Solanaceae comparison Anhängsel 

 

Solanaceae themes: sudden and abrupt violence, rupture, explosion, burst, tear, touch, constriction, fulgurating, violent terror, persecution, murder, life and death issue, black or white. Anesthetised, stupefaction. Reaction: shouting, escaping, acute sensations, hitting and kicking. Brace before danger. (Sankaran)

Fight or flight: expecting overwhelming hidden dangers, fighting  demons, leading to inner tension, and finally parasympathetic paralysis.(Scholten)

 

[Massimo Mangliavori]

„Lyssinum“ oder „Gallicum Acidum“

[Tim Shanon]

Solanacae in general:

• Dreams - Demons & Faces, Possessed

• Shameless sexually

• Forsaken/Jealousy

• Out of Control, Wild Animal

• Averse Water

• Fear of Dogs (Wild animals)

 

[Tim Shannon]

Discussion about nightshades

Massimo mentioned how the nightshades are related to controlling ones instincts. The drugs were used in the old times to allow someone to release their inhibitions - to be out of control. In patients requiring nightshades, you often find this conflict. In children who are less compensated, the wildness comes out more readily. But with adults you often see someone who is more controlled, more suppressed as this patient was. This patient talks repeatedly of keeping his anger and rage under control.

This is why archetypes like the dark, water, and wild animals can receive such strong projections with nightshade patients. They have suppressed their “dark side” in order to be able to matriculate

in society. They often feel rejected or neglected and are quite resentful and angry about it – as this patient was. Yet sometimes they feel they can’t fully express their outrage as they may loose what little support they feel they are receiving. So they can present as timid or controlled, yet they are often sitting on Pandora’s box. This is stronger in the toxic nightshades or their look-alikes

(Bell. Stram. Mand. Hyos. Lyss. Gall-ac.).

Nightshades well known for congestion, which he mentioned regarding his pounding headaches. His sensitivity to light and sound during the headaches also helps to confirm the nightshades.

Nightshades (the poisonous ones such as Bell. Stram. etc.) are parasympatholytics. They are neurological toxins that suppress the parasympathetic nervous system. This leaves the sympathetic nervous system unrestrained - the fight or flight response is thus intensified. This leads to a type of “wildness”, a lack of inhibition. This is why you’ll see some nightshades who are somewhat shameless in presentation.

Often we are told to consider Stram. Bell. or Hyos. in children who are violent and out of control. Nightshades in adults often present as over controlled. They may have a very violent history, but often learn to suppress or even over-control their reactions. They can become emotionally somewhat cold for this reason - this is true in particular of Belladonna. So they present with nervous tics, impulse control issues, rages, etc. This is indicative of their system’s attempt at keeping things under control.

Adult Nightshade patients can also often get stuck in their head, in their intellect, to avoid emotions. This is seen in this patient, he talks about always trying to wonder why this happened, or brooding on the past always with trying to find an answer. They can also avoid emotions via this physical restlessness as he describes. These are used as strategies to avoid experiencing feelings directly.

In this case too, you can see the split between the “dark-side” or the unconscious and the conscious side. He often refers to having lost one side of himself, or the repeating dream of darkness on

one side and light on the other. The voice calling him to the dark side. This again shows the common conflict seen in nightshades with this split, or lack of integration.

Of course the toxic nightshades are also narcotics. But their use in the old times was different from the sacred psychedelics of the old times. Peyote, Ayahuasca, and Psilocybin have been traditionally used to alter consciousness and then come back with a lesson, something learned for our conscious side.

Yet the toxic nightshades were often used before battle, to help one do their killing without remorse. Then when the drug wore off, they couldn’t recall their violence. This helps to understand why these different broad classes of narcotics have different applications in homeopathy. Patients needing the sacred narcotics are often struggling with being too open to the universe, struggling between feeling too blended with the larger world, or feeling totally isolated. The nightshades are certainly can also be oversensitive to the world around them. Yet the emphasis is more on struggling with trying to keep their “dark-side” under control. Nightshades are useful for patients with difficulty integrating their “dark-side” with their daily life. It appears that their dark side is their feelings or needs they had to suppress in the past for fear of being forsaken.

A parting note about Massimo Mangialavori’s teaching:

I’ve been studying with Massimo Mangialavori since 1998. He talks about studying materia medica via cured cases. This has become a growing and profound reality for me. Of course learning from the provings and repertory are always important. However, I was never able to read materia medica and understand the Rx and how it might apply to a patient. But once one has seen a cured case, whether someone else’s or one’s own, that is the beginning of understanding a Rx. By extension, this also helps to learn the family of the Rx.

Another fundamental teaching is that of learning to see the greater themes or trends in a patient rather than just symptoms. He also talks a lot about understanding Rx’s and people by looking at the underlying strategy of the patient – how they are getting their needs met as constrained by their pathology. These lessons have particularly helped with autistic patients, unwilling teens, and some delusional patients. Often these patients won’t give us some of the deeper symptoms we prefer. Using themes, and patient strategies has helped to solve some very difficult cases where the patient was unable or unwilling to disclose deeper details.

As examples, I currently have two autistic boys who were unable to speak. One case is doing wonderful on Lac Felinum, the other on Coca. I also have a paranoid delusional patient who was adamantly claiming she had no problems or complaints– physical or mental. She was brought in by her daughter, who in a separate interview revealed some very intractable paranoid delusions.

That patient is doing wonderful on Thea. The above cases were solved using the larger themes and strategies of the patients rather than looking for symptoms that were simply not available.

Using Massimo’s specific theory of families was also fundamental to solving these cases as well as many others.

Massimo also uses a lot of contemporary psychology to elucidate a more contemporary understanding of the psyche. Besides teaching with his long term cures, he also shows his deeper understanding of the patient and the Rx from many different angles. This has helped me to truly understand Rx’s, instead of just seeing a Rx as a list of symptoms. It is hard to use words to convey how profoundly this teaching has impacted the accuracy and ease now common in my practice.

In the beginning as a student, one needs to borrow other good prescribers knowledge by studying their long term cured cases. But as I’ve seen good cures of many families of Rx, rare as well as common Rx’s, it has completely altered my perception. It is common now for me to give a Rx that works well and deeply right from the initial intake, doing all the repertorization and differential during the initial intake (mine are 2 hours or less).

As my working body of knowledge has expanded I’ve seen more and more cures with a full range of Rx’s. I mostly credit this to Massimo’s grounded clinical knowledge as well as my own growing database of long term cured cases. Massimo’s teaching is about learning how to fish for oneself. It has helped me to grow and express my love of homeopathy via beautiful and growing success with my patients.

 

[Rajan Sankaran]

With the Solonaceae family the jerking, constricting, choking, shooting, sunstrokes, apoplexy, violent terror, pursued, murder, killed snakes” (Insight into Plants Vol 2).

In Belladonna, it is a very violent shocking feeling of being terrified.

In Stramonium, the person feels lost terrified and all alone.

Dulcamara is the state of being frightened and helpless, primarily as a consequence of becoming cold. In this way each remedy of the Solanaceae family has a distinctive kind of feeling of

being frightened and terrified.

 

Folgendes hat anthroposofische Einschlüsse

[Wilhelm Pelikan]

Belladonna: = deadly nightshade, banewort
Highly typical of the family, a perennial growing in mountain forests, where it mysteriously makes itself part of these places where nature is so elemental, part as something dangerous, something demonic. The twilight border zone, where the light of day meets the humid darkness of the forest, is the area where the deadly nightshade likes to grow. It may be at the edge of the forest, in a small clearing, or an area where all trees have been felled, providing the soil contains dark humus, and there is sufficient shade. If the sun comes through more strongly and there is not sufficient darkness to hold the sun forces in balance, the plant will soon disappear.

Not only the habitat, the whole form of the plant expresses the battle between forces of light and of darkness. One major organ, the strong root stock which develops several heads as it grows older, is for ever hidden away in darkness. From it, spring energetically calls forth the shoot with its large petiolate foliage leaves, oval in shape with a pointed apex and margin entire, taking them up into the upper region - until autumn, when the nether region demands the return of their essential principle down to the root. The shoot grows strongly and rapidly, one would expect to see it develop to more than a man's height, or even into a tree. Yet how soon an end is put to this vitality of growth. There, it has stopped - what has inhi­bited it? A flower has stepped into its path, an unsurmountable obstacle. Having got going, the powerful current of growth cannot stop at the height it has reached, which is about a meter; it breaks apart into lateral rays, usually three, not unlike the water of a fountain will be deflected to go up at an angle when a fist has come down to stop it gushing straight upwards. But from this point onwards the whole plant has become something other. Something which has announced itself so early and so clearly with that first flower, has now taken hold of all further growth and development, lateral deflection having brought no escape. The plant structure now is one of three rays forming a funnel opening out wide at the top, and this has become one whole inflorescence, though we also see rich herbage. In the process of developing to full power its abundant foliage, the plant was literally assaulted by the flowering process.

The lateral shoots forming the funnel have thus become a strange mixture of intermingling leaf and flower elements. The following trinity may be observed, rhythmically repeating itself all the way up the branch: a small leaf which, being a bract, intimately belongs to the flower, and from its axil the bud rising on a stem; beside them on the other side, a large leaf, wanting to appear as a bract subtending that flower, though in fact it is a bract belonging to the flower below, one floor lower down; its stem has fused with the shoot and been taken one floor up with it. The large leaf thus belongs more to the shoot, and owes its size to the stronger etheric forces of the shoot; the small leaf belongs more to the flower, and the astral forces of this have obviously reduced its growth. The flower buds are all on the inside of the funnel formed by the plant, and face upwards. This needs to be emphasized, for the proper appreciation of what is to follow. As it opens up, the flower makes a strong movement, seeking shade, rotating downward and outward and creeping under the large leaf beside it - as under a parasol.

It flees the light and in doing so, falls subject to gravity. A deeply invaginated throat opens up, its colors reveal­ing a struggle between a weak, fading yellow and a gloomy brown-violet. The "earth bee", the heavy bumble bee, gathers the nectar. Then the many-seeded "cherry" swells, black-violet, like the eye of an animal, and as it does so, leaves the shade of the parasol and rises up again into the lighter twilight. The dark hues apparent even on the stem, in shades of black, violet and brown, lending their tinge to branches and flowers, reach their final peak in the shiny black berry. Thus the whole plant is sensitive to the interplay of light and darkness. The leaves show it; they are real shade leaves, finely structured, though structure changes when more light washes around them. The seeds however need light to germinate, they only come up reluctantly if in deep shade.

The characteristic nature of Bell. lies, however, not only in the interaction of light and shade, but also in the interweaving of water and air. The roots, the growing shoot, suck up water greedily from the moist humus of the forest, and exhale it into the atmosphere. This intensive "aerification" of the fluid element becomes apparent if we pick a branch of the plant. Within a very short time it will hang down limply, for no more fluid follows up, to make up for the losses due to evaporation. Drying-out, withering forces from the astral element, the air, are constantly striv­ing to get hold of the plant, but all the time this is made good, as water, the element of the etheric, pulses afresh through the plant. A powerful life process generally counterbalances the effects of excessive "astralization". We have seen this already in the way in which flower and leaf processes blend; the flower succeeds in prematurely irrupting into the plant form, but it must suffer the leaf element to continue unchanged by its side, right to the tip of the shoot. It is also evident in the vitality shown by the petals of the calyx, for these survive long after the flower, forming a wide green dish with the black violet berry at the center. Vitalization and devitaliza­tion are thus constantly contending for supremacy. The plant flowers in June and July, and the berry ripens during the autumn.

Bell. is poisonous to man in all its parts. Birds, rabbits (in whom, in a sense, the nervous and sensory processes are pre­ponderant) feed on it with impunity. The chemist will find in it the typical Solanaceae alkaloids (l-hyoscyamine, atropine, l-scopolamine, apoatropine, belladonnine) and in addition a substance called a-methyl-aesculetin; this shows blue Fluoreszenz and is closely related to the iridescent substance found in the Aesc-h. (aesculin).

The ash contains silicic acid. and magnesium in appreciable quantities and also a trace of copper. The first two relate to the hidden longing for light in this plant, for both silicic acid and magnesium are connected with light processes, serving them, and are "light elements".

Bell. is a polycrest. Its actions arise from the processes we have described which make up its specific nature. The action is directed at the mode of coordination of the members of man's being; it applies generally, and also in specific organ spheres. As we have become aware of the special relation of the deadly nightshade process to light and darkness, it will come as no surprise that the eye holds a special place among those specific organ spheres.

The encounter between light and darkness, the world of night and that of day, is not limited, however, to one organ, the eye, "created in the light and for the light". As the transition from sleeping to waking consciousness, it concerns also the human being as a whole. In the 19th lecture in Spiritual Science and Medicine, 2 a description is given of how certain plants resist the immediate forces of earth and then reserve many of their form-giving forces for the development of flower and fruit (and Bell. does this most noticeably). R.S. then continues:

"As the plant resists those forces of earth it becomes exposed to forces from outside the earth when the final stage of seed-forma­tion, of fruiting, is reached; it then becomes a plant which desires to look out upon the world in the same way as higher beings, beings from a sphere above that of the plant kingdom, look out upon the world. The desire to perceive is revealed. The plant is not organized for perception, however; it remains a plant though it desires to develop something of the nature found in the human eye. (Italics by W. Pelikan.) Yet it is unable to develop an eye, because its body is that of a plant, not of a human being or animal. And so it becomes a banewort, a deadly nightshade (German Tollkirsche; toll = mad, Kirsche = cherry).

I have attempted to give you a clear and rather vivid picture of the process which occurs as the deadly nightshade comes into being.

It becomes a deadly nightshade, and as it does so, and has in its roots already the forces which will finally cause it to produce its black berries, the plant is related to everything which in the human body tends to impel towards the development of form and shape, to impel towards something which can actually only take place in the sphere of the senses, i.e. to lift man out of the sphere of his organization into the sphere of his senses.

The process which occurs when small amounts of Bell. are given in potentized form is indeed highly interesting. It is terribly like the process of waking from sleep, when one is not yet quite perceiving with the senses, and sensory perception is still potentized, within, to fill our consciousness with dreams. At that moment one always gets a sort of Bell. action in man. Bell. poisoning occurs because the very process which nor­mally goes on when human beings wake up, when their waking is permeated with dreams, is now evoked in them by the poison of Bell., but in this case becomes a continuous state and is not taken over by (daytime) consciousness.

The phenomena of the transitional state thus become lasting. This is what is so interest­ing, that here one can see how the processes evoked by the phenomena of poisoning are processes which, if they have the right timing, actually pertain to the whole human organization . . . waking from sleep in man has something in it of becoming Bell., but toned down . . . limited to the moment of waking."

If the moment of waking were to become a permanent state, R.S. concludes, it would be fatal - like Bell. poisoning.

Thus Bell. may be said to bring the "night-time man" close to the day-time man, though night-time man is everywhere projecting into day-time man.

Their eyes are open, but in broad daylight they look as though they had opened to total darkness. Lower man, blood man, is forcing his way up from the subconscious, unconscious depths into nerve-man, into the region of the head. For in its senses the organism is awake; in its metabolism it is asleep, always, even during the day. The blood pushes upwards, the head grows hot, the face red. Under the influence of Bell. poison, the blood principle erupts into the nerve principle. The blood vessels in the eye become engorged, epistaxis occurs, the salivary glands and tonsils become enlarged, and the tongue grows red and swollen. Hypersensitivity to external cold develops. A similar state is seen with many diseases involving acute temperatures and the initial stage of inflammation, and the homeopathic school has come to regard Bell. as a major remedy for these initial stages. Other conditions are migraine, congestive headaches, and also the treatment of sequelae of influenza (Raeff's Bulgarian cure). Here we see the effect on the head of the powerful root action of Bell.

A plant in which astral activities are forced in to such abnormal degree will obviously act on conditions in the human organism where certain organic regions are subject to abnormal action on the part of the astral body, so that cramps or spasms result. Bell. has accordingly been used to treat whooping cough, asthma, gastric and intestinal spasms, the spastic component of biliary and renal colic, spasms in the uterine region, and even paralysis, e.g. of the sphincter vesicae.

In the sphere of the nerves and senses, "day-time man" is able to live fully in conscious activity of the spirit; in the system of metabolism and limbs, man is unconscious, he is active in a state of consciousness dimmed down to sleep; this activity is very much of the spirit, but it is unconscious; "night-time man" lives in it. Spiritual qualities, in remaining unconscious, are shackled, one might say, to organ activity and the preparation of physical substance. With the poison of Bell., part of this spiritual principle is driven out of the physical and liberated. Normally such a liberation of the spiritual principle from its organic base and support should take place only in the brain, the nervous and sense organs. If it rises unfettered from the depth of the metabolic organs, abnormal soul contents will be experienced in form of visions and the like. At the same time a mad, pathological urge to move takes hold of the muscular system. The role of Bell. in the treatment of "mental disorders" may be dis­cerned from this.

We must remember, however, how we discerned the intense struggle between etheric and astral principle going on in every part of the deadly nightshade. Particular note should also be taken that the plant remains soft and resists hardening at all stages of growth. In autumn, the whole handsome structure withers away to almost nothing. One aspect of the Bell. action, therefore, is that given in suitable dosage it stimulates the life processes (the activity of the ether-body) and combats processes of hardening and mineralization such as might occur in the organization as a whole, or in an organic region (eye),

due to premature aging.

It would however, go far beyond the scope of this book to enter thus deeply into purely medical aspects. Anyone interested in specific details and in the many possibilities of medicinal action, is strongly advised to consult the detailed and comprehensive studies in Dr. Simonis' Die unbekannte Heilpflanze.

 

Folgendes hat anthroposofische Einschlüsse

One of the Solanaceae be truly at home in our parts is the deadly nightshade. It is highly typical of the family, a perennial growing in mountain forests, where it mysteriously makes itself part of these places where nature is so elemental, part as something dangerous, something demonic. The twilight border zone, where the light of day meets the humid darkness of the forest, is the area where the deadly nightshade likes to place itself. It may be at the edge of the forest, in a small clearing, or an area where all trees have been felled, providing the soil contains dark humus, and there are sufficient forces of shade. If the sun comes through more strongly and there is not sufficient darkness to hold the sun forces in balance, the plant will soon disappear.

The habitat and the whole form of the plant expresses the battle between forces of light and of darkness. One major organ, the strong root stock which develops several heads as it grows older, is for ever hidden away in darkness. From it, spring energetically forth the shoot with its large petiolate foliage leaves, oval in shape with a pointed apex and margin entire, taking them up into the upper region - until autumn, when the nether region demands the return of their essential principle down to the root. The shoot grows strongly and rapidly, one would expect to see it develop to more than a man's height, or even into a tree. Yet how soon an end is put to this vitality of growth. There, it has stopped. A flower has stepped into its path, an unsurmountable obstacle. Having got going, the powerful current of growth cannot stop at the height it has reached, which is about a meter; it breaks apart into lateral rays, usually 3, not unlike the water of a fountain will be deflected to go up at an angle when a fist has come down to stop it gushing straight upwards. But from this point onwards the whole plant has become something other. Something which has announced itself so early and so clearly with that first flower, has now taken hold of all further growth and development, lateral deflection having brought no escape. The plant structure now is one of 3 rays forming a funnel opening out wide at the top, and this has become one whole inflorescence, though we also see rich herbage. In the process of developing to full power its abundant foliage, the plant was literally assaulted by the flowering process.

The lateral shoots forming the funnel have thus become a strange mixture of intermingling leaf and flower elements. The following trinity may be observed, rhythmically repeating itself all the way up the branch: a small leaf which, being a bract, intimately belongs to the flower, and from its axil the bud rising on a stem; beside them on the other side, a large leaf, wanting to appear as a bract subtending that flower, though in fact it is a bract belonging to the flower below, one floor lower down; its stem has fused with the shoot and been taken one floor up with it. The large leaf thus belongs more to the shoot, and owes its size to the stronger etheric forces of the shoot; the small leaf belongs more to the flower, and the astral forces of this have obviously reduced its growth. The flower buds are all on the inside of the funnel formed by the plant, and face upwards. This needs to be emphasized, for the proper appreciation of what is to follow. As it opens up, the flower makes a strong movement, seeking shade, rotating downward and outward and creeping under the large leaf beside it - as under a parasol.

It flees the light and in doing so, falls subject to gravity. A deeply invaginated throat opens up, its colors revealing a struggle between a weak, fading yellow and a gloomy brown-violet. The "earth bee", the heavy bumble bee, gathers the nectar. Then the many-seeded "cherry" swells, black-violet, like the eye of an animal, and as it does so, leaves the shade of the parasol and rises up again into the lighter twilight. The dark hues apparent even on the stem, in shades of black, violet and brown, lending their tinge to branches and flowers, reach their final peak in the shiny black berry. Thus the whole plant is sensitive to the interplay of light and darkness. The leaves show it; they are real shade leaves, finely structured, though structure changes when more light washes around them. The seeds however need light to germinate, they only come up reluctantly if in deep shade.

The characteristic nature of Bell. lies in the interaction of light and shade, and in the interweaving of water and air. The roots, the growing shoot, suck up water greedily from the moist humus of the forest, and exhale it into the atmosphere. This intensive "aerification" of the fluid element becomes apparent if picking a branch of the plant. Within a very short time it will hang down limply, for no more fluid follows up, to make up for the losses due to evaporation. Drying-out, withering forces from the astral element (air) are constantly striving to get hold of the plant, but all the time this is made good, as water, the element of the etheric, pulses afresh through the plant.

A powerful life process generally counterbalances the effects of excessive "astralization". We have seen this already in the way in which flower and leaf processes blend; the flower succeeds in prematurely irrupting into the plant form, but it must suffer the leaf element to continue unchanged by its side, right to the tip of the shoot. It is also evident in the vitality shown by the petals of the calyx, for these survive long after the flower, forming a wide green dish with the black violet berry at the center. Vitalization and devitalization are thus constantly contending for supremacy. The plant flowers in June and July, and the berry ripens during the autumn.

Bell. poisonous to man in all its parts. Birds and rabbits (in whom, in a sense, the nervous and sensory processes are preponderant) feed on it with impunity. The chemist will find in it the typical Solanaceae alkaloids (l-hyoscyamine, atropine, l-scopolamine, apoatropine, belladonnine) and in addition a substance called a-methyl-aesculetin; this shows blue fluorescence and is closely related to the iridescent substance found in Aesc-h.

(aesculin). The ash contains silicic acid and Mg in appreciable quantities and also a trace of copper. The first two relate to the hidden longing for light in this plant, for both silicic acid and magnesium are connected with light processes, serving them, and are "light elements".

Bell. is one of the "great" remedies. Its actions, for all their multiplicity, arise from the processes we have described which make up its specific nature. The action is directed at the mode of coordination of the members of man's being; it applies generally, and also in specific organ spheres. As we have become aware of the special relation of the deadly nightshade process to light and darkness, it will come as no surprise that the eye holds a special place among those specific organ spheres. The encounter between light and darkness, the world of night and that of day, is not limited, however, to one organ, the eye, "created in the light and for the light". As the transition from sleeping to waking consciousness, it concerns also the human being as a whole.

In the 19th lecture in Spiritual Science and Medicine, 2 a description is given of how certain plants resist the immediate forces of earth and then reserve many of their form-giving forces for the development of flower and fruit (and Bell. does this most noticeably). R.S.: "As the plant resists those forces of earth it becomes exposed to forces from outside the earth when the final stage of seed-formation, of fruiting, is reached; it then becomes a plant which desires to look out upon the world in the same way as higher beings, beings from a sphere above that of the plant kingdom, look out upon the world. The desire to perceive is revealed. The plant is not organized for perception, however; it remains a plant though it desires to develop something of the nature found in the human eye.

Yet it is unable to develop an eye, because its body is that of a plant, not of a human being or animal. And so it becomes a banewort, a deadly nightshade (German Tollkirsche; toll = mad, Kirsche = cherry). I have attempted to give you a clear and rather vivid picture of the process which occurs as the deadly nightshade comes into being. It becomes a deadly nightshade, and as it does so, and has in its roots already the forces which will finally cause it to produce its black berries, the plant is related to everything which in the human body tends to impel towards the development of form and shape, to impel towards something which can actually only take place in the sphere of the senses, i.e. to lift man out of the sphere of his organization into the sphere of his senses. The process which occurs when small amounts of Bell. are given in potentized form is indeed highly interesting. It is terribly like the process of waking from sleep, when one is not yet quite perceiving with the senses, and sensory perception is still potentized, within, to fill our consciousness with dreams. At that moment one always gets a sort of Bell. action in man. Bell. poisoning occurs because the very process which normally goes on when human beings wake up, when their waking is permeated with dreams, is now evoked in them by the poison of Bell., but in this case becomes a continuous state and is not taken over by (daytime) consciousness. The phenomena of the transitional state thus become lasting.

This is what is so interesting, that here one can see how the processes evoked by the phenomena of poisoning are processes which, if they have the right timing, actually pertain to the whole human organization . . . waking from sleep in man has something in it of becoming Bell., but toned down . . . limited to the moment of waking“.

If the moment of waking were to become a permanent state, R.S. concludes, it would be fatal - like Bell. poisoning.

Thus Bell. may be said to bring the "night-time man" close to the day-time man, though night-time man is everywhere projecting into day-time man.

Their eyes are open, but in broad daylight they look as though they had opened to total darkness. Lower man, blood man, is forcing his way up from the subconscious, unconscious depths into nerve-man, into the region of the head. For in its senses the organism is awake; in its metabolism it is asleep, always, even during the day. The blood pushes upwards, the head grows hot, the face red. Under the influence of Bell. poison, the blood principle erupts into the nerve principle. The blood vessels in the eye become engorged, epistaxis occurs, the salivary glands and tonsils become enlarged, and the tongue grows red and swollen. Hypersensitivity to external cold develops. A similar state seen in diseases involving acute temperatures and the initial stage of inflammation. Other conditions are migraine, congestive headaches, sequelae of influenza (Raeff's Bulgarian cure = root of bulgarian Bell. in wine for Parkinson).

A plant in which astral activities are forced in to such abnormal degree will obviously act on conditions in the human organism where certain organic regions are subject to abnormal action on the part of the astral body, so that cramps or spasms result. Bell. has accordingly been used to treat whooping cough, asthma, gastric and intestinal spasms, the spastic component of biliary and renal colic, spasms in the uterine region, and even paralysis, e.g. of the sphincter vesicae.

In the sphere of the nerves and senses, "day-time man" is able to live fully in conscious activity of the spirit; in the system of metabolism and limbs, man is unconscious, he is active in a state of consciousness dimmed down to sleep; this activity is very much of the spirit, but unconscious; "night-time man" lives in it. Spiritual qualities, in remaining unconscious, are shackled, one might say, to organ activity and the preparation of physical substance.

With the poison of Bell., part of this spiritual principle is driven out of the physical and liberated. Normally such a liberation of the spiritual principle from its organic base and support should take place only in the brain, the nervous and sense organs. If it rises unfettered from the depth of the metabolic organs, abnormal soul contents will be experienced in form of visions and the like. At the same time a mad, pathological urge to move takes hold of the muscular system. The role of Bell. in the treatment of "mental disorders" may be discerned from this.

We must remember, however, how we discerned the intense struggle between etheric and astral principle going on in every part of the deadly nightshade. Particular note should also be taken that the plant remains soft and resists hardening at all stages of growth. In autumn, the whole handsome structure withers away to almost nothing. One aspect of the Bell. action, therefore, is that given in suitable dosage it stimulates the life processes (the activity of the ether-body) and combats processes of hardening and mineralization such as might occur in the organization as a whole, or in an organic region (especially the eye), due to premature aging.

Bell. (woman/child) react rapidly, often with high body temperature, are very sensitive to all external influences, are erethic, sanguine, irritable, usually fair and full-blooded. cannot go to sleep although they feel sleepy, they start up from sleep with fright, moaning and crying; also talking and walking in their sleep, restlessness and twitching of the limbs and throwing about can be observed.

Grinding of teeth.

During waking hours, hyperacuity of the senses makes itself felt (seeing), but hearing, taste and smell may also be oversensitive.

Flashes of light appear before the eyes, things glitter and shine, but cannot be clearly distinguished from each other. (visual hallucinations: swarms of animals coming close, as in delirium). The visions grow more importunate on closing the eyes. In the motor sphere, restlessness, twitching, throwing himself about, incoordination of speech and walking appear. Loquacity and confused talking are forerunners of delirium.

More rarely the sudden contractions of the muscles of a single limb go over into general convulsions similar to epileptic attacks. Epilepsy in overexcitable, "nervous" children.

Fever suddenly, with dry, burning heat; there is no preliminary stage of chilliness, or only very little. Sweating is generally not profuse and can only be noted here and there on covered parts of the body. Thirst is not marked, it is more a desire to moisten the dry and sometimes cracked mucosa; the drinking of water brings no relief or only a very temporary one.

The fever comes on suddenly and rises high, the lack of outlet through sweating and other secretions probably contributing to this. It generally also drops down to normal suddenly. Bell. fevers are acute.

Upper body hot (feet cold).

Face red/eyes glazed and staring, the widened vessels of the conjunctiva stand out clearly against the white (wild expression results). The congestive headaches, fullness, pressure and "bursting" lie chiefly in the forehead and temples, r.-sided (+ dizziness "like early stages of drunkenness"). < Cold draughts (Glon.)

< bending down/lying down/sudden movement (vibration on walking); > resting in the upright position; headache (dizziness) > in open air/< heat of sun.

< touching the head; steady pressure may >: < noise/light/strong smells/< evening/beginning of the night;

The syndromes relating to the gastro-intestinal canal cannot be reduced to a simple common denominator such as atonic or spasm. If it is a matter of relieving spasms one approaches the palliative end of the range of action and low potencies of Bell. or Atro. are required; this has already been mentioned for the bile ducts. Neither constipation nor diarrhea are characteristic of Bell.; some provers observed delayed sparse stools without or with unsuccessful urging, but others reported frequent small, thin evacuations with tenesmus, and the greenish color of the stools is mentioned several times. All types of incoordination of secretion and motility do thus occur.

For the stomach, cramp-like pains, going through to the back, which force the patient to bend backwards and are ameliorated by stretching are characteristic of Bell. In the abdomen meteoric complaints predominate and particular sensitivity of the abdominal wall to touch is worth noting.

In the urinary passages, too, all types of incoordination in emptying the bladder occur; Bell. has proved particularly helpful for enuresis nocturia in easily excited, "nervous" children. Other remedies like Equisetum and Tuberculin have given more permanent successes.

In the same way, successes with dysmenorrhea in hyperexcitable young girls are often prompt but only short-lived. The following may serve as indications for Bell.: period too early and too profuse, menstrual discharge bright red and hot; downward pressure, as though everything were going to fall out, at the same time severe pain in the small of the back, as though it would break, aggravation of pains from movement.

Even with an acute remedy such as Bell. the constitutional type of the patient is more important in the selection of the remedy than the articular organ syndrome and in selecting the potency the known or estimated sensitivity of the patient has to be considered.

 

[Otto Leeser, M.D., Ph.D.]

When we make a study of the medicinal plants of a family such as the Solanaceae there is no need to linger over their botanical classification. We can rely for this on the botanists. There is no doubt that they have correctly determined the main relationships of the family from the morphology and histology of the species. But these gross structural characteristics cannot be correlated to the medicinal actions of the plants. Poetic observations on the exterior of the plants as clues to their medicinal actions in the fashion of the signature rerum may seem very attractive to many, but they have no place in the homeopathic materia medica.

The relevant structures are on the molecular level. To understand the actions from structural characteristics of the plants, one must take account of those special chemical products of their metabolism which, being alien, can interfere with the functions of the human organism. In the Solanaceae these substances are chiefly alkaloids, i.e. basic products of the amino acid metabolism characteristic of this family of plants. And it is the structure of these alkaloids which leads to a natural grouping of the species we use in medicine.

1st most important group characterized by atropine (or rather hyoscyamine). We shall discuss only Bell., Hyos., Stram. and Mand.; Duboisia and Scop. need not concern us here.

2nd group, characterized by nicotine is only represented by Nicotiana tabacum;

3rd the solanine plants: Solanum Dulcamara and Capsicum annuum. In the latter, however, other non-alkaloid constituents must also be considered to play a part in its actions.

ATROPINE AND BELLadonna

Let us begin with the biggest and most important group, the atropine plants. You know everything or at least a great deal about atropine from pharmacology. But perhaps it would be a good idea to recall some of it and establish the context. Atropine is the racemic mixture of 1-hyoscyamine and dextrohyoscyamine. The plants contain only, or almost only, 1-hyoscyamine; the racemic compound is formed on chemical extrac­tion of the alkaloids.

As with nearly all the alkaloids, the levorotatory form is the more active. We are only concerned with 1-hyoscyamine. But experimental investigations in pharmacology and the palliative applica­tions based on them have throughout been made with the less active atropine.

In experimental pharmacology, the inhibiting or paralyzing action on the parasympathetic nerve endings in muscles and glands has been put forward as the main effect of atropine. But that is only part of the potential action, just as, and indeed because, the neuromuscular and neuroglandular preparations on which this effect is demonstrated form only part of the living organism. Nevertheless, we may take this as a starting point and see what they have got to say with regard to therapy. First of all we have the well-founded theory that atropine is able to inhibit the action of acetyl­choline, the transmitter or parasympathetic impulses. It may not yet be generally acknowledged, but it is a good working hypothesis that atropine may temporarily take the place of acetylcholine at the nerve end-plates; perhaps because it is structurally similar, so that as a structural analogue it would stop the functioning of the physiological neurohormone. If one looks at the structural formulae of atropine and acetylcholine side by side, a similarity is not easily recognizable.

Both are esters. The tropic acid radicle of atropine can be taken as a substituted acetic acid. The atropine radicle, however, is a tertiary compound (derived from NH3), while choline, a quarternary, derives from NH4OH. Tropine could, however, combine with halides in the organism to form a quarternary salt. And it has indeed been maintained that this is responsible for the action. When the large atropine molecule replaces acetylcholine the physiological regu­lation of the transmission of impulses fails because the enzyme cholinesterase is then ineffective; the parasympathetic blockage persists until the atropine is eliminated from the system. If atropine is used for its inhibiting effect, no more than a temporary suppression of symptoms can be expected.

The secretion of the salivary glands is reduced, hence the dry mouth and throat; the secretions of the mucous glands of the esophagus and trachea and bronchi, the production of acid and pepsin in the gastric mucosa, and the pancreatic, biliary and intestinal secretions are decreased to a greater or lesser extent. The most familiar example of the paralyzing action on unstriped muscle is that on the sphincter iridis via parasympathetic branches of the n. oculomotorius. This action is frequently made use of in ophthalmology; accommodation is paralyzed at the same time through the relaxation of the ciliary muscle. The forcible widening of the pupil is used reg­ularly, and in my opinion much too regularly, for iritis; it should be care­fully considered for each case. The tearing or prevention of adhesions is a valid reason, but the regular administration of atropine to the eye for pro­longed periods may not only provoke conjunctivitis, but even render the iritis more and more chronic. I have quoted some cases of this type on an earlier occasion, 1 when the inflammation could only be terminated by stopping the atropine and instead using Merc. 3x. In discontinuing the routine of instilling atropine one must, however, guard against the danger of seclusio pupillae. On the other hand, the danger of increased intraocular pressure through atropine must also be considered. Cases of poisoning with psychotic symptoms and damage to the heart muscle fol­lowing the local application of atropine to the eye have been reported.

Now let us consider the action of atropine on the smooth musculature of the hollow organs. Relaxation of the spasm of the bronchial muscles in an attack of asthma is only rarely attempted with atropine or Bell., Stram. being more commonly used. Acute hallucinatory psychosis has been recorded from overdosage of Stramonium in this palliative use.

Therapeutic doses of atropine have a palliative effect on spasmodic contractions of the smooth musculature of other organs, too: in the gastrointestinal tract, bile ducts, ureter, bladder and uterus. Particularly sensitive to atropine appear to be the parasympathetic nerve endings on the gall bladder and the sphincter Oddi. The irregular spasmodic contraction in biliary colic often responds well to Atropine 3x; that is of course also a palliative action, but after all one does not expect more. It is noteworthy that a preliminary phase of excitation has been observed following the administration of atropine, for instance on the uterus, the ureters and the bladder, and even on the sphincter iridis. My late uncle. J. Leeser, wrote his doctorate thesis on the primary miotic effect of atropine. One could claim uti­lization of this primary stimulant action for the homeopathic action on, for instance, the gastro-intestinal canal and the bile ducts, an action which we will have to discuss later for Bell. and Mandragora. Experimental pharmacology explains a stimulating action on the intestine via Auerbach's plexus which maintains the rhythm of the peristaltic movements. The speeding up of this rhythm does not lead to tonic spasms, so that on the whole the action of atropine is sedative. This might explain why one can observe from atropine not only temporary relief in spastic obstipation, but a beneficial action in certain cases of atonic obstipation as well. With such general statements as that atropine in small doses is a stimulant and in large doses an inhibitor one does not get far towards an understanding of its mode of action.

That is particularly obvious in the effect of atropine upon the heart. In large doses atropine paralyzes the inhibitory terminations of the vagus; hence the acceleration of the heart action can be seen from atropine or from Bell.

This stimulation has occasionally been made use of to relieve heart block. Such an action cannot very well be called an inhibition through large doses (as the Arndt-Schulz rule would have it). It is also known since Schroff (1852) that atropine has a preliminary phase with slowing down of pulse.

For this effect another point of attack has been suggested, the heart muscle itself. In a case of toxic psychosis after drops of the usual 1% solution of atropine sulphate had been instilled into an eye, damage to the myocardium was indeed established by E.C.G.

From the negative cholinergic actions of atropine on the parasympa­thetic nerve endings we now go on, or rather up, to the actions on neu­ronal centres. About these actions we know less from animal experiments than from what can be inferred from poisonings in human beings. There, too, an antagonism to acetylcholine is suspected, but it has not been proved. It is not an easy thing to prove, since nothing definite is known about the role of acetylcholine in transmitting impulses within the central nervous system. Let us take the vasomotor disturbances to begin with. The scarlatinoid erythema which occurs with atropine and Bell. poisonings

has not yet been sufficiently explained. It is improbable that it can be explained by the dilatation of the blood vessels when tissues are irri­gated with atropine solution in animal experiments. A central action would seem more likely.

Increase in arterial blood pressure and a 1-3° C. rise in body temperature is almost certainly due to central action of the alkaloids. This stimulation goes hand in hand with the excitation of the respiratory center. Breathing accelerated and deepened. Hence the attempt to stimulate the respiratory center through large doses of atropine in cases of morphine poisoning. ("Strong stimuli enhance life activities", in contrast to Arndt-Schultz's rule!) Stimulation of the respiratory center may also be taken into account for the palliative use of Stramonium for asthma, even if the chief consideration is relaxation of the spasm of the bronchial muscles.

Finally we come to the cortical excitation elicited by atropine. Animal experiments tell us little about this. Herbivorous animals and birds react hardly at all to atropine and Bell. and experiments on dogs give a very incomplete picture; the only thing which could be shown was the increased excitability of the motor centers of the cortex after small doses of atropine. The main psychoso-mimetic symptoms are well established from atropine and Bell. poisonings. (By the way, why did the so-called psychoso-mimetic action of substances such as mescaline and lysergic acid have to be announced with much to-do as a new phenomemon when alcoholic, atropine and numerous other psychoses from drugs had been well known for ages?) The picture of acute atropine or 1-hyoscyamine poisoning is in the main comparable to that of Bell. The differences only become apparent in the more gradual unfolding of symptoms by provings on man, and it is fortunate that we have extensive drug-proving records of both Bell. and Atropine.

If we now sketch the sequence of events in acute poisoning as ascend­ing from the periphery to the center, this does not mean that they always follow the same course. Depending on the sensitivity of the person the central syndromes may occur first or even exclusively, both with atropine and Bell.

Usually dryness and rawness appear first in the mouth, sometimes with hoarseness, difficulties in swallowing and nausea; the skin grows dry, hot and raw, often with a scarlatinoid erythema particularly of the head and neck, sometimes with prickling and itching. The difficulties in swal­lowing may increase until swallowing becomes quite impossible. The pulse is usually somewhat slowed down to begin with, but later on becomes much faster and combines with palpitations; the pupil is widened and immobile; the eyes are dry, brilliant, staring, and may protrude slightly. Headaches and dizziness are frequent early symptoms, accompanied by a feeling of weakness, heaviness and tiredness in the limbs. Cerebral irritation starts with restless, hasty movements, trembling and staggering walk; this is followed by confused talking, visual and, more rarely, auditory hallucinations, finally delirium with laughter and crying, paroxysms of rage; hydrophobia is marked, reminding of rabies. In the terminal stage the ability to see, hear and the sensitivity to touch may decrease; retching and incontinence of urine and stools may set in; the acute excitement changes into convulsions, and finally collapse, coma with greatly accelerated respiration may lead to fatal asphyxia.

The drug provings have added the finer details and nuances to this toxicological outline. If the stimulus is applied in planned gradations of intensity and time intervals the defense reactions of the organism can unfold gradually and may be studied in detail. And it is these finer nuances which we use as indications for a planned stimulative therapy. Because of its more elaborate drug picture Bell. is definitely of more use to us than Atropine.

The effects of atropine are too stormy and too violent, the reactive range and therapeutic index are narrow. With Bell. the ac­tion is modified by the secondary alkaloids scopolamine and apoatropine which are related to atropine. Other substances found in the crude drug may be even more important, particularly the glycoside scopolin. Its aglu­cone is scopoletin (methylaesculin). Such lactone compounds are known to have an action on the smooth musculature, particularly of the intestine and uterus. It may be assumed that additional substances in extracts of the plants slow down the passage of the alkaloid through the organism and allow the gradual unfolding of the reactions to become more apparent. Such a difference in the development of symptoms can also be seen be­tween other alkaloid plants and their respective alkaloids, for instance in the case of Nux vomica and Ignatia on the one hand and their chief alkaloid strychnine on the other. Atropine itself is mostly used on fairly gross pathological indications, for instance in achylia gastrica where one expects a simple reversal to be affected.

But when it is a question of adjusting the remedy to the diseased person rather than to the disease, Bell. is more to the purpose.

Individual sensitivity to Bell. varies greatly. That has already been noticed in the cases of poisoning; only very few people will react to atropine eyedrops with psychosis. On an earlier occasion

I described one case of hypersensitivity to Bell. 6x. One constitutional type, particularly of women and children, has proved especially sensitive to Bell.: they react rapidly, often with high body temperature, are very sensitive to all external influences, are erethic, sanguine, irritable, usually fair and full-blooded.

The preliminary stage of sensory and motor excitation has come out clearly in the drug provings and these symptoms provide good indications for the use of Bell.. The patients, usually children, cannot go to sleep although they feel sleepy, they start up from sleep with fright, moaning and crying; also talking and walking in their sleep, restlessness and twitching of the limbs and throwing about can be observed. Grinding of teeth during sleep has proved to be a particularly good indication for Bell. During waking hours, hyperacuity of the senses makes itself felt, particularly that of seeing, but hearing, taste and smelling may also appear oversensitive. It seems that the intraocular disturbances of refraction and hyperaemia of the fundus coincide with excitation of the visual

center in the cortex, or pass into each other. Flashes of light appear before the eyes, things glitter and shine, but cannot be clearly distinguished from each other. This excitation progresses into visual hallucinations, usually in the form of swarms of small animals or even large animals coming close, as in delirium. The visions grow more importunate on closing the eyes. In the motor sphere, restlessness, twitching, throwing himself about, incoordination of speech and walking appear. Loquacity and confused talking are forerunners of delirium. More rarely the sudden contractions

of the muscles of a single limb go over into general convulsions similar to epileptic attacks. With epilepsy in overexcitable, "nervous" children I have seen remarkable improvement from Bell.

The Bell. fever is well characterized. Excitation of the temperature center combines with that of the vasomotor center in producing the active hyperaemia which is one of the main characteristics of the Bell. picture.

The fever comes on suddenly, with dry, burning heat; there is no preliminary stage of chilliness, or only very little. Sweating is generally not profuse and can only be noted here and there on covered parts of the body. Thirst not marked, it is more a desire to moisten the dry and sometimes cracked mucosa; the drinking of water brings no relief or only a very temporary one. The fever comes on suddenly and rises high, the lack of outlet through sweating and other secretions probably contributing to this. It generally also drops down to normal suddenly. Bell. fevers are acute.

The arterial hyperemia of Bell. need not by any means have progressed to inflammation and fever. Similarly as with Glonoin the Bell. hyperaemia affects preferably the upper half of the body, particularly the head and neck, whilst the feet are usually cold. The face is reddened, the eyes are glazed and staring, the widened vessels of the conjunctiva stand out clearly against the white, and altogether a somewhat wild expression results.

The congestive headaches, fullness, pressure and "bursting" lie chiefly in the forehead and temples, mainly on the right, and there seems to be a general preponderance of right-sidedness with Bell.. The headaches are often accompanied by dizziness, "like early stages of drunkenness". There is nothing in the provings or in clinical records to support this. On the contrary, I have found that Bell. headaches are always ameliorated by cold compresses. Cold draughts of air can, of course, produce other troubles with that marked hyperaemia (Glon). Both Belladona and Glonoin have the strange indication: Wry neck after haircut, obviously to be interpreted as great sensitivity to cold and draught of the hyperemic head and neck. But this does not mean that a general aggravation through cold can be deduced, and even less that Bell. corresponds to chilly persons. If neuralgias, of the n. trigeminus for instance, are ameliorated by warmth, this modality does not signify much for the Bell. case. Atropine and Bell. certainly do also have an affinity to the sensory nerve endings, they can even produce anaesthesia; the use of Bell. plasters as an analgetic was formerly very common. Without any further indications acute neuralgias rarely lead to the choice of Bell.

The other modalities fit well with the hyperemic, congestive nature of the headaches and the dizziness "as if drunk": they are worse on bending down and lying down, from any sudden movement, from vibration on walking; Bell. > resting in the upright position; headache and particularly the dizziness > in the open air, but < heat of sun. Further modalities arise from the great sensory irritability: < touching the head, the scalp is very sensitive to touch, less so to steady pressure which may even ameliorate; < noise/light/strong smells. < towards evening/beginning of the night (hyperaemia/inflammatory/febrile conditions).

The early stage of inflammation with marked arterial hyperaemia is the main sphere for the use of Bell. It acts preferably on highly vascularized tissues. The fauces are frequently affected: violent

dark red swelling and dryness, sudden high temperature are characteristic. With extensive inflammation of the tissues one generally finds strong pulsation in the Bell. case, particularly of the

carotids, a full hard, rapid pulse, thirst not quenched by drinking.

With iritis, the time during which Bell. would be effective is brief, the hyperemic stage, before exudation begins; usually one sees cases of iri­tis only in the stage corresponding to Mercury.

The purpose of using Bell. is to prevent exudation or at least to reduce and shorten it. The same consideration applies with other acute inflammations, for instance an otitis media coming on suddenly with a bright red tympanic membrane, i.e. before such remedies as Merc./Hep./Caps./Puls.e indicated. In the early stages of acute appendicitis when the patient tosses restlessly in a dry fever, one used to be able to see prompt results from Bell.; nowadays the reflex from the diagnosis to the knife has become so habitual, both with doctors and relatives, that the attempt is hardly ever made.

The similarity of the erythema and inflammation of the throat to scarlet fever led Hahnemann to recommend Bell. as the remedy for scarlet fever as early as 1799. It is little known that the Bell. erythema if severe and persistent also leaves behind a scarlatinoid scaling. During the last 40 years scarlet fever has become so much more benign that the success of Bell. can no longer be simply evaluated as "proper hoc." I have no personal experience of Bell. with the severe, often fatal, cases seen 50 years ago, since at that time I was homeopathically still in a state of innocence. But Bell. may also be indicated for other exanthemata, such as measles, in irritable children with abrupt fever. It is said that Bell. is able to bring out suppressed exanthemata in acute infectious diseases and thus to forestall complications, particularly meningism. I have no personal experience of this. For smooth erysipelas, i.e. without pustules and rhagades, Bell. is foremost as a remedy.

In the action of Bell. on the hollow organs the symptoms from the mucosa combine with changes in the tone and motility of the smooth musculature.

In the upper respiratory tract an irritative cough < lying down may be an indication for Bell. (or Hyoscyamus), whether the irritation comes from the dry mucosa or from the tickling of an elongated, swollen uvula. With whooping cough in "nervous" children the cough is dry, produces no mucus, but streaks of blood. In acute laryngitis Bell. is specified for laryngospasm, but with laryngismus tridulus, children's croup, Spongia has proved more successful.

The syndromes relating to the gastro-intestinal canal cannot be reduced to a simple common denominator such as atonic or spasm. If it is a matter of relieving spasms one approaches the palliative end of the range of action and low potencies of Bell. or Atropine are required; this has already been mentioned for the bile ducts. Neither constipation nor diarrhea are characteristic of Bell.; some provers observed delayed sparse stools without or with unsuccessful urging, but others reported frequent small, thin evacuations with tenesmus, and the greenish color of the stools is mentioned several times. All types of incoordination of secretion and motility do thus occur.

For the stomach, cramp-like pains, going through to the back, which force the patient to bend backwards and are ameliorated by stretching are characteristic of Bell. In the abdomen meteoric complaints predominate and particular sensitivity of the abdominal wall to touch is worth noting.

In the urinary passages, too, all types of incoordination in emptying the bladder occur; Bell. has proved particularly helpful for enuresis nocturia in easily excited, "nervous" children. However, other remedies like Equisetum and Tuberculin have given more permanent successes.

In the same way, successes with dysmenorrhea in hyperexcitable young girls are often prompt but only short-lived. The following may serve as indications for Bell.: period too early and too profuse, menstrual discharge bright red and hot; downward pressure, as though everything were going to fall out, at the same time severe pain in the small of the back, as though it would break, aggravation of pains from movement. Even with an acute remedy such as Bell. the constitutional type of the patient is more important in the selection of the remedy than the articular organ syndrome and in selecting the potency the known or estimated sensitivity of the patient has to be considered. I have mostly used the 6x.

HYOSCYAMUS and STRAMONIUM

If one has a knowledge of Atropine and Bell., there is little to be added in respect of the other plants of the tropane group, Hyoscyamus, Stramonium and Mandragora. Their actions and use differ from those of Bell. only in minor points of emphasis. In Hyoscyamus and Stramonium the influence of scopolamine (1-hyoscine, an oxidation product of hyoscyamine) is more noticeable, although compared to hyoscyamine the scopolamine content of these plants is still small. But the differences in their action may also partly be due to the other alkaloids they contain and to volatile amino bases, with scopolamine and stramonium the actions on the cerebral cortex are prominent, while with Mandragora present evi­dence points mainly to peripheral actions on the smooth musculature of the gastro-intestinal tract and bile ducts.

Scopolamine is best known from its use in psychiatry. Much used to quiet excited patients and make them drowsy, the dosage being about 1/2 mg. In some cases hallucination precedes the sedation even with this dosage. But generally scopolamine in small quantities reduces excitement of the motor centers. While large doses produce strong motor excitement in man as well as in animals.

In sensitive persons doses of 1 mg. may produce a state of confusion, unrest and visual hallucinations with delirium; with larger doses this is always the case and the excited condition grows longer and more severe and may lead to convulsions. In a case of habitual scopolamine injection of up to 2 mg. continuous delirium with visual hallucinations and persecution complexes was observed.

And those are the very indications on which the plants containing scopolamine, Hyos. and Stram. generally used in Homeopathy in preference to Bell. Hyos. and Stram. leading remedies for severe states of excitement in psychoses or delirious fever.

Hyos.: motor unrest particularly marked; the patients are "wild", with staring eyes, they cry, gesticulate and grimace and hit out wildly, make inintelligible speeches. The manic condition often has a strong erotic emphasis which finds expression in the speeches, gestures and sometimes in exhibitionism.

The paranoiac syndrome also comes out most strongly in Hyoscyamus. The delusions go from jealous obsession to out-and-out persecution complexes; the patient thinks he is being poisoned or has been poisoned, or shows other variants of delusion. In the case of one hebephrenic with manic attacks I thought that an extended remission may have been due to the Hyoscyamus he was given; similar cases have also been quoted by other observers. But one should not speak of "cures" in such psychoses. With puerpural psychoses, where the prognosis in itself is a better one, the position is,

of course, different.

The hyperemic and inflammatory symptoms of the Bell. picture are almost absent with Hyoscyamus. The peripheral hyper-reflexia of the smooth musculature with all its modalities is described in the same terms as for Bell.

Some prescribers prefer low potencies of Hyos. to Bell. for the spasmodic attacks of tickling cough < at night/lying down. Hyoscyamus is also greatly praised for singultus; my own experience does not confirm this. If Hyos. is given for spasm of the bladder of central origin, the low potencies used in this instance suggest that one finds oneself at the palliative end of the range of action.

As far as we know Hyos. and Stram. are not distinguishable by the type of alkaloids they contain; the relative amounts do vary anyway in the different parts of the plants and at different times. Stram. also matches Hyoscyamus in its main action on the cerebral centers. The states of excitement are no less violent with Stramonium. Delirium and hallucinations are stronger, but the paranoiac syndrome is less marked than in Hyos. Again, as in the case of Bell., the visual sphere is particularly affected, the hallucinations are throughout of a visual nature. The syndrome is most similar to delirium tremens: the patient shows all the signs of terror, sees wild animals approaching, tries to escape. It is stated that strong light stimuli, looking at glittering objects or the reflections on water, may produce convulsions. On the other hand, desire for light and company

has come out as a leading indication for Stramonium, and perhaps fear and terror of the visions play a part in this. The illusions of Stramonium often refer to the subject's own body, for instance "sees himself double, in two parts". Gross motor unrest and the manic syndrome with unceasing incoherent talking, singing and crying occur with Stram. as well as Hyos.; likewise the erotic excitement, and Stramonium has a particular reputation in satyriasis; the bright red head (ears), may in that case serve as a clue. The scarlatinoid erythema has also been described for Stramonium, and some prefer Stramonium to Bell. when in acute infectious diseases exanthemata are subdued while cerebral irritation (meningism) is marked.

Incoordination of voluntary movements is also often described for Stram. But its usefulness in chorea minor is no better proved than that of Hyos. Stammering is given as a particular indication for Stramonium; but that could hardly apply to old-established speech disturbances with a psychic motivation.

MANDRAGORA

The alkaloids of Mand. also stated to be hyoscyamine and scopolamine; their relative amounts in the root or herb are not known. A proving was made in 1951 with potencies of the tincture from the root. The most striking result was that no definite symptoms were noted of the central stimulation which is so characteristic of the alkaloids, be it then that the statement of one prover (5th day after 2x): 'Irritable and nervous, very sensitive particularly to noise" is taken as pointing in this direction. No widening of the pupils was observed, and definite visual disturbances only in one case where they were perhaps connected with the strong congestion to the head and swelling around the eyes. The cardiovascular symptoms as well as their modalities were similar to those known from Bell., as were also the sensory disturbances. Incoordination of voluntary movements was noted by one prover only; he was unable to control the walking movements; the same prover also observed torticollis.

The greatest part of the provings is taken up with disturbances of the motility and of the secretions of the gastro-intestinal canal and bile ducts. These again are very similar to those known from Bell., as for instance gastric pain > stretching and bending backwards. It is remarkable that apart from Bell. and Mandragora only Dioscorea has this modality and that dioscorine is also a tropane alkaloid

(a tropine lacton).

Two provers referred to this modality as a hunger pain > eating. Much more significant is the, to my knowledge, singular modality which has been brought out by the Mandragora provings, that the sensation of fullness, pressure and eructations > eating. On the advice of one of the provers who had observed this peculiar syndrome on himself Mandragora 6x was given to a patient with all the signs and symptoms of almost complete cicatricial stenosis of the bulbus duodeni. The improvement was impressive and lasting over the many months of subsequent observation. Just as with Bell. so with Mandragora one cannot speak one-sidedly of spasms in the smooth musculature. Colics certainly do occur, but atonic comes out just as much in the symptoms; for instance in that "soft stools are evacuated only with difficulty and with much pressing".

But this is a symptom which occurs with many remedies and hence is not very distinctive. One peculiar modality, like the one mentioned above, makes up for a whole register of commonplace symptoms in the selection of the remedy. Heart symptoms which were very frequently noted in the proving, oppression, pressure, palpitation, stitches, constriction and dyspnea, appear to be part of the gastrocardial syndrome.

TABACUM

In Nicotiana tabacum we find a new type of alkaloid in the form of nicotine which is the principal alkaloid among a great number of similarly structured minor alkaloids in the plant.

The difference between nicotine and the tropane alkaloids is not as fundamental as it first looks on paper. The methylpyrrolidine component of nicotine is also found in the tropane alkaloids. There is a biogenetic connection between the two types. This is also suggested by the fact that in some species of Duboisia hyoscyamine is the principal alkaloid, in others scopolamine, and in Duboisia Hopwoodii (Pituri plant) nicotine. Although Tabacum contains many minor alkaloids right down to simple pyridine bases, the actions of the crude drug largely correspond to those of nicotine. Nicotine is a volatile alkaloid and Tabacum probably owes its rapid and direct action on bulbar and brain stem centers to this. Recently a temporary antidiuretic action on the posterior part of the hypophysis via the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system has been discovered as well. On the other hand the peripheral action of nicotine on both the parasympathetic and sympathetic synapses is more emphasized in experimental pharmacology. Nicotine interrupts the transmission of impulses at these synapses and this is used to distinguish the pre-from the post-ganglionic fibers in the autonomic nervous system. But in this peripheral action as well as in that on the centers the paralyzing phase is preceded by one of stimulation. Reflex actions from autonomic ganglia, such as those on the sinus aortae and the carotid plexus, combine with those on the respiratory, vasomotor and vomiting centers to form a very complex picture. Added to this, the discharge of adrenaline from the adrenal glands is stimulated. No wonder then that the actual symptoms vary greatly with the dose given and from species to species. In the acute action on man, however, it is the vagal excitation which dominates the first state: bradycardia, lowering of the blood pressure, "deathly" nausea with retching and vomiting, dizziness, salivation and increased intestinal peristalsis, then irregular cardiac activity, weakness as if fainting, paleness with cold sweat, shaky weakness in the legs with sudden lowering of the blood pressure; the breathing is at first deepened and quick.

If the action is prolonged the blood pressure rises which, partially at least, must be ascribed to the increased amounts of adrenaline in circulation. In the long run nicotine may produce atheromatosis. It was possible to demonstrate calcareous degeneration of the aorta in animals after repeated injections of nicotine. Another end result of the chronic action is known to be amaurosis due to atrophy of the optic nerve. Just like arteriosclerosis this is no longer responsive to a stimulative therapy with Tabacum. But the preceding stages, the visual disturbances which are similar to those in some cases of migraine, do belong to the picture of stimulative actions. The carcinogenic effects of smoking, particularly of cigarettes, apparently must be ascribed to other pyridine bases rather than to nicotine.

The homeopathic indications follow quite straightforwardly from this picture of the toxicological actions. Even Rademacher's former use of tobacco water for cholera-like conditions can be regarded as homeopathic: symptoms of collapse with paleness, cold sweat, shaky weakness, interruption of heart beat, and vehement diarrhea. The Tabacum diarrheas are accompanied by meteorism and burning in the abdomen, and at the same time desire to have the abdomen uncovered. Apart from the symptoms of collapse, deathly nausea and vomiting, dizziness is one of the cardinal symptoms

of Tabacum.

This is a true rotatory vertigo, or "objects moving up and down in front of the eyes". I was not able to confirm the statement that the vertigo grew < on opening the eyes when I made some involuntary provings with heavy cigars; on the contrary, the up and down movement only became definite on closing the eyes, and very much so. Amelioration in open air and probably also from sour things can be confirmed; in my own experience the condition improved by eating an apple. This type of vertigo, nausea and general prostration, with indifference towards life or death, is characteristic of the syndrome of seasickness, for which Tabacum has been recommended. Cocculus, containing picrotoxin which also stimulates the vagal center strongly, is, however, more commonly used. Rotatory vertigo accompanied by tinnitus has also served as an indication in Meniere's syndrome, but in that I had such good results with Chininum salicylicum that I never tried Tabacum.

It has however proved helpful in arteriosclerotic attacks of vertigo with cerebral retching and vomiting; of course, one cannot expect any lasting effect on the struc­tural changes of arteriosclerosis.

The same applies to attacks of angina pectoris which are characterized by fear, with symptoms of collapse, icy coldness and cold sweat, tachycardia and arrhythmia. Tabacum does not have the feeling of constriction as in Cactus, the attacks resemble more those of Latrodectus. There seems to be little clinical experience on its use in migraines with visual disturbances. In that case a patchy redness of the face is said to precede the paleness. And finally Tabacum has been recommended, to my knowledge first by Emil Schlegel, as a euthanasi­acum, similar to Verat., when collapse of the circulation with cold sweat and great fear of death require a sedative.

Modalities not very characteristic: >: vertigo in the open air. Vertigo and migraine < any movement. "< in a warm room in spite of a feeling of inner coldness" may point to an increased desire for oxygen when the circulation is failing. If it is stated that vomiting relieves, this is probably based on the observation that the attacks which indicate Tabacum often end with vomiting. It will be noticed that these modalities refer to the acute syndromes and not to the patient as a person.

With Tabacum the action of nicotine on the autonomic centers develops rapidly; only a short span is available for defense reactions to be stimu­lated before the toxic effects set in. That is probably the reason why Tabacum has found only limited use, and chiefly only in acute syndromes occurring in attacks.

DULCAMARA

= „die kleine Schwester“ der heftiger Nachtschattengewächse;

There remain two species of the sub-family Solaninae for us to consider, Dulcamara and Capsicum. The Solaninae include by far the largest num­ber of Solanaceae and among them Sol-t. (= potato)/Sol-lyc. (tomato)/Sol-n.

The predominant alkaloids in the sub-family are peculiar glycosides, and sola­nine may be taken as representative of the type. Several modifications of this type occur in the Solaninae species. The aglycone of solanine is solanidine, a fusion of a steroid structure of the cholesterol type, with a methyl piperidine or a methyl pyrrolidine. It is quite possible that there is a biogenetic connection with nicotine and the tropane alkaloids.

The alkaloidal component is probably responsible for the actions of solanine on medullary centers, particularly the respiratory center. Potatoes also some­times form excessive solanine, most of it directly under the skin and at the germination points. Cases of poisonings from such potatoes have been reported occasionally, with vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. 6 A number of experiments have been made with solanine and solanidine on both animals and human beings. A detailed discussion of the alkaloid actions involving respiration, cardiac frequency and body temperature is not called for in this context as they have not so far proved significant for the picture of Dulcamara or of Capsicum. A much more definite influence from solanine has come out in a proving of Solanum nigrum which pro­duced some symptoms strongly reminiscent of Bell. But Solanum nigrum is hardly ever used. It is interesting that the aglycone solanidine applied locally produced widening of the pupil while solanine had no effect; furthermore, that a central motor excitation was observed from solanine, while in the sensory sphere drowsiness, stupefaction and dizzi­ness and at the same time hypersensitivity to light, noise and touch were noted.

What is new and important about solanine is that it is a steroid alka­loid. It is thus close to the steroid alkaloids of Veratrum album and Sabadilla. These, however, are more toxic than solanine and that is probably due to the fact that the Veratrum alkaloids are mostly esters of steroid alkaloids and not glycosides like the solanines. The greater toxicity shows itself with Veratrum in the stronger action on the circulation and in the cholera-like and collapse symptoms. The similarity between Dulca­mara and Sabadilla will be seen chiefly in the action on the mucosa. It appears that it is not so much the alkaloid component as the steroid which is responsible for this affinity.

At this point we must take a look at the substances which are called saponines. Many saponines are steroid glyco­sides, so that solanine differs from this group solely by having the alkaloid component in addition. It is a likely assumption that through an antago­nism to cholesterol solanine, like the actual saponines, unfolds an irritant or toxic action on the cell surfaces. Cholesterol has an important function in the cell membranes. When a foreign steroid alkaloid takes its place this protection may be lost to the cell. The entering of allergens or even micro­organisms is facilitated. This would explain the allergy-like syndromes met with Dulc./Sabad.

Extensive painful and itching edemata have been observed also from the handling of tomato leaves (containing the glyco-alkaloid tomatine) and from Sol-n. Besides solanine (or rather the very similar solaceine) Dulc. contains a mixture of saponines, called dulcamarine. As the glyco-alkaloid content of Dulcamara has been found to vary greatly, the saponine mixture may be more significant, perhaps in that one irritant substance makes it easier for the other to enter through the cell membranes. The constitutional formulas of the two constituents of dulcamarine, a glycoside dulcamaric acid and the non-glycoside dulcamaretinic acid, are not yet known. The saponines and solaceine are responsible for the taste of the Dulcamara herb which is bitter at first and then sweetish. Sugar is liberated from the bitter glycosides by the saliva. This change in taste has given the bittersweet its name in all languages.

Here we cannot go fully into the centuries-old history of the medicinal use of Dulcamara. It is, however, remarkable that even in old herbals (for instance, Conker) the herb was recommended as a remedy suitable only for persons of a cold and humid nature, and the particular effectiveness of Dulcamara in patients who were exposed to cold and wet has been emphasized already before Hahnemann (for instance by Carrere 7 in 1789).

Hahnemann had several times concerned himself with the action of Dulca­mara before he did his proving in 1811. One of these passages I cannot resist quoting 8 : "If, as v. Haller (in Vicat) assures us, the bittersweet has cured cough developed from chill, this is because in cold and damp air it has a marked tendency to produce all sorts of catarrhs, as Carrere and de Hahn observed. The reason why just the bittersweet has so effectively cured a type of eczema and herpes (under the eyes of Carrere, Fouquet and Poupart) is sought in vain in the sphere of fanciful conjectures, since simple nature herself puts it right under our noses, namely: the bittersweet excites for itself a type of eczema; Carrere saw a herpes spread for two weeks over the whole body from its use and on another occasion eczema develop on the hands. Can there be a more natural connection between potential action and effect?" 

In Hahnemann's proving of Dulcamara 8, the action of solanine (or of solaceine) on the central nervous system appears insignificant compared with that on the skin and mucosa and on peripheral muscle and nerve. The main actions may be summarized as of the allergy type; but that is not to say that Dulcamara itself contains an allergen, the actions of which resemble those of Dulc. in many respects. It is more likely that the solanine or the saponines of Dulcamara make it easier for any allergens to enter through the mucous membranes. Though this is at present only a hypothesis, it is conducive to an under­standing of the actions on which we base our homeopathic use of Dulcamara.

Affinity to the skin, which has been known since ancient days, has had a new light thrown upon it by the provings: at first there is a burning and itching which is worse at night. The subsequent eruptions a urticaria-like, 'like flea bites or nettle rash", or in the form of red pimples and vesicles which later on may become purulent. In some cases sudden swellings "similar to acute articular rheumatism" have been observed (by Rockwith) in the region of the wrist, with pain along the ulnar nerve. Moreover, severe inflammatory edemata have been seen in cattle who had eaten Dulcamara.

The skin symptoms of an allergic type must be seen in connection with the catarrhal and rheumatic symptoms. Indeed, the alternation of syn­dromes, now from mucous membranes, be it of the respiratory or the gastro-intestinal tracts, now from the skin or as "rheumatic" from the neuro-muscular system, has become one of the main indications for Dulca­mara. The basic observation was: aggravation of skin eruptions or their reappearance when Dulc. had been given for rheumatism or diarrhea. This alternation of syndromes is not of the type to qualify Dulcamara for inclusion among the constitutional remedies in the narrower sense of the word, the so-called anti-psoric remedies. The symptomatology of Dulca­mara points rather to acute reactions to environmental agents and influences.

The saponine-like action of Dulcamara comes out even more clearly in the mucous membranes than it did in the skin. All secretions are increased acutely. The catarrhs of the ocular conjunctiva, of the nose, and upper respiratory passages are similar to those of Sabadilla, and as with the latter have led to the use in hay fever. In the lower respiratory passages fewer signs of increased secretion are found in the provings than one might have expected from what animal experiments with solanine have shown. Pain in the chest and oppression were more conspicuous in the proving of Dulcamara. This may be due to action on centers controlling respiration which is more evident from the reports of Dulcamara and solanine poison­ing. Allergic asthma is frequently taken as an indication for Dulcamara, but apart from the alternation of asthma with skin eruptions and rheumatic complaints there are no other more definite characteristics. The long-established and proved modality that cold and wet are causal and aggravating factors in Dulcamara complaints is accepted.

But for asthma this modality applies just as well to Natrium sulphuricum which in my experi­ence at least has shown itself superior to Dulcamara.

Because of the aggravation from cold and wet Dulcamara has been regarded as a remedy for v. Grauvogl's "hydrogenoid constitution", but not too aptly; for the second characteristic of this constitutional type, periodicity in the occurrence of symptoms, there is no evidence. With Natrium sulphuricum this second modality is somewhat better substantiated, for there a regular aggravation of asthma in the early hours of the morning and a recurrence of the skin eruptions every spring are mentioned. But then the aggravation from cold and wet in the case of Dulc. should not be presented simply as proneness to colds, as may equally apply to dozens of other drugs. What is meant rather is that the catarrhal and rheumatic syndromes are of the type which is produced particularly by cold and wet, through sudden cooling after being heated, and suppression of sweat. Dulcamara acts "as if" there had been a "cold".

Earaches and noises in the ears appear so frequently in the provings that one would assume that Dulcamara should be useful for catarrhs ascending along the Eustachian tubes to the middle ear.

But there seem to be no records of clinical experience in this condition.

Symptoms of irritation from the gastro-intestinal mucosa do not come out very clearly in the provings, merely as pain and rumbling in the stomach.

It was known from Dulcamara poisonings already before Hahne­mann that vomiting and diarrhea may occur. Carrere: diarrhea slimy and yellow or greenish and this statement has been borne out. From clinical observation comes the indication of Dulc. for autumnal diarrhea, partially also due to sudden changes of weather such as from hot days to cold nights, or moving from the heat of the sun into chilly rooms; a variation of the "catching cold" motif.

A better indication is given if the diarrheas appear as equivalents for other syndromes, per­haps alternating with asthma or moist eczema.

Signs of irritation of the urinary passages and the female genital pas­sages with Dulc. poisoning have been reported particularly by Carrere: cystitis, stranguria, pain on micturition, frequency of micturition, slimy cloudy urine; again as the result of cold and wet; symptoms of irri­tation with eruptions on the external female passages with increased libido, and menstrual disorders of various,

in themselves non-characteris­tic, types. If in addition there is premenstrual urticaria and if secretions or eruptions seem to be suppressed through a chill, the case for Dulcamara would be stronger. Hemorrhagic nephritis has been seen as a rare occur­rence in Dulc. poisoning, but this has apparently not been taken up as an indication for the use of Dulc. so far.

A tendency to hemorrhage may well be due to the action of the saponines. Epistaxis has been reported several times in the provings.

Vicarious nose bleeds, in the place of missing menses or after the suppression of other discharges, would be in line with the action of Dulcamara; but there seems to be little clinical experience in this respect.

With regard to the neuro-muscular system which so often manifests the effects of cold and wet, the provings have brought out many symp­toms.

Apart from rheumatic-neuralgic pains, stiffness and lameness are frequent, particularly in the back of the neck and shoulder region. Neural­gias have been described particularly in the face, arms and calves, combined with a feeling of icy coldness, lameness, tension, twitching and trembling.

The important factor with these syndromes is the modality amelioration from movement; it indicates stagnation in the tissues, an altered turgidity.

 This modality often brings Dulc. into the final choice with Rhus-t. has a similar affinity to muscles, mucosa and the skin on an allergic basis. Dulc. often used as a matter of routine when Rhus Tox. has failed. The clinical indications for Dulc., "rheuma # diarrhea" or "rheumatic symptoms follow­ing acute skin eruption," need no further elucidation after what has been said above.

Symptoms from the central nervous system which are marked in the picture of solanine and Dulcamara poisoning are much less significant in the drug picture. Headache and dizziness, slight twitchings and tensions, sensations of lameness, and psychically a discontented, off-putting mood do appear in the drug provings. But no definite therapeutic indication have arisen from them.

The character of Dulcamara comes out most clearly in the alternation of syndromes of the skin, mucosa, and locomotor system, and in the following modalities: causal and aggravating factors are cold and wet, sudden change from hot to cold; > movement (rheumatic symptoms); the skin symptoms

< at night.

CAPSICUM

Finally, there is Capsicum annuum, the fruits = Spanish pepper or paprika.

Also belongs to the sub­family of Solaninae, but it is doubtful whether it contains the glyco-alka­loid solanine, some say so and others not; it seems at any rate to be of no significance for the action of Capsicum.

But there are also traces of another alkaloid which has not yet been identified; being volatile it may be similar to confine or the tobacco alkaloids.

But with regard to the actions of Capsicum nothing definite can as yet be said about it. The rich vitamin content of the Capsicum fruits (C/beta-ascorbic acid), may well have a bearing on its former use, in substantial amounts, for reduced resistance to infections, marasm and dysentery, but for the use of Capsicum potencies a vitamin substitution can hardly be considered. The chief active principle of Capsicum is capsaicin. This is no true alkaloid, but an acid amide, a combination of vanillyl amide with dimethylnonenylic acid. Capsaicin is a strong irritant for the skin and mucosa. It appears to stimulate first of all the sensory receptors, and particularly those for the sensation of warmth. Hence the characteristic burning of Capsicum at any site where it comes in contact with tissues. This is followed by a reflector hyperemia and this again is characterized in that the expansion of the capillaries relaxation of the small vessels persists for a long time. The vessels can then no longer adapt themselves to cold stimuli, hence the general sensation of chilliness and great sensitivity to cold. The contrast with the saponine action of Dulc., where increased secretion stands in the foreground, is obvious. As to the use of Capsicum plasters as a derivative counter irritant for rheumatism, synovitis, chilblains and occasionally also for bronchitis and bronchiolitis, nothing further need be said. More rarely, Capsicum tincture is used as a gargle for torpid inflammation of the throat with an elongated uvula. For homeopathic use the skin affinity of Capsicum has achieved no significance.

The tincture has also been used occasionally as a stomachic for lack of appetite and dyspepsia. Lyon recommended it especially for alcoholism; apparently it not only relieves the dyspeptic symptoms with morning sickness, but the craving itself is said to be abolished. It is also maintained that Capsicum has a calming and hypnotic action in the early stages of delirium tremens; the provings show trembling and disturbances of sleep, but no hallucinations. Possibly the alkaloid of which no details are known may play a part.

But it is capsaicin which is responsible for the main actions of Capsicum. Wherever this peppery principle passes the mucosa it produces a burning, hot sensation, and a dryness which in turn gives rise to spasms.

On elimination through the urine the bladder is irritated until there is tenesmus, the urge to urinate is strong but ineffectual. A sharp burning passes along the urethra and concentrates particularly on the urethral ori­fice; if the irritation is continuous a state of near-paralysis arises. I have found Capsicum particularly helpful for ectropium of the female urethral orifice which can bring with it a distressing irritation. A good indication is chronic urethritis, either non-specific or following gonorrhea, if there is more irritation than secretion: a small amount of creamy secretion is dis­charged with sharp burning and great urging and cramp-like erection, so-called chords. If the bladder is involved the severe tenesmus points to Capsicum. Capsicum seems to be less indicated for the acute initial state of an infection, and rather more when the blood vessels and thus the mucosa are already lax from earlier attacks and a relapse of irritation and inflam­mation supervenes.

Sharp burning and tenesmus indicate Capsicum also for hemorrhoids, particularly if they occur together with the same symptoms from the urinary passages. In such cases the symptoms of irritation

< passage of stools.

A small amount of slimy secretion, but sometimes also bleeding from the relaxed mucosa serve as a further indication. The old-established indication of Capsicum for dysentery with violent tenesmus has been give a special note by the provings: after every stool there is thirst and if this is slaked with cold water intense shivering will follow. This latter modality is given as a general characteristic of Capsicum: after cold drinks shivering starts between the shoulders, runs down the back and spreads over the whole body. That is but an example of the great sensitiv­ity to cold: cold draft aggravates pain, cough and other complaints, and is anxiously avoided. In this one can see the lack of adaptability to cold on the part of the relaxed and widened capillaries and arterioles. A particular aggravation from cold wetness, as in the case of Dulcamara, has not been noted for Capsicum.

The irritation of the upper respiratory passages is characterized by dryness of the mucosa. The cough arising from this is explosive, shaking, it causes pain not only in the throat and chest but also in more distant parts, such as bursting headaches, pressing earaches, shooting pains into the extremities, (along the sciatic nerve). Here again cold aggra­vates, and that applies also to a dry laryngitis with hoarseness. Attacks of coughing < lying/at night/in bed;

The provings also record dyspnea, a feeling of fullness and distension in the chest and constriction worse from movement. But Capsicum has no indications for humid asthma like Dulc.

On the other hand, a tendency of the dry hyperemia of the respiratory mucosa towards ulceration can be inferred from the following symptoms in Hahnemann's proving: "Me cough expels an evil-smelling breath from the mouth. The breath coming from the lungs on coughing produces a strange, repugnant taste in the mouth." In fact, Capsicum has been used successfully in bronchitis foetida and even for lung abscesses.

Another strange observation in the proving has led to the frequently successful use of Capsicum for impending mastoiditis: a swelling over the petrous bone behind the ear which is painful on touch. That was probably only an intercellular inflammation of the type which has been seen in one case described in the literature of lethal poisoning from Capsicum; there the swellings appeared on the cheeks, ears and back of the neck after papular eruptions had changed into vesicles. One can merely guess why the tympanum and the petrous bone should be sites of preference for the action of Capsicum.

The lax, spongy mucous membrane attached directly to the periost of the mastoid and with a wide capillary bed may well be predisposed for the irritating action of capsaicin.

The widening and relaxation of the capillaries through Capsicum may persist and leave circumscribed areas of redness on the cheeks, the nose or ears.

The dilatation of the small blood vessels remains even under the influence of cold, hence the red areas on the face present a contrast to the chilliness and frostiness of the Capsicum type. Relaxation of tissues gener­ally is characteristic of the constitutional type. Hahnemann already noted that Caps. was less suitable for persons of a tense fibre. The cold, flabby type with circumscribed redness of the cheeks has been described by later authors as sluggish, indolent, fat--probably with some measure of poetic license.

It certainly is not a stipulation for the effectiveness of Capsicum in the well-defined pathological conditions in which mostly low potencies are used.

Stiffness and pain in muscles and joints and along nerves also appear frequently in the provings; they are said to be worse when starting to move, > continued movement (Dulc.). Capsicum has, however, been little used in this direction.

A number of mental symptoms have also come out in the Capsicum provings: changeable mood, peevish, sullen, timid, indifferent; also offish and even obstinate, carping, taciturn, withdrawn; fearful and sentimental.

One prover states that such moods were not over persons or moral issues, but over lifeless objects, having no relation to ordinary causes or events. From this wide scale of unease towards the environment, home-sickness has been picked out as a particular indication for Capsicum; not exactly a complaint for which our medical aid is very often demanded. I do not know whether any remarkable successes have been scored with Capsicum in this field. And when some authors phrased the indication "home-sick­ness with red cheeks" one really does not know whether they wanted to make a laughing stock of themselves or of the homeopathic materia medics.

This survey of the family of Solanaceae was made to show what the drug pictures have in common and where they differ. Without recourse to their active substances, the closer or more distant relationships among the remedies of this family of plants could hardly be conceived. Incomplete though our knowledge may still be, such an approach to understanding their actions serves an intelligent application of the drugs on the homeopathic principle.

 

[Farina Fontaine]

Es gibt viele verschiedene Nachtschatten aus der Familie der Nachtschattengewächse, auch bekannt als Solanum, die in der Homöopathie eingesetzt werden. Doch welches Mittel hilft gegen

welche Beschwerden? Wir stellen Ihnen vier verschiedene Mittel vor, die aus Nachtschatten gewonnen werden und wann sie wofür eingesetzt werden.

Solanum ist in der Welt der Pflanzen die Kategorie für Nachtschatten. 1400 verschiedene Nachtschatten gibt es, eins der bekanntesten ist mit Sicherheit  Solanum Lycopersicum, besser bekannt als Tomate. Die Gemüsepflanze ist reich an Vitalstoffen, Spurenelementen und Carotinoiden.

Solanum Lycopersicum bei grippalen Infekten

In der Volksheilkunde ist Solanum Lycoersicum als ein kräftigendes Stärkungsmittel bekannt. Sie regt die Verdauung im Magen und in der Bauchspeicheldrüse an und unterstützt mit einem hohen Eisen- und Mangangehalt die Blutbildung beim Menschen. Tomatensaft gilt zudem als leicht blutdrucksenkend.

Als homöopathisches Mittel kann Solanum lycopersicum vielfältig eingesetzt werden. So lindert es Kopfschmerzen, die durch Blutwallungen im Kopf entstehen, allergische Beschwerden und die Symptome bei grippalen Infekten. Hierzu gehören Fließschnupfen, Husten, der besonders nachts sehr quälend ist und Heiserkeit. Auch Gliederschmerzen und das Gefühl von Zerschlagenheit, das häufig mit grippalen Infekten einhergeht, kann Solanum lycopersicum lindern.

Solanum dulcamara als Mittel bei Klimawechseln

Doch auch andere Nachtschattengewächse haben die Eigenschaft, Symptome bei Krankheiten zu lindern. So hilft zum Beispiel Solanum dulcamara Beschwerden der Blase und Nieren, des Auges, der Haut und Schleimhäute und der Gelenke. Klimawechsel oder feuchte Kälte haben dabei meist diese Beschwerden ausgelöst.

In Zusammenhang mit den Symptomen der Patienten treten häufig typische Gemütszustände auf. Hierzu zählen Redseligkeit, ständige Eile und Streitsüchtigkeit.

Hauptanwendungsgebieten.

    Erkältungen

    Asthma

    Bronchitis

    Blasenentzündung

    Bindehautentzündung

    Durchfall

    Nackenschmerzen

    Rheuma

    Herpes

    Gürtelrose

    Neurodermitis

    Warzen

    Nervenschmerzen im Bereich des Gesichts

Wodurch verbessern oder verschlechtern sich die Beschwerden bei Solanum ducamara-Patienten?

Das Mittel kann Personen, die beruflich dem ständigen Wechsel von Kalt und Warm ausgesetzt sind, gegeben werden. Hierzu zählen zum Beispiel Personen, die in Kühlhäusern arbeiten.

Die Symptome der Solanum dulcamara-Patienten verschlechtern sich durch Kälte, Nässe, einem Wechsel von warm zu kalt und bei schneller Abkühlung nach dem Schwitzen. Durch Wärme, Bewegung und trockenes Wetter können sich die Symptome verbessern.

Solanum malacoxylon bei Kalkablagerungen/Rheumatologie

Es wirkt Verkalkungen des Gefäßapparats und des Bindegewebes entgegen und löst Kalkablagerungen an den Gefäßwänden ab. Patienten, die unter diesen Verkalkungen leiden, nehmen 2x

täglich 10 bis 20 Tropfen Solanum malacoxylon in der Potenz C6.

Solanum tuberosum bei Kopfschmerzen

Kopfschmerzen, die durch Blutwallungen im Kopf ausgelöst werden, eingesetzt. Wärme und Ruhe bessert die Beschwerden der Soluanum tuberosum-Patienten.

Auch bei krampfhaften Verdauungsbeschwerden kann Solanum tuberosum helfen. Ein starkes Verlangen nach Kartoffeln oder eine starke Abneigung.

 

 

Vorwort/Suchen                Zeichen/Abkürzungen                                   Impressum