Mitteln Anhängsel


[Prasad Beeraka]

Observes that that the conventional (allopathic) action and the homeopathic action of a remedy are opposite to one another, but this is not always the case

Originally published in the Simillimum / : Reprinted courtesy of the author.


An interesting and new observation regarding the pharmacological action of homeopathic remedies is presented. All substances (remedies) have two pharmacological actions.

One is the conventional (allopathic) pharmacological action (that caused by administration of the undiluted material form or mother tincture of the substance) and the other is the homeopathic pharmacological action (that caused by administration of the homeopathically diluted, potentized form of the substance).

Usually, it is seen that the conventional (allopathic) action and the homeopathic action of a remedy are opposite to one another but this is not always the case. There are a few remedies in the materia medica in which the conventional and homeopathic pharmacological actions are similar to each other instead of being opposite.

It has been observed in my study that the location of a remedy’s pharmacological receptor within the cell determines whether the homeopathic action of that remedy is similar to or opposite to the conventional action of that remedy.

This is the interesting phenomenon discovered and the same is presented in this article. Thus, this article provides a scientific explanation for the anomalous pharmacological behaviour of some of the remedies in the materia medica. Further work and research in this aspect could lead to a deeper understanding of the fundamental mechanism of action of homeopathy.

As we are all aware, all substances (remedies) have two pharmacological actions, one is the conventional (allopathic) pharmacological action (that caused by administration of the undiluted material form or mother tincture of the substance) and the other is the homeopathic pharmacological action (that caused by administration of the homeopathically diluted, potentized form of the substance).

Remedies mentioned in the materia medica also possess this dual pharmacological action and the pharmacological behaviour of some of the remedies in the materia medica was studied. An analysis of the pharmacological behaviour of the remedies led to the following two observations:

1.      The conventional pharmacological action and the homeopathic pharmacological action of a remedy were found to be opposite to each other when the pharmacological receptor of the remedy is located on the cell membrane.

2.      The conventional and homeopathic pharmacological actions of a remedy were found to be similar to each other when the pharmacological receptor of the remedy is located free within the cytosol (i.e., not anchored to the cell membrane or any other cellular membrane).

Bell., Op., Jab., Coff., Arn. and Colch., are some of the remedies in the materia medica whose pharmacological site of action in the body has been well established and these remedies were selected for the study.

Bell. (active principle is atropine) acts on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, while Op.  (active principle is morphine and other opiate alkaloids) acts on the opioid receptors, and Coff. (active principle is caffeine) acts principally on the adenosine receptor. Jab (active principle is pilocarpine) acts on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor;

Arn. (active principle is helenalin) acts on NF-κB and Colch. (active principle is colchicine) acts on tubulin. The pharmacological action of these remedies in the conventional and homeopathic domains was studied and was correlated with the location of their respective receptors.

Let us start with Belladonna. Belladonna when administered in the conventional material form (i.e., as a mother tincture without subjecting it to homeopathic dilution) causes the following symptoms- fever, dryness of mouth, flushed, hot and dry skin, dilated pupils, tachycardia and hallucinations1.

Coming to the pharmacological action of homeopathically diluted Belladonna, the primary reaction (proving symptoms) of homeopathic Belladonna is similar to the set of symptoms caused by undiluted Belladonna mentioned above4, while the secondary reaction is opposite to the pharmacological action caused by the conventional undiluted form of Belladonna (the secondary reaction is always opposite to the primary reaction or proving symptoms of a homeopathic remedy).

The secondary reaction is to be considered as the final pharmacological action of any homeopathic remedy as the primary reaction is only temporary and the secondary reaction is permanent. Thus, it can be observed that, in the case of Belladonna, the pharmacological actions of the conventional and homeopathic forms of the remedy are opposite in nature.

Let us consider Opium now. Opium when administered in the conventional, undiluted form has the following pharmacological actions- analgesia, sedation, euphoria, respiratory depression, pinpoint pupils, nausea and vomiting, urinary retention, flushing of skin and pruritus1.

The final pharmacological action (secondary reaction) of the homeopathic form of Opium can be observed to be opposite to the pharmacological action of the conventional form of Opium (the proving symptoms of homeopathic Opium are similar to the pharmacological actions of undiluted Opium mentioned above)4.

Likewise, is the case with Coffea and Jaborandi. Coffea (active principle is caffeine) causes increased locomotor activity, wakefulness and insomnia when taken in the undiluted conventional form and homeopathic Coffea causes reduced locomotor activity and induction of sleep as its final pharmacological action1, 4.

Conventional undiluted Jaborandi (active principle is pilocarpine) causes excessive perspiration and homeopathically diluted Jaborandi is used to treat abnormal sweating.

So, in all these four remedies (Belladonna, Opium, Coffea, Jaborandi), the conventional and homeopathic pharmacological actions are opposite to each other. These four remedies which have this similarity also have one feature in common regarding their pharmacological receptors in the body.

The pharmacological receptors of these four remedies, namely the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (for Belladonna and Jaborandi), the opioid receptors (for Opium) and

the adenosine receptor (for Coffea) are all located at the cell membrane and are anchored to the cell membrane5.

Now, if we study the pharmacological actions of Arnica and Colchicum, an opposite pharmacological behaviour can be observed. Arnica (active principle is helenalin)

has an anti-inflammatory and anti-hemorrhagic action when administered in the undiluted, conventional form to patients with closed wounds of muscle and soft tissue6.

Homeopathically diluted Arnica also, has the same pharmacological action as undiluted Arnica and is used popularly in homeopathy to treat closed wounds.

Similarly, Colchicum in its conventional, undiluted form has an anti-inflammatory action and homeopathically diluted Colchicum too, has a similar anti-inflammatory action.

Thus, these two remedies, Arnica and Colchicum have similar pharmacological action in their conventional undiluted form as well as their diluted homeopathic form.

This is in contrast to the pharmacological behaviour of Belladonna, Opium, Coffea and Jaborandi (remedies acting on cell membrane receptors) which have opposing actions

in their conventional and homeopathic domains.

It is interesting to note that Arnica and Colchicum act on cytosolic receptors and not on receptors located at the cell membrane. Arnica (active principle is helenalin) acts on NF-κB (nuclear transcription factor) and Colchicum (active principle is colchicines) acts on tubulin. Both these receptors are located free within the cytosol and are not anchored to any cellular membrane.

The pharmacological behaviour exhibited by the four remedies acting on membrane receptors mentioned above (Belladonna, Opium, Coffea, Jaborandi) is also seen in all other remedies acting at membrane receptors with hardly any exceptions (Digitalis is one exception I could find in the materia medica).

The majority of pharmacological substances act at membrane located receptors and a relatively minor percentage act at cytosolic (non-membrane) receptors. Colchicum and Arnica are the only two remedies I could identify in the materia medica that act at cytosolic (non-membrane) receptors and hence, only these two remedies are mentioned as examples of remedies acting at cytosolic (non-membrane) receptors. Both these remedies exhibit a pharmacological behaviour that is opposite to that of the remedies acting

at membrane located receptors.

In summary, remedies acting at cell membrane anchored receptors exhibit opposite pharmacological actions in their conventional and homeopathic domains, and remedies acting at cytosolic (non-membrane anchored) receptors exhibit similar pharmacological actions in their conventional and homeopathic domains.

The “fixity” or “restricted mobility” of membrane anchored receptors as opposed to the free mobility of cytosolic receptors could probably be the reason for this contrasting pharmacological behaviour of remedies acting at these two different cellular locations.


The article reaches the following conclusions:

1.      The conventional pharmacological action (that caused by administration of undiluted, material form of the remedy) and the homeopathic pharmacological action (that caused by administration of the homeopathic dilution of the remedy) are opposite to each other in the case of remedies acting at membrane anchored receptors, and the conventional pharmacological action and the homeopathic pharmacological action are similar to each other in the case of remedies acting at cytosolic (non-membrane anchored) receptors.

2.      The “fixity” or “restricted mobility” of membrane anchored receptors as opposed to the free mobility of cytosolic receptors could be responsible for this interesting phenomenon.

3.      Further work and research on this phenomenon could lead to a deeper understanding of the fundamental mechanism of action of homeopathy.


[Prasad Beeraka/Hans Wolff]

Unser eigentliches physiologisches Leben spielt sich in Milliarden von Zellen ab, aus denen unser Organismus besteht. Dieses Leben einer Zelle teilt sich in drei Funktionen auf:

1. Aufnahme von Nahrung und Sauerstoff für das eigene Überleben

2. Reproduktion für das Überleben der Art

3. Verteidigung durch das Immunsystem

Zur Verteidigung verfügt die Zelle über drei Abwehrmechanismen.

Auslösend können jede Invasion von Krankheitserreger, Toxine, Emotionen sein.

1. Abwehrmechanismus: hauptsächlich die Entzündung (Bronchitis/Hepatitis/Tonsillitis). Ohne Entzündungen würden Infektionen nicht bemerkt,

Wunden würden niemals heilen.

Aber nicht die Bakterien/Mikroben/Viren/Pilze/Toxine der wahre Grund einer Pathologie sind, sondern die Veränderung des Zellgewebes = die Einladung für die Erreger und

daraus entsteht die Entzündung. Hierbei ist alles plötzlich und anfallsartig, mit starken Schmerzen und Rötung.

Aber der Patient spricht gut auf eine Behandlung an und erholt sich sehr schnell.

2. Abwehrmechanismus: oft ist die Reaktion Wachstum und Verdickung (Polypen/Warzen/Zysten/Verkalkung). Die so errichtete Mauer soll die Zellen vor Irritationen schützen.

3. Abwehrmechanismus: Die destruktive Verteidigung, wenn die 1. und 2. Abwehr versagt, wählt der Körper den Untergang eines Teils des Organismus, um den Rest zu retten. Hierbei zeigen sich z.B. Gangrän - Nekrose = Absterben des Gewebes oder ganzer Organbezirken.


All diese Vorgänge haben ihre Wurzel im genetischen Apparat der Zelle. Er ist die Wurzel der Intelligenz des Organismus, verfügt nicht nur über vererbtes Wissen, sondern befindet sich auch in einem ständigen Lernprozess.

Entscheidet letztendlich auch, ob der Mensch feige oder mutig, verwegen oder schüchtern, zornig oder ängstlich, hochmütig oder unterwürfig ist.


Z.B. anhand von drei Mitteln: Lyc. Nux-v. Sulph.

Lyc.             war in der Urzeit so groß „Wie eine Palme“ hat aber nur überlebt bis auf den heutigen Tag, indem sich diese Palme immer kleiner machte, bis zum Schluss nur ein

Farn übrig blieb.

Was blieb, war die Erinnerung an diese alte Größe, aber das Problem ist, die jetzige Kleinheit, daraus wuchs

- Geringes Selbstwertgefühl

- Tyrannisches, herrisches, arrogantes Verhalten gegenüber der Familie und

Menschen mit weniger Autorität (also da, wo ich kann)

- Verbeugt sich nach oben, tritt nach unten.

- Spürt seine Minderwertigkeit und wird sehr scheu

- Selbstüberhebung, Egoismus

- Intellektuell

„Bist du der Beste in deiner Klasse?“

würde ganz verlegen, er wäre gerne der Beste, ist es aber nicht.

Er kennt seine Grenzen und leidet darunter.


- Intellektuell, ungeduldig, ehrgeizig.

- Er ist der Beste.

- Aggressive Persönlichkeit

- Peinlich genau

- Wut durch Widerspruch

- Durch seinen Strychningehalt gut bei Spasmen und Krämpfe/Störungen des Nervensystems.

„Bist du der Beste in deiner Klasse?“

straft mit Verachtung, ist persönlich gekränkt, dass man es wagt, ihm diese Frage zu stellen, er schweigt, aber eine Viertelstunde später platzt es aus ihm heraus:

„Ich bin der Beste“, was auch stimmt.

Sulphur (gelber Schwefel)

- Unglaublich intelligent

- Philosophisch

- Selbstvertrauen ist unerschütterlich

- Faul

- Schlampig - Kleider haben Flecken vom Mittagessen der vergangenen Woche. Haar ist fettig und ungekämmt, das Hemd falsch zugeknöpft

- Stört aber alles nicht

- Sein Wirkungskreis sieht aus wie ein Katastrophengebiet

„Bist du der Beste in deiner Klasse?“

            ist wahrscheinlich das Intelligenteste, das es überhaupt gibt, aber es ist ihm egal.

Ein Philosoph kann wunderbare Geschichten erzählen, sie sind zwar gelogen, alle wissen es, trotzdem sind alle fasziniert.

Akutmittel, die besonders zu den „R-Monaten“ gehören.


< im Allgemeinen 16 – 20 h.

Kopfschmerz r.

Otitis media r.

Dicke, gelbe übelriechende Absonderung aus den Ohren

Rachenentzündung r.

Schlaf, schläft in r. Seitenlage

Klebriger, übelriechender Schweiß

Lautes Rumoren im Bauch

Geblähter und aufgetriebener Bauch, sogar nach kleinsten Nahrungsmengen

Bauch- und Magenschmerz, > Reiben des Bauches (Kleinkind/Säugling)

Stuhl ist anfänglich hart o. verstopft und wird dann weich oder flüssig

Sodbrennen, saures Aufstoßen

Grippaler Infekt


Niesen und Schnupfen morgens erwachend

Säuglinge mit Koliken, mit wütendem Durchbiegen des Rückens

Grippe o. andere fieberhafte Erkrankungen mit hohem Fieber und Schüttelfrost

Muss in jedem Fieberstadium zugedeckt sein

Frösteln beim Aufdecken, will dann aber nicht mehr bedeckt sein

Trockene Hitze des Körpers

Blasenentzündung mit ständigem Harndrang, nur das Entleeren kleiner Mengen

verschafft für Augenblicke Linderung. > Wärme

Schnupfen fliesend am Tag, verstopft nachts.

Heiserkeit mit Kratzen im Hals

Husten führt zu berstendem Kopfschmerz.


Höhenangst, sogar wenn andere sich an einem hochgelegenen Ort befinden.

Grippaler Infekt

<: 11 h./im Winter/nachts.

Unmäßiges Schwitzen - übelriechend

Kopfschmerz am Wochenende

Entzündung der Lidränder mit Ausfallen der Wimpern

Nasennebenhöhlenentzündung, chronisches eitriges Nasensekret


DURST auf eiskalte Getränke

Durchfall o. weicher Stuhl, morgens gegen 5 h. sehr übelriechend

Enuresis (Knaben)

Husten, < nachts im Bett

Grünlicher, eitriger, süßlicher Auswurf


Atemnot mitten in der Nacht, > Hochsitzen

Schläft in l. Seitenlage


Grippaler Infekt: 1. Frostschauer, 2. mit hohem Fieber (morgens 7 – 9 h.)

enorme Schmerzen in den Knochen

Steifheit in den Gliedmaßen

DURST auf kalte Getränke, besonders während des Froststadiums.

Kopfschmerz, der während o. nach dem Fieber auftritt

Rückenschmerz „Als ob Rücken zerbrochen“


Beschwerden, die seit einem grippalen Infekt nicht mehr verschwinden wollen.


Herabfallen der Augenlider, kann kaum die Augen offen halten.

Beim Fieberanstieg, wie betäubt und gelähmt.

Beim Fieber, will festgehalten werden, weil er so zittert.

Fieber mit Schwindel

Trockener Husten mit Wundschmerz in der Brust und Fließschnupfen.


< allgemein durch jede Art von Bewegung/gegen 21 h./Liegen auf der schmerzhaften Seite; > durch Druck;

Schwindel durch die geringste Bewegung

Durst auf große Mengen

Erkältungen wandern zur Brust herab.

Trockener, harter schmerzhafter Husten, muss sich die Brust halten.

Schläft in l. Seitenlage

Heiserkeit < im Freien

Hackender Husten, durch Reizung in der oberen Luftröhre.

Stiche in der Brust

Fieber innerlich, fühlt sich äußerlich normal bis kalt an.


Durstig, trinkt in kleinen Schlucken am liebsten kalte Milch.

> Jede Art von Bewegung

Grippe mit SCHMERZ, Patient dreht sich dauernd um die Lage zu verändern.

Fieber steigt sehr schnell, besonders 10 h.

Zunge ist trocken und braun.

1. Frösteln, „Als ob kaltes Wasser über ihn gegossen würde“, 2. Hitze und Neigung zum Gliederstrecken.

Trockener, quälender Husten von Mitternacht bis Morgen, sowie beim Schüttelfrost o. Hände aus dem Bett haltend.



Fieber, fühlt sich an, „Als ob die Hand bei der Untersuchung verbrennen“.

Gesicht, rot, heiß, selten bläulich rot, glüht beim Fieber.


Eitrige Mandelentzündung, < r.

Kitzelnder, kurzer, trockener Husten

Kehlkopf sehr schmerzhaft.

Hohe, pfeifende Stimme, Stöhnen bei jedem Atemzug.

Pupillen erweitert.

Halluzinationen, explosionsartige Wutausbrüche.

Mittelohrentzündung, hochgradige pulsierende Schmerzen (gewöhnlich rechtsseitig).

< nachts.


< Allgemein gegen 9 h. o. zwischen 21 – 22 h.

Jämmerlich und unruhig, Zorn, reizBAR

Will nicht untersucht werden.

Muss umher getragen werden.

Mittelohrentzündung eher links.

Fieber mit einseitiger Frostschauer, Gesicht einseitig rot.

Kolik - Kleinkind, Säugling, lässt sich nicht trösten, biegt sich nach hinten durch,

schreit zornig.

Durchfall während des Zahnens, riecht nach faulen Eiern.

Füße sind heiß, werden unter der Bettdecke hervorgestreckt.


Heftige Hustenanfälle, die so stark sein können, dass der Patient keine Luft bekommt und blau anläuft.

Husten verursacht Nasenbluten/< nach Mitternacht

Bronchitis, Krupp, Keuchhusten, ist sein Anwendungsgebiet.

Husten, Kitzeln im Kehlkopf.

Fieber und kein Durst/mit innerem Frösteln/mit kalten Schauern/mit heißem Gesicht/mit kalten Händen

Immer zu kalt, auch im Bett.

< nach Mitternacht.


Jede Erkältung schlägt auf die Brust.


Anhaltender, kitzelnder Husten.

Enormer Durst auf kalte Getränke.

Schläft auf der rechten Seite.

Atemwegsinfekte, Bronchitis, Erkältungen, Grippe, Krupp.

Fieber mit klebrigem Nachtschweiß, mit kalten Knien nachts.


Fieber, egal welche Erkrankung dahinter steckt, Fieber ist etwas ganz normales und wir sollten dankbar sein, dass der Körper in der Lage ist, sich zu wehren.

Die Frage ist, wie gehen wir damit um.

1. Die Mama muss beruhigt werden, damit sie nicht aus lauter Angst dauernd Fieberzäpfchen gibt.

2. Das Continua-Fieber = anhaltendes Fieber, ohne wesentliche Schwankungen.

Meist über 39° C und nicht um mehr als 1° schwankend.

Sehr wichtig: Hier hilft kein Belladonna!

Phos. Gels. Bry. Rhus-t.

Dieser Fieber-Typus gehört nicht zur Hausapotheke (z.B. Typhus)

3. Remittierendes-Fieber = stärker schwankend, aber stets über Normaltemperatur.

Aconitum, Belladonna, Bryonia, Chamomilla, Gelsemium, Eupatorium-perfoliatum.

- Kleinkind, bei: Die wichtigsten Mittel sind hier: Aconitum, Belladonna, Chamomilla und Gelsemium. Nur dieses remittierende Fieber gehört zur Hausapotheke.

4. Das intermittierende Fieber = Fieberspitzen wechseln mit unter- o. Normaltemperatur. Das Fieber ist schubweise oft unterbrochen von einem bis mehreren fieberfreien Tagen. Auch dieser Fiebertypus gehört nicht zur Hausapotheke (Malaria).

Zusammenfassend die Hausapotheke gehört nur zum remittierenden Fieber, also stärker schwankend, aber stets über Normaltemperatur.


[Mir Zahid]

A Indications for Medium, High and Low Potencies in Homeopathy. The potency selection guidelines in this article are a collection of personal views of various authors and are based on individual experiences.

Editor’s Note: The potency selection guidelines in this article are a collection of personal views of various authors and are based on individual experiences. These are not definite indications for the use of any potency and some of the guidelines might not get approval from many modern homeopaths. These guidelines can add to our understanding of the complex issue of homeopathic posology but should not be followed blindly in any case.


In acute diseases 1M and 10M are the most useful. From 10M to the MM are all useful for all ordinary chronic diseases in persons not so sensitive.

In persons suffering from chronic sickness and not so sensitive, the 10M may first be used, and continued without change so long as improvement lasts; then the 50M will act precisely in the same manner, and should be used so long as the patient makes progress toward health; them the CM may be used in the same manner, and the DM and MM in succession. By this use of the series of potencies in a given case, the patient can be held under the influence of the similimum, or a given remedy, until cured. …… (Kent)

The more similar the remedy, the more clearly and positively the symptoms of a patient take on the peculiar and characteristic form of the remedy, the greater the susceptibility to that remedy, and the higher the potency required.

Generally speaking, susceptibility is greatest in children and young, vigorous persons, and diminishes with age. Children are particularly sensitive during development, and the most sensitive organs are those which are being developed. Therefore the medicines which have a peculiar affinity for those organs should be given in the medium or higher potencies.

The higher potencies are best adopted to sensitive persons of the nervous, sanguine or choleric temperament; to intelligent, intellectual persons, quick to act and react; to zealous and impulsive persons.

If the potency is too high its action may be too deep and far reaching, and the reaction too great for the weakened vital power to carry on. Such remedies as Sulphur, Calcarea carbonica, Mercurius, Arsenic and Phosphorus, given in the 50M or CM potencies, have sometimes hastened tubercular or tertiary syphilis cases into the grave. In beginning treatment of such suspicious or possibly incurable cases it is better to use medium potencies, like the 30th or 200th and go higher gradually, if necessary, as treatment progresses and the patient improves… (S. Close)

When the symptoms of a case clearly indicate one remedy, whose characteristic symptoms correspond closely to the characteristic symptoms of the case, we give high potencies—thirtieth, two hundredth, thousandth, or higher according to the prescriber’s degree of confidence and the contents of his medicine case. …………………. (Jahr)

If a case seems relatively curable and free of physical pathology, higher initial potencies may be tried, ranging from 30 to CM. The primary guiding principle here is the degree of certainty which the homoeopath has about the remedy. If the medicine seems very obvious and covers the case very well, a very high potency may be given in a person with a curable system. If the remedy is not so clear, it is better to begin with a potency closer to 30. …………………………………… (George Vithoulkas)

In children with acute ailments (because their defensive mechanisms are quite strong), it is best not to give potencies lower than 200; thus 200 to CM potencies can be given, depending upon certainty of the medicine for acute ailments.

An M.D with a few years’ experience in homoeopathy attempted to treat a child suffering from severe mental disorders. The patient had received approximately fifteen remedies, some of which had partial actions and others of which had no action. The case was sent to me and the case taken during the initial interview showed clearly Veratrum Album, which had been given only as the tenth prescription amidst a variety of others. Based upon this initial interview, Veratrum Album 50M (it is best to with go high potencies if possible in such cases) was given again with instructions to wait after that for a full three months in order to fully evaluate the direction of the remedy……………………………….(George Vithoulkas)


From 30th to 10M will be found those curative powers most useful in very sensitive women and children.

In sensitive women and children, it is well to give the 30th or 200th at first, permitting the patient to improve in a general way, after which the 1M may be used in similar manner. After improvement with that ceases, the 10M may be required.

Some patients are very sensitive to the highest potencies and are cured mildly and permanently by the use of 200th or 1000th. There are other individuals who are torn to pieces by the use of the highest potencies.

Patients who have heart disease, or who are suffering from phthisis are apt to have their sufferings increased and the end hastened by the higher potencies; they do better under 30th or 200th.

If you strike too high she is not sensitive, it is not sufficient. Keep to the mild potency so long as it works. It is not well to jump too many degrees. From the crude to 10M there is a range of degrees in ordinary persons. . (Kent)

A single dose of the appropriate nosode (In a case, which is not at all susceptible to the indicated remedy) in a moderately high potency, will sometimes clear up a case by bringing symptoms into view which will make it possible to select the remedy required to carry on the case. ……………………………………… (Stuart Close)

A correctly chosen remedy given in too low or sometimes too high a potency, or in too many doses, may cause an aggravation of the existing symptoms as to endanger the life of the patient; especially if the patient be a child or a sensitive person and if a vital organ, like the brain or lung be affected. Belladonna in the third or sixth potency, given in too frequent doses in a case of meningitis, for example, may cause death from over-action; whereas the thirtieth or two hundredth potency given in single dose or in doses repeated only until some change of symptoms is noticed, will speedily cure. Phosphorus 3rd or 6th in pneumonia under similar circumstances may rapidly cause death. The low potencies of deeply acting medicines are dangerous in such cases in proportion to their similarity to the symptoms. ……………………………. (Stuart Close)

Oversensitive patients present a unique problem for potency selection. There are patients who are excessively “nervous” reactive to all physical and emotional stimuli, usually lean and quick in their movements, restless, sensitive to odors and noise and light, and frequently suffering strongly from exposure to chemicals in the environment or food. Such people are very reactive both to low potencies (on physical level) and high potencies (on electrodynamic level). Consequently, it is better to restrict initial prescriptions to 30 or 200 in such patients; depending upon their reaction, later potencies might go higher or lower. But initially at least, 30 or 200 are the best selections for oversensitive patients. …(George Vithoulkas)

On the other hand, another young person comes to you with a similar complaint, but you cannot decide whether she needs Pulsatilla or Sulphur. You finally decide upon Pulsatilla after many hours of careful study; in this instance, you would tend to give only a 30 or 200 for the initial prescription because of the lack of clarity.

In still another case with a skin eruption, you may see clearly that Pulsatilla is indicated. Yet the patient reports that she able keep her skin eruption under control by using cortisone ointment “only” twice a week. Further you observe that there are other weaknesses of the organism—a weak vitality, the patient is easily tired, easily affected by chemicals in the environment. In this type of case you would not give a potency higher than 200; otherwise you may witness an unnecessary prolonged aggravation.

If the patient is elderly, chronically weakened, or even if severely weakened by the acute ailment (for example, if it has developed into a severe pneumonia), a 200 potency would be preferable for the initial prescription, even if the remedy is quite obvious. …(George Vithoulkas)


Sometimes very sensitive patients will do well on a high potency if they have been prepared for it by the use of a lower one. (connect sentences) I have seen Sulphur and Phosphorus act so strongly that I have regretted it. In lung cases, consider whether she has lung space enough to make recovery probable. If she can bear it, give it in low potency, but do not give it if there is not lung space enough to warrant it. ……. (Kent)

Where the symptoms are not clearly developed and there is an absence or scarcity of characteristic features; or where two or three remedies seem about equally indicated, susceptibility and reaction may be regarded as low. We give, therefore, the remedy which seems most similar, in a low (third to twelfth) potency. …………………. (Jahr)

Lower potencies and larger and frequent doses correspond better to torpid and phlegmatic individuals, dull of comprehension and slow to act; to coarse fibered, sluggish individuals of gross habits; to those who possess great muscular power but who require a powerful stimulus to excite them. Such persons can take with seeming impunity large amounts of stimulants like whisky, and show little effect from them. When ill they often require low potencies, or even sometimes material doses. …………(Stuart Close)

If the grade of the disease is low, and the power of reaction low, the remedy must be given low. Thus we find, in such cases, that the symptoms of the patient are usually of a low order; common, pathological symptoms; organ symptoms; gross terminal symptoms; symptoms that correspond to the effects of crude drugs in massive toxic doses. The finer shadings of symptoms belonging to acute conditions, in vigorous sensitive patients, do not appear. Potentized medicines will not act. The case has passed beyond that stage, and finer symptoms with it. Yet the symptoms remain and the almost hopeless conditions they represent, are still within the scope of the homoeopathic law; and they sometimes yield to its power, when the related law of posology is rightly understood and applied.

People who are accustomed to long and severe labour out-of-doors, who sleep little and whose food is coarse, are less susceptible. Persons exposed to continual influence of drugs, such as tobacco workers and dealers; distillers and brewers and all connected with the liquor and tobacco trade; druggists, perfumers, chemical workers, etc. often possess little susceptibility to medicines and usually require low potencies in the illnesses.

The seat, character and intensity of the disease has some bearing upon the question of the dose. Certain malignant and rapidly fatal diseases, like cholera, may require material doses or low potencies of the indicated remedy.

Occasionally a case will be met which is not at all susceptible to the indicated remedy. Hahnemann has recommended in such cases, the administration of Opium, in one of the lowest potencies, every eight or twelve hours until some signs of reaction are perceptible. By this, he says, the susceptibility is increased and the new symptoms of the diseases are brought to light. Carbo-veg, Laurocerasus, Sulphur and Thuja are other remedies suited to such conditions. They sometimes serve to arouse the organism to reaction so that indicated remedies will act. ……….(S. Close)

There are certain types of cases in which relatively low potencies should be used¯ at least initially. Patients who have weak constitutions, old people, or very hypersensitive people should initially be given potencies ranging, roughly, from 12x to (space)200. The reason for this is that higher potencies can over stimulate the weakened defense mechanism, resulting in unnecessary powerful aggravations.

Children who are suffering from severe problems should generally be given low potencies. An infant with severe eczema or psoriasis is likely to have a severe aggravation if given a high potency. Consequently, such cases might be given just a few doses (say daily) of a 12x, or just one dose of a 30 or 200.

Generally, cases with known malignancy should not initially be given potencies above200. If a case is merely suspected to have a malignant or premalignant condition, the initial prescription should not be higher than 1M. Again such potency restriction is in order to avoid unnecessary powerful physical aggravations, which require considerable experience to manage. ……………… George Vithoulkas)


Excerpted from : The Appropriate Potency by Dr. Mir Zahed

Dr. Zahed in an honorary lecturer at the Homoeopathic Academy of Niagara- Canada. He has authored the following books:

1. How to Understand the Homoeopathic Materia Medica.
2. Case Taking in the Light of Organon.
3. The Appropriate Potency.

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