Secretin is a peptide hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body, and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach and pancreas. Secretin is produced in the S cells of the duodenum, located in the intestinal glands. In humans, the secretin peptide is encoded by the SCT gene. Secretin was the first hormone to be identified.
Secretin helps regulate the pH of the duodenum by: inhibiting the secretion of gastric acid from the parietal cells of the stomach; and stimulating the production of bicarbonate from the centroacinar cells and intercalated ducts of the pancreas.
[Prof. Dr. Karoly Horvath]
Letztere Behandlungsart wird von ihm angewendet und im Rahmen einer Gastroskopie konnten positive Veränderungen im Verdauungsvorgang und in Folge davon bei der Mehrzahl der Kinder Verbesserungen im Verhalten festgestellt werden. (Sozialverhalten, Sprache, Stereotypien)
Eine vermehrte Bildung von Verdauungssäften wurde beobachtet.
Wie bereits in der Zeitschrift der "Österreichischen Autistenhilfe" März 99, S.11 angeführt wurde, erläuterte er einen Zusammenhang des Sekretins mit den Gehirnaktivitäten, indem es die Produktion
und Verwertung von Neurotransmittern anregt.
Im Zentralnervensystem gibt es verschiedene Stellen, wo Sekretinrezeptoren angesiedelt sind.
19 Gewebshormone könnten möglicherweise auch Auswirkungen auf Gehirnfunktionen haben, eines davon ist Sekretin.
Durch Tierversuche kam man zur Annahme, dass es Hormone gibt, die Nervenzellen vergrößern und die Zahl der Nervenverbindungen im Gehirn vermehren können.
Diese Beobachtungen können in eine neue Richtung bei der Forschung über Autismus weisen und möglicherweise eine Ursache für Autismus finden helfen.
Joint Managing Director of Ainsworths Homeopathic Pharmacy discusses research he conducted on the use of homeopathic Secretin for children afflicted with autism and ASD.
Homoeopathy and autism
Homoeopathic remedies have been prescribed widely in autism with variable success. Remedies which may have been well considered, sometimes appear to yield less favourable responses than anticipated and the issue behind the ever present leaky gut seems to have some connection to the problem. Essentially the whole intestinal tract is technically outside the body and problems affecting digestion and in particular what is allowed to travel through the gut wall, have a huge impact on our person. The ‘Opioid effect’, caused by inappropriate absorption of large chain polypeptides, is well documented as being a problematic symptom of autism and ASD. Clearly if a gut dysfunction exists some resolution of its cause must occur to enable a change in the symptom picture.
Secretin, in the context of this article, is described in its homoeopathic form and is not viewed as a cure but rather as an aid to facilitate other individual homoeopathic remedies and other approaches to succeed. However there does appear to be a strong relationship between secretin and leaky gut, and administering homoeopathic secretin has some surprisingly beneficial effects on the attentiveness of autistic and ASD children. It is important to stress there is no magic bullet here, rather one of many steps one can take to build upon a child’s capacity to improve. In this context homoeopathic secretin would certainly appear to be worthy of consideration.
What is Secretin?
Secretin is a gastrointestinal peptide hormone, present within the so called S cells of the mucosa of the upper small intestine (duodenum and jejunum) in an inactive form, prosecretin. First extracted by Jorpes & Mutt (1961) and sequenced by Mutt, Bodansky (Karolinska Institute), Secretin was found to be a polypeptide containing 27 amino acids. Secretin is produced commercially in the form of an injection for the purpose of pancreatic function tests; the Ferring brand is the purest form of porcine secretin with 3000 clinical units/mg peptide.
Action of Secretin
During digestion a bolus of food (chyme) is emptied from the stomach into the small intestine where it is broken down into suitable components by enzymes before absorption across the gut lumen. The stomach and its contents are extremely acidic (pH1), equivalent to battery acid and the acidity of this bolus must be neutralized by alkaline bicarbonate secretion from the pancreas before digestion can proceed and also to protect the lining of the small intestine. Secretin is released and activated, in response to the hydrochloric acid component of chyme with a pH value of 4.5 to 5.0 entering the duodenum from the stomach, and increases the volume and bicarbonate content of secreted pancreatic juices. However it is also important to note that blood serotonin levels change after administration
of secretin, indicating that it has a more profound effect than the local action described above. Serotonin is the ‘awakening’ neurotransmitter which could account for some actions described below.
How did Secretin become associated with ASD?
In April 1996 Gary and Victoria Beck, having exhausted every other approach, took their autistic son Parker for an endoscopy and a pancreatic function test in which he was administered a secretin challenge test.
The results of the endoscopy and biopsies were rather unremarkable, however, within days of the procedure Parker’s bowel movements became very normal, not merely formed but dark brown and not pungent.
In addition his eye contact improved dramatically and he was calmer. He began to sleep at night without a problem and his facial tics disappeared. Two and a half weeks later he began to speak for the
first time in over two years. By the third week he was saying short three word phrases. He began dancing and singing to his favourite videos and was potty trained within weeks, his bowel movements having remained normal despite no change in diet throughout.
Secretin porcine, prepared in combination of homoeopathic potencies 3,6,9,12cH was supplied on request to parents of autistic spectrum, Aspergers, ADD, hyperactive children and adults, with a free choice of pills or liquid potency and an advised initial dose of 2-3 drops or two pills twice daily for a minimum of six weeks. A questionnaire and Rating scale similar to the Secretin Outcomes Study
used by Dr Bernard Rimland of the Autism Research Institute was used to assess changes.
Eye contact Social skills
play, greeting, imitation
Attention (easier to teach)
Mood (less crying, tantrums)
Digestion (diarrhoea or constipation)
Over 3000 children received homoeopathic secretin sufficient for the period of the pilot study and each parent received a questionnaire to complete and return. Oral reports were received from 6 weeks
to 18 months during which homoeopathic secretin was in continual use. Written reports were received from a number of patients and 159 completed questionnaires were returned, forming the basis of the graph below. This number was less than expected but nonetheless representative of the responses obtained by continued contact with the patient group.
The results demonstrate an incremental benefit from possible to moderate change observed in 12 key symptoms of ASD over the seven weeks of recording. There is a clear variation in benefit over the symptom range and direct communication faculties improve more significantly than behavior patterns. Eye contact and vocalization being the most profound and immediate changes observed. Continued use beyond the study period maintained the upward trend demonstrated in the first seven weeks. The individual variation in response between patients was also quite large with some children fairing well above average and others below average, hence the results understate the actual picture that can occur, whilst it must be appreciated that secretin will not help all cases. The negative value for a worsening of symptoms was unwise in retrospect as this is generally indicative of a positive outcome with homoeopathic treatment and in experience undervalued the outcome of the symptom when further examined.
The modest aim of this pilot study was met insofar that a large sample size, far greater than in any trial to date, reported incremental beneficial improvement to their ASD symptoms over a seven week period with many concurrent reports of a profound change in the child as a whole person. Many children were able to reduce stringent diets or stop taking Ritalin and Risperidone as a consequence of taking secretin. At least one report has been received of a child taking homoeopathic secretin for over seven years
As to why homoeopathy has been less successful than anticipated, the results indicate a clear reason. Each meal that a child consumes acts as a maintaining cause for their symptoms and as such a block to individually chosen treatment. By taking a regular dose of homoeopathic secretin the maintaining cause is offset enabling other remedies to act more significantly. In addition it became apparent that increasing size of dose increases effect (2-6 drops) and this was necessary over longer term use of the remedy. Homoeopathic secretin was also found to potentiate the action of the injected secretin, in particular increasing its longevity from six to nine weeks.
I see the approach to AS, not as a single remedy or treatment but as a flight of steps to a cure of which secretin is perhaps the crucial first step. Why? because the thing that is most important is that in these kids, each meal becomes a maintaining cause and you cannot stop them eating to remove this as you would with any other maintaining cause. This being the case you have to find another way to neutralise its effect and remove the shadow of ‘false’ symptoms that arise from what appear to be dietary indiscretions or food intolerance. Many of these so called ‘leaky gut cases’ are due to eating foods which disagree and to which they are allergic or intolerant. The plight of parents bringing up such a child is to do their best to remove harmful foods and this invariably leads to draconian measures in which the AS child is placed on highly restrictive diets whilst craving those foods. The child may be controlled at home then uncontrolled at school. The problem is magnified if he has non AS siblings who are on normal diets.
In essence the isolation of the already isolated patient is magnified here. The child lives in a world of his own due to the opioid effect described in the article. He cannot be reached there, and what secretin appears to do is offer a hand out into normality. Other remedies then follow to further normalise him by pulling him from the abyss, step by step. Interestingly the nosodes are chief amongst these and we have to ask why? Jean Lacombe’s article also questions why apparently rare remedies like Carcinosin, Tuberculinum and Medorrhinum are chief amongst those that surface in repertorizing these cases.
The gut is now being recognised more for what it is:
1) a means of subtle communication between the microscosm and the macrocosm; our inside and outside worlds. This is part of the reason we manifest in physicality and a reason for being. Lessons clearly have to be learnt here and the AS kid certainly has some tough lessons to learn.
2) a means of gaining nutrition for the body
3) a means of creating and maintaining the immune system; 80% of immune function is centered around the gut, so it’s no surprise that we are now entering a period when the ignorant overuse of antibiotics, which destroy the essential bowel flora, is finally being considered. The subtle interaction of these colonies of billions of commensal organisms that inhabit our gut, with us, is a rare phenomenon only now being appreciated. In essence they control the potency of the lumen among other immune functions, and stabilise our state of health. The age old saying ‘you are what you eat’ is apt.
If you look at Wakefields work here it fits in nicely. The measles jab introduces aberrant colonies of the measles virus in the gut that disrupt normal function and it is this that causes the ensuing chaos.
I used to work with many respected and highly esoteric practitioners who have long since died. Amongst the relevant ones here were the Psionic practitioners (who routinely gave Malandrinum as a remedy to correct this) and Bowel nosode practitioners who unravelled the chaos. These esoteric homeopathic arts are crucial to an understanding of the above but are themselves in danger of extinction.
We are living at a time where rigid mind forces determine that we should live inside a tight mental box, to control the status quo from changing and enforce evidence based medicine as a means to offsetting change. Change is inevitable and these attitudes can only delay it for a spell of time. From a cynical perspective (and I speak as a pharmacist now), curing people is bad for business and the adage ‘follow the money’ is useful when explaining why homoeopathy continues to be under such vitriolic attack. Offering to supply cheap and effective, side-effect free, non-patentable medicines that can cure in a few doses is not going to be popular in an environment of shareholders who depend on dividends from the very opposite!
Vergleich: Pantoprazol gehört zur Gruppe der Protonenpumpenhemmer, zu der auch die Wirkstoffe Esomeprazol, Lansoprazol, Omeprazol und Rabeprazol gehören. Protonenpumpenhemmer bewirken eine Verringerung der Magensäureproduktion.
Chemisch betrachtet handelt es sich bei der Magensäure um Salzsäure, die sich aus positiv geladenen Wasserstoff-Protonen und negativ geladenen Chlorid-Ionen zusammensetzt. Für die sauren Eigenschaften des Magensaftes sind jedoch nur die Wasserstoff-Protonen von Bedeutung. Wie der Name schon sagt, behindern die Protonenpumpenhemmer die Arbeit der Protonenpumpen und sorgen somit dafür, dass weniger Protonen in den Magen gelangen. Dadurch sinkt die Konzentration der Magensäure und der pH-Wert im Magen steigt an.
Wirkt schnell und langwierig (nicht nach meine Erfahrung).