Monera Kingdom Bacteria & Viruses Anhang


Vergleich: Algae (light + water) Fungi (cold + dark) Bacteria (warmth)

Siehe: Nosoden allgemein + Reiche/Kingdoms. + Infektion


[Melanie Grimes]

Monera are bacteria, a life form divided into two kingdoms, the Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. This book investigates both of these groups as well as viruses. The material medica of over 100 remedies is discussed in 848 pages.

Bacteria are the most numerous organisms on earth. Originating over 3.5 billion years ago, the only life form on earth until 1.5 billion years ago. They are also the most numerous of life forms.

Vermeulen points out that a gram of garden soil contains 2.5 billion bacteria. To further elucidate the importance of this kingdom, he mentions that a human body contains

approximately 100 trillion cells, 10 trillion of which are human and the other 90 trillion of which are bacteria. Since 9/10 of our bodies are made up of this other life form, perhaps this

kingdom does bear investigation!

Bacteria are usually considered to be part of the animal kingdom but Vermeulen makes a case for classifying them in a separate kingdom, that of Monera. He also suggests a six kingdom system, which is the generally accepted classification system, including Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia, Mineralia. Protista are unicellular nucleated organisms, on the borderline between plants and animals (algae, molds, amoebae, Plasmodium, etc.). Fungi, which most homeopathic literature considers as part of the plant kingdom, are now classified in their own separate kingdom in many other fields of science.

Hence the title of this book, “Monera”, a work dedicated to the homeopathic understanding of this diverse kingdom. There are currently 80 remedies listed in our material medica, most of them not well documented. Only a few have thousands of symptoms, mostly the nosodes associated with bacterial diseases, such as Medorrhinum, Syphilinum, Tuberculinum etc.

The remedy names used in the book are taken from the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, based on the Approved List of Bacteria Names (Skerman, et al, 1980). Vermeulen points out that the current homeopathic abbreviation system doesn’t follow clear rules, sometimes referring to a genus, sometimes a species. He recommends the use of the Latin binominal name first, then the genus. For instance, Belladonna would become Atropa belladonna.

The scope of this book, and the new information it covers, are enormous. The table of contents alone is 24 pages; the bibliography is four, the glossary seven, and the index 13. The taxonomy map

on the inside front cover is a good guide to the Bacteria phylum, order, family, genus, species and remedy name. The back cover does the same for the Virus family.

This book is the first in a new series that Vermeulen is working on, called Spectrum.

Future books will cover the other kingdoms, from the single-celled to the complex animal kingdom, the periodic table, plants, as well as manmade substances, the imponderable, and the unclassified. Vermeulen aims to group comprehensive information on these substances into one series of books. Information has been gleaned from websites, encyclopedias, cases,

provings, old homeopathic texts, lectures, and libraries, including previously unpublished articles from Pierre Schmidt’s collection.

The book also includes a discussion of the history of disease, vaccines, medicine, and religion. It provides answers, as well as demanding that we ask questions, about the origin of life and what it means to be human.

This is a fascinating and complex book, an important reference tool covering a list of remedies that has not been previously collected and organized as such.


[Anne Vervarcke]

The Australian Journal of Homœopathic Medicine

December 2011—Volume 23 Number 2

Traditionally we used to give nosodes as an intercurrent remedy to our patients in case the healing process stagnated, to make an unclear remedy picture clear or to ‘finish’ a case. All this is still valid.

We have been able to expand the knowledge and use of nosodes dramatically in the last decades. First there was the understanding that remedies could be recognized by their group characteristics,

which increased our catalogue of remedies enormously, at the same time simplifying our analysis. At about the same time publications on the Monera kingdom by Frans Vermeulen, Louis Klein,

the Joshis and Filip Degroote and others, allowed us to know and use species until then unknown.

Working with the Vital Approach, a method that is a blend of classical and contemporary homœopathic knowledge and my own clinical experience, I can add some of what I consider useful information to aid the recognition of these remedies in patients.

I have explained The Vital Approach in several books but it comes down to the idea that there is a vital disturbance in each patient, expressed with signs and symptoms in mind and body. This is the simplified reading of the elaborate and sometimes obscure language of the Organon aphorisms. H. considered disease as originating in a disturbed dynamis and my interpretation is that this means a disturbance on level five, the other four: physical, energetic, emotional and mental levels.

The vital level is beyond those four and expresses itself in the same, though encoded, way on all levels. The concept of the vital level is similar to the sensation level of Sankaran but my ‘good news’ is that the patient doesn’t have to be taken to the fifth level to have a sure prescription. If one is able to discern the vital expression on all levels and to spot the coherent pattern in it, the prescription is just as solid.

How to do this is explained in my books and seminars with live cases.

Looking for this vital disturbance in every patient, the picture emerged of the vital sensation of remedies from the bacteria and virus kingdom, hence the Monera. Since these remedies are under-represented or even completely absent from our repertories so far, we have to rely on general features of the group. This means that the kingdom features are, for the time being, the most important help in finding the Monera your patient needs.

Often these remedies were overlooked because the patient who needs a Monera talks about his disease at great length and sometimes is not even willing to discuss anything else. Those patients were frequently labelled as ‘superficial’, ‘not in contact with their feelings’ or the case was considered to have stuck on the ‘fact level’ and was considered worthless. Even now, in virtually every public case, I am asked if the Monera remedy that participants saw with their own eyes having wrought a total transformation

Monera: The Vital Approach

Anne Vervarcke established ‘The Centre for Classical Homeopathy’ (CKH) in Leuven, Belgium, which organizes a five year training course, and an International Training. She created the programs and was teacher and director for 15 years. She has been in private practice since 1989. Currently she gives seminars in different countries, still teaches in the CKH and gives Master Classes in Belgium, Holland and the Czech Republic.

She is the author of: “The Charm of Homeopathy, second edition and revised” and “Behind the Glass Screen, a Homeopathic Survey of Ozone” (2009) both published by B. Jain.

The White Room released a “manual” of her method under the title “The Vital Approach” (May 2010) followed by “Voorbij (aan) Lichaam en Geest” (September 2010, Dutch) with a selection of cases and explanation of the method used. in the patient was a ‘Sensation’ prescription or ‘just a clinical remedy!‘

If we keep in mind that the vital disturbance is always there, on all levels, all the time, we can’t miss it; that is to say if we know what we are looking for. All we have to do then is to listen to our patient.

My approach is to let the patient tell whatever he wants to tell in the first round of the consultation.

He will, by telling his complaints, define where the problem is:

I call this ‘defining the territory.’

This signifies that there is no need to explore other topics than the ones mentioned and that we only have to dig for the treasure now!

Now, if the patient talks half an hour or an hour only about his physical symptoms, and he reports in every detail how long he is sick, how many and various symptoms he has and what measures he undertook to get cured and what this doctor and the other doctor said, we have the choice of getting annoyed because he doesn’t go deeper and give us useful information or a sensation, or we can discern the picture of a Monera in his report.

The Joshis stated that the polarity in the Monera kingdom is ‘health and disease’. The patient feels abnormal because he is sick and others are normal because they are healthy. We can spot this in many patients.

They will talk at length about all their ailments, their limitations, and their reactions to external things. Often they will say they have always been sick, their body is weak (while having a healthy mind) and they accumulate more and more problems as they become weaker and lower in energy. They might ask what is wrong with their immune system, with their diet or something else, because they have so many diseases and they are so often sick.

If you have a case like that, your mind should go to the Monera kingdom right away. It means the similimum is a Bacterium or Virus and it is understandably most clearly expressed on the physical level (1 and 2).

But some of those patients had a lot of therapies and learned that they should talk about their emotional life as well. Some will do it reluctantly; others manage very well. Those are the cases where we might overlook the remedy!

We as homœopaths are so eager to explore the deeper levels because of our conviction that here is the most individual part of the patient, while in fact the vital sensation is always on all levels.

But sometimes the centre of disturbance is more outspoken on one level.

The Monera mind, I found, is often characterized by the words: ‘submissive’, ‘servile’, ‘obsequious’ but again remedies are under-represented in the repertories. Belonging to the second dimension

 (this is the dimension between the first, the centre of the planet and the third, the surface (where plants, animals and humans live) they share characteristics with the minerals. Indeed elements, ores, crystals, stones, rocks, and bacteria and viruses all lie in the second dimension, the laboratory of life under our very feet. This means they are two-dimensional cases, simpler than the more complex Plant and Animal cases.

The second dimension that resonates with our second level is underestimated as a source of health, vitality and prosperity or disease, poverty and depletion. Being a simple organism the case tends to be simple and straightforward, which doesn’t mean anything about those patients’ intelligence. It’s only that a mineral case and a Monera case mostly can both be boiled down to one sentence. I’m sure a lot of patients, needing a Monera got Minerals so far from their hard working homœopaths, to no avail. A few more words need to be said about the context in case taking. On the one hand

we have the content, the words the patient says and the homœopath notes down. On the other hand there is the way these words came to you: that belongs to the observation or the context. It’s the totality of the mostly implicit information: the impression the patient makes on you, the way he talks, moves, behaves and interacts. There is an abundance of information in the body language, the facial expression, the tone and rhythm of his voice, the way the interview evolves. I think the information that comes this way is often subliminal and the homœopath uses it or not, but it is hardly ever taught to students. In analysing a case together we would always pay special attention to this aspect because it will often determine the choice of the remedy.

We can say the mind of the Monera patient is: ‘submissive’, ’weak willed’ or even has ‘no will’. At first the patient gives a yielding impression but as the consultation goes on you might be puzzled because you can get no clear idea of the patient’s footing. You don’t get his ideas on things, and if you do he will contradict them, or they don’t seem to fit together as if he picked them up randomly. He will talk about his work and relationships, because that is daily life after all, but it sounds like a collection of ‘things that people say’, rather than something genuine. If you confront him with inner contradictions he won’t be able to clarify, and will give you another incongruous answer. Or he will say: this person says A and the other B. Then you wonder whether he has any ideas of his own. It is as if he has no centre himself.

But of course he can mimic very well what is going on in his surroundings. Some Monera with parasitic tendencies are super yielding; in fact when you delve deeper into the compliant disposition, you’ll understand that again they have no say in what is happening, because they live through somebody else.

Viruses consist of one nucleic acid only, either ribonucleic acid (RNA) or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and a capsid. They are completely dependent on a vital host in order for the duplication

process to proceed. Most RNA viruses are incapable of duplication in the epidermis of the skin and consequently cannot cause an actual, noticeable skin disease.

DNA viruses are very capable of duplication and proliferation in the epidermis and cause skin lesions determined by the type of reaction. (Heyl & Swart, 1990:73.)

Viruses in general focus more on learning and getting information from the outside world. This makes them inquisitive, curious, broadly interested, liking a lot of different input: people, places and especially ideas from others. They are fascinated by or afraid of change and their basic endeavour is to be adaptable to any circumstance. Again we can hear the voice of the substance speaking through. Since we’re dealing with primitive organisms their basic needs or interests in life are very simple as well: food, eating, sleeping and procreating. But most patients will talk about the first aspect, in all possible ways: enough food, good food, the right diet, food supplements, food intolerances, etc. Their main hobby might be cooking.

When you have the Monera picture together, the next question is: which one?

It is possible that the patient helps you out because he has a golden ‘never well since’ symptom. It may also happen that he had an episode of a very intense acute. But that help might be missing and still we came by analysis to the conclusion of the kingdom.

We have to remember that homœopathy is symbolic and always prescribed on ‘as if’. We have to remind ourselves that in Monera cases the patient doesn’t need to have had a particular disease to need the connected nosode (although he sometimes had suffered it, because of the tendency. It’s similar to, for instance, a fifth row mineral: they don’t have to be performers on stage, but for one who needs to be special to feel ok, it is a good way to meet these needs). But he then will display a disease picture that looks like the chronic version of it. For instance: a patient of mine never had smallpox but she lacked energy, felt weak, had a sore throat on the least provocation, sensitive ears and a special rash that came and went, while nobody really knows what it is. She recovered from these lifelong weaknesses after Variolinum.

Another patient with a CFS picture of sudden prostration, the need to lie down immediately and amelioration from it, severe muscle pain, especially in the shoulders and arms, bad digestion, food intolerances and severe bloating and alcoholism saw doctors and therapists for over fifteen years. She had a dramatic life with accidents and suicides in the family, rape and divorce; longstanding illness of a close family member who eventually died; alcoholism and degradation at work. Her life story was like an encyclopaedia of disasters and her many therapists concluded that she was physically exhausted by all the long term grief and stress. She did her utmost to deal with all these problems and in fact she reacted in a comprehensible, logical and appropriate way. One could say she reacted healthily to the adverse circumstances.

But her body was sick; had always been sick, she said. She’d always been weak, and in hospital several times. Often the doctors couldn’t find the cause of the problem.

In analysing the case, I dropped all the mental/emotional stuff, which took three-quarters of the consultation and looked at what was left. The way she submitted to all these disasters and the physicals made it Monera. The whole pattern of the symptoms resembled botulism, even the lack of facial expression while telling all these disasters. In the book on Miasms and Nosodes from Louis Klein the pain in the shoulders and upper limbs was noted, and in Vermeulen’s Monera I found the need and amelioration from lying down. She got Clostridium botulinum and improved dramatically. Within a few months she came in broadly smiling and stated: “I’m no longer ill!”

She had never suffered botulism or food poisoning, yet her vital expression was that of Clostridium botulinum. In working with the signs and symbols she gave me, the ‘as if’, the Monera kingdom was perceived and this susceptibility met. This is the vital Approach to the Monera kingdom.


[Frans Vermeulen]



GRACILICUTES                                                                                                              TENERICUTES                                         

(wallless eubacteria)                                                                                                (Gram negative bacteria)                             

                                                                                             Phylum MYCOPLASMA

Phylum           Order                         Family             Genus Species            Remedy                       



                      Rhizobiales                Brucellaceae               Brucella           B. melitensis           B.melitensis.x

Gp Alpha            Rhodospirillales            Acetobacteriaceae      Acetobacter            A. xylinus            Kombucha.x

                        Rickettsiales               Rickettsiaceae            Rickettsia                    R. prowazekii Typhus Nosode.x



                                                           Alcaligenaceae            Alcaligenes            A.faecalis            BN Faecalis

                        Burkholderiales                                              Bordetella            B. pertussis            Pertussinum.x

                                                           Burkholderiaceae Burkholderia            B. mallei            Hippozaeninum.x     


                                                                                                                                                                                    N. gonorrhoea Medhorrinum.x

Gp Beta                                                                                                                                                                      N. meningitides Meningococcinum.x

Neisseriales                 Neisseriaceae              Neisseria         N. subflava          Flavus.x

                                                                                                                     N. mucosa       Sycotic co.x


                                                                                                                                                Citrobacter                                                      C. freundii                                    Bach No 7                 

                                                                                              Enterobacter            E. cloacae            Bach No 7.


                                                                                                                     [Wolfgang Mettler] Bacillus No. 10 Paterson



Escherichia           E. coli                      Colibacillinum.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Escherichia                                    E. coli mutabile Mutabile.

                                                                                             Hafnia             H. alvei            Bach No 7.




• Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, aerobic or facultative anaerobic cocci characteristically coffee bean-shaped and paired.

• Part of the normal flora of oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract.

• The genus includes saprophytic as well as pathogenic species.

• Many species in the genus have been isolated from animals:

Neisseria animalis

Neisseria canis

Neisseria caviae - found in the pharyngeal region of apparently healthy guinea pigs.

Neisseria cuniculi - rabbits.

Neisseria dentiae - found in the dental plaque of domestic cows.

Neisseria iguanae - iguanid lizards.

Neisseria macacae - from the oropharynges of rhesus monkeys.

Neisseria ovis - associated with infectious keratoconjunctivitis of sheep.

Neisseria weaver! - commensals in the mouth and nasopharynx of cats and dogs; human infection may occur from a cat or dog bite.


            Flavus Bacillus = Neisseria Pharingi Flava


Meningococcinum Nos.

Sycotic compound (Paterson)

SPECIES: N. gonorrhoeas Med.


Scientific name

Old names

Common name





Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Zopf 1885) Trevisan 1885

Micrococcus der gonorrhoe Neisser 1879

Merismopedia gonorrhoeae Zopf 1885

Micrococcus gonorrhoeae (Zopf 1885) Fliigge 1886

Micrococcus gonococcus Schroeter 1886

Diplococcus gonorrhoeae (Zopf 1885) Lehmann and

Neumann 1896

Gonococcus neisseri Lindau 1898



Medorrhinum - Med.

Medorrhinum Americana - Med-am. [not in repertory]

• Occurs typically as non-motile pairs of flattened cells.

• First observed in urethral and conjunctival secretions of gonorrhoea and purulent ophthalmia by the German dermatologist Albert Neisser in 1876.

• Found primarily in purulent venereal discharges. "Can be found in the urethral discharges of gonorrhoea from the beginning till the end of the disease, and often for many months and even years after recovery from it." [McFarland]

• Considered a pathogen of human origin.

• Requires 5-10% carbon dioxide and a humid atmosphere. Does not survive dehydration and cool conditions.

• Ferments glucose but not maltose ["sugar and sex, but no beer"].

• Leading cause of septic arthritis in adults.

Gonococcal infections are 1.5 times as common in men than in women, although serious sequelae are much more common in women.

• Small quantities of "gonotoxin" introduced into the urethra cause suppuration at the point of application: fever/swelling of the adjacent lymphatic nodes/muscular and articular pains.



Disseminated gonococcal infection [DGI] occurs following approximately 1% of genital infections. It is seen more frequently in women (during menstruation and pregnancy. Patients

with DGI may present with symptoms of rash, fever, arthralgias, migratory polyarthritis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, or meningitis. Joint or tendon pain is the most common complaint.

About 25% of patients with DGI complain of pain in a single joint, while up to 2/3 describe polyarthralgia, which often is migratory. Severe pain, swelling, and decreased mobility in

a single joint suggest a purulent arthritis with effusion. The knee is the most common site of purulent gonococcal arthritis.

Tenosynovitis also is common, usually affecting the small joints of the hands.

Skin rash is a presenting complaint in approximately 25% of patients, but a careful examination will reveal a rash in the majority of patients with DGI, including maculopapular,

pustular, necrotic, or vesicular rash, typically occurring on the torso, limbs, palms, and soles. The rash usually spares the face, scalp, and mouth. Haemorrhagic lesions, erythema

nodosum, urticaria, and erythema multiforme occur less frequently. Headache, neck pain and stiffness, fever, and decreased sensorium may indicate gonococcal meningitis. This

disease may be clinically indistinguishable from meningococcal meningitis on presentation, although the course of gonococcal meningitis usually is less rapid than that of

meningococcal meningitis. Gonococcal endocarditis is more common in men than women. Patients with collagen vascular disease (systemic lupus erythematosus) also may be more

prone to this complication. DGI can cause abscess formation within the soft tissues, presenting as localized tenderness, oedema, and pain with motion. [Behrman, Gonococcal infection;

website University of Pennsylvania Medical Center]


Proved by Swan & Berridge [collection of provings] — 45-50 provers [about 50% females, and 50% males], c. 1888; method: various high potencies, such as 1M, 10M, 20M, 40M, 60M,

and MM; manner not stated; contains also cured symptoms.



Time and space.

Times passes too slowly.

Hurry; always in a rush and anticipating, yet lacking the desire for realisation.

Lacks clear-set goals; chases shadows. Hurry, everybody seems to move too slowly. Anxiety if a time is set. Everything feels far off.

Objects seem small.

Dazed dreaminess, “As if'stoned'.

fulfilment - emptiness.

Everything seems unreal.

Sensation of unbearable inner emptiness.

Vacant staring.

Easily bored. 'Attention junkies; party animals.'

Forgetful; confused - common things escape him.

Seems to herself to make wrong statements because she does not know what to say next; begins all right but does not know how to finish [Grimmer]

Extremes; exceeding all limits.

No bounds; lack of orientation points. Chasing shadows or chased by shadows.

Bouts of hopelessness alternating with episodes of hopeful optimism.

Strokes of genius or inexplicable blackouts. Extroversion - introversion. Wild feeling in head or vacant feeling in head. Clair-obscure: lucid after sunset, obscure after sunrise. Arrhythmia.



Found in mouth, nose, throat, genital and urinary tracts.

Shuns responsibilities.


« Craves fresh air.

« Feels better in evening/night. Night person.

» Seaside .

~ Lying on abdomen or in knee-elbow position . Desire to cross the ankles when lying on the back. ~

Great thirst.

= Desire for sweets, green fruits, ice, acid foods, salt. = Craves beer; alcohol; tobacco. ~ Walks on sides of feet [due to extreme sensitivity of soles of feet].

Local heat - coldness

= Boiling sensation in head.

= Burning hands and feet; wants them uncovered.

» Heat in eyelids.

= Hot flashes cervical region.

= Severe burning in the base of the tongue, extending down the bronchi as if he had inhaled hot steam

= Sensation of coldness in eyes, as if cold air blew on them. = Coldness of tip of nose; breasts, esp. nipples; abdomen; liver region; r. lumbar region. =» Chilliness on urging to urination;

before urination.


« Discharges mucopurulent or purulent; yellowish-green or yellowish-white.

« Fishy odours.

= Sweat staining yellowish. Greasy face.

<= Pungent body odour; penetrating pungent odour to stool.


Since the drug picture of Medorrhinum is partly based on cured cases of gonorrrhoea, the classic complications of gonococcal infections may be expected to present themselves

in the drug picture. Above all this concerns Pelvic Inflammatory Disease [PID], characterised in women by infertility, PMS, purulent vaginal discharge, uterine tenderness,

intermenstrual bleeding, menorrhagia, enlarged tubes, elevated temperature, urinary tract infections, dysuria, and especially bilateral lower abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting.

Due to painful genital swelling difficulty in walking may develop.

Intrauterine devices [IDDs] significantly aggravate PID; hence intolerance of IUDs may be an indication for Medorrhinum, if symptoms agree. There is an increased risk of ectopic

pregnancy. Epididymitis-orchitis is the male equivalent of PID.

Acute infectious arthritis occurs somewhat more often in women, with menstrual periods and pregnancy as the most common triggers. Most have joint pains or tenosynovitis

involving wrists, knees, ankles and small joints of hands and feet, in combination with skin eruptions, which consist of petechial-pustular lesions on an erythematous base. After a

migratory stage the pain/inflammation usually settles in a "hot joint," commonly the knee.

Pharyngitis is also frequently observed, as are proctitis and conjunctivitis. Proctitis may present with minor symptoms such as pruritus, pain, pressure, fulness, mild diarrhoea or discharge, or

mucus on stools. Less frequently more severe symptoms are present, such as tenesmus, purulent discharge, and bleeding. Conjunctivitis presents with pain, chemosis, oedema of lids, and

purulent yellow discharge.

Medorrhinum symptoms such as "sensation of a tumour in the right side of abdomen," "grasping pain in liver," and "pain extending from liver to right shoulder," show a similarity with

gonococcal perihepatitis [Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome] observed in women with a history of gonorrhoeal salpingitis.

The syndrome consists of acute upper right-quadrant abdominal pain and tenderness aggravated by breathing, coughing, or movement, with pain extending to the right shoulder.


Based on 37 case histories, Jutta Gnaiger-Rathmanner and Mirjam Bohle provide a summary of indications for the treatment of "allergic and nervous children" with Medorrhinum.

All of these children, mostly boys, love to move, happy whenever they can ramble outdoors. They love practical things, and feel extremely bored by the requirements at school. Often the

intensity on the one hand and the flightiness and contrariness on the other hand lead to the selection of the remedy. Often having a sensation of heat they like to undress and sleep uncovered.

In early childhood striking or hitting seems to be an important form of expression when other ways to express themselves are not accessible. In school the aggression seems to be reactive - they

are followers, ready to join every nonsense. If there is a storm centre, they follow without hesitation. Mostly the leaders are other children. One often hears the mother say, 'I don't understand

his behaviour at school. If he is alone with me, he is obedient and a good boy.' Medorrhinum-boys charm their mothers - possibly in competition with their fathers?

Medorrhinum-boys feel attracted to girls in a premature and excessive way?

Prematurity manifests itself as: = Vigorous denial of all kinds of conformity and book learning, long before puberty.

•«• Great interest in all kinds of technology.

= Precocious curiosity for fashion, trends and eroticism.

The clairvoyance of these children is revealed by their ability to detect every weakness and tension in their surroundings. They are the children who unerringly expose adults to ridicule.

The negative and disharmonious moments of life inevitably attract them. Regarding early infantile development, many remarkable deviations are found. Also these children present very

particular disabilities, such as attention deficit disorder. A whole string of symptoms in the Medorrhinum picture corresponds with this:

=» Sleep position genupectoral.

= Opisthotonus.

= Motions of head - rolling head.

= Awkwardness.

<= Lack of perseverance.

= Concentration difficult.

= Makes mistakes - in writing; speaking; spelling; in time.

Regarding symptoms such as 'ailments from reproaches,' 'sensitive to reprimands,' and 'despair from the slightest criticism,' it should be noted that these children need encouragement and real

help, not criticism. Jealousy of siblings; quarrels in the family; overcharge at school; heavy competition at school, are mentioned as causations observed by the authors. The main symptom

'restlessness' culminates in symptoms such as biting nails, masturbation, facial twitching, and various sleep disorders. Furthermore there is a tendency to dyslexia. Left-handedness as well as

refusal to go to school are frequently observed, the latter being the result of learning disabilities and impaired co-ordination of movement. Common physical complaints include headache,

stomach pain, putrid tonsillitis, putrid otitis, gastro-enteritis, or dry spasms including laryngitis and asthmatic bronchitis. There is high fever during infections or no fever at all.

Food intolerances, in particular to milk, may lead to fussiness about food and a bias towards monotonous nutrition. Cravings change frequently, but always with the same intensity to

exclude/refuse everything else.

[Adapted from: Jutta Gnaiger-Rathmanner and Mirjam Bohler, Medorrhinum - a remedy for modern children; Horm. Links 2/03]


(1) Mrs. C.F.A at 32; married ten years, one child three years old; one miscarriage. Irritable and nervous; hurried, restless (after lying in bed or sitting for a long time) feels as if she would

scream if she could not move; queer "nervous feeling in the abdomen." Fear of the dark [as a child would go anywhere in the dark].

Memory failing; leaves work unfinished and starts on something else. Although thin and scrawny, her appetite is unusual; craves salads, salt things, fruit; very little thirst; constipated since

early childhood; absolute inactivity of the rectum, but bowels are normal during menses. Going too long without action of the bowels results in an attack of tonsillitis; has had many attacks

during the past few years. Heavy, full feeling in the stomach after eating; much belching, especially after fat and rich foods. Menses every 26 days, lasting four or five days; uterus falls so low

as to protrude from the vagina, < during, > after stool. Rheumatic pains here and there, < damp weather. Varicose veins. Excruciating pains in the cervical and dorsal spine, extending to the

shoulders, for many years, soreness of the coccyx since the birth of her child, <:at night/lying on the back/while sitting/especially when rising from a seat; Excessive desire to yawn.

The treatment was carried on entirely by mail so that the record may not be complete, especially as to the possibility of infection. A dose of Med. DMM was sent April 22, 1919.

On May 10th she reported improvement in all symptoms, even the bowels showing some signs of renewed activity. A repetition was required,

August 27th. On October 21st, she wrote that her neighbours and friends had remarked about the wonderful change that had taken place in her general health and especially in her face, which

had rounded out and lost its pale, sickly look. The "dreadful pain" in the spine had almost entirely disappeared.


Enterobacteriales            Enterobacteriaceae                 Morganella            M.morgani            Morgan pure.

                                                                                             Proteus            P.mirabilis            Proteus.

                                                                                             Proteus            P.vulgare            Proteus

                                                                                              [Veshara Malapermal]


Salmonella species is a genus of motile, Gram negative peritrichous bacilli that live in the intestines of birds, reptiles

and mammals and is eliminated in their faeces.

This bacterium is a common contaminant found in food contaminated with animal faeces and may be found in poultry,

eggs or inadequately pasteurised milk. Salmonellosis is characterised by non-bloody diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting

(Tortora et al. 2007). This GI pathogen from food causes “food poisoning” emanating from restaurants. Natural plant

products have been recommended to produceaneffective and safe disinfectant among immunodeficient patients

                                                                                                                                                                                    (Lee and Lee 1994/Dorman and Deans 2000).

                                                                                                                                                                                    Salmonella                                    S. paratyphi                                    Paratyphoidinum.

                                                                                              Salmonella            S. typhi            Eberthinum typhoidinum.

                                                                                              Salmonella            S.enteridis            Gaertner.

                                                                                              Shigella             S.dysenteriae            Dysenteriae Co.

                                                                                              Yersinium            Y.pestis            Pestinum.x



                        Pasteurellales              Pasteurellaceae            Haemophilus            H.influenza            Hb vaccine.x

Gp Gamma             Pseudomonadales            Pseudomonadacae     Pseudomonas            P. aeruginosa

                        Vibronales                  Vibronaceae                Vibrio              V.cholerae            Cholera nosode.



                        Campylobacteracea     Campylobacter             C. jejuni

Gp Epsilon            Campylobacterales            Helicobacteraceae      Helicobacter            H. pylori


                                                           Leptospiraceae            Leptospira            L. interrogans Weil’s disease

Spirochaetales                                                           Borrelia            B.burgdorfii            Lyme nosode.

Spirochaetaceae                      Treponema                  T. pallidum                             Syphillinum.

                                                                                                                     T. pertenue            Framboesinum




Vergleich: Siehe: Oxygen


A phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. The name "cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria. That name often considered a misnomer, as cyanobacteria are prokaryotic and algae should be eukaryotic, although other definitions of algae encompass prokaryotic organisms.

By producing gaseous oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis, cyanobacteria are thought to have converted the early reducing atmosphere into an oxidizing one, which dramatically changed the composition of life forms on Earth by stimulating biodiversity and leading to the near-extinction of oxygen-intolerant organisms. According to endosymbiotic theory, the chloroplasts found in plants

and eukaryotic algae evolved from cyanobacterial ancestors via endosymbiosis.

Found in almost every terrestrial and aquatic habitat: oceans, fresh water, damp soil, temporarily moistened rocks in deserts, bare rock and soil, and even Antarctic rocks. They can occur as planktonic

cells or form phototrophic biofilms. They are found in almost every endolithic ecosystem. A few are endosymbionts in lichens, plants, various protists, or sponges and provide energy for the host.

Some live in the fur of sloths, providing a form of camouflage.

Aquatic cyanobacteria known for their extensive and highly visible blooms that can form in both freshwater and marine environments. The blooms can have the appearance of blue-green paint or scum. These blooms can be toxic, and frequently lead to the closure of recreational waters when spotted. Marine bacteriophages are significant parasites of unicellular marine cyanobacteria.

Cyanobacteria are a photosynthetic nitrogen fixing group that survive in wide variety of habitats, soils, and water. Fix atmospheric nitrogen in aerobic conditions by heterocyst, specialized cells, and in anaerobic conditions. Incl. unicellular and colonial species. Colonies may form filaments, sheets, or even hollow balls. Some filamentous colonies show the ability to differentiate into several different cell types: vegetative cells, the normal = photosynthetic cells that are formed under favorable growing conditions; akinetes, the climate-resistant spores that may form when environmental conditions become harsh; and thick-walled heterocysts, which contain the enzyme nitrogenase, vital for nitrogen fixation. Heterocysts may also form under the appropriate environmental conditions (anoxic) when fixed nitrogen is scarce. Heterocyst-forming species are specialized for nitrogen fixation and are able to fix nitrogen gas into ammonia (NH3), nitrites (NO−2) or nitrates (NO−3), which can be absorbed by plants and converted to protein and nucleic acids (atmospheric nitrogen is not bioavailable to plants, except for those having [endo]symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Fabaceae).

Rice plantations use healthy populations of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Anabaena, as symbiotes of the aquatic fern Azolla) for use as rice paddy fertilizer.

Cyanobacteria are arguably the most successful group of microorganisms on earth. They are the most genetically diverse; they occupy a broad range of habitats across all latitudes, widespread in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and they are found in the most extreme niches such as hot springs, salt works, and hypersaline bays.

Photoautotrophic, oxygen-producing cyanobacteria created the conditions in the planet's early atmosphere that directed the evolution of aerobic metabolism and eukaryotic photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria fulfill vital ecological functions in the world's oceans, being important contributors to global carbon and nitrogen budgets. -Stewart and Falconer-

= Fossilien/Cyanobakterien gehören zu den ältesten, einfachsten und primitivsten Organismengruppen der Erde/sind seit den ältesten Zeiten der Erdgeschichte als Fossilien bekannt/produzier(t)en

O (= Zellgift) als erste und waren in der Lage mit O umzugehen und änderten damit die Erdatmosphäre/O wurde gebunden an Fe (= Rost) + Mg als Abfallstoff/= Grundlage der Eisenerzvorkommen.

Sind wahrscheinlich Ursprung.x des Lebens).



            Chroococcales            Microcystis                 M. aeruginosa             M. aeruginosa


Nostocales                  Nostoceae                   Anabaena                    A. flos-aqua            Saxitoxinum.x


Oscillatoriales             Phormidaceae

                                   Pseudanabaenaceae   Anthrospira                 A. maxima            Spirulina.x

                                                                      Pseudomonas syringae auf Aesculus hippocastanum = Kastanie im Biergarten

Spirulina                      S. maxima           Spirulina                     




Phylum                       Order             Family                         Genus              Species                        Remedy

Endospora                                                     Bacillaceae                  Bacillus            B.anthracis                  Anthracinum.x

BACILLALES                                                                    B.brevis            Tyrothricinum

                                                                       Lesteriaceae                Listeria            L. monocytogene Listeriosis nosode.x

                                    Staphylococcaceae                                    Staphylococ. S.aureus Staphylococcinum.x

                                                                                                                                 [Veshara Malapermal]


Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)

Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram positive pyogenic cocci which is facultatively anaerobic and arranged in grape-

like clusters. They are found in soil and the mucous membranes of animals. The pathogenicity of S. aureus results from the production of specific enzymes or virulence factors such as cell-free coagulase, hyaluronidase, taphylokinase, lipases, and beta-lactamase.

S. aureus produces cytotoxic toxins such as leukocidin, haemolysins, enterotoxins and exfoliatin (Honeyman et al. 2001). Therefore, it is categorised as a highly virulent form of Gram positive bacteria resulting in a variety of diseases

and symptoms.

The infections it causes dependon the site of infection, immune state of its host and the specific toxins and enzymes it secretes (Bauman 2007), and can be categorisedas non-invasive (enterotoxin resulting in food poisoning); cutaneous (scalded skin syndrome, impetigo, furuncles, and carbuncles); and systemic which could be potentially fatal when they introduced into deeper tissues of the body. If introduced into blood it can cause toxic shock syndrome (TSS);

or affect the heart (endocarditis), lungs (pneumonia and empyema) and bones (osteomyelitis) (Tortora et al. 2007).

S. aureus is a common cause of bacteraemia especially in immunocompromised individuals, and nosocomial (hospital-

acquired) infections account for half the cases of Staphylococcus bacteraemia.

South Africa has experienced the emergence of MRSA (van Huyssteen 2007) which has become a major problem in the health care setting. Since vancomycin is used to treat MRSA infections, a concern has been raised by many

physicians regarding the emergence of vancomycin-resistant strains of S. aureus (Honeyman et al. 2001).

Due to its natural presence on skin invariable proportions it may be classified as a potential agent that can cause complications in diabetic patients.

In a diabetic patient, any systemic or abscess infection requires long-term therapy with antimicrobial drugs, which

can potentiate further resistance; it is therefore a suitable choice in this study.


                                                                      Enterococcaceae        Enterococcus            E. faecali                     Enterococcinum.x

                                                                                                                                 Enterococcus spp.            Streptoenterococcinum.x

LACTOBACILLALES            Lactobacillaceae        Lactobacillus            L.acidophilus            Lactobacillus.x

                                                                                                                                S. pneumoniae            Pneumococcinum.x

Streptococcaceae      Streptococcus S. pyogenes                                                                           Scarlatinum.



                                                                                                                                 C.botulinum                Botulinum.x


Class Clostridia            Clostridiales                Clostridiaceae             Clostridium            C.perfringens.x


                                                                                                                                 C.tetani                       Tetanotoxinum.x


PIRELLULAE            CHLAMYDIALES            Chlamydiaceae          Chlamydia            Ch. trachomatis            Clamydinum.x


                                                                                                                                A.albus                        Streptomyces albus

                                                                                                                                 A.citreus                     S. citreofluorescens?

                                    ACTINOMYCETALES Actinomycetaceae Actinomyces            A.griseus                     Streptomyces griseus.x


                                                                                                                                 A.luteus                      Nocardia lutea


                                                           Corynebacteriaceae            Corynebacteria                      C.diphteriae                Diphterinum.x

                                                                                                                                                                    Propionibacterium acne nosode

Micromonosporae           Micromonospora           M.purpurea                      Gentamicinum


M.avium                      Aviaire = Tub-a.x

                                                                                                                                 M.avium subspezies            Johneinum


                                                                                                                                 M.bovis                       Tub-b.x Kent

Mycobacteriaceae            Mycobacterium         B. Calmette -Guerin V.A.B. = B.C.G.x

                                                                                                                                 M.leprae                      Leprominum.htm.x

                                                                                                                                 M.tuberculosis            Bacillinum.x

Mycobacterium vaccae -vaccae , lateinisch "von der Kuh" -wurde erstmals in Kuhdung gefunden und könnte wirken wie ein Antidepressivum.

Das hat die Onkologin Mary O’Brien zufällig entdeckt, als sie das Bakterium Krebspatienten verabreichte. Zwar verlangsamte es nicht wie erhofft

das Tumorwachstum, doch die Patienten mit dem Kuhbakterium schätzten ihre Lebensqualität besser ein als die einer Kontrollgruppe.

Die Mykobakterien bilden eine eigene Gattung, bestehend aus ca. 100 Arten. Sie sind die einzigen Vertreter der Familie Mycobacteriaceae. Zu ihnen gehören Krankheitserreger des Menschen

wie Myco-bacterium tuberculosis (Tuberkulose) und Mycobacterium leprae (Lepra) sowie Krankheitserreger von Tieren wie der Erreger der Rindertuberkulose (Myco-bacterium bovis) oder

der Erreger der Geflügeltuberkulose (Mycobacterium avium ssp. Avium).


ACTINOBACTERIA ACTINOMYCETALES Nocardiaceae            Nocardia            N.asteroides


                                                                                                                                S.albus                        Salinomycin

                                                                                                                                S. ambofaciens            Spiramycin

                                                                                                                                S. aureofaciens            Chlortetracyclin/Aureomycin

                                                                                                                                  S.caespitosos              Mitomycin

                                                                                                                                S. erythreus                     Erythromycin

                                                                                                                                S. fradiae                        Neomycin.x

                                                                      Streptomycetaceae     Streptomyces            S. garyphalus              Cycloserine

                                                                                                                                S. griseus             Streptomycin.x

                                                                                                                                S. nodosus                      Amphoteracin

                                                                                                                                 S. noursei                        Nystatin

                                                                                                                                S. peucetius                    Doxorubicin var. caesius

                                                                                                                                S. rimosis                        Oxytetracycline

S. venezuelae            Chloramphenicol.x


[Philip Zippermayer]

Bakterien und Viren zeigen das Thema der Krankheit an, was gleichzeitig ein Hinweis ist, dass sie es auch in sich tragen. Wir werden sehen, dass sie sich jeweils dort einnisten, wo der Wirtsorganismus ein für sie geeignetes Nistmilieu bietet. In einem informatischen Universum bedeutet dies: dass das Krankheitsthema des Wirts dem Thema des Erregers zu entsprechen hat.

In der Frage, ob dieses Thema stets vorher vorhanden sein muss oder ob die Erreger dieses durch ihre Anwesenheit erzeugen, zeigen sich ein passives und ein aktives Infektionspotential:

Beim passiven Infekt sind die Erreger wie Vagabunden auf ein geeignetes Umfeld gestoßen, das ihnen Gelegenheit bietet, sich zu vermehren; beim aktiven Infekt beweisen sie, dass sie bei entsprechender Konzentration bzw. Aggressivität (Virulenz, Giftigkeit) auch in der Lage sind, das Milieu in ihrem Sinne zu verändern, es quasi zu erobern.

Die gegensätzlichen Ansichten über das Wesen von Infektionen sind also beide richtig. Für die Schulmedizin sind es stets aggressive „Überfälle“ marodierender bakterieller bzw. viraler Bösewichte bei gleichzeitiger Abwehrschwäche, für die Homöopathie stets Signalgeber, die eine unpassende Einstellung des Systems anzeigen. Das heißt, nicht die Abwehr ist schwach, sondern die Desorganisation schafft eine Situation, in der die Erreger außer Kontrolle geraten bzw. ihr Thema ungestört ausleben dürfen. In der Alltagspraxis ist die Desorganisation Standard, so dass man in

der Homöopathie in ihr die eigentliche Krankheitsursache sieht. Dies schließt jedoch nicht aus, dass z. B. bei Epidemien besonders aggressive Erreger im Sinne einer Vergiftung einem gesunden

Organismus ihr Thema aufzwingen.

Der Ausbruch von Epidemien wird ebenfalls durch zwei Voraussetzungen, eine passive und eine aktive, begünstigt.

Bei der passiven führen schlechte psychische +/o. hygienische Bedingungen zu ihrem Ausbruch (wir erleben dies heutzutage bei Tierseuchen: BSE).

Bei der aktiven haben wir eine besondere Virulenz der Erreger, die im Sinne ihres aggressiven Krankheitsthemas nach geeigneten Opfern suchen (z. B. Grippeepidemien).

Bei Epidemien ist die passive Variante die entscheidend auslösende, weil sich unter miesen sozialen Bedingungen auch die Aggressivität der Erreger lawinenartig steigert, so dass sie sich aktiv verbreiten können.

Leider kenne ich ausgerechnet zum Erreger der berühmtesten aller Epidemien, Yersinia pestis, keine Arzneimittelprüfung. Es wäre sehr interessant, zu untersuchen, in welcher Beziehung das Pestmotiv zur Situation des mittelalterlichen Menschen, der in seiner Religiosität mit dem heutigen nicht zu vergleichen ist, gestanden hat; ob sie nicht in tiefer Erschütterung in den Glauben an und die Geborgenheit in Gott beruht. Schließlich war es ein Zeitalter schwerer Kirchenkrisen, deren schlimmste in drei Päpsten gipfelte. Begleitet werden die Ereignisse von der Hexenverbrennung, die ja ebenfalls als Seuche zu betrachten ist.

Der Umstand, dass friedliche symbiontische oder parasitierende Bakterien im passenden Milieu aggressiv werden können, relativiert auch meine Klassifizierungsweise nach Inhalten passiver bzw. aktiver Strategien der Konfrontation. Auf der Ebene dieser niedrigen Lebensform kann dieser Wechsel stets erfolgen und sich ein Schaf in einen Wolf verwandeln. So ist es durch Wechseln des Nährbodens von Laborkulturen möglich, einen Staphylococcus in einen Pneumococcus zu verwandeln. L. Pasteur hat dies schon gewusst und dies mit dem Ausspruch: „Die Mikrobe ist nichts, das Terrain ist alles“ auch eingestanden.

Das durchgehend bei allen Mitteln der Gruppe der bakteriellen Erreger erscheinende Thema ist Minderwertigkeit. Diese kann einerseits als inneres Grund oder Lebensgefühl die Haltung bestimmen, umgekehrt kann sie durch äußere unüberwindbare Widerstände erzeugt werden.

Passive Strategien der Konfrontation: sich aus dem inneren Gefühl der Minderwertigkeit seinen Umständen er-/aufgeben:

Bacillus 7 Paterson

Bacillus 10 Paterson

Brucella melitensis




Morgan bach

Morgan pure



Aktive Strategien der Konfrontation: sich durch äußeren Widerstand in die Minderwertigkeit abgedrängt fühlen, sich dagegen bis zur Selbstvernichtung auflehnen, verweigern:


Bacillinum Burnett,

Bacillus Morgan Bach,





Morgan Gaertner,






Tuberculinum avis

Tuberculinum bovinum

Tuberculinum Burnett


Tuberculinum Koch



Dengue Fever.x





1947 von Dengue-Forschern in Versuchsaffen entdeckt -in einem Wald namens Zika in Uganda- wurde das Virus fünf Jahre später im Menschen nachgewiesen.

Die Mücken der Gattung Aedes übertragen. Das geschieht zurzeit am häufigsten durch die GelbfiebermückeAedes aegypti. Diese ist in den Tropen und in den Subtropen verbreitet.

Es gibt zwei Linien des Virus: eine afrikanische und eine asiatische (Haddow et al., 2012 & Faye et al., 2014). Letztere löste bisherige Ausbrüche in Afrika, Amerika, Asien und der

Pazifikregion aus (Enfissi et al., 2016). Sie alle waren überschaubar.

Aufmerksam auf den Erreger aus der Familie der Flaviviren wurden Virologen im Jahr 2007. Damals erkrankten mehr als 100 Menschen auf der Pazifikinsel Yap in Mikronesien.

2013 dann der nächste größere Ausbruch: In Französisch-Polynesien bekam rund ein Zehntel der Bevölkerung Zika. Zwei Jahre später trat das Virus in Brasilien auf und infizierte Millionen.

Zika war bislang nicht als schwerwiegende Krankheit bekannt. Die meisten Menschen wissen gar nicht, dass sie sich infiziert haben. Entweder bekommen sie keine Symptome oder leichtes Fieber, Hautausschlag oder eine Bindehautentzündung. All das klingt nach zwei bis sieben Tagen ab.

Problematischer sind die möglichen Folgeerkrankungen: Mikrozephalie oder das Guillain-Barré-Syndrom. So scheint die Zahl Neugeborener mit einer Schädelfehlbildung einige Monate

nach Beginn der Zika-Epidemie angestiegen zu sein. Laborproben sprechen für einen Zusammenhang zwischen dem Virus und der Mikrozephalie.

Guillain-Barré ist eine Nervenerkrankung. Sie beginnt meist mit Lähmungen in den Beinen, die sich dann auf Arme und Gesicht ausbreiten. Im Zusammenhang mit Zika ist es gehäuft zu schweren Fällen dieser Autoimmunkrankheit gekommen.    

Es gibt derzeit keine spezifische Therapie oder einen Impfstoff zum Schutz gegen Zika. Dazu ist die Krankheit zu unerforscht. Die beste Vorsorge ist, sich vor Mückenstichen zu schützen

und stark betroffene Gebiete zu meiden.

Wer einmal mit Zika infiziert war, ist sein Leben lang immun. Ein Antikörpertest kann zeigen, wer bereits mit dem Virus infiziert war. Dieser Test ist aber aufwendig und in weiten Teilen

Brasiliens beispielsweise steht er nicht zur Verfügung. In Deutschland schon.


Das Zika-Virus - was ist das?

 Zika ist ein Virus, das Mücken übertragen, das aber auch durch Bluttransplantationen, Sex und von Schwangeren auf ihre ungeborenen Kinder weitergegeben werden kann.

 Der Infekt selbst ist harmlos und verläuft meist unbemerkt oder wie ein leichter grippaler Infekt. Es gibt derzeit keine Therapie zum Schutz gegen das Zika-Virus. Die beste Vorsorge ist, sich vor Mückenstichen zu schützen und betroffene Gebiete zu meiden.

 Lateinamerika und die Karibik waren das Zentrum der letzten Epidemie. 2016 breitete sich das Virus aber bis nach Südostasien und in die USA aus. Reisende haben den Erreger in fast alle Teile der Erde eingeschleppt. Auch in Deutschland wurden mehrere hundert Fälle diagnostiziert.

 Für Schwangere und Ungeborene kann das Virus in seltenen Fällen gefährlich werden. Dort, wo Zika sich verbreitet, wurden ungewöhnlich viele Babys mit einer Schädelfehlbildung (Mikrozephalie) geboren. Auch schwere Fälle der Nervenkrankheit Guillain-Barré nahmen zu.

 Die langfristigen Folgen der letzten Epidemie sind bis heute nicht abzusehen.

[Peter Jay Hotez]

Leiter der National School of Tropical Medicine in Houston, Texas. "Es gibt noch viele andere neurologische Ausprägungen einer Zika-Infektion." Gemeint sind Schäden, die die Eltern und Ärzte nicht direkt nach der Geburt gemerkt haben: Taubheit, Hörprobleme, Epilepsien, aber auch Entwicklungsprobleme und Lernschwierigkeiten unter älteren Kindern. Wie viele Kinder davon betroffen sind, ist völlig unklar, aber es dürften viele Tausend sein.

Bei Erwachsenen kann die Infektion Spuren hinterlassen: Nach einer Infektion mit dem Virus erkranken sie häufiger am Guillain-Barré-Syndrom (GBS). Bei dieser Erkrankung scheint sich

das Immunsystem des Kranken gegen die eigenen Nervenscheiden zu richten, nach und nach fallen deshalb die Nerven aus. Schrittweise wandert die Lähmung über den ganzen Körper. Obwohl das nur vorübergehend ist, kann es zu schweren Komplikationen kommen, wie Herzrhythmusstörungen und einem Aussetzen der Atemmuskulatur.


Neben einem Spielplatz hat Lauren Wilkerson schon im Morgengrauen Pfosten in das sumpfige Gras gerammt. Dazwischen hat die biologin der Gesundheitsbehörde fast unsichtbar

ein dünnes Netz gespannt. Auf dem Boden liegen Körner, um Vögel anzulocken.

Doch Wilkerson ist nicht aus ornithologischen Gründen hier in einem Vorort von Houston unterwegs. Was sie untersucht, sind immer noch die Auswirkungen von Hurrikan Harvey.

Ende August suchte dieser die viertgrößte Stadt der USA heim, 90 billionen Liter Regen prasselten damals in nur 3 Tagen auf Houston nieder. Die Folgen waren in allen Medien beschrieben: Mehr als 80 Texaner starben, fast 200.000 Häuser nahmen ernsthaften Schaden. Nun sind die Wassermassen und die Kameras wieder weg, die großen Notunterkünfte sind vollständig

geräumt. Doch die Katastrophe ist noch nicht vorbei. Jetzt drohen gefährliche Viren, die von Moskitos übertragen werden – und die in Vögeln ihr Reservoir finden.

Deshalb ist Wilkerson auf Vogeljagd. Heute hat sie Glück: In ihrem Netz hat sich ein Spatz verfangen. Vorsichtig befreit die Biologin ihn aus dem Netz und bringt ihn zu ihrem Auto. Dort streicht sie mit einem desinfizierenden Gel sein Gefieder zur Seite, um die Blutgefäße zum Vorschein zu bringen. Während der Spatz ruhig in ihrer Hand liegt, nimmt sie ihm mit einer winzigen Nadel wenige Milliliter Blut ab. Das wandert in ein Reagenzglas und dann direkt in eine Kühlbox. Dann bekommt der Spatz noch einen Ring, bevor ihn Wilkerson in den blauen Morgenhimmel fliegen lässt. Im Labor wird das Spatzenblut dann später auf das West­Nil­Virus getestet, das die gefürchtete gleichnamige Krankheit auslöst.

Das West­Nil­Fieber ist allerdings nur eine der Bedrohungen, denen sich Houston nun ausgesetzt sieht. »Die gesundheitlichen Konsequenzen einer solchen Flut sind gewaltig«, erklärt Peter Hotez, Professor für Tropenmedizin am Baylor College in Houston. Auch drei Wochen nach dem Wirbelsturm sind die Überreste noch immer sichtbar. Auf einem Verkehrsschild, zweieinhalb Meter über der Straße, hängen Plastikreste und Gestrüpp. Und obwohl es seit Tagen nicht geregnet hat, steht noch immer Wasser in Pfützen, in Straßengräben

schwappt eine faulige Brühe, die nicht so recht abfließen will. besonders heftig wurde der wohlhabende Stadtteil Meyerland von der Flut getroffen: Hier sieht man breite, baumbewachsene Straßen, ordentlich gemähtes Gras in den Vorgärten, frei stehende geräumige Häuser – und am Straßenrand meterhoch sich türmenden Schutt. Im Erdgeschoss eines

Eckhauses hämmern zwei Männer in blauen Overalls eine Wand heraus. Übrig bleibt nur das Skelett, Holzsäulen, die das Haus tragen. »Den Fußboden haben wir schon

rausgerissen«, erzählen sie, »wenn wir das nicht schnell fertig machen, kommt der Schimmel.«

Tatsächlich ist schon auf der Veranda der Gestank zu riechen. Denn Meyerland liegt in der Nähe des Brays Bayou – einer der langsam fließenden, oft brackigen Flussarme, die ganz Houston durchziehen. Direkt auf der anderen Seite der betonierten Senke, in der der Bayou fließt, steht das Klärwerk, ein paar unscheinbare graue Betonklötze. Als Harvey den Fluss über die Ufer treten ließ, flutete er auch die Kläranlage, die Wassermassen nahmen den Dreck mit sich und schwemmten ihn in die Häuser.

Eine Analyse des Flutwassers, durchgeführt vom Baylor College und der Rice University, zeigte eine extrem hohe Belastung mit E. coli, einem Fäkalkeim, der gefährliche Durchfallerkrankungen verursachen kann. Auch Arsen, Blei und sogar Quecksilber fanden Umweltwissenschaftler im Wasser – allesamt Stoffe, die für den menschlichen Organismus,

vom Gehirn bis zur Lunge, toxisch sind. Das größte Problem sind nach Meinung vieler Forscher jedoch die Stechmücken, die in dem fauligen Wasser ausgezeichnet gedeihen und eine gefährliche Virenfracht tragen.

Das von den Moskitos übertragene West-Nil-Virus greift das Gehirn an

Denn in Houston ist es das ganze Jahr über warm und feucht. Noch Ende September erreicht das Thermometer Temperaturen von über 30° C. Gute Bedingungen für

Stechmücken – die durch Harvey noch verbessert wurden. Zunächst habe die Flut zwar die Moskitolarven weggewaschen, erklärt Umair Shah vom öffentlichen Gesundheitsdienst

von Harris County, in dem auch Houston liegt. »Erst einmal hatten wir deshalb Ruhe.« Doch vielerorts lief das Flutwasser des Hurrikans nicht ab, sondern stand in Straßengräben

oder in Pfützen. Pools liefen mit kloakigem Wasser voll. Und an all diesen Stellen legten die Moskitos ihre Eier ab. »Zwei Wochen nach Harvey gab es dann tatsächlich einen heftigen Anstieg von Moskitos«, berichtet Shah.

Und die können hier, genau wie in den anderen US­Bundesstaaten am Golf von Mexiko, gefährliche Viren übertragen. Die Ägyptische Tigermücke Aedes aegypti und ihre Verwandte,

die Asiatische Tigermücke Aedes albopictus, übertragen in Texas Zika und Dengue. »Am meisten Gedanken«, sagt Shah, »machen wir uns momentan aber über das West­Nil­Virus.« Dieses wird von einer anderen Moskito­Familie, den Culicidae, übertragen. Nach Hurrikan Katrina 2005 waren die Fälle von West­Nil­Virus in und um New Orleans deutlich

angestiegen – in den Folgemonaten und sogar im Jahr danach.

»West­Nil­Fieber ist eine sehr ernst zu nehmende Erkrankung«, erklärt Kristy Murray vom Baylor College of Medicine, die schon seit Jahren an dem Virus forscht.

Es befällt mit Vorliebe Nervenzellen im Gehirn und kann zu schweren neurologischen Schäden, Lähmungen und zum Tod führen. Seit 2000 sind nach Angaben der amerikanischen Seuchenschutzbehörde bereits über 2000 Menschen in den USA an dem Virus gestorben, Zehntausende haben die Infektion durchlitten und bleibende Schäden davongetragen. Langfristig kann das Virus die Nieren schädigen und steht mit Erschöpfungszuständen und Depressionen in Zusammenhang. Das Reservoir des Virus sind Vögel.

Wenn infizierte Tiere von einer Stechmücke gestochen werden, nehmen diese das Virus auf, es pflanzt sich in ihnen fort. Wenn die infizierte Mücke dann einen Menschen sticht,

kann sie das West­Nil­Virus über den Speichel an ihn weitergeben. Um zu überwachen, wo das Virus gerade schwelt, muss man also Vögel und Moskitos gleichermaßen


Fast gleichzeitig rücken deshalb an verschiedenen Stellen Biologen wie Lauren Wilkerson aus, um Mücken einzufangen und Vögel zu testen. An 268 verschiedenen Stellen im

County haben sie Fallen ausgelegt. Auch der Insektenkundler Max Vigilant ist unter den Moskitojägern. Um seine Falle zu leeren, stemmt er mit einer Spitzhacke einen Gullydeckel hoch und löst einen roten Kanister von der Unterseite. Aus einem Schlauch strömt CO₂, das den Atem eines Menschen simulieren und damit Stechmücken anziehen soll, darunter hängt

eine Fangkammer. Andere Fallen stehen nur ein paar Meter weiter im Gestrüpp neben der Auffahrt eines Hauses. Verschiedene Arten von Fallen sollen verschiedene Moskitoarten anlocken.

Nachdem er die Fangkammer geleert hat, fährt Vigilant zu den Holzbaracken im Süden Houstons, in denen die Moskitokontrolleinheit ihr Zuhause hat. Die Moskitos werden schockgefrostet, in kleine beschriftete Pappkartons gefüllt und dann per Hand unter einem Mikroskop sortiert. Der Großteil der Moskitos gehört zu Gattungen, die keine

Krankheiten übertragen. Einige wenige aber sind Tigermücken oder Culicidae. Die werden separat sortiert, in eine Lösung eingelegt und dann im Labor auf der anderen Seite des Parkplatzes auf Krankheitserreger untersucht.

Vom Flugzeug aus wurden ganze Stadtteile mit Pestiziden eingenebelt

Wenn eine infizierte Mücke dabei ist, rücken möglichst noch am selben Tag Trucks aus, die ein Gemisch aus Insektiziden, meist Permethrin und Malathion, als feinen Nebel versprühen.

So soll gezielt dort die Mückenpopulation reduziert werden, wo Viruserkrankungen aufflammen könnten. Nach den Zerstörungen durch Harvey aber reichte das nicht. Weil die überfluteten Areale so groß und teilweise so schlecht von der Straße aus zugänglich waren, nebelten Flugzeuge der Air Force an mehreren Abenden Mitte September ganze Landstriche

und Stadtteile mit Pestiziden ein, insgesamt über 2,5 Millionen Hektar.

Zuvor waren Mitarbeiter der Moskitokontrolleinheit an verschiedene Stellen des Countys gefahren und hatten die Mückenpopulation geschätzt – mit einer kuriosen Methode: Jeweils einer der Männer stellte sich mit ausgebreiteten Armen in die Landschaft, die anderen zählten, wie viele Moskitos sich auf ihn setzten. »

Teilweise standen meine Mitarbeiter in einer Moskitowolke«, sagt Mustapha Debboun, der die Moskitokontrolleinheit leitet. Deutlich über 100 Stechmücken fielen pro Minute über die armen Kontrolleure her.

Doch nicht nur mit Moskitoüberwachung sind die Gesundheitsbehörden beschäftigt.

Ebenso wichtig ist die Aufklärung der Bevölkerung darüber, wie man sich am besten verhalten sollte: stehendes Wasser in Blumentöpfen und Autoreifen ausschütten,

um zu verhindern, dass Moskitos brüten können, lange Kleidung tragen und Mückenschutzmittel auftragen. Umair Shah und seine Kollegen sind jeden Tag tausende Kilometer unterwegs, um das den Menschen nahezubringen. Sie versuchen auch zu verstehen, woran es den Gemeinden gerade am dringendsten fehlt:

Trinkwasser? Tollwutimpfungen für Hunde? Oder Insektenschutzmittel?

Vielen Menschen in Houston fehlt es noch immer am Nötigsten. Im Stadtzentrum haben Obdachlose Zeltstädte in Unterführungen aufgebaut. Immer wieder taumelt einer von ihnen, einen Plastikbecher in der Hand, auf die Straße, um am Fenster eines Autos um Geld zu betteln. Hurrikan Harvey, davon gehen die Behörden aus, wird die Anzahl der Obdachlosen

in die Höhe treiben.

Nicht weit davon entfernt reiht sich im Fifth Ward, einem der ärmsten Stadtteile der Stadt, ein holzvertäfeltes baufälliges Haus an das nächste. Die Dächer sind vielerorts zusammengesackt, die Fensterscheiben durch löchrige Aluminiumfolie ersetzt, durch die Moskitos mühelos hindurchkommen.

Eine fast zahnlose Frau schließt gerade ihre Haustür auf. »Die Aufräumarbeiten laufen ja ganz gut«, murmelt sie. »Aber die Mücken, die sind seit der Flut überall.« Es sind diese Menschen, um die sich der Tropenmediziner Peter Hotez besondere Sorgen macht: »Sie sind oftmals einfach nicht resilient genug, um nach einer solchen Katastrophe alles wieder aufzubauen«, glaubt er. 80% der Häuser, die Harvey beschädigt hat, waren nicht versichert, der Großteil der Menschen hat kein Geld, sie wieder ordentlich aufzubauen, vielen fehlt eine umfassende Krankenversicherung. Am Ende wird die Flut sie wohl noch ärmer machen. Und ihre Lebensumstände sie wiederum krank. »Ungefähr zwölf Millionen

Amerikaner leiden an einer Erkrankung, die mit Armut assoziiert ist«, schätzt Hotez:

Infektionen mit Spulwürmern oder Einzellern wie Giardien oder Trichomonaden.

So zeigen die Wochen nach Harvey einerseits, dass die gesundheitlichen Verlierer dieser Hurrikan­Saison vor allem die Armen sind. Und zugleich machen sie klar, wie wichtig die

Rolle des öffentlichen Gesundheitssystems nach Wirbelstürmen und Fluten ist. Die Arbeit der Moskitokontrolleinheit in Harris County könnte sogar Schule machen: Denn auch Florida, Puerto Rico und weitere Karibikinseln wurden von den Hurrikanen Irma, Maria und José verwüstet.

Auch dort könnten im Flutwasser Dengue­ und Zika­Mücken brüten. Der Kampf gegen diese Bedrohung wird die Gesundheitsbehörden noch lange beschäftigen



Vorwort/Suchen. Zeichen/Abkürzungen.                                Impressum.