Oxyuranus scutellatus (Oxy-sc) = Taipan

 

[Farokh Master]

The most venomous snakes in the world in terms of venom toxicity reside in Australia. The most dangerous venom in the world is that of the Inland Taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus).

This is an Australian elapid.

The next four most toxic venomous snakes in the world are also from Australia. They are:

1) Pseudonaja Textilis (Common brown snake).

2) Taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus).

3) Notechis Scutatus (Tiger snake).

4) Notechis Aterniger (Island tiger snake).

The venom of seasnake is next on the highly toxic list. However, if you look at both - venom toxicity and amount of venom produced, the Inland Taipan is the most dangerous snake

in the world.

I was first introduced to this venom by Mr. Tony Pinkus of M/s Ainsworth Pharmacy, London. He has been my mentor and has introduced me to many venomous substances including nosodes.

In the year 1997, he gave me a 12 C potency of Taipan

(Oxyuranus scutellatus). He asked me to use it to treat certain conditions, purely on the principle of Isopathy. The following are the conditions:

Blurred vision.

Diplopia.

Hemorrhage.

Paralysis of eyelids.

Septicemia.

Trembling.

These were in fact, the symptoms of poisoning after the bite. I got my first chance to use Taipan in a case where there was a furuncle on the right shin of tibia in a diabetic patient which

was extremely tender, angry looking and without any opening. Within 24 hours the furuncle became dark brown and patient had high fever with chills and scanty urine. I prescribed Taipan

– 30 C and slowly I could see improvement in his furuncle, fever and urination. Within 7 days the furuncle disappeared completely. After this initial experience, I had success in using Taipan as a complementary remedy when Pyrogen was indicated. Purely on the principle of Isopathy, I used Taipan from the year 1995 – 2004 without trying to prove the medicine as I was busy during the above period proving other snake remedies and hence, Taipan took a back seat.

During the year 2005, I was completely occupied with editing my book on snake remedies which again delayed the proving till early June 2005. Finally I selected best of the provers namely

1) Dr. Binal Shah

2) Dr. Fatema Slatewala

3) Dr. Nilofar Ghansar

4) Dr. Riddhi Maru

5) Dr. Zubin Dehmeri

6) Mr. Abbas Slatewala

 

The Coastal Taipan is regarded as the world's most dangerous and poisonous snake, a claim that will surely be questioned by those who have a close affinity with Mambas and Cobras.

A combination of a very effective venom apparatus (the longest fangs of any Australian Snake), venom toxicity, venom yield, strength and agility, aggression when provoked and the tendency

for inflicting multiple bites are factors which this claim.

 

DISTRIBUTION:

There are two species of taipan, Oxyuranus scutellatus (the coastal taipan) which is the more common one and is found in the far North, in Queensland, Northern Territory and Western

Australia where winter temperatures are above 18º C. The second species is Oxyuranus microlepidotus (the inland taipan), which lives in a very remote part of Australia, is rarely seen and very little

is known about it.

Taipan is the largest Australian elapid snake and rarely seen in the wild. It is mainly found in the hot, Northern part of Australia.

DESCRIPTION:

The head of the taipan is pale creamy in color. The back, upper sides and tail may be yellowish, reddish brown, dark or light brown, blackish brown, copper or olive in colour and which

merges gradually into the noticeably paler lower sides. Juveniles and some adults have indistinctly dark-blotched scales (the sides). The dorsal scales are slightly keeled (on the neck). The large, long head is quite distinct from the slender neck and forebody and is noticeably paler than the body. In younger snakes, the eye is relatively large with a blackish-brown iris and a wide brownish-orange rim around the pupil. In older snakes, the eye is usually more darker and narrower.

BEHAVIOUR:

The taipan has an excellent sense of smell. It also has excellent eyesight. It quickly moves in on its prey, strikes fast, draws back and waits for the poison to work. As soon as the poison has worked, the snake eats the prey. The taipan is a stealthy hunter and its bite is extremely fast and accurate. The Taipan is active till midmorning. At times, when the weather is cooler, it extends its activity till late afternoon. During hot weather, it is nocturnal.

HABITAT:

The Taipan takes shelter in abandoned animal burrows (under roots and fallen timber). They also take shelter in hollow logs and rotted, fallen trunks and in deep leaf litter piled at the base of large trees.

VENOM AND SNAKE BITES:

Taipans are the most intelligent, nervous and alert of all the Australian venomous snakes. They generally stay away from humans and other larger predators and they escape or take shelter before being noticed in order to avoid confrontation. But when cornered, aroused or threatened, the taipan will defend itself fiercely by delivering one or more fast 'jab bites' as soon as the

offender is within range. It is known for the accuracy, speed and effectiveness with which it bites, and the bite is potentially fatal. Taipan venom is highly neurotoxic and the bite affects the nervous

system very severely. Symptoms include vomiting, flaccid paralysis and eventual respiratory paralysis. However, while the myotoxic and procoagulative proteins are present to a lesser

degree, they still play a role in the bite pathology. These bites are treated with taipan antivenom.

DIET:

Their prefer red food is rats, thus, the taipans are often found in the Queensland cane fields where rats are plentiful.

The Taipan usually preys on small and medium-sized rodents such as mice and rats, lizards, bandicoots, other small animals, small marsupials and also birds.

 

REPRODUCTION:

Taipans are long snakes and male taipans can grow larger than females. Taipans grow upto to 2.5 metres. The ritual male combat occurs in spring. Mating in captivity has been recorded from

March to December with a peak from July to October. Female taipan lays 10 - 20 adherent, soft-shelled eggs. She lays these eggs anytime between 52 and 85 days after mating. The female

can retain her eggs long enough for the embryos to develop to an advanced stage before she lays them. Eggs incubated artificially at about 30° C hatch in 61 to 84 days and the young leave their egg cases about one or two days after the first hatching slits are made. Males become mature at 16 months of age, females at 28 months.

 

Repertory:

Mind: ABRUPT (harsh)

ABSENTMINDED (at work)

ABUSIVE

AILMENTS FROM – reprimands/rudeness of others

ANGER (morning on waking/at night/# with quick repentance/causeless/from contradiction/easily/at trifles/violent)

ANXIETY from anticipation (in morning)/ about future

AWKWARD

CENSORIOUS

COMPANY – aversed to/desires it

CONCENTRATION difficult studying

CONFIDENCE - want of self confidence – self depreciation

CONFIDENT

CONFUSION of mind

CONVERSATION - aversion to

DEATH desires (from despair/thoughts of)

DELUSIONS - head confused by a cloud/is worthless

DESPAIR – of own condition/about miserable existence/about future/of life

DISCONTENTED

DULLNESS

DWELLS on past disagreeable occurrences/recalls disagreeable memories/recalls old grievances

EXHILARATION

FEAR of the unknown

FORGETFUL

FORSAKEN feeling (sensation of isolation)

FROWN, disposed to

GRIEF over trifles

HARDHEARTED

HATRED - has bitter feelings for slight offenses/of persons who offended him/hatred and revengeful

HEEDLESS

HELPLESSNESS; feeling of

HIGH-SPIRITED

HOPEFUL

HURRY (everybody must hurry)

IMPATIENCE

INACTIVITY (morning)

INDIFFERENCE (to everything)

INSECURITY; mental

IRRITABILITY (morning – on waking/afternoon/# cheerfulness/from trifles

JEALOUSY

KILL; desire to (with a knife)

LAZINESS [morning in bed (on rising/on waking)]

LIAR

MALICIOUS (with anger)

MOCKING - sarcasm

MOOD - #/changeable/repulsive

MOROSE – morning on waking/afternoon/

OBSTINATE

OFFENDED, easily

PLAYFUL

POSTPONING everything to next day

QUARRELSOME [morning/on wking/with aversion to company/(recriminations) about trifles]

QUIET disposition

RAGE

REBELLIOUS

REMORSE (after anger/quickly repents)

REPROACHING oneself

RESTLESS (evening/anxious)

RUDENESS

SADNESS (evening/desire to weep)

SECRETIVE

SELFCONTROL –lost

SENSITIVE (to reprimands/to rudeness)

SENTIMENTAL

SNAPPISH

SOCIABILITY

SPOKEN TO; being aversion

STARTING - morning (starting from sleep)

STRIKING from anger/striking one's own children

SUICIDAL disposition [lacks courage/from despair (miserable about his existence)/meditates on easiest way of committing suicide]

SULKY

SUSPICIOUS

TEASING

THOUGHTS rush

TRANQUILLITY - reconciled to fate

TRIFLES – seem important

UNFEELING

VIOLENT

WEEPING [desire to weep (all the time)]

Head: HAIR falling

HEAVINESS [in forehead (above eyes)/vertex]

PAIN – afternoon/< closing the eyes (pulsating)/dull pain (l./in forehead (in frontal eminence/< studying/ext. temple/< - from light)/above eyes/pulsating pain/temples

PULSATING - > closing the eyes/forehead/frontal eminence

EYE: red

HEAVINESS

PAIN – r./drawing/burning

TIRED SENSATION

EAR: DISCHARGE – r./watery

ERUPTIONS - about the ears/in front of ears (boils/pustules)

ITCHING

NOSE: CORYZA – r./morning/with discharge

DISCHARGE - Posterior nares (r./morning)/thick/watery/yellowish green

SNEEZING - + irritation in both nostrils/constant (morning/with coryza)/with itching

FACE: ERUPTIONS – painful

ERUPTIONS – painful pimples/pustules (on cheeks)/rash

PAIN – l. cheek/around eyes

MOUTH: APHTHAE - Tongue (painful)

DRYNESS with thirst

ODOR offensive

PAIN – burning (l./tongue/morning)

SALIVATION

ULCERS – gums (painless)

THROAT: CONSTRICTION

DRYNESS with thirst

HAWK; disposition to (before being able to talk)

IRRITATION

LUMP; sensation of a [< swallowing (empty)]

PAIN – morning (sore)/evening (sore)/burning/< during cough/”As from splinter”/< empty swallowing (liquids)/constant disposition to swallow must drink (from saliva)/

Swallowing difficult (liquids)

STOMACH: APPETITE increased

EMPTINESS

ERUCTATIONS (empty)

PAIN – evening/dull/in  pain/in epigastrium

THIRST (for large quantities)

ABDOMEN: EMPTINESS

FLATULENCE

PAIN – l./burning/> lying on abdomen/cramping/< during menses/< sitting

RECTUM: CONSTIPATION - insufficient

DIARRHEA

URINE: BURNING

Yellow/offensive

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX: IRRITATION/ITCHING

MENSES – clotted/dark/too early (7 - 8 days)/painful

LARYNX AND TRACHEA: hoarse (during coryza)

COUGH: DRY (morning)

CHEST: ERUPTIONS - on mammae/rash

OPPRESSION

PAIN – l. (< during cough/sudden)

PALPITATION of heart – with anxiety/on waking

EXTREMITIES: ERUPTIONS – inside of thighs/upper arms

SLEEP: DISTURBED by palpitations

FALLING ASLEEP – early/easy

PROLONGED

REFRESHING

SLEEPINESS on waking

WAKING – after midnight 2.30 h./“As from anxiety”/from coldness/with palpitations

DREAMS: being BURNED/CLAIRVOYANT/meeting (old) friends/of God/NOSTALGIC

CHILL: in general

FEVER: heat in general

PERSPIRATION: ABSENT

SKIN: DRY – unable to perspire

ERUPTIONS – boils/popular

GENERALS: external dropsy

FOOD and DRINKS: Desires: chocolate/food/ice cream;

HEAT - flushes of heat

HYPERTENSION

LIE DOWN - desire it

LYING - < on side (part on which he is lying)

PAIN – aching/in bones (“As if broken”/during fever/tearing/during  pain)/in parts lain on

UNCOVERING aversed to

WEAKNESS (< during fever)

 

Thema’s

WORTHLESS

The feeling of a life without purpose in which one does not have a significant role is very characteristic of this remedy. They feel like a burden on their family or group.

ALONE

They feel that nobody needs them and they are not of use to anybody.

ESTRANGED FEELING

The desire for company and society is suppressed due to feelings of worthlessness and depression.

OVERSENSITIVE

Any kind of criticism intensifies the feeling of worthlessness. So they are very sensitive to criticism and reprimands.

OSCILLATION OF MOODS

Mood changes are persistent throughout the proving. They are very intense and uncontrollable. The changes of mood are also due to the intense irritation at trivial matters.

One moment they are happy and another moment they can get agitated over trifles.

REVENGEFUL

They feel hurt and want others to experience the same painful feeling. Past offenses are recalled with a lot of anger and resentment.

LOSS OF CONTROL/ VIOLENT RAGE

The frustration and anger is expressed initially in the form of sarcastic and critical remarks. If they are unable to argue or prove their point they become violent.

LOATHING FOR LIFE

They feel that others are living in misery because of them.

When the frustration and worthlessness reaches a peak they feel like ending their life. They feel that others are living in misery because of them.

 

Repertorium:                                                           [Paul Masci/Philip Kendall]

Gemüt: Bewusstlos

Weint (über Kleinigkeit)

Auge: Bewegung unwillkürlich

Lider herabfallend/gelähmt

Strabismus, Schielen (divergens)

Pupillen erweitert

Gesicht: Lähmung

Nase: Nasenbluten

Mund: Zunge zu bewegen (Her-/Vorstrecken) ist schwierig/gelähmt/geschwollen

Lähmung

Speichelfluss

Geschwollen

Innerer Hals: Schlucken unmöglich

Magen: Übel/erbricht/Art des Erbrochenen: gelb

Sehen: Diplopie, Doppeltsehen/verschwommen

Blase: Blutung

Urin: Blutig

Atmung: Atemnot, Dyspnoe, erschwertes Atmen

Brust: Blutung der Lungen

Glieder: blau (Hände/Füße)

Schwäche

Schweiß: Klamm, feucht/reichlich

Haut: bläulich

Allgemeines: Kollaps

Konvulsionen

Zyanose

Zittern äußerlich

 

Vergleich: Siehe: Schlangen allgemein

 

 

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