy sourced from a ‘drug’.

Why does the patient require a remedy sourced from the ‘Plant Kingdom’ specifically? Rodolfo presents his case to the homoeopath in sensitive, descriptive language that focuses on how he feels. For example, he says “I’m too sad”, “music disturbs me”, “I saw in your eyes that you have music in your head too”. He is emotional and sentimental and presents differently to a mineral remedy who has a more organised, structured, systematic presentation or an animal who is more animated, communicative and attention-seeking. Rodolfo’s condition also stems from the death of his parents - ailments from hurt and shock often generating the need for plant remedies.

Why does the patient require a ‘psychoactive plant drug remedy’ specifically? Psychoactive plant remedies are used to treat pathologies of the central nervous system, sleep and those developing from strong emotions. Rodolfo has come for homoeopathic treatment for depression and although he has few physical symptoms he has many mental/emotional ones and the root of his depression seems to lie in his grief.

The following themes and sensations common to the psychoactive plant remedies are seen in Rodolfo’s case:

 

Horror:

-- The basic sensation pervading Rodolfo’s case is the same feeling that underlies the psychoactive plant remedies - that of horror: At the age of four years, Rodolfo was trapped in a crashed vehicle next to his dead father for several hours and as an adult he loses his mother when she dies suddenly from a stroke.

-- This feeling of horror is evident in his phrases such as “I’m scared of people” and “I suffer”; and Mangialavori refers to Rodolfo’s “deep looks” and “plea for help”.

-- After taking the remedy Anhalonium Lewinii, this sense of horror is brought to the surface. Rodolfo says: “I had a clear sensation that one part of me was making myself stay awake, making me look directly into the face of the night, the silence, the gloom, the solitude. Others sleep peacefully while I, a kind of fugitive, hide in sleep, anticipating the anguish of the day after” and he wakes from a stressful dream thinking, “Oh my God, what the hell is going on in my head?”

Emptiness, expansion and lightness :

-- He feels his “head is completely empty”; that people’s eyes and words “run straight through me”; that “we too can disappear and merge with the universe”; and that can become immaterial.

Delirium:

-- Rodolfo’s sense of unity and merging with the universe is similar to that of a drug-induced ‘high’, emphasizing the visions and hallucinations common to both the themes of delirium and confusion found in psychoactive plant remedies.

Confusion:

-- Rodolfo has a fixed, “almost lost” look and feels “I can’t even talk anymore; the words stay in my mouth. I don’t know where they are anymore” and “I can’t think anymore”.

-- In addition, time seems to stand still for him and he feels “my whole life has lasted less than five minutes”.

-- Inactivity:

-- Rodolfo’s physical symptomatology expresses a lack of activity. He ‘slumps’ his head on his hands; declares that when his mother died “I died with her, but my body lives on”; and mentions that despite feeling very cold at night, he does not even get up to fetch a blanket” (note here the sensation of cold which is found in the psychoactive plant remedies).

-- After taking Anhalonium lewinii, Rodolfo develops acute insomnia and then “falls into a deep sleep which lasts for two whole days”.

-- He also notices that his “whole physical self perhaps is reacting” and that he develops a strong urge to use the bathroom which, prior to the remedy, he almost never felt before.

Sensitivity:

-- The theme of sensitivity is also seen in his developing depression after his mother’s death (ailments from emotions) and his extreme sensitivity to music.

Why does the patient require the specific psychoactive plant remedy prescribed?

Prominent rubrics taken from Rodolfo’s case are:

Mind, DELUSIONS - objects are enlarged

Mind, DELUSIONS - is transparent

Mind, DELUSIONS - has wonderful visions

Mind, MERGING OF SELF with one's environment

Mind, CONFUSION - as to space and of time;

Mind, DEPERSONALIZATION

Mind, FANCIES - absorbed in

Mind, DELUSIONS - was dead

Mind, DELUSIONS - out of the body

Sleep, SLEEPLESSNESS from fancies (= fantasies, phantasies, illusions)

Anhalonium lewinii is found in all these rubrics. Being a psychoactive plant remedy, Anhalonium lewinii acts primarily on the central nervous system, causes sleep disorders and

can be used in conditions arising from shock or hurt as discussed above. However, what makes it unique is its keynote as described by Vermeulen (2000: 106): “The keynote of this

remedy is schizophrenia between the conscious and unconscious life of the patient. There is a retreat from objective reality into an inner life so rich and so varied that the outer world has

lost is meaning ....

Outstanding is the increased involvement in the inner life to the exclusion of the outer”.

This is clearly seen in Rodolfo: “I don’t know where I will end.

I feel that I can become immaterial.

I feel that people’s looks and thoughts run through me as if I were made of glass, as though I could vanish bit by bit.

Then I feel that we are all brothers - that even walls and tables and chairs are made of the same substance as us.

They are the same atoms as we are, just in a different state of material organization. ”Although all psychoactive plant remedies experience altered or distorted perception, Anh.’s has specifically a loss of sense of time. Vermeulen (2004: 94) describes an Anh. child who “misses a lot of her day. It’s like she is dreaming. It’s like she has some idea and is so into it that she misses what’s going on around her”. Rodolfo says: “But time never passes. I look at my watch, and sometimes it seems like my whole life has lasted less than five minutes.”

 

The Case of Rodolfo (Mangialavori and Marotta, 2010: 32)

Rodolfo is a thirty-two year old professional musician. He plays the drums, but is very talented in other forms of percussion as well.

He is dressed in an eccentric and unkempt way. There is a fixed, sometimes almost lost, look on his face. He seems very downcast, resting his elbows on my desk and slumping his head on them. He often looks me in the face without saying a word and then looks away. He does this when he is talking too.

A psychiatrist who has been treating Rodolfo for a serious depression following the death of his mother referred this patient to me.

Rodolfo accompanied by his older sister who comes with him. He sits down in front of me and looks at me without saying anything. After a while, I ask what is troubling him.

My head is completely empty; whatever I do is useless.

I’m scared of people. I feel like they’re laughing at me when they look at me.

I feel like their eyes and their words run straight through me. I feel like they mock me because I can’t do anything anymore.

I can’t even talk anymore; the words stay in my mouth.

I don’t know where they are anymore. I can’t think anymore. I can’t live anymore.

I’m too sad. I can’t even play anymore.

Music disturbs me now; it’s just become noise.

Rodolfo falls silent and continues to stare at me lifelessly.

I ask him what he thinks might have happened to him.

Everything has changed ever since my mother left.

When she died, I died with her, but my body lives on.

I can’t go where she is, and I can only stay here with my solitude.

But time never passes.

I look at my watch, and sometimes it seems like my whole life has lasted less than five minutes.

I can only stay on my own, in the dark, so that she feels close to me.

Rodolfo is overcome by emotion, and he shakes his head to indicate that he doesn’t want to talk any more.

His sister intervenes, telling me that Rodolfo was always very close to his mother, especially because their father died while they were both still very young.

Their father died in a car crash.

Rodolfo was next to him in the passenger seat, and he stayed trapped in the vehicle for several hours next to his dead father before the emergency services arrived.

All this happened when Rodolfo was about four years old.

Ever since, he has had considerable difficulties at school. But he showed a very strong love of music, becoming a sought after percussionist.

He started composing music at the age of thirteen, and recently recorded an album.

He calls his style of music “metaphysical.”

The tracks from his CD, which I listened to, were all recorded with just a synthesiser and various percussion instruments.

Rodolfo plays masterfully and sensitively and the word ‘metaphysical’ really does seem an appropriate description.

His sister tells me that his problems at school stemmed from his extreme difficulty in relating to people -to almost everyone- including his mother.

His relatives find it very interesting that the instrument he chose is usually played in a group.

Yet ever since he was a boy, Rodolfo has almost exclusively played solo. Only recently, in order to earn enough money to make a record, he played the timpani in an orchestra, even though he had never received formal training.

He always lived with his mother until her sudden death from a stroke.

Apart from the normal childhood illnesses, there is nothing of note in his health history.

While his sister talks, Rodolfo stares at me impassively.

Six Weeks Later:

When we meet, Rodolfo seems much more open. He tells me:

I know that you can understand me. I saw in your eyes that you have music in your head too.

If you like, I can teach you to make it come out.

I have to admit that I feel puzzled and touched by this declaration, which is largely true.

I try to recover my composure, thank him, and remind him that we are meeting for another reason. He replies: I know that you can understand me.

That’s all I meant.

I can’t tell my sister what I really feel, because she would think I’m crazy.

But I see things that other people cannot see.

Can you tell me about this, please?

When I step outside my mind, objects lose their shape and everything enters an immaterial dimension.

Objects and words just vanish.

We too can disappear and merge with the universe.

When I feel like this, I don’t know where I will end.

I feel that I can become immaterial. I feel that people’s looks and thoughts run through me as if I were made of glass, as though I could vanish bit by bit.

Then I feel that we are all brothers - that even walls and tables and chairs are made of the same substance as us.

They are the same atoms as we are, just in a different state of material organization.

And that’s why I’m not sad any more.

I know where my mother is now.

She’s here; she’s everywhere. She is all around and our mind is only an illusion of our senses, which are limited to seeing only what we can see of the world.

But it’s not all there is.

Even this rug has its life and its death, even a house - a mountain too.

All transforms, even time, according to our thoughts.

Now I feel more at peace.

I used to feel distant from this world, but now I know that not even the world has existence any more.

Everything is everything; it’s a form without form, a world within a speck of dust.

Thank you for helping me to discover all this.

Now I’ve started to play again, and I’m rediscovering my life.

I just need your help because I haven’t slept for months.

At first, I couldn’t sleep because of the grief, and now I can’t sleep because my thoughts have come back again.

I can’t stop them and get some rest.

I go to bed and my mind goes on imagining.

The darkness helps me to create music.

But if I keep the light on, then I can’t sleep.

I am so struck by the clarity and lucidity of Rodolfo’s comments that I feel a bit disoriented myself.

I try to find out if he has ever read esoteric books or taken part in group meditations or used drugs.

But it seems that Rodolfo has never had anything to do with any of these.

His sister later confirms this to me.

Can you tell me more about the feeling of being transparent?

I’m really not sure that I feel like glass because glass is rigid, a solid structure.

I don’t even feel like the invisible man.

I feel as though people look straight through me, that there’s no boundary between myself and the space around me, no boundary between anything.

It’s only our mind creating a space for us to live in.

Considering the rubric ‘Delusions, transparent, everything is’, and the way in which the patient’s story bears an astonishing resemblance to a psychedelic experience,

I look at the remedy Anh.

The materia medica and, above all, the toxicology of the remedy are very helpful in arriving at the prescription of this remedy.

I prescribe a single dose of Anhalonium lewinii 200C.

Case Analysis

Why does the patient require a remedy sourced from ‘drugs’ specifically?

Rodolfo is a creative, sensitive being who feels isolated and alone in the world. This is seen in his being an exceptionally creative musician who plays “metaphysical” music “masterfully

and sensitively” yet also chooses to play almost exclusively solo an instrument that is usually played in a group. Since his youth he has had “extreme difficulty in relating to people - to almost everyone” and also has altered sensory perceptions: “I see things that other people cannot see”; “it seems like my whole life has lasted less than five minutes”; “when I step outside my mind, objects lose their shape and everything enters an immaterial dimension.”

Drug remedies are often indicated in patients who lose their sense of identity, experience depersonalization and a merging with something greater than themselves. Rodolfo says,

I feel as though people look straight through me, that there’s no boundary between myself and the space around me, no boundary between anything” and “I used to feel distant from this

 

Appendix B: Sankaran’s Miasms and their Keywords Source: Sankaran, 2005: 7

Acute: Typhoid:

Malaria:

Ringworm:

Sycotic:

Cancer:

Tubercular:

Leproid:

Syphillinie:

 

Appendix C:  Rubric Extraction

During  the  repertorization  process,  if  a  rubric  contains  only  one  remedy  then  that  rubric  is considered to be characteristic of the remedy.  In order to develop a characteristic picture of

each  psychoactive  remedy analyzed in  this  study,  the  researcher  performed  a  computer repertory  search.to  extract  all  rubrics  in  which  the analyzed remedy was the only remedy to appear.  The data collected from this search is given below  and  the  researcher  believes  it  clearly  verifies  the  proposed  common  sensations  of  the psychoactive plant drug group.

Anhalonium lewinii

Activity - Inactivity

FACE - Pain - pressing (in skin of temples)/pulsating

FACE - PARALYSIS of muscles < chewing

MOUTH - PARALYSIS of palate  “As if hard”

GENERALS - ACTIVITY - outer activity ceases

                                               Sensitivity - Insensitivity

HEAD - PAIN < noise clock beating

EYE - PAIN ext. optic chiasma

EYE - PAIN - chiasma

EYE - PAIN in lower lids “As from sand”

EYE - PAIN - in papillae/sclera

VISION - COLORS before the eyes (blue increased/green increased)

VISION - COLORS before the eyes - everything is as if one color

VISION - COLORS before the eyes (red decreased/yellow decreased)

VISION - CONTRAST increased

                                                         VISION - STEREOSCOPIC, hyperacute

                                                         FACE - PAIN in skin of temples

GENERALS - NUMBNESS in single parts - Peripheral

GENERALS - PAIN from subcutaneous injections (intractable)

GENERALS - PAIN - Internally ext. to skin

Confusion - Clarity

MIND - CONFUSION of mind of situations

MIND - DELUSIONS - eternity merged with present

MIND - DELUSIONS - hearing tone is split

MIND - DELUSIONS - about deformed objects

MIND - DELUSIONS of immortality

MIND - DELUSIONS - had to wait

MIND - EXECUTION lost as the result of overpowering visual sensations

MIND - MISTAKES; making in time - present merged with eternity

MIND - THINKING - images become like abstract concepts

MIND - THINKING - unable for abstract thinking

MIND - THINKING - conceptual - inability - about environment

MIND  - THOUGHTS - persistent thoughts separated from will

MIND - WILL - loss of will power - with increased insight, self-awareness;

VISION - IMAGES too long retained - lasting all day

VISION - IMAGES too long retained - lasting an hour

EXTREMITIES - POSITION sense lost

VISION - RUN together BLURRED Expansion- Contraction, Emptiness - Fullness, Lightness- Heaviness

VISION - PROPORTION; out of

VISION -  objects increase and decrease in SIZE

FACE - HEAVY feeling - Muscles < chewing

MOUTH - HEAVINESS - Tongue - Anterior part

Heat - Cold

EYE - PAIN - Chiasma burning

EYE - PAIN in papillae burning

EYE - PAIN in sclera burning

EAR - PAIN - Conchae in anterior part - pressing pain

Dry - Moisture

EYE - DRYNESS (Chiasma/papillae/sklera)

FACE - DRYNESS - Sinus; maxillary

Formication, Delirium, Instability

MIND - DELUSIONS sounds are like color

MIND - DELUSIONS has visions colorful

MIND - DELUSIONS - small objects appear in motion

MIND - DREAM; as if in a - escapes in a world of dreams

MIND - MUSIC - drums produce euphoria

VISION - ILLUSIONS - colorful - pulsating to the rhythm of music; halo of color

HEARING - ILLUSIONS melody surrounded by a halo of light; each note upon the piano becomes a center of

VISION - OBJECTS - colorless objects appear colored

VISION - THREAD before - bright

VISION - WINDSHIELD wipers; sensation of

MOUTH - CRAWLING in tongue - Anterior part

MOUTH - TASTE from looking at green color

SKIN - FORMICATION mucous membranes

GENERALS - TOUCH - illusions of seen as color

Horror

MIND - DELUSIONS - sees faces - scheming

 

Cannabis indica

Activity - Inactivity

MIND - DELUSIONS -  he is a bottle of soda water running to and fro

MIND - DELUSIONS - careering from life to life

MIND - DELUSIONS - symbols  of  life;  all  past  events  revolve  rapidly  on wheels as

MIND - DELUSIONS - he is a locomotive

MIND - DELUSIONS - carried down a psychical maelstrom

MIND - DELUSIONS - felt he is a marble statue

MIND - DELUSIONS - saw darting up and down; he was a huge

MIND - DELUSIONS - sun is reeling

MIND - DELUSIONS  - leading a vegetable existence

MIND - EXCITEMENT before headache

MIND - UNCONSCIOUSNESS from candlelight

MIND - UNCONSCIOUSNESS - listening to piano

HEAD - PAIN - bursting pain - “As if top of head were being lifted”

HEAD - PAIN - on back of head and neck “As from a blow”

HEAD - PAIN in forehead r. jerking

HEAD - PAIN in occiput in forenoon < shaking the head

HEAD - SHOCKS on regaining consciousness

HEAD - SHOCKS on waking

MALE GENITALIA/SEX - ERECTIONS < walking

CHEST - PAIN ext. through chest - stitching pain

CHEST - PAIN in heart > deep inspiration (stitching pain)

CHEST - PAIN behind sternum < swallowing

EXTREMITIES - ITCHING in feet > scratching

BACK - PAIN in lumbar region after coition - aching

EXTREMITIES - PAIN in balls of toes l. - stitching pain

EXTREMITIES - PAIN joints of toes - shooting pain

EXTREMITIES - THRILLING sensation - in knees/upper limbs/in paralyzed parts

EXTREMITIES - WEAKNESS in bend of elbows

SLEEP - DOZING in afternoon # waking

SLEEP - DREAMING during daytime sleep - periodically

SLEEP - SLEEPLESS - during menses < in menorrhagia/caused by uterine colic

SLEEP - WAKING - frequent in afternoon

GENERALS - LOCOMOTOR ATAXIA + weakness of muscles

GENERALS - TREMBLING - Externally motion of hands and feet < sensitivity

MIND - DELUSIONS - wind  sighing  in  chimney  sounded  like  the  hum  of  a  vast wheel and reverberated like a peal of thunder of a grand organ;

MIND - HEEDLESS of all around

BACK - PAIN - talking impossible

BACK - PAIN - in dorsal region - must walk bent/in spine compelling to stoop

Confusion - Clarity

MIND - CLAIRVOYANCE at midnight

MIND - CONFUSION of mind ecstatic

MIND - DELUSIONS - making an eloquent argument

MIND - DELUSIONS - was in eternity

MIND - DELUSIONS - mistook friend for a Chinese mandarin

MIND - DELUSIONS - to be shouting/singing

MIND - DELUSIONS - doubts own existence

MIND - DELUSIONS - own voice sounds strange and seems to reverberate like thunder

MIND - GESTURES, makes - repeating the same actions - box walking

MIND - IDEAS abundant after urination

MIND - IRRATIONAL # rationalism

MIND - LAUGHING at every word said

MIND - LOQUACITY before/during headache

MIND - MEMORY lost in aphasia

MIND - RUNS against people when walking

HEAD - BALANCING - pendulum - like expansion

Contraction, Emptiness - Fullness, Lightness - Heaviness

MIND - DELUSIONS body is enlarged r.

MIND - DELUSIONS - eyelashes are enlarged

MIND - DELUSIONS - everything exaggerated

MIND - DELUSIONS - existence without form in vast space

MIND - DELUSIONS - passersby are expanding

MIND - DELUSIONS - eyelashes prolonged/fingernails seem as large as plates during drowsiness

MIND - DELUSIONS of gigantic flowers

MIND - DELUSIONS illusions of a gigantic hall

MIND - DELUSIONS being a hippopotamus

MIND - DELUSIONS - was raised up and could fly

MIND - DELUSIONS - being double controls the other; one self

MIND - DELUSIONS - sensations present themselves in a double form

MIND - DELUSIONS - has two existences

MIND - DELUSIONS - was carried  into  space  and  compelled  to describe orbit a vast while lying;

MIND - DELUSIONS - he transformed into a cylinder or a sphere

MIND - DELUSIONS - spinal column is a barometer

MIND - DELUSIONS - surrounded  by  houses  a  hundred  stories  high;  sees  a colossal square

MIND - DELUSIONS - he is gradually swelling

MIND - FEAR - during sensation of floating of single limbs

HEAD - CONSTRICTION from candlelight

HEAD - HEAVINESS in occiput during chill

HEAD - SHOCKS through occiput - dull,  heavy,  throbbing  pain  through with a sensation like a heavy blow  on back of head and neck;

FACE - CONTRACTION of skin

STOMACH - HEAVINESS < eating

ABDOMEN - FLATULENCE in morning < rising

URETHRA - HARD - body; as if round

CHEST - OPPRESSION - breathing deep and labored/spasmodic

EXTREMITIES - LIGHTNESS, sensation of - in single limbs

Heat - Cold

MIND - DEATH  - sensation of during chill

MIND - DELUSIONS - has a furious, radiating heat from epigastrium

FACE - COLDNESS after dinner

MALE GENITALIA/SEX - COITION - enjoyment with burning

EXTREMITIES - COLDNESS in hands after dinner

Dry - Moisture

MIND - DELUSIONS - fluid resisting passage; surrounded by ethereal

Formication, Delirium, Instability

MIND - DELIRIUM  - talks of foreign countries

MIND - DELIRIUM TREMENS with delusions of elephants

MIND - DELUSIONS - a silent army passed him in the street while walking

MIND - DELUSIONS - hears ringing of sweet numberless toned bells

MIND - DELUSIONS - body covers the whole earth

MIND - DELUSIONS  - house seems movable

MIND - DELUSIONS - he is in a cathedral on hearing music of a choir

MIND - DELUSIONS - clothes will fly away and become wandering stars on undressing

MIND - DELUSIONS - is clad in rags

MIND - DELUSIONS - strange  clouds  settle  upon  patients  or  dance  about the sun

MIND - DELUSIONS - companions are half men, half plants

MIND - DELUSIONS - people leaving him are cowards

MIND - DELUSIONS - being a cylinder

MIND - DELUSIONS - dancing satyrs and nodding mandarins

MIND - DELUSIONS - sensations present themselves in a double form

MIND - DELUSIONS - is an emperor

MIND - DELUSIONS - doubts own existence

MIND - DELUSIONS  - has two existences

MIND - DELUSIONS - sees faces of distinguished people

MIND - DELUSIONS - sees ridiculous faces

MIND  - DELUSIONS - ugly faces seem pleasing

MIND - DELUSIONS - part of head fitted into each corner of the room

MIND - DELUSIONS - head seems an inverted oscillating pendulum

MIND - DELUSIONS - hearing noise of colors

MIND - DELUSIONS - seeing ichthyosaur

MIND - DELUSIONS - was an inkstand

MIND - DELUSIONS - leg is tin case filled with stair rods

MIND - DELUSIONS - hears shout of vehicles

MIND - DELUSIONS - was a pump log

MIND - DELUSIONS - vision of dancing satyrs

MIND - DELUSIONS - shower of soot fell on him

MIND - DELUSIONS - to be singing

MIND - DELUSIONS  - soldiers march silently past

MIND - DELUSIONS - everyone he meets has a secret sorrow

MIND - DELUSIONS - saw stars in his plate

MIND - DELUSIONS  -  they had come to want

MIND - DELUSIONS -  of blue water/nectar water is delicious - drinking

MIND - DELUSIONS - whimsical

MIND - ECCENTRICITY - before epilepsy

EAR - NOISES in - periodical singing

Horror

MIND - DELUSIONS - sees dead persons at midnight on waking

MIND - DELUSIONS - was about to die and soon will be dissected

MIND - DELUSIONS - “As if flying from a rock into a dark abyss on going to bed”

MIND - DELUSIONS - shadows; of demoniac hell at midnight on waking

MIND - DELUSIONS - muffled  man  starts  from  the  wall when walking  in  the streets

MIND - DELUSIONS - persons are bribed  to  murder  him;

MIND - DELUSIONS - room falling to pieces

MIND - DELUSIONS - he saw a huge tankard, chased with dragons

MIND - DELUSIONS - disasters by water

MIND - DELUSIONS - vomitus is a bunch of worms

MIND - ESCAPE, attempts to - run away, to find a female in estrus

MIND - FEAR of coal scuttle

MIND - FEAR of using voice

DREAMS - NIGHTMARES  - periodical at night on going to sleep

FACE - PERSPIRATION - shivering

MALE GENITALIA/SEX - SEXUAL DESIRE - increased without pollution

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - METRORRHAGIA with voluptuous itching

MALE  AND  FEMALE  GENITALIA/SEX - SEXUAL  desire - increased during fever

EXTREMITIES - BENDING - < lower limbs forwards

EXTREMITIES - CRAMPS - in lower limbs bending foot forward/when lifting legs

EXTREMITIES - PAIN sore in joints < bending

EXTREMITIES - PAIN in upper limbs ext. fingers from face

EXTREMITIES - TREMBLING in hands - holding the hand still

SLEEP - DOZING after midnight - after 3 h.

SLEEP - POSITION  reverse

SLEEP - SLEEPINESS - as before an apoplexy

SLEEP - SLEEPLESSNESS after surprising news/from uneasiness not from discomfort

GENERALS - ACTIVITY - increased - vascular/of organs

GENERALS - CATALEPSY < joy

GENERALS - CONVULSIONS in children from playing or laughing excessively

GENERALS - LAUGHING <

GENERALS - MOTIONLESS; holding part <

GENERALS - TWITCHING from excessive joy

GENERALS - WEAKNESS from a pleasant surprise

Sensitivity - Insensitivity

MIND - AILMENTS FROM - sudden excitement

MIND - ANGUISH with colic

MIND - ANGUISH from pain in teeth

MIND - ANXIETY after wine

MIND - BESIDE ONESELF during menses

MIND - DELUSIONS - is away from home in delirium tremens

MIND - DESPAIR during delivery

MIND - FEAR # exhilaration

MIND - FEAR of doctors/surgeon

MIND - FEAR - of falling on going to sleep

MIND - FEAR - from pleasant surprises

MIND - IMPRESSIONABLE to pleasure

MIND - MOANING - with complaints of teeth

MIND - WEEPING during delivery

HEAD - CONGESTION after a pleasant surprise

VISION - ACUTE - reading of small print easier

VISION - DIM < during cough

HEARING - ACUTE painful to noise

FACE - PAIN (neuralgic)  < excitement

FACE - PAIN from excessive joy

MOUTH - TASTE - acute of tobacco

MOUTH - TASTE strong too tobacco

MIND - SENSITIVE - with profuse lochia/in measles

MIND - SHRIEKING - with complaints of urinary organs

MIND - IMPULSE; morbid to pinch

TEETH - PAIN from excessive joy

RECTUM - DIARRHEA from domestic cares

MALE GENITALIA/SEX - SENSITIVENESS - a little suffering is unbearable

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - INFLAMMATION - Uterus from excessive joy

CHEST - ANGINA pectoris < abuse of coffee

Confusion - Clarity

MIND - DELUSIONS - whirling in head when thinking

MIND - MEMORY - active evening until midnight

MIND - MEMORY - weakness of memory for past facts in old people, in

MIND  - RUNS about - unsteady

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - PAIN - labor pains ceasing with loquacity

Contraction, Emptiness - Fullness, Lightness - Heaviness

MIND - INCONSOLABLE > in open air

MIND - DISCOURAGED - > in open air

MIND - THOUGHTS rush > open air

HEAD - PAIN - < in open air as from a nail

VISION - ACUTE in open air

HEAD - LIGHTNESS; sensation of in external head

HEAD - PAIN in sides of occiput rheumatic, drawing

EXTREMITIES - PAIN tearing in thighs > pressure

Heat - Cold

EYE - IRRITATION of lids > in cold air

TEETH - PAIN > cold water neuralgic

ABDOMEN - HEAT # coldness

FEMALE  GENITALIA/SEX - MENSES copious with coldness of body

CHEST - PALPITATION of heart - < heat of sun

BACK - COLDNESS + warmth  in  the  middle  of  the  back  and across the lower abdomen

BACK - SHIVERING during fever

EXTREMITIES - COLDNESS in feet in afternoon - 16 h  > in open air

EXTREMITIES - COLDNESS of fingers ext. nape of neck

CHILL - CREEPING rising from sitting

FEVER - DRY heat - in evening in bed, with chilliness in back

FEVER - SHUDDERING with the heat constant, with one cheek hot and red

FEVER - SUCCESSION of stages - heat + thirst - then perspiration

SKIN - COLDNESS during labor

GENERALS - FOOD  and  DRINKS: >: holding  ice  in  mouth;

Dry - Moisture

CHEST - PALPITATION of heart - after an attack of

EXTREMITIES - PERSPIRATION in hand writing

Formication, Delirium, Instability

HEAD - NOISES in head - buzzing in occiput

Horror

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - PAIN after pains with fear of death

 

Nux moschata

Activity - Inactivity

MIND - UNCONSCIOUSNESS afternoon - 14 h

MIND - UNCONSCIOUSNESS - on sight of blood

MIND - UNCONSCIOUSNESS - standing, while having dress fitted

VERTIGO - SWAYING to left in evening

HEAD - CRACKLING sensation in “As if from chains”

HEAD - MOTIONS of head - convulsive - so talking and swallowing are impossible

HEAD - MOTIONS of head - rolling sitting

HEAD - PAIN > walking with head erect

HEAD - PAIN in occiput - > sitting pressing pain/> pressing pain

HEAD - PAIN drawing in vertex ext. eye

HEAD - PULSATING in spots

HEAD - WAVING sensation < motion

EAR - PAIN - pressing/cutting < motion of lower jaw

FACE - PARALYSIS - Jaws - sensation as if

TEETH - COMPLAINTS of teeth + lower jaw “As if paralyzed”

STOMACH - ERUCTATIONS;  TYPE  OF - water  brash - < riding  in  a  carriage

ABDOMEN - PAIN stitching r. ext. l.

ABDOMEN - PAIN - cutting in umbilicus in evening/> sleep

ABDOMEN - Cramping in region of umbilicus in evening < in bed

ABDOMEN - PAIN in region of umbilicus  - twisting pain downward

ABDOMEN - PAIN drawing in umbilicus ext. legs

ABDOMEN - PAIN - pressing ext. pit of stomach

ABDOMEN - WEAKNESS, sense of paralytic weakness in intestines

MALE GENITALIA/SEX - PAIN - Penis spasmodic

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - ABORTION from false labor pains

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - MENSES copious with sleepiness

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - MENSES scanty from weakness

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - MENSES suppressed from weakness

CHEST - CONGESTION of heart < walking rapidly

CHEST - HEART failure + faintness

CHEST - PAIN  pressing at night < falling asleep

CHEST  - PAIN < after sleep

CHEST - PAIN tearing in diaphragm (in region < inspiration

BACK - PAIN aching after riding in a carriage

BACK - PAIN in lumbar region < rest in evening

BACK - RIDING IN A CARRIAGE < coccyx (sacrum)

BACK - WEAKNESS in cervical region head drops forward on chest

BACK - WEAKNESS in lumbar region ext. upward

BACK - PAIN in lumbar region in evening < rest

EXTREMITIES - rush of blood to l. leg

EXTREMITIES - CRAMPS in calves (< lying/before sleep)

EXTREMITIES - NUMBNESS in lower limbs < ascending stairs

EXTREMITIES - PAIN in back of feet < stepping

EXTREMITIES - PAIN in soles of feet (boring in morning/pressing “As if walking on a hard pea”)

EXTREMITIES - PAIN drawing in fingers ext. shoulder

EXTREMITIES - PAIN in knees < ascending stairs “As if sprained”

EXTREMITIES - PAIN in calves “As from a blow”

EXTREMITIES - PAIN in 1st toe < after lying down (boring)

EXTREMITIES - PAIN in upper limbs, drawing, jerking, grasping pain

EXTREMITIES - TREMBLING hands  < after rising

EXTREMITIES - TWITCHING in forearms during chill

EXTREMITIES - “As if vibrating” in toes

SLEEP - sleeps after fainting with palpitation

SLEEP - SLEEPINESS between chill

SLEEP - SLEEPINESS by diet errors

SLEEP  - SLEEPINESS < slightest exertion

SLEEP - SLEEPINESS < walking in cold air

SLEEP - SLEEPLESSNESS < during pregnancy with sleepiness

PERSPIRATION in FORENOON < during sleep

GENERALS - CONVULSIONS when forcibly  aroused from a trance

GENERALS - CONVULSIONS in children with diarrhea

GENERALS - FAINTNESS in afternoon - 17.30 h

GENERALS - FAINTNESS followed by sleep

GENERALS - sensation of TORPOR during vertigo

Sensitivity - Insensitivity

HEAD - PAIN < after overeating just a little bit

HEAD  - PAIN in vertex < sore lying on painful side

HEAD - SHAKING sensation after eating

FACE - SENSITIVE under chin

STOMACH - INDIGESTION < after overeating just a little bit

STOMACH - LIGHT FOOD <

STOOL - COMPLAINTS of stool + weakness

BLADDER - URINATION - hysterical dysuria

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - MENSES painful riding in the wind

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - MENSES scanty < fright

CHEST - PALPITATION of heart “As from sadness”

Confusion - Clarity

MIND - ABSENTMINDED does not know where he is or what to answer on waking

MIND - ANXIETY walking in cold air

MIND - ARGUING for facility

MIND - CONFUSION of mind during pregnancy

MIND - MEMORY lost about his past life

MIND - weakness  of  memory - transient,  but  perfect  consciousness  of what he himself said or did

MIND - ORGANIC MENTAL SYNDROME

MIND - SHRIEKING like a locomotive

MIND - STUPEFACTION - remains fixed in one spot

MIND - STUPOR during menses

MIND - THOUGHTS control lost in afternoon - 14 h

MIND - THOUGHTS - persistent - humorous

MIND - THOUGHTS rush  - annoying

MIND - THOUGHTS  vanishing before menses

MOUTH - SPEECH defective

SLEEP - SLEEPINESS with overestimation of time and distance

Expansion - Contraction, Emptiness - Fullness, Lightness - Heaviness

MIND - DELIRIUM with violent vertigo

HEAD - EMPTY, hollow sensation in afternoon

HEAD - “As if EXPANDED” with sleepiness

HEAD - PAIN - instead of menses bursting pain

VISION - DISTANT, objects seem - < darkness

VISION - NEARER, objects seem - to each other

STOMACH - DISTENSION after contradiction

STOMACH - “As if full after contradiction” (< during pregnancy)

STOMACH - HEAVINESS < ascending stairs

STOMACH - PAIN pressing “As from pain flatulence” obstructed

ABDOMEN - “As if hard ball in liver”/”As if a stone in liver”

ABDOMEN - COMPLAINTS of abdomen # swollen feet

ABDOMEN - “As if full” in  daytime

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - Uterus “As if rising up”

RESPIRATION - IMPEDED, obstructed from pressure of clothes

CHEST - OPPRESSION at night falling asleep

CHEST - OPPRESSION ext. heart ext. throat

BACK - PAIN in lumbar  region < after menses “As if a piece of wood  were  pressing from within out”

BACK - PAIN in sacral region “As if a piece of wood stretches across”

EXTREMITIES - FULLNESS of hands in evening

EXTREMITIES - HEAVINESS  of knees < during rest

GENERALS - “As if hard BALL internally”

Heat - Cold

HEAD - PAIN sore > warmth

HEAD - PAIN in temples < in cold wet weather

HEAD - SHAKING sensation < cold

HEAD - SHAKING sensation > heat (except heat of bed)

FACE - Pale > warm room

TEETH - COLD wet air

TEETH - PAIN after chill

THROAT - PAIN burning in esophagus in afternoon

ABDOMEN - in umbilicus > sleep

RECTUM - DIARRHEA > external moist heat

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - MENSES - painful (< exposure to cold/living in damp house

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - MENSES - scanty from a cold

COUGH - in warm BED in evening

COUGH - standing < COLD water

EXPECTORATION - EVENING < becoming warm

CHEST - CONSTRICTION < cold bathing

CHEST - PAIN - burning < after sleep

CHEST - PALPITATION of heart > warm drinks

BACK - WEATHER < cold wet

CHILL in EVENING from external cold

CHILL - CHILLINESS of frequent attacks with intermediate sleep

CHILL in SLEEP # attacks of coldness

SKIN - COLDNESS during pregnancy

SKIN - SENSITIVENESS to cold wet air

Dry - Moisture

EYE - CLOSING difficult from dryness of eyes

EYE - OPENING the lids difficult from dryness of eyes

NOSE - DRYNESS inside + cough

FACE - Pale < going into damp air

MOUTH - DRY - > entering the house/during sleep/thirstless, desires to hold water in mouth to moisten it and then spits it out;

MOUTH - DRY - “As if tongue would fall into powder”

NECK - AIR < wet air

STOOL - WATERY - bright yellow

TRACHEA - VOICE < stormy weather

RESPIRATION - ARRESTED < in water

RESPIRATION - DIFFICULT < in water

COUGH - DRY with sudden loss of breath

COUGH < (GETTING) WET feet

CHEST - PERSPIRATION fetid between mammae

BACK - COLDNESS in lumbar region before stool

BACK - PAIN drawing in cervical region from wet cold air

BACK - PAIN in dorsal region beween scapulae from wet cold weather

BACK - TENSION in cervical region from cold, damp air

Formication, Delirium, Instability

MIND - ANGER during pregnancy

MIND - DELUSIONS - double being his  real conscious self seemed to be watching  his  other  self  playing

MIND - DREAM; as if in a - after dinner

MIND - FOOLISH behavior in open air

MIND - GESTURES, makes - ridiculous or foolish in open air (standing on the street)

MIND  - HYPOCHONDRIASIS (in forenoon/during fever)

MIND - HYSTERIA - after scanty menses

MIND - INSANITY with vertigo

MIND - LAUGHING hysterical during menses

MIND - MIRTH during chill

MIND - MOOD - changeable during heat

MIND - TALKING to himself loudly

EAR - FOREIGN BODY in; sensation of a - rough body

EAR - FOREIGN BODY in; sensation of a - in Eustachian tube

FACE - EXPRESSION diabolic grin

STOMACH - CRAWLING - ext. to throat; from pit of stomach

FEMALE  GENITALIA/SEX - ABORTION - tendency  to  abortion in chilly, hysterical women, disposed to faint;

RESPIRATION - ANXIOUS during headache

SLEEP - SLEEPINESS during hysteria

SLEEP - SLEEPINESS with inclination to laughter

Horror

MIND - DELUSIONS - brain is cracking

MIND - DELUSIONS - head would fall off

MIND - FEAR of death in afternoon - 17.30 h.

 

Opium

Activity - Inactivity

MIND - ACTIVITY - desires activity during perspiration

MIND - COMA with respiratory acidosis

MIND - COMA with glassy eyes

MIND - COMA - preceded by stupor

MIND - DELIRIUM TREMENS in old emaciated persons

MIND - DELIRIUM TREMENS from small quantity of alcoholic stimulants

MIND - DELIRIUM TREMENS - with snoring spoor

MIND - UNCONSCIOUSNESS with Cheyne - Stokes respiration;

MIND - UNCONSCIOUSNESS - suppression of menses from fright

MIND - VIOLENT before sleep

HEAD - “As if ASLEEP after a debauch”

HEAD - PAIN pinching in forehead ext. root of nose

HEAD - PAIN in forehead in frontal eminence; frontal > rubbing

HEAD - PRICKLING after a debauch

HEAD - WAVING sensation in forehead “As if heavy body swaying back and forth”

EYE  - OPEN lids - half open convulsive

EYE - PAIN  pressing > motion of eyes

EYE - WEAK in evening after going to bed

VISION - DIM in forenoon < reading

MOUTH - TWITCHING in THROAT - CRAMP in Esophagus < swallowing

THROAT - PAIN twisting

STOMACH - PULSATION > rising/walking

ABDOMEN - PAIN cramping very violent

ABDOMEN - PARALYSIS of intestines from anesthesia/after operation on abdomen

BLADDER - ATONY of - after laparotomy

BLADDER - PARALYSIS after laparotomy

BLADDER - URINATION - feeble stream < after sleep

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - MENSES painful > bending double

RESPIRATION - SNORING while unconscious

RESPIRATION - SLOW during convulsions

BACK - CONVULSIONS tetanic in nape of neck

BACK - WEAKNESS of muscles in cervical region

EXTREMITIES - MOTION involuntary of toes

EXTREMITIES - PAIN aching < walking

EXTREMITIES - PAIN in lower limbs after rest (stitching)

EXTREMITIES - “As if STRENGTH” in lower/upper limbs

EXTREMITIES - TINGLING in lower limbs after kneeling/after rest

EXTREMITIES - TREMBLING after cigar

EXTREMITIES - TREMBLING in upper limbs during paroxysms

EXTREMITIES - TWITCHING during convulsions

EXTREMITIES - TWITCHING on waking

EXTREMITIES - TWITCHING in calves - convulsive

SLEEP - DEEP in old people

SLEEP - SLEEPINESS after injuries of the head

SLEEP - SLEEPINESS overpowering when concentrating

CHILL - SHAKING with deep sleep and snoring

GENERALS - ANESTHESIA [= insensibility] shivering during

GENERALS - APOPLEXY + slow and full pulse

GENERALS - CONVULSIONS during delivery from ceasing of labor pains convulsions

GENERALS - PARALYSIS - Internally mucoviscidosis

Sensitivity - Insensitivity

MIND - FRIGHTENED easily on closing the eyes

MIND - GRIEF over insults

MIND - INDIFFERENCE to fine feeling

MIND - INDIGNATION; from general discomfort

EYE - PUPILS insensible to light during fever

HEARING - ACUTE - sleepless from distant sounds

STOMACH - RETCHING < emotions

RECTUM - CONSTIPATION after fright

RECTUM - INVOLUNTARY stool from grief

BLADDER - RETENTION of urine in newborns after passion of the nursing womean

BLADDER - RETENTION  of  urine in after fright  of  the  mother;

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - ABORTION from fright in last months

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - DELIVERY - premature during (complaints) from fear or fright

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - MENSES appear from a shock

FEMALE  GENITALIA/SEX - PAIN unbearable in uterus < during menses

EXTREMITIES - TWITCHING of hands after fright

SLEEP - FALLING ASLEEP during pain

SLEEP - SLEEPINESS after fright

GENERALS - SHOCK followed by diabetes mellitus

Confusion - Clarity

MIND - DELUSIONS - smoke on brain (makes him drunk)

MIND - DELUSIONS being double - and he is not sure which will conquer  the  other;  there  were  another  self

DELUSIONS - she is talking with herself

MIND - ECCENTRICITY at night

MIND - FORGETFUL - connection of consecutive thoughts

MIND - HEEDLESS in mental derangement

MIND - HIDING himself in old people

MIND - MEDITATING at night

MIND - MEMORY active during fever

MIND - PLANS  making gigantic plans

MIND - SINGING monotonous

MIND - SPEECH delirious with wide open eyes

MIND - SPEECH incoherent after dozing

MIND - SPEECH - terse (= to the point)

MIND - STUPOR with hearing

MND - STUPOR menses suppressed from fright

MIND - THOUGHTS - thoughtful all night

EYE - BRILLIANT during perspiration

EYE - STARING during fever

Expansion - Contraction, Emptiness - Fullness, Lightness - Heaviness

HEAD - LIGHTNESS; sensation of - during vertigo

NOSE - CORYZA < after walking in open air

STOMACH - ERUCTATIONS empty in afternoon while stomach  is  empty;

ABDOMEN - OBSTRUCTION - intestines “As if obstructed”

RECTUM - DRAGGING, heaviness, weight in evening during loose stool