Synthetische Drogen Anhang

 

Vergleich: Siehe: Group Analysis Evaluation + Comparison of Psychoactive Plant Drug Group to General Drug Remedy Themes (and synthetic druga/Ruth Heather Hall) +

Comparison of Papaveraceae remedies with synthetic recreational drug isolate group (Durban University of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences: Ujaswee Chhiba) +

Comparison of Piperaceae remedies with synthetic recreational drug isolate group (Durban University of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences: Ujaswee Chhiba) +

Comparison of Rubiaceae remedies with Synthetic recreational drug isolate group (Durban University of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences: Ujaswee Chhiba) +

Comparison of Aves remedies with synthetic recreational drug isolate group (Durban University of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences: Ujaswee Chhiba) +

Comparison of Plant remedies with synthetic  recreational drug isolate group (Durban University of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences: Ujaswee Chhiba) +

 

[werner werner stangl]s arbeitsblätter

Synthetische Drogen

Designerdrogen

Substanzen, welche auf chemischem Weg hergestellt wurden, die ähnliche Eigenschaften wie natürliche oder halbsynthetische Drogen haben. Man unterscheidet:

    Morphintyp (opiatähnlich)

    Amphetamintyp (aufputschmittelähnlich)

    Halluzinogentyp (Sinneswahrnehmungsveränderung)

Designerdrogen werden als Flüssigkeit aus kleinen Fläschchen, in Form von Kapseln/Tabletten eingenommen. Akute Wirkungen: es genügen sehr geringe Mengen um einen Rausch auszulösen

    antriebssteigernd und gedankenbeschleunigend, erzeugen Halluzinationen

    stellt sich rascher als bei anderen Substanzen eine psychische Abhängigkeit ein

    chronische Schäden: viele Substanzen haben durch chemische Verunreinigungen auch organische, z.T. irreversible Auswirkungen auf das Gehirn

    auch Schlaf - und Appetitlosigkeit, innere Unruhe, gesteigerter Rededrang (Amphetaminanteil)

    Gefühl des Kribbelns bis "Fliegen über die Tanzfläche" , sowie Illusionen (Halluzinogenanteil)

Bei Halluzinogenen wurde bislang keine körperliche Abhängigkeit festgestellt, aber es kann zu einer psychischen Abhängigkeit kommen. Konsum ist wegen möglicher Nebenwirkungen gefährlich.

Amphetamin (Speed)

Weißes bis leicht gelbliches Pulver oder Tablette. Rein chemisch hergestellte Droge, Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts von der Firma Merck (Darmstadt) als Appetitzügler auf den Markt gebracht. Anwendung: schlucken als Tablette oder schniefen als Pulver.

Wirkungsweise:

    Denken wird beschleunigt

    Schlafbedürfnis unterdrückt

    Ideenvielfalt gesteigert

    Logisches Denken erscheint erleichtert, ist aber oft etwas verquert ("Speed-Logik")

    Redegeschwindigkeit erhöht

    Stimmungslage ist angehoben

    soziale Kontaktfähigkeit scheint gesteigert

    beschleunigter Herzschlag

    Übelkeit, Schwindel, Kopfschmerzen, Kollaps)

    Wirkt stark anregend, Blutdruck steigernd, Pupillen erweiternd.

Chronischer Missbrauch

Gefahr einer Suchtentwicklung ist dann besonders gegeben, wenn die Wirkung der Droge zur Überwindung von Hemmungen und Ängsten verwendet wird. Es kommt zu einer notwendigen Dosissteigerung, um die gleiche, erwünschte Wirkung zu erreichen.

    körperliche Abhängigkeit stellt sich in einem wesentlich schwächeren Ausmaß ein als bei Opiaten.

    schwere Schlafstörungen

    kann zu Paranoia und Schizophrenie führen

    sowie Auszehrung des Körpers, da Hunger und Schlafbedürfnis unterdrückt werden

Neue Amphetaminvarianten wie Ecstasy (XTC) oder Dom vereinen die aufputschende Wirkung der Amphetamine und halluzinogenen Eigenschaften in einer Droge.

Grundsubstanzen: Safrol und Myristin (kommen in Muskatnüssen vor, sind giftig). Akute Wirkung:

    Kommunikationsfähigkeit wird gesteigert.

    Vermehrte Bereitschaft über die eigene Person und gesellschaftlichen Problemen, religiösen Fragen nachzudenken.

    Ein Grundgefühl: die Liebe zu sich, den anderen Menschen und der Welt wird vermittelt.

Regelmäßiger Ecstasy-Konsum führt bereits in jungen Jahren zu einem nachweisbaren Schlafapnoe-Syndrom. Das Schlafapnoe-Syndrom (SAS) tritt normalerweise erst im höheren Alter bei übergewichtigen Menschen auf. Nach Untersuchungen von Una McCann im Schlaflabor wurde bei Ecstasy-Konsumenten mittelschweres und sogar ein schweres Schlafapnoe-Syndrom diagnostiziert. Das Risiko auf ein Schlafapnoe-Syndrom war im Vergleich zu einer Gruppe gleichaltriger Konsumenten anderer Drogen 8,5-fach erhöht. Damit ist Ecstasy ein größeres Risiko als Adipositas (6 -9 faches Risiko). Die Forscher führen das SAS auf eine Schädigung serotinerger Neuronen durch die Chemikalie Methylenedioxymethamphetamine zurück, dem Wirkstoff der Ecstasy-Droge, die auch für andere Folgen des langjährigen Konsums verantwortlich ist (subtile kognitive Defizite, Neigung zu impulsivem Verhalten, Veränderungen im EEG während des Schlafes).

Das heute in großem Umfang verschriebene Ritalin gegen das berüchtigte ADD-Syndrom gehört ebenfalls zur Gruppe der Amphetamine.

 

MDMA (Ecstasy, XTC)

Chemisch hergestellter Abkömmling des Amphetamins. Wird in Form von Tabletten verschiedenster Form und Farbe gehandelt und in der Regel geschluckt.

Vereint die anregende Wirkung von Speed mit den halluzinogenen Effekten des LSD, wenn auch jeweils weniger stark. Wird deshalb der Gruppe der  Entactogene  zugeordnet, das sind Drogen, die  die Berührung mit dem Inneren ermöglichen. Wurde bis 1986 in der Psychoanalyse verwendet, um seelische Vorgänge sichtbar zu machen. Heute v.a. als Partydroge beliebt, um länger und intensiver Tanzen zu können und zwischenmenschliche Barrieren einzureißen. Hauptgefahr ist das Austrocknen, wenn vergessen wird, genug (alkoholfreies) zu trinken und Hitzeschock, der pro Jahr in der BRD 20 bis 40 Tote fordert. Bei intensivem Dauerkonsum können Schäden im Gehirn auftreten, die die Gedächtnisleistung beeinträchtigen.

Nach der Einnahme einer Tablette wird der Wirkstoff MDMA im Darm resorbiert. Über den Blutkreislauf erreicht MDMA das Gehirn und wirkt dort vor allem auf den Neurotransmitter Serotonin. Die Serotoninspeicher werden rasch entleert. Es kommt zu einem massiven Anstieg der Serotoninkonzentration im synaptischen Spalt und damit zu einer bewußtseinsverändernden Wirkung. Die Serotoninspeicher werden über einen Pumpmechanismus wieder aufgefüllt. Dieser Prozeß dauert mehr als 20 Stunden. Aus diesem Grund erzeugt ein Nachdosieren keine bzw. nur eine geringe Wirkung. Die Wirkung von MDMA beginnt etwa 20 bis 40 Minuten nach Einnahme und hält 2 bis 4 Stunden an. MDMA entfaltet seine zentral-nervöse Wirkung vor allem im Bereich des Limbischen Systems, das als "Belohnungszentrum" die Emotionalität reguliert. Die KonsumentInnen erleben in der Regel positive Gefühle und Verhaltensänderungen. So gelingt es vielen leichter, sich in andere hineinzufühlen, Kontakte zu knüpfen und Gespräche zu führen. MDMA vermittelt das Gefühl, mit sich selbst im Einklang zu befinden und fähig zu sein, persönliche Probleme zu bewältigen. Die meisten fühlen sich fit und leistungsfähig und verspüren Gefühle von Zärtlichkeit und Glück. MDMA verändert die Wahrnehmung der Umgebung, akustische und optische Eindrücke werden verstärkt. Halluzinationen treten nur selten auf. Der Anstieg von Puls und Körpertemperatur wird oftmals nicht als Warnsignal wahrgenommen. Kurz nach der Einnahme von MDMA verspüren viele KonsumentInnen eine unangenehme Verspannung der Kiefermuskulatur. Gleichzeitig kann Mundtrockenheit und Brechreiz auftreten. Auch gesteigerte Anspannung, Niedergeschlagenheit und Verwirrtheit wird in der ersten Stunde nach Einnahme gelegentlich beklagt. Das Kurzzeitgedächtnis kann vorübergehend gestört sein. Nahezu alle KonsumentInnen sind nach Abklingen der Drogenwirkung erschöpft und ausgelaugt - ein Zustand der als "Kater" bekannt ist. MDMA vermindert die Wahrnehmung von Warnsignalen des Körpers. Symptome wie Durst, Schwindel, Kopfschmerz und Herzjagen werden unterdrückt, und es kann zu Kollapszuständen kommen. Dies insbesondere dann, wenn im Zusammenhang mit körperlichen Anstrengungen (Tanzmarathon) Flüssigkeitsverluste nicht ausgeglichen werden und/oder keine Ruhepausen (chill out) eingelegt werden. Bei häufigem Gebrauch entsteht eine Toleranzentwicklung, d.h. die Dosis muß gesteigert werden, um die gleiche Wirkung zu erreichen. Es kann zu schwerwiegenden psychischen Störungen (Angstzustände, Depressionen, Psychosen) und körperlichen Gesundheitsschäden im Bereich von Herz, Kreislauf, Nieren und Leber kommen. Blutbildveränderungen sind möglich (Anämie). Auch Appetitlosigkeit und Gewichtsabnahme können die Folge sein. MDMA erzeugt psychische Abhängigkeit.

 

Am Schwarzmarkt wird heute vieles als Ecstasy oder Speed angeboten. Häufig sind in den Tabletten und Kapseln nicht die erwarteten Substanzen enthalten, die Dosierungen schwanken unvorhersehbar, und in wenigen Fällen finden sich gesundheitlich besonders bedenkliche Substanzen in den Proben. Eine Ecstasy-Tablette enthält durchschnittlich 50 bis 100 mg MDMA. Die Konzentrationen schwanken jedoch stark. Die Tablettenprägungen sind keine Garantie für tatsächliche Inhaltsstoffe. Jede Tablette kann zusätzlich Paracetamol, Coffein, Milchzucker, etc. enthalten. Nach neueren Untersuchungen sind toxische Beimengungen (Strychnin, LSD, etc.) bisher nur extrem selten vorgekommen. Dieser Kategorie gesundheitlich besonders bedenkliche Substanz werden folgende Proben zugerechnet: Ungewöhnlich hoch dosierte Ecstasy, Speed oder LSD-Proben. Also etwa alle Ecstasy-Proben, die mehr als 120mg MDMA, MDE oder mehr als 100mg MDA enthalten. Nachdem die Wirkung einer Substanz und ihre gesundheitliche Gefährlichkeit zu großen Teilen vom Körpergewicht und dem Geschlecht der jeweiligen UserIn abhängt, sind die 120mg nur ein ungefährer Richtwert. Dosierungen in dieser Höhe werden von UserInnen nicht erwartet und erhöhen die Wahrscheinlichkeit, dass es zu längerfristigen Veränderungen im Gehirn kommt. Bei Dosierungen über 150 mg MDMA oder bei Kombination mit anderen Drogen kann es zu Vergiftungen (Intoxikationen) kommen. Kennzeichen sind:

    Pulsbeschleunigung bis zu 150 Schlägen/min

    Erregung

    Panik

    Fieber über 39°C

    Kreislaufstörungen

    Bewusstlosigkeit

Die betroffene Person bequem lagern, beruhigen (talk down) und auf keinen Fall ohne Aufsicht lassen. Neben hoch dosierten Substanzen fallen in diese Kategorie auch alle Stoffe, die in Wechselwirkung mit Ecstasy oder Speed gesundheitlich besonders bedenklich sind - also etwa Ecstasy-Tabletten, die zusätzlich Aspirin enthalten - und Proben, die auch ohne den gleichzeitigen Konsum von Ecstasy oder Speed schwere gesundheitliche Probleme verursachen können, z.B. Atropin oder Methadon. Besonders risikoreich ist die Kombination von MDMA mit anderen Suchtmitteln. Grundsätzlich erhöht der Mischkonsum alle gesundheitliche Risiken - teilweise in potenzierter Form.

 

Alkohol

    Häufig wird zusätzlich zu MDMA Alkohol konsumiert. Einigen KonsumentInnen dient Alkohol dazu, am Ende einer Party "abzutörnen" und den "Kater" zu verschlafen. Alkohol spült jedoch Körperflüssigkeit ebenso verstärkt aus wie Ecstasy, wodurch sich, insbe-sondere in der Verbindung mit exzessivem Tanzen, die Gefahr des "Austrocknens" und damit eines Kreislaufkollapses erhöht.

Haschisch

    Als "Einschlafhilfe" nach körperlicher Anstrengung im Zusammenhang mit Tanzveranstaltungen wird oft Cannabis in Form von Haschisch oder Marihuana geraucht. Die Substanz wirkt beruhigend und verringert die gesteigerte Wahrnehmung von Außenreizen als Folge des MDMA-Konsums. Gleichzeitig können aber andere Wirkungen (vor allem körperliche, z. B. Herzrasen) durch den Konsum von Cannabis wieder angehoben werden.

LSD

    LSD gehört zur Gruppe der Halluzinogene und wird in Form von trips angeboten. Es wird häufig zusammen mit Ecstasy konsumiert, um eine Steigerung der Vorstellungskraft zu erzielen. LSD wirkt im Gehirn auf einem anderen Stoffwechselweg (Dopamin) wie MDMA. Es erzeugt unter Umständen "Horrortrips", die über Tage und Wochen anhalten können. LSD führt bei länger dauerndem Gebrauch nachweislich zu psychischen Spätschäden im Sinne von Persönlichkeitsstörungen (Psychosen).

Speed

    Speed ist ein Sammelbegriff für Amphetaminabkömmlinge unterschiedlicher Wirkungsstärke. Es potenziert und verlängert die euphorisierende und leistungssteigernde Wirkung von MDMA. Es wirkt zudem stärker halluzinogen. Speed kann Schäden im Bereich der Hirnsubstanz und damit bleibende psychische Defekte erzeugen. Die sogenannte Speed-Paranoia entsteht bei Amphetaminmißbrauch, wenn die Amphetamin-Konsumenten über Wochen kaum noch schlafen, sich nicht mehr vernünftig ernähren, allgemein ein ungeregeltes Leben führen und häufig noch andere Drogen konsumieren.

Kokain

    Auch Kokain wird mittlerweile mit MDMA kombiniert. Es wird in der Regel als weißes Pulver angeboten und geschnupft. Die Wirkung tritt nach wenigen Sekunden ein und hält 15 bis 45 Minuten an. Die Konsumenten/-nnen verspüren eine hohe Leistungsbereitschaft, Handlungsdrang und Erregung. Kokain führt zu starker psychischer Abhängigkeit und kann nach Absetzen massive Depressionen auslösen. Die Schleimhäute der Nase werden gereizt und können Schaden nehmen.         

 

Ecstasy (im englischen Sprachgebrauch XTC) ist ein Sammelbegriff für Rauschdrogen, die aus Amphetaminderivaten (Methylendioxiamphetamine) synthetisch hergestellt werden.

DMA wurde 1912 von der Firma Merck entwickelt und patentiert. Der ursprüngliche therapeutische Nutzen sollte in der Appetithemmung liegen. Wegen unerwünschter Nebenwirkungen wurde MDMA jedoch zunächst nicht auf den Markt gebracht. In den 50er und 60er Jahren benutzten dann Forscher in den USA zunächst MDMA für wissenschaftliche Zwecke im Bereich der Psychotherapie. 1986 wurde der Wirkstoff in den USA verboten. MDMA tauchte in den 80er Jahre in Zusammenhang mit der Techno- und Housemusik-Welle verstärkt auf dem europäischen Drogenmarkt auf.

Mehrmaliger Gebrauch von Ecstasy kann schon in einer einzigen Nacht zu Spätschäden führen, die denen der Alterskrankheit Parkinson vergleichbar sind. Ärzte der Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore haben die Gefahr an Menschenaffen untersucht: In deren Gehirnen greift Ecstasy nicht nur in den Serotonin-Stoffwechsel ein, sondern es zerstört auch Hirnzellen, die mit dem Neurotransmitter Dopamin arbeiten und für die Bewegungskontrolle zuständig sind. Von diesen Zellen wurden durch die gebräuchliche Verwendung - drei Tabletten Ecstasy in einer Partynacht - so viele zerstört, daß die Tiere in jungen Jahren einen Verlust der Bewequngskontrolle entwickelten, der dem der Alterskrankheit stark ähnelt. Einer der Versuchsaffen starb im Test. (Science, 297, S. 2260)

 

Badesalze werden in den USA unter den Bezeichnungen "Ivory Wave", "Aura“, "Vanilla Sky", oder "Pure Ivory" in kristalliner Form in 50-Milligramm-Päckchen für 25 bis 50 Dollar legal verkauft. Die Wirkung der im Badesalz enthaltenen Substanzen wie Mephedron oder Methylendioxypyrovaleron (MDPV) ähneln nach Aussagen von Medizinern den Wirkungen von Meth, Kokain, PCP, LSD und Ecstasy zusammen, wobei die psychischen Folgen mehrere Monate andauern können. Mephedron und Methylendioxypyrovaleron ähneln chemisch der in Arabien und Ostafrika verbreiteten Droge Khat und macht sehr rasch abhängig. Ärzte berichten von Symptomen wie einer starken Erhöhung von Blutdruck und Herzfrequenz sowie heftigen Muskelkrämpfen, wobei selbst starke Beruhigungsmittel bei den Betroffenen nicht helfen, weshalb Mediziner mit Psychopharmaka oder Vollnarkosen einsetzen, um die Patienten ruhig zu stellen. Kurzfristig führt der Missbrauch zu Konzentrationsstörungen, massiver innerer Unruhe und Antriebslosigkeit. Die Badesalze sind in Europa schon seit einiger Zeit bekannt, in Deutschland sind sie seit 2008 in Umlauf, in Großbritannien wurden sie 2010 verboten.         

Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a psychoactive drug with stimulant properties which acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). Reportedly, it has been sold since around 2004 as a designer drug. It is also known as MDPK, MTV, Magic, Maddie, Black Rob, Super Coke and PV. In 2010 it was reportedly sold as a legal drug alternative and marketed in the U.S. as "bath salts" (under such names as Aura, White devil, Blue Silk, Bonzai Grow, Charge Plus, Euphoria, Hurricane Charlie, Ivory Wave, Lovey Dovey, Ocean, Pixie Dust, Posh, Red Dove, Scarface, Vanilla Sky, White Dove, White Girl, White Lightning).

The hydrochloride salt exists as a very fine, hygroscopic, crystalline powder that tends to clump to itself, resembling something like powdered sugar. Its color can range from pure white to a yellowish-tan and has a slight odor that strengthens as it colors. Impurities are likely to consist of either pyrollidine or alpha-dibrominated alkylphenones from either excess pyrollidine or incomplete amination, respectively, during synthesis and likely accounts for its discoloration and fishy (pyrollidine) or bromine-like odor, which worsens upon exposure to air, moisture, or bases.

MDPV has no history of FDA approved medical use.[8] Reportedly, it has four times the potency of methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta).[9] MDPV is the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted analog of the compound pyrovalerone, developed in the 1960s, which has been used for the treatment of chronic fatigue and as an anorectic, but caused problems of abuse and dependence.[1] However, despite its structural similarity, the effects of MDPV bear little resemblance to other methylenedioxyphenylalkylamine derivatives such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), instead producing primarily stimulant effects with only mild entactogenic qualities.[1]

 

Other drugs with a similar chemical structure include α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), 4'-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP), 3',4'-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MDPPP) and 1-phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-pentanone (α-PVP).

[edit] Effects

 

MDPV acts as a stimulant and has been reported to produce effects similar to those of cocaine, methylphenidate, and amphetamines.

The acute effects may include:

Physiological/Psychological effects

    tachycardia (Rapid heartbeat)

    hypertension (High blood pressure)

    vasoconstriction (Narrowing of the blood vessels)

    insomnia (Inability to sleep)

    nausea, stomach cramps, and digestive problems

    bruxism (Grinding teeth)

    increased body temperature, chills, sweating

    pupil dilation

    headache

    kidney pain

    tinnitus

    dizziness

    overstimulation

    breathing difficulty

    agitation/hypertonia

    severe paranoia

    confusion

    psychotic delusions

    extreme anxiety/agitation, sometimes progressing to violent behavior

    suicidal thoughts/actions

Psychiatric symptoms may persist. Physical symptoms may progress to rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, or liver failure.

Desired psychological effects

    euphoria

    increased alertness and awareness

    increased wakefulness and arousal

    increased energy and motivation

    mental stimulation/increased concentration

    increased sociability

    sexual stimulation/aphrodisiac effects

    mild empathogenic effects

    diminished perception of the requirement for food and sleep

    modification of the symptom profile in early stages of opiate withdrawal consistent with its dopamine reputake inhibitor function; reportedly, attempting to use the drug in management of withdrawal is impossible because of a spectacular (in a neutral or bad sense) and unmanageable complex of side effects, as described in this article, rapidly supervening. The tendency to inhibit norepinephrine reputake would cause a progressive relative worsening of some physical symptoms of opiate withdrawal, generally those that would be subtracted out by clonidine therapy.

Description of effects

The primary psychological effects have a duration of roughly 3 - 4 hours, with after effects (tachycardia/hypertension/mild stimulation) lasting from 6 - 8 hours.

High doses have been observed to cause intense, prolonged panic attacks in stimulant-intolerant users, and there are anecdotal reports of psychosis from sleep withdrawal and addiction at higher doses or more frequent dosing intervals. MDPV has been distinguished by some for its powers as an aphrodisiac. Has also been repeatedly noted for inducing strong cravings to re-administering. Users have reported a compulsive desire to continuously re-dose, even following onset of the unpleasant side effects induced by prolonged use and higher doses.

Extended binges on MDPV have also been reported to produce severe comedown syndrome similar to that of methamphetamine, characterized by depression, lethargy, headache, anxiety, postural hypotension (lightheadedness and weakness of the muscles), and in some cases severely bloodshot eyes, which usually subside within 4 - 8 hours. MDPV may also cause temporary bruxism. Side effects are highly dose-dependent. No fatalities have so far been reported without the combination of other substances except for suicide.

Reported modalities of intake include oral consumption, insufflation, smoking, rectal and intravenous use. It is supposedly active at 3–5 mg, with typical doses ranging between 5–20 mg.

MDPV loses potency when it is put into solution.

 

[Durban University of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences: Ujaswee Chhiba]

Zusammenfassung:

The addition of a large number of new remedies to the homoeopathic materia medica has made it challenging to select the correct remedy for a patient. Locating individual remedies within groups makes it easier to understand, remember and apply the information from the remedies. The aim of this research study was to evaluate common themes and symptomatology of homoeopathic remedies belonging to the synthetic recreational drug isolate group, as represented in the known homoeopathic materia medica and repertory. Most remedies derived from synthetic recreational drug isolate sources have not been well documented or comprehensively proven in homoeopathy, so are not well represented in repertory programs. Therefore, in addition, remedies in this study were selected according to the homoeopathic significance of each remedy, the availability of actual provings and representation in materia medica, the existence of a synthetic derivative of the drug, and if the drug was commonly used. The selected remedies were then subjected to a manual rubric extraction process in which common rubrics were extracted. The common rubrics were analyzed to determine common sensations within the group. The extracted sensations were then defined using a dictionary and synonyms were determined using a thesaurus. Each sensation was subjected to a literature search to test its validity. Second and third order analyses were performed based on the results. The most common sensations found as a result of this process were: dryness, itching, fear, anger, restlessness, anxiety, indifference, heaviness, heat, acute and weakness. The active and passive reactions and compensations of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group were also analyzed. The active reactions included anger, rage, acute, violence, impatience and irritation. Passive reactions were heaviness, numbness, dullness, faintness, weakness and coldness. The compensatory reaction included sensations of ecstasy, elation and euphoria or tranquillity. Each remedy was classified into specific miasms based on Sankaran’s miasmatic model (Sankaran, 1997). Each remedy was categorized as a particular miasm if the literature showed a clear predominance of the themes associated with that miasm. Many of the remedies had features of the AIDS, Cancer, Sycotic and Tubercular miasms. Pathological tendencies of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group involved the throat, eyes, stomach, nervous system, male genitalia and sleep patterns. Clinically, the remedies can be used in cases of mental disorders such as psychosis and schizophrenia, chronic fatigue, visual and sleeping disorders, anorexia nervosa and neurological disorders such as chorea, tremors and formication. The results of this study appear to confirm the application of the group analysis methodology as outlined by Sankaran (2002). The results also add depth to the existing literature on synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies.

                                   

The addition of a large number of new remedies to the homoeopathic materia medica has made it challenging to select the correct remedy for a patient.

Locating individual remedies within groups makes it easier to understand, remember and apply the information from the remedies.

The aim of this research study was to evaluate common themes and symptomatology of homoeopathic remedies belonging to the synthetic recreational drug isolate group, as represented in the known homoeopathic materia medica and repertory. Most remedies derived from synthetic recreational drug isolate sources

have not been well documented or comprehensively proven in homoeopathy, so are not well represented in repertory programs.

Therefore, in addition, remedies in this study were selected according to the homoeopathic significance of each remedy, the availability of actual provings and representation in materia medica, the existence of a synthetic derivative of the drug, and if the drug was commonly used.

The selected remedies were then subjected to a manual rubric extraction process in which common rubrics were extracted. The common rubrics were analyzed to determine common sensations within the group. The extracted sensations were then defined using a dictionary and synonyms were determined using a thesaurus. Each sensation was subjected to a literature search to test its validity. Second and third order analyses were performed based on the results.

The most common sensations found as a result of this process were: dryness, itching, fear, anger, restlessness, anxiety, indifference, heaviness, heat,

Acute and weakness.

The active and passive reactions and compensations of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group were also analyzed.

The active reactions: anger, rage, acute, violence, impatience and irritation. Passive reactions were heaviness, numbness, dullness, faintness, weakness and coldness.

The compensatory reaction: sensations of ecstasy, elation and euphoria or tranquillity.

Each remedy was classified into specific miasms based on Sankaran’s miasmatic model (Sankaran, 1997).

Each remedy was categorized as a particular miasm if the literature showed a clear predominance of the themes associated with that miasm.

Many of the remedies had features of the AIDS, Cancer, Sycotic and Tubercular miasms.

Pathological tendencies of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group involved the throat, eyes, stomach, nervous system, male genitalia and sleep patterns. Clinically, the remedies can be used in cases of mental disorders such a s psychosis and schizophrenia, chronic fatigue, visual and sleeping disorders, anorexia nervosa and neurological disorders such as chorea, tremors and formication.

The results of this study appear to confirm the application of the group analysis methodology as outlined by Sankaran (2002).

The results also add depth to the existing literature on synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies.

Synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies in Homoeopathy

Extraction of common rubrics

 

Analysis of sensation

First Order analysis

Dryness

Dullness

Heaviness

Coldness

Weakness and faintness

Acute and sensitive

Detachment, indifference, apathy

Anxiety, fear restlessness

Heat, warmth, fever

Anger, fury, rage, violence

Numbness

Tingling, itching, burning

Tranquillity

Second order analysis

Impatience

Irritability

Excitement and exhilaration

Alone, forsaken, isolated, separated

Third order analysis

Sore and raw

 

New species in nature are being discovered every day, and therefore, there has been a need to classify species so that their similarities and differences and can be recognized. Similarly, there

are thousands of remedies in homoeopathy and our material medica is constantly being expanded with new remedies. As a result, a system

of homoeopathic classification is required to help practitioners both study the remedies, and prescribe more accurately for each individual (Sankaran, 2005b).

In the past, most remedies were studied in isolation without knowledge of the origin of the remedy (Scholten, 1993:23).

Remedies began to be classified according to their natural order, miasmatic theory, the doctrine of signatures and the repertory to assist in selection of

the correct remedy (Gaier, 1991).

Over the past two decades the quest for profound insight into remedies has led to meaningful new systems being developed in order to understand and classify groups

of remedies (Ihrig, 2012). This system is called group analysis (analytical methodology).

The aim of group analysis is to identify a mechanism so as to understand groups of related remedies through their common symptomatology (Scholten, 1993:23).

Homoeopaths like Rajan Sankaran, Jan Scholten, Mangialavori have analyzed groups of related remedies. Sankaran developed the sensation and kingdom

classification method, while Scholten devised a periodic classification system (Ihrig, 2012). Mangialavori has a multi-system approach which encompasses fields such

as anthropology, folk medicine, physiology, biochemistry, toxicology, classical homoeopathy, and clinical medicine.

His view is that understanding remedies is an ongoing process of integrating data from various sources, and not just relying on information from only provings or homoeopathic

materia medica etc. (Moskowitz, 2012).

Application of group analysis allows under-represented and poorly-understood remedies to have a clearer and deeper representation in the homoeopathic materia medica.

If this method is correctly understood and applied, it can make the practice of homoeopathy and prescribing more certain and simple (Sankaran, 2005b).

There is a new trend to prescribe remedies that are not well represented in the traditional homoeopathic literature such as repertories and homoeopathic materia

medicas. These remedies are referred to as being minor or small remedies, as they are poorly represented in homoeopathic literature and are understood to have a small site of application.

Hence, they are often neglected and are not often prescribed. However, with the virtue of new methods discovered by Jan Scholten, Massimo Mangialavori and Rajan Sankaran, it has led

to small or minor remedies being more often prescribed.

Practitioners therefore do not only have to rely on prescribing the well represented or the traditional larger (polychrest) remedies.

Previously, well known ‘drug’ remedies in homoeopathy were mostly derived from different botanical families such as Cannabis indica and Coffea cruda (Sankaran, 2002:290).

However, with the increased usage of synthetic recreational drugs in the world, the amount of ‘drug’ remedies being added to the system of homoeopathy has been escalating.

Synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies are a relatively small and new group in homoeopathy, with minimal information on each synthetic recreational drug isolate remedy being available.

Application of Sankaran’s method provides an understanding of the themes common to this group, and the information from this group analysis can be

contributed to the homoeopathic literature.

1.1

This study aimed to extract and evaluate the common themes and symptomatology that manifest in homoeopathic remedies belonging to the synthetic recreational drug isolate group, as represented

in the known homoeopathic materia medica and repertory. This was executed by analyzing the synthetic drug isolate remedies according to the group analysis method proposed by Rajan Sankaran (Sankaran, 2002).

The synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies:

Heroinum, 3, 4

Methylenedioxyn-methylamphetamine (MDMA),

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum (MPH),

Cocainum hydrochloricum

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

The objectives of this study were:

1. To ascertain if common characteristics belonging to the synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies can be extracted.

2. To identify the common characteristic sensations and reactions (active, passive or compensatory) of each remedy through an extraction process.

3. To classify each synthetic recreational drug isolate remedy according to Sankaran’s extended miasmatic model (Sankaran, 1997).

1.2

Rationale for the group analysis evaluation of remedies belonging to synthetic recreational drug isolates

1. Synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies are not well represented and are poorly documented in homoeopathic literature. This study will enhance our

understanding of the homoeopathic materia medica of these remedies.

2. From searching the literature, it appears that Sankaran’s method of group analysis has not previously been applied to the synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies.

3. Information from the group analysis can enhance our utilization of these remedies to ensure that they acquire a more significant role in homoeopathy and in clinical practice (Wulfsohn, 2005).

2.2.1 Information on the provings of the drugs.

Cocainum hydrochloricum

The original proving of cocainum hydrochloricum could not be located; therefore information was obtained from Synthesis:

Repertorium Homeopathicum Syntheticum. Edition 9.1 and Radar 10 (Archibel, 2005).

Heroinum

Janet Snowdown conducted the proving in 1998/1999 with 18 provers. 12 were females while 6 were male. A 30CH potency was used for a Hahnemannian proving

(Snowdown, 2002).

MDMA

Proving done by Declan Hammond in 1997, with sixteen provers using 30CH potency. Information was obtained from ReferenceWorks Pro 5.6

(Kent Homeopathic Associates, 1998).

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

Michael Chein conducted the proving of Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum.

The proving of Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum consisted of two groups of provers and utilised two methods:

The first group took the remedy in 6CH, 12CH, or 30CH daily for up to 14 days or until there was a reaction.

The second group received the crude substance in increasing quantities:

1st day - 3 mg

2nd day - 4 mg

3rd day - 5 mg

 

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

New species in nature are being discovered every day, and therefore, there has been a need to classify species so that their similarities and differences and can be recognized. Similarly, there are thousands of remedies in homoeopathy and our material medica is constantly being expanded with new remedies.

As a result, a system of homoeopathic classification is required to help practitioners both study the remedies, and prescribe more accurately for each individual (Sankaran, 2005b). In the past,

most remedies were studied in isolation without knowledge of the origin of the remedy (Scholten, 1993:23).

Remedies began to be classified according to their natural order, miasmatic theory, the doctrine of signatures and the repertory to assist in selection of the correct remedy (Gaier, 1991).

Over the past two decades the quest for profound insight into remedies has led to meaningful new systems being developed in order to understand and classify groups of remedies (Ihrig, 2012).

This system is called group analysis (analytical methodology).

The aim of group analysis is to identify a mechanism so as to understand groups of related remedies through their common symptomatology (Scholten, 1993:23).

Homoeopaths like Rajan Sankaran, Jan Scholten and Massimo Mangialavori have analyzed groups of related remedies. Sankaran developed the sensation and kingdom classification method,

while Scholten devised a periodic classification system (Ihrig, 2012). Mangialavori has a multi-system approach which encompasses fields such as anthropology, folk medicine, physiology, biochemistry, toxicology, classical homoeopathy, and clinical medicine.

His view is understanding remedies is an ongoing process of integrating data from various sources, and not just relying on information from only provings or homoeopathic materia medica etc. (Moskowitz, 2012).

Application of group analysis allows under-represented and poorly-understood remedies to have a clearer and deeper representation in the homoeopathic materia medica.

If this method is correctly understood and applied, it can make the practice of homoeopathy and prescribing more certain and simple (Sankaran, 2005b).

There is a new trend to prescribe remedies that are not well represented in the traditional homoeopathic literature such as repertories and homoeopathic material medicas. These remedies are referred to as being minor or small remedies, as they are poorly represented in homoeopathic literature and are understood to have a small site of application. Hence, they are often neglected and are not often prescribed. With the virtue of new methods discovered by Jan Scholten, Massimo Mangialavori and Rajan Sankaran, it has led to small or minor remedies being more often prescribed.

Practitioners therefore do not only have to rely on prescribing the well represented or the traditional larger (polychrest) remedies.

Previously, well known ‘drug’ remedies in homoeopathy were mostly derived from different botanical families such as Cannabis indica and Coffea cruda

(Sankaran, 2002:290). However, with the increased usage of synthetic recreational drugs in the world, the amount of ‘drug’ remedies being added to the system of homoeopathy has been escalating. Synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies are a relatively small and new group in homoeopathy, with minimal information on each synthetic recreational drug isolate remedy being available. Application of Sankaran’s method provides an understanding of the themes common to this group, and the information from this group analysis can be contributed to the homoeopathic literature.

 

Aim of the study

This study aimed to extract and evaluate the common themes and symptomatology that manifest in homoeopathic remedies belonging to the synthetic recreational drug isolate group, as represented in the known homoeopathic materia medica and repertory. This was executed by analyzing the synthetic drug isolate remedies according to the group analysis method proposed by Rajan Sankaran (Sankaran, 2002). The synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies included

Heroinum, 3, 4

Methylenedioxy-n-methylamphetamine (MDMA),

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum (MPH),

Cocainum hydrochloricum

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

The objectives of this study were:

1. To ascertain if common characteristics belonging to the synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies can be extracted.

2. To identify the common characteristic sensations and reactions (active, passive or compensatory) of each remedy through an extraction process.

3. To classify each synthetic recreational drug isolate remedy according to Sankaran’s extended miasmatic model (Sankaran, 1997).

 

Rationale for the group analysis evaluation of remedies belonging to synthetic recreational drug isolates

1. Synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies are not well represented and are poorly documented in homoeopathic literature. This study will enhance our

understanding of the homoeopathic materia medica of these remedies.

2. From searching the literature, it appears that Sankaran’s method of group analysis has not previously been applied to the synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies.

3. Information from the group analysis can enhance our utilization of these drug remedies to ensure that they acquire a more significant role in homoeopathy and in clinical practice (Wulfsohn, 2005).

4. This study can form the basis for other studies extracting themes of the synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies, thereby contributing to the possibility of these remedies eventually being classified in their own class.

Hippocrates mentions that one method of cure is by ‘similarities’, Boulduc states that the purgative quality of rhubarb can be used to treat diarrhea, while Detharding states that the herb senna cures colic because it produces a similar effect on a healthy person. It was Hahnemann however, who was the first to truly systematize this law into the field of homoeopathy (O’ Reilly, 1996:57).

Scholten states that the Law of Similars is not limited to the system of homoeopathy and that there are a variety of modern medicines that are able to produce the symptoms that the same medicines are used to treat. These include anti-depressants which can lead to depression, and methylphenidate hydrochloride which is used to treat Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and which can also lead to restlessness (Scholten, 2004:231 - 232).

 

Hahnemann proved nearly a hundred remedies upon their similarity with illnesses during his life time (Vithoulkas, 1998:95).

A proving is a systematic process of administering substances to healthy individuals, in order to learn the alterations, signs and symptoms of the action of the substance upon an individual (O’ Reilly, 1996:144).

Human beings are the preferred subjects for provings because symptoms in the mental and emotional planes are required, which cannot be obtained from animals or plants.

When a proving substance is administered, it stimulates the organism and its defence system to produce mental, physical, general and peculiar symptoms.

These symptoms represent the specific manifestations of the defence system (Vithoulkas, 1998:97).

Similarly, when the symptoms of a patient are recorded, the specific manifestations of the defence system are recorded (Vithoulkas, 1998:144). By matching the symptom of the remedy to the symptoms of the patient, a patient’s symptoms can be alleviated or cured (Vithoulkas, 1998:96). Therefore, provings reveal invaluable, precise and accurate knowledge of a substance through the actual experience of a prover (Sherr, 1994:4).

 

2.2.1 Information on the provings of the drugs

Cocainum hydrochloricum

The original proving of cocainum hydrochloricum could not be located; therefore information was obtained from Synthesis:

Repertorium Homeopathicum Syntheticum. Edition 9.1 and Radar 10 (Archibel, 2005).

Heroinum

Janet Snowdown conducted the proving in 1998/1999 with eighteen provers. Twelve were females while six were male. A 30CH potency was used and it was a

Hahnemannian proving (Snowdown, 2002).

MDMA

The proving was done by Declan Hammond in 1997, with sixteen provers using 30CH potency. Information was obtained from ReferenceWorks Pro 5.6

(Kent Homeopathic Associates, 1998).

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

Michael Chein conducted the proving of Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum.

The proving of Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum consisted of two groups of provers and utilised two methods:

The first group took the remedy in 6CH, 12CH, or 30CH daily for up to 14 days or until there was a reaction.

The second group received the crude substance in increasing quantities:

First day - 3 mg

Second day - 4 mg

Third day - 5 mg

And so on, up to 10 days or until there was a reaction.

Those who reacted optimally to the remedy received a second dose of 30CH after the symptoms from the crude dose subsided.

The two groups had one placebo each.

(Proving data was obtained from an email from Michael Chein on 4 October 2011)

Lysergic acid diethylamide

Misha Norland conducted the proving of LSD in 1999. There were sixteen provers with eleven female and five male. Ten of the provers administered one dose of the remedy in 30CH, while six prover s did not administer the remedy (Norland, 1999).

 

Table 7: Groups of sensations obtained through the extraction process

Separated                   Weakness                    Anxiety            Heat                Dryness            Excitement                 Sensitive                     Anger                         

Isolated                      Faintness                     Restlessness            Warmth                                   Euphoria                     Acute                          Rage              

Forsaken                     Apathy            Irritation         Red                                        Exhilaration               Sore                Fury

Detached                    Numbness            Impatient            Fever                                       Euphoria                                                        Violent

Neglected                                                                                                                            Blissfull

Elation

Ecstasy

Cheerful

Carefree

Laughing

Content

 

Table 8

includes proposed themes/sensations to describe the central sensation, passive, and active as well as compensatory reactions.

Table 8: Proposed sensations/themes and reactions of the homoeopathic remedies belonging to the synthetic recreational drug isolate group

Sensation                                Passive Reaction                                 Active Reaction                                 Compensation

Anxiety                                  Heaviness                                          Anger                                                 Euphoria

Restlessness                           Numbness                                          Rage                                                  Ecstasy

Fear                                        Dullness                                             Violent                                               Elation

Excitement                             Faintness                                            Impatient                                           Tranquility

Dryness                                  Weakness                                           Irritable

Indifference                           Coldness                                            Acute

Isolation

 

4.4.2

Themes

1. Anxiety

2. Dryness

3. Euphoria, ecstasy, elation, excitement

4. Coldness

5. Indifference, apathy

6. Nervous affection

increased activity, numbness,

restlessness,

weakness, tingling,

increased sensitivity

7. Isolation, detachment, separation

8. Fearlessness (although it is not a prominent theme, it is present through all the remedies except in Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum)

9. Tranquillity, serenity and calmness

10. Loquacity present in all five remedies

11. General desire for sweets present in all remedies except in MDMA

12. Common physical affections of the remedies include:

a) A common sensation of dryness in the throat;

 

The different remedies share similar themes of the AIDS miasm. However, the remedies can be differentiated according to the characteristics of the kingdom or group they

belong to, particular themes, issues and the individual remedy characteristics (Fraser, 2002:48).

 

Drug and bird remedies

Drug abuse has become a major issue as it closely meets the overpowering needs of many individuals (Fraser, 2002:55). The themes of isolation, secrecy, feeling of

numbness and disconnection from the pain of modern existence often relate to the issues of a person in an AIDS miasmatic and disease state. AIDS has also been

associated with drug abuse, especially with intravenous use of drugs, as it is a mode of transmitting the virus (Fraser, 2002: 124).

According to Fraser (2002:54), remedies from Class Aves have a strong connection to the AIDS miasm as birds are able to live freely without any restrictions or boundaries, and they

are able to move, free of the constraints of the earth (Fraser, 2009:95).

 

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Due to the paucity of comprehensive material medica, repertory, provings and clinical information of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group, the researcher aimed to

extract and evaluate common themes and symptomatology that manifested in the homoeopathic remedies belonging to the synthetic recreational drug isolate group.

Conducting this study extracted and clarified the common sensations and characteristics of the group. The extracted and analyzed data was also able to demonstrate a clear picture of the similarities in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group as a whole.

This was accomplished by applying Sankaran’s methodology and analysis to the synthetic recreational drug isolate group. Therefore, this research has shown that

Sankaran’s methodology of group analysis can be applied to related remedies, as they share common characteristics that define them as a group.

Group analysis approach to homoeopathy

In current times where scientific processes dominate, it is crucial to develop a more systematic methodology and approach to homoeopathy. Theories also need to be

explored up to the highest level before being recognized or disapproved. Then only can a profession progress closer to mainstream science.

define the remedy well. He then selects five to ten characteristic symptoms of the remedy called the Minimum Characteristic Syndrome (MCS). The polychrest remedy is

then analyzed against other remedies whose themes closely overlap with the MCS of the relevant polychrest (Candegabe, 1997: - 3). Therefore, this method can help

differentiate between similar remedies and to prescribe more accurately.

Kent generated many remedy pictures by combining specific constituent components of certain polychrest mineral remedies. He was able to depict the themes of Kali-sil. (Silicate of Potash)

based on information from Silicea terra (Silica) and Potassium salts like Kalium bichromicum (Potassium bichromate) (Watson, 2004:25).

Over the last two decades, new methods of classification have emerged. The modern way of working with classification is called Group Analysis.

Sankaran developed the classification of kingdoms, family themes and miasms, while Scholten classified remedies from the mineral kingdom and the theory of elements

[Scholten, 2005: 38 – 39]

Mangialavori explored the themes of the spider and snake groups (Wulfsohn, 2005:14).

Nancy Herrick has developed the themes of mammals through provings of their milk (lac).

The remedies include

Lac Loxodonta Africana (African Elephant),

Lac Leoninum (Lion),

Lac Lupinum (Wolf),

Lac Delphinium (Dolphin)

Lac Equinum (Horse)

(Herrick, 1998: xi).

Farokh Master refined the work on milks by connecting common themes from all nine animal milk (lac) remedies:

Lac caninum (Dog),

Lac caprinum (Goat),

Lac delphinium (Dolphin),

Lac equinum (Horse),

Lac felinum (Cat),

Lac humanum (Human),

Lac leoninum (Lion),

Lac lupinum (Wolf),

Lac vaccinum defloratum (skimmed milk).

Farokh discusses six themes amongst the milks:

 

relationship

separation,

emotional turmoil (forsaken feelings),

friends (desires to belong to a group),

falling down (physically falling and falling down into an animal state),

impulsiveness under control (rage and sexuality, with a history of abuse),

antagonism

(Yasgur, 2006:51).

2.11

Sankaran: Group analysis

Homoeopathic practice is generally based on identifying the symptoms of a remedy.

Sankaran takes this further by stating that the symptomatology of any remedy is intimately related to the source it is drawn from, as each remedy has an essence and

connection with its source (Sankaran, 1999:313).

Bearing this in mind, Sankaran wanted to differentiate between a person requiring a plant remedy from one who needs an animal or mineral remedy. He decided to observe hundreds of patients in his practice to see if the “spirit” and character of a substance can be expressed in a human being.

He found this to be the case, and went on to classify remedy states into different kingdoms: mineral, plant and animal (Sankaran, 2005b:46 - 48).

 

2.11.1

Kingdoms.x

 

2.11.2

Sankaran’s concept of Vital Sensation

Sankaran noticed that all remedies of a given botanical family shared a common general sensation. However, it was not confined to the plant kingdom only, but could

also be applied to the other kingdoms as well (Sankaran, 2005b:213). Each kingdom has its own unique basic sensation (Sankaran, 2005b: 292) and identifying the common

sensation helps recognize the central issue or core symptoms of the remedies (Sankaran, 2005b:126). The common sensation connects the mind and body. Sankaran

called the common point between the body and mind the Vital Sensation. At this point, the mind and body ‘speak’ the same language and the vital sensation can be identified from the chief complaint of a patient, as it is an expression of the vital sensation (Sankaran, 2005b:140). Therefore, the concept of vital sensation can be a reflection of diadoxis. According to Sankaran (2005b:293), there are three basic vital sensations; viz. structure, survival and sensitivity which correspond respectively to the three kingdoms: Mineral, Animal and Plant kingdoms.

2.11.2.1

Extraction of sensations and reactions

Sankaran wanted to further sub divide the plant kingdom, as he did with the mineral and animal kingdom. As the main theme in the plant kingdom is sensitivity, Sankaran

thought that each family within the plant kingdom would experience their own sensitivity, and that the sensation can reveal the type of sensitivity of each family

(Sankaran, 2002:21). To confirm this, Sankaran conducted a repertorial search through software programmes such as MacRepertory.

He extracted rubrics that were common to at least two remedies of a family. For example, Sankaran searched the MacRepertory for rubrics common to the remedies of the

Euphorbiaceae family. He selected rubrics which had at least two remedies in the family. In the rubric “Skin; hidebound, sensation as if” he found that Hura brasiliensis and Croton tiglium shared this symptom, and they both belong to the Euphorbiaceae family (Sankaran, 2002:4).

Sankaran also selected rubrics only if the sensation was indicated at the mental or physical level (Sankaran, 2002:4).

The results from his searching revealed that each family shared at least one common sensation which can be expressed in all the remedies of the family, in various ways

(Sankaran, 2005b:22). The sensations can also be expressed or perceived in four different ways (Sankaran, 2005b:141): 1).

As the sensation directly (Sankaran, 2005b:141);

2) As a reaction that is equal and opposite to the sensation. There are two types of reactions: active and passive (Sankaran, 2005b:141);

3) As a compensation, where compensation involves covering up some aspects of our nature (Sankaran, 2005b:34).

For example, a person requiring a remedy from the Euphorbiaceae plant family shares a common sensation of “tied and untied, bound and unbound”.

The active reaction is “a desire to break free”, the passive reaction is to be “tied and cannot do anything about it” and the compensatory reaction is to “feel free, unbound and not tied up” (Sankaran, 2005a:16).

Thus, through this process, Sankaran managed to subdivide the plant kingdom into various botanical families, with each family having their own individual sensations,

expressions and characteristics such as the Loganiacea, Conifers, Papaveraceae and Rubiaceae families to name but a few (Sankaran, 2005a).

The next question was to be able to differentiate between remedies within the same botanical family that had the same expression. To solve this last obstacle, he classified

the same members of the botanical family into different miasms. Though the sensation is common, each remedy perceives it in a different depth. The difference in the various remedies of the same botanical family is because they belong to different miasms (Sankaran, 2005b:126).

Croton tiglium belongs to the Euphorbiacea family and shares the common sensation of the family, but is categorized into the acute miasm. Hence, the main feeling of

Croton tiglium is “Acute threat from being suddenly bound” (Sankaran, 2002:248).

Hura brasiliensis, which also belongs to the Euphorbiacea family, shares the sensation of the Euphorbiaceae family, but has themes of the leprosy miasm. Hence, the feeling of Hura brasiliensis

can be: “Condemned by being bound” (Sankaran, 2002:262). Thus, each remedy from a family has the combination of the family sensation and its individual miasmatic features (Sankaran, 2002:27).

2.11.3

Miasm

Through his experience, Sankaran realized that a disease is an attitude or a posture acquired by an organism to survive in a particular situation. This posture can remain even after the situation no longer exists. Thus, the person continues to perceive and react according to the original situation. Therefore, the mental state of a person can be recognized as a posture acquired by the person in response to a situation, even if the situation does not exist. The person falsely perceives the situation in a way which is inappropriate or unsuitable.

According to Sankaran, disease is a basic delusion of the patient and by removing the delusion, the disease can be removed (Sankaran, 2005b:32 - 33).

Sankaran decided to study miasms in terms of his concept of ‘disease as a delusion’.

Miasms are a classification of diseases, therefore it is also a classification of delusions (falsely perceived situations) (Sankaran, 2005b:38). It is also a way a person perceives a type of situation which can be reflected through the depth and degree of desperation a person feels. Therefore miasms can be a measure of how desperate a situation is perceived to be (Sankaran, 2005b:263). The Psoric miasm is considered to be the least desperate while the Syphilitic miasm is considered to be the most desperate (Sankaran, 2005b:123).

There are many ways to perceive a situation and therefore, in addition to the three classic miasms, Sankaran identified seven more inbetween miasms to the existing

model. The new miasms were named after the diseases they most closely resemble and include:

Acute, Typhoid, Ringworm, Malarial, Cancer, Tubercular and Leprosy (Sankaran, 2005b:228)

 

Drug remedies in homoeopathy: an ill defined group in homoeopathy. Synthetic drug remedies are relatively new and include remedies derived from synthetic pharmaceutical drugs, such as Penicillinum (Penicillin), Amitriptylinum (Amitriptyline), Diazepam, Haloperidolum (Haloperidol), to name but a few.

Some of the most well known ‘drug’ remedies are Anhalonium lewinii, Cannabis Indica, Coffea cruda, Coca, Nux moschata, Agaricus muscarius and Opium.

However, they are not synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies.

Remedies from the synthetic recreational drug isolate group can be prescribed as a homoeopathic remedy in various forms. Synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies

can be prescribed in two forms:

1) Tautopathic prescription

Tautopathy means the prescribing of a potentised drug or toxin. One prescribes a tautopathic remedy if a patient has the aetiology of ‘never been well since’ taking a

drug, poisonous chemical, toxin etc (Watson, 2004:108). Another indication is if a patient presents with the ill-effects of a drug substance. A tautopathic remedy can be prescribed on the symptom picture to alleviate the ill effects of the drug, as long as it is clearly indicated (Watson, 2004:108).

For example, if a person displays symptoms due to the effects caused by cocaine abuse, the tautopathic remedy of cocaine will alleviate the symptoms.

2) Homoeopathic simillimum

Homoeopathic remedies are prescribed based on the Law of Similars. If a person’s symptoms from a case correlate to the proving symptoms of a certain drug remedy e.g Cocainum hydrochloricum, one will have prescribe this remedy as the simillimum.

[Mangialavori] certain substances were traditionally used as drugs in different cultures, as each culture has its own unique drugs:

Coca in South America,

Anhalonium lewenii in Central America,

Cannabis indica in North Africa,

Opium in the Middle East,

Agaricus muscarius in Siberia,

Kava-Kava in Polynesia.

He considers drugs to be interesting as they were originally used to alter consciousness and to discover one's connection with God. Even though the thought of God is different in different parts of the world, and each culture uses a different substance, the drug substances do have many important features in common (Mangialavori, 1999).

Some general homoeopathic drug characteristics have previously been identified, including:

- Feelings of isolation and being forsaken with desires of escaping;

- Impressions and perceptions are increased (Hypersensitive);

- Pleasant feelings (euphoria, elation) and fantasies (can create their own world);

- Dreamy/Spaced out, carefree;

- Delusions/Hallucinations (visual, auditory, tactile etc);

- Numbing of pain/ avoidance;

- Addiction/Dependence;

- Disorientated/Confusion;

- Beautiful visions;

- Distorted perception of space and time;

- Self destructive (Traub, in Lewis, 2007)

 

Through research in the plant kingdom, Sankaran proposed certain homoeopathic plant ‘drug’ themes:

1)   A feeling of alienation isolated and removed from the rest of the world - “As if living in t heir own world”

2)   A sense of upliftment and feeling that the world is beautiful;

3)   Benevolence - with the need to do something in order to feel a sense of belonging. Lack of sensitivity/Hypersensitivity

4)   Activity of the mind with too many thoughts (Sankaran, 2002:516)

2.13.1

Other ‘drug’ related information In the preface of Mangialavori’s “Praxis” Volume II (2010), consisting of case studies of the “Drug family,”

Giovanni Marotta states his opinion on the work of the Drug family. He believes that a human being is born, progresses, dies, and then goes on to another state.

There is a continuous process of integration and disintegration, construction and destruction in one’s life. According to Marotta, drugs are well known for their

characteristics of breaking down the psychosomatic integrity of a person. He compares this to an anatomical dissection, where the destruction allows one to glance into the

underlying structure and function. Therefore, Marotta believes that drug substances help to reveal how an individual is put together.

In 2010, a book called “Power Drugs” was published and included articles on Cacao, Coffea tosta, Coffea cruda, Camphora, Guarana, Thea, Chocolate, Ephedra, Kola,

Damiana, Kava Kava, Mate and Tabacum.

Even these drugs have been used by different cultures for thousands of years, and are being consumed now on a daily basis as stimulants in the modern day competitive world. These drugs help to increase performance as they make one work faster, better and more effective ly (Narayan Publishers, 2010).

No official group analysis has been conducted on synthetic recreational drug isolated remedies, and therefore the results from the current study is a valuable

contribution and may lead to remedies from the synthetic recreational drug isolate group being utilized more often in homoeopathic practice.

2.14

Synthetic recreational drug isolates

Before progressing further, the following words need to be defined and understood (Collins Paperback Dictionary and Thesaurus, 2006):

1) Synthetic: a substance or material made artificially by chemical reaction; not genuine.

2) Recreational (in terms of a drug): taken for pleasure rather than for medical reasons or because of an addiction.

3) Drug: any synthetic, semi-synthetic or natural chemical substance used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or for other medical reasons

or taken for the pleasant effects it produces.

The classification of recreational drugs (Goldstein, 2001).

Definitions and Examples

CANNABINOIDS Drugs that are a derivative of the plant Cannabis indica and can produce both hallucinogenic and depressant results.

Marijuana.

DEPRESSANTS Drugs that slow down the normal body function and the central nervous system (CNS)

Alcohol

Barbiturates

Methaqualone

HALLUCINOGENS Drugs that induce or produce hallucinations and disrupt the normal functioning of the CNS

LSD

Amphetamines

Methamphetamine

PCP (Phenicyclidene)

Psylocibine (Magic Mushrooms)

NARCOTICS (Opiates) Drugs that have a relaxing and pain relieving effect.

Opium

Heroin

Codein

Morphine

STIMULANTS Drugs that increase activity in the CNS

Cocaine

Amphetamines

Methamphetamine

MDMA (Ectasy)

Nicotine

Ephedrine

Metylphenidat hydrochloride

Stimulants include Cocaine, Caffeine.

Exciting the CNS, stimulate behaviour or arousal, suppress appetite and remove fatigue. Some simultants (Metylphenidat hydrochloride can also calm some forms of hyperactivity

(Palfay and Jackowitz, 1997:289). 

2.14.1.2

Methylphenidate hydrochloride is a stimulant which is similar to amphetamines. Discovered in 1954 by scientists at a Swiss drug company. It was then introduced in the

U.S. in 1955 as a treatment for narcolepsy (Barondes, 2003:71).

Early advertisements portrayed tired, fatigued patients with a wide range of psychiatric disorders such as chronic fatigue, depression, and dementia. The information and

visuals of methylphenidate hydrochloride advertisements throughout the 1950s and 1960s suggested it to be a drug that is useful in the treatment of most psychiatric

diagnoses. While methylphenidate hydrochloride was advertised for adults exclusively, the use of other psychotropic drugs for behaviour problems in children has been

ongoing since the 1920s (Tone and Watkins, 2007: 132).

By the 1960s, many articles documented the benefits of methylphenidate hydrochloride over tranquilizers in the treatment of children’s overactive and distracted behaviours.

The term for this behaviour was called ‘chronic brain syndrome’.

Two years later, it was named Minimal Brain Dysfunction (MBD). MBD is a collective term for at least thirty eight other diagnostic terms. Methylphenidate

hydrochloride was marketed to treat MBD, and in 1970 it was officially used for the treatment of children with MBD, the early term for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (Tone and Watkins, 2007: 140 - 141).

Mechanism of action

Methylphenidate hydrochloride acts as a stimulant by rectifying the chemical deficiency in the brain. However, as with schizophrenia and depression, there is no direct evidence for an imbalance of a neurotransmitter in people with ADHD. Like amphetamines, methylphenidate hydrochloride binds to transporters that control the uptake of brain amines, like dopamine. Similar to amphetamines, intravenous methylphenidate

2.14.2

Hallucinogens (also known as psychotomimetics and psychedelics) are drugs that produce hallucinations and affect one’s cognition and perception. Hallucinogen comes

from the Latin word halucinatio which means wandering of the mind or attention.

Medically, it is defined as a sensory perception without an actual external stimulus.

They can cause delirium or psychotic episodes of schizophrenia. Hallucinogens include ketamine, phencyclidine (PCP), Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (Palfai and Jankiewicz, 1997:415 - 417).

A new term, entheogen (= Greek word entheos, meaning ‘God within),’ has been introduced as these substances reveal or allow a connection to the ‘divine within’ (Vale, 2012: 86).

Bufotenin

Salvia divinorum (Salv-divinorum)

Tabacum officinalis = Nicotiana tabacum Anhang

Anhalonium lewinii Anhang

 

LSD "Virtually all American users of entheogenic drugs claim to have tried mescaline at some point in their careers. Clearly, the great majority have simply tried ...

2.15

Biochemical Analysis of the drugs

MDMA and LSD have amphetamine like molecular structures (referred to as phenethylamines) and are therefore chemically related to amphetamines (Hanson et al., 2012:364).

Amphetamine is a synthetic derivative of the phenylethylamine family, which differs as it contains a methyl group (- CH3) attached to the side chain (European

Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2011e).

Phenethylamines drugs have varying degrees of hallucinogenic and CNS stimulant properties (Hanson et al., 2012:364). MDMA and LSD have more hallucinogenic

properties than stimulating properties, with LSD having a psychedelic effect as well (Hanson et al., 2012:364 - 365).

Methylphenidate hydrochloride is also related to amphetamines, but only has a stimulating property (Hanson et al., 2012:299).

Therefore, LSD, MDMA and methylphenidate hydrochloride have common substructures such as amphetamines as well as phenethylamines (Hanson et al., 2012:364).

LSD does differ from MDMA and methylphenidate hydrochloride as it contains a diethylamide group with an indole ring (six-membered benzene ring fused to a five

- membered nitrogen-containing pyrrole ring) (May, 1998).

Methylphenidate hydrochloride also differs as it is the only drug that has a piperidine derivative and contains the element chlorine (Drugs.com, 2012).

However, LSD, MDMA, methylphenidate hydrochloride, Heroin and Cocaine share some common substructures such as benzene rings (aromatic compounds) and amine groups (May, 1998).

3.2

Sample selection

Due to the fact that information was extracted through a manual process, the remedies chosen could not be selected only in terms of rubrics listed in computerized programs and repertories.

Remedies were chosen from those listed in Table 2 according to the following criteria:

1. The homoeopathic significance of each remedy

2. The availability of proving’s and representation in materia medica

3. The drug has a synthetic derivative

4. The drug is commonly used.

 

Table 2: Recreational Drug remedies in homoeopathy

                                                                       

Drugname

 

Remedy name

Opium

 

Poppy

Papaver somniferum

Heroin

 

Heroinum

Codein

 

Codein

Morphine

 

Morphinum

Ethyl alcohol

 

Alcoholus

Phenobarbital

 

Phenobarbital

MDMA / Ecstasy

 

MDMA / Ecstasy

Amphetamines: Mescaline

 

Anhalonium lewinii

Nicotine

 

Nicotinum

Methylphenidate hydrochlorice

 

Methylphenidate hydrochloricum

Cocaine

 

Cocainum hydrochloricum

Ephedrine

 

Ephedrinum

Cannabis indica (Hashish)

 

Cannabis indica

Lysergic acid diethylamide

 

LSD

Coffee

 

Coffea cruda

Nutmeg

 

Nux moschata

Fly agaric

 

Agaricus muscarius

 

 

 

 

These criteria were utilized because the group analysis method is mainly focused on characteristic, well-defined features which are poorly represented in the ‘smaller’

remedies (Sankaran, 2005). A minimum of 5 remedies was selected as this is the smallest number to have been previously used in a group analysis study (Weston, 2010).

The selection process resulted in the following five remedies:

- Heroinum (Heroin)

- MDMA/Ecstasy (MDMA/Ecstasy)

- Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum (Methylphenidate hydrochloride) = MHL

- Cocainum hydrochloricum (Cocaine)

- Lysergic acid diethylamide (Lysergic acid diethylamide) = LSD

3.3

Data processing Information from various materia medica, provings, Radar 10 and rubrics were used for extraction purposes. The selected remedies were subjected to a manual extraction and only rubrics that contained at least 2 of the selected remedies were utilized. The extraction process produced mental, physical and general symptoms.

3.4.

Data analysis

3.4.1

Determination of the common group sensation

The selected rubrics were analyzed for common sensations in the group.

All data was analyzed in terms of Sankaran’s model of Vital Sensation.

If the sensation was represented by a rubric that was present in at least 2 of the selected remedies, it was considered to be common to the group.

Sensations from mental symptoms, general symptoms and symptoms particular to various parts of the body were included. The results are listed in Table 3 (Sensation rubrics for the synthetic recreational drug isolate group).

3.4.1.1

First order analysis

The extracted sensations were defined using a dictionary and thesaurus (Collins, 2006).

The same text was used to identify synonyms relating to the sensation.

The extracted common sensations and corresponding synonyms were subjected to a homoeopathic literature search. This tested and confirmed the accuracy and validity of the selected set of sensations. This also ensured that the sensation relates to the group as a whole. This was termed the first order analysis.

3.4.1.2

Second order analysis

The approved sensations extracted from the first order analysis were subjected to a definition development process using a dictionary (Collins, 2006) and a synonyms

development process using a Thesaurus (Collins, 2006).

Each synonym was examined and homoeopathic literature was searched to test its validity. This was termed the second order analysis. This method verified the first order sensations, while the second order sensations could be established.

3.4.1.3

Third order analysis

If any new sensations emerged as a result of the second order analysis, these were then subjected to a third order analysis. The new sensations were also subjected to a literature search, allowing second order sensations to be verified and new third order sensations to be established.

All synonyms and definitions are listed in

APPENDIX A: Keywords utilized according to Sankaran’s (2005:7) miasmatic model

 

Acute

Typhoid

Malaria

Acute

Sub-acute

Paroxysmal

Sudden

Crisis

Periodical

Violent

Intens

Stuck

Panic

Sinking

Persecution

Danger

Recover

Unfortune

Reflex

Intense short effort

Excitement # Acceptance

Escape

 

 

Terror

Collapse

Obstructed

Helpless

Impatience

Hindered

 

 

 

Fright

Demanding

 

Instinctive

Critical

 

Insanity

Typhoid

 

 

The common extracted sensations were also analyzed according to their quantitative representation in the different sections of the homoeopathic materia medica. The extracted common sensations and the allocation of each remedy of the drug group in the homoeopathic materia medica are listed in section 4.3.

3.4.2.

Determination of the reactions to the common sensations of the group

Once a set of common sensations of the group was identified, the reactions to these sensations were analyzed and divided into 3 categories: active, passive or compensatory reactions towards the sensation (Sankaran, 2005b:141).

Reactions to a particular sensation may result in actual actions, a desire to act and or the avoidance or lack of action. Each action can give rise to a related sensation and each sensation can stimulate a specific action, even if one does not actually act upon that action. In this manner, sensation and action (or the desire to act) are always equal and opposite (Sankaran, 2005b:130).

3.4.3

Determination of the miasmatic classification of the group

Each remedy of the group was individually studied and analyzed based on Sankaran’s extended miasmatic model (Sankaran, 1997). Sankaran developed a miasmatic table (Appendix A) with a list of keywords which are related to a particular miasm.

Sankaran’s miasmatic model does not include the AIDS miasm.

However, he states that that there are many more miasms that are yet to be discovered and the development of miasms is an evolving process (Sankaran, 1999:74).

 

Literature from the homoeopathic materia medica, provings and rubrics were searched for those keywords.

If the keywords specific to a miasm dominate in a remedy, this may point to the relevant miasm which the remedy might belong to (Sankaran, 2005a). The individual

characteristics and particular expression of each remedy was also analyzed, to determine the total miasmatic representation of each remedy.

 

CHAPTER 4

4.3.1.1 Dryness

The effects of many recreational synthetic drugs are activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). One of the symptoms produced is dryness. Dryness was

present as a symptom throughout all five synthetic recreational drug remedies (Palfai and Jankiewicz, 1997: 110).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

EYE - Dryness

EYE - PAIN + dryness of eyeballs

FACE - DRYNESS [Lips (licks them frequently)]

MOUTH - DRYNESS [Palate (< open air)]

THROAT - DRYNESS (not > drinking)

LARYNX AND TRACHEA - DRYNESS

COUGH - DRY

CHEST - DRYNESS

SKIN - Dry

EXTREMITIES - DRYNESS - Hands (palm)

Heroinum

THROAT - DRYNESS

COUGH - DRY (from tickling in Larynx)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

NOSE - DRYNESS - at night/inside

MOUTH - DRYNESS with thirst

FACE - DRY Lips (at night/on waking)

EXTREMITIES - DRYNESS [(r.) palm of hands]

COUGH - DRY (almost constant)

SKIN - DRY - inability to perspire

Cocainum hydrochloricum

           THROAT - DRYNESS

MDMA

THROAT - DRYNESS

FEMALE GENITALIA - DRYNESS of vagina

4.3.1.2

Dullness

People tend to experience feelings of dullness, drowsiness and mental clouding during administration of heroin (Hanson, 2012:258).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

           MIND - DULLNESS (> evening/in company/can only relate to one person at a time/for what he has heard/slow thinking)

Heroinum

            MIND - DULLNESS

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - DULLNESS (with headache)

HEAD - PAIN dull pain

Cocainum hydrochloricum

            No data available for this sensation in the literature

MDMA

            No data available for this sensation in the literature

4.3.1.3

Heaviness

A sign of heroin use is the heavy feeling of the extremities (Hanson, 2012:262).

Heroin and cocaine use during pregnancy has been associated with a reduced birth weight where the babies are under- weight and malnourished (Hanson, 2012:312).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - DELUSIONS - body heavy and thick

MIND - DELUSIONS - is heavy

MIND - DELUSIONS - a heavy black cloud enveloped her

HEAD - HEAVINESS in forehead/in occiput

EYE - HEAVINESS

EXTREMITIES - HEAVINESS [in foot/in hip/in leg (r.)/shoulder (r.)/thigh (sitting)/

EXTREMITIES - HEAVINESS - Upper limbs (l.)

Heroinum

MIND - DELUSIONS - is heavy/”As if heavy”

VERTIGO - + heaviness in head

HEAD - HEAVINESS (on forehead)

EYE - HEAVINESS in lids

NOSE - HEAVINESS

EXTREMITIES - HEAVINESS (in lower limbs)

SLEEP - HEAVY

GENERALS - HEAVINESS (in afternoon)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

EYE - HEAVINESS in lids

GENERALS - HEAVINESS

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this sensation in the literature

MDMA

No data available for this sensation in the literature.

4.3.1.4

Coldness

Drugs like Heroin, when taken, can remove feelings of coldness. However, coldness can also be an after effect of the drug (Emmett and Nice, 1996: 145)

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - DELUSIONS - skull open to the cold

HEAD - PAIN > cold air

HEAD - PAIN in cold wind

EYE - COLDNESS (l.)

VISION - LIGHT cold

MOUTH - PAIN in palate < cold air

BACK - COLDNESS /”As from cold air”

EXTREMITIES - COLDNESS in foot [evening (18 h.)/sitting]

PERSPIRATION - COLD

SKIN - COLDNESS with internal heat

GENERALS - COLD </aversion to cold air

GENERALS - COLD feeling in bones

Heroinum

NOSE - COLDNESS

MOUTH - SALIVA cool

THROAT - “As if cold” (in oesophagus/”As from peppermint”)

LARYNX AND TRACHEA - “As if cold” in larynx

CHEST - COLDNESS internal

EXTREMITIES - COLDNESS [in hands (and feet)]

SLEEP - SLEEPLESSNESS from coldness

CHILL - ICY COLDNESS of the body

GENERALS - FOOD and DRINKS - desires cold drink, cold water

GENERALS - “As if hot” # sensation of cold

GENERALS - TREMBLING with external coldness

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

HEAD - HOT with coldness of body (extremities)

COUGH - < COLD drinks

EXTREMITIES - COLDNESS

GENERALS - < COLD air

GENERALS - “As if hot” # sensation of cold

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this sensation in the literature

MDMA

GENERALS - FOOD and DRINKS desires cold drinks

4.3.1.5

Weakness and faintness

Weakness and faintness associated with the withdrawal of drug usage (Palfai and Jankiewicz, 1997).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - MEMORY - weakness of memory (for dates/for what has happened/for places/proper names)

EXTREMITIES - WEAKNESS in hand (on grasping objects/writing)

EXTREMITIES - WEAKNESS in upper arm

GENERALS - WEAKNESS (from slight exertion/with restlessness/standing/sudden)

GENERALS - FAINTNESS (on exertion/walking in open air)

Heroinum

MIND - MEMORY - weakness of memory (for dates/for what has happened/for where objects are put/for words)

EXTREMITIES - WEAKNESS - Leg (afternoon/in lower limbs)

GENERALS - WEAKNESS (+ nausea/with lack of reaction)

GENERALS - FAINTNESS

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - MEMORY - weakness of memory (for what he just has done/for names/for numbers/for where objects are put)

GENERALS - WEAKNESS - morning/+ activity of mind/> dinner/during fever/from pain

Cocainum hydrochloricum

MIND - with weakness of will

MDMA

GENERALS - WEAKNESS

4.3.1.6

Acute and sensitive

Users of hallucinogens such as LSD and MDMA have heightened and exaggerated senses such as touch and vision etc (Hanson, 2012:354).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - SENSES acute (to minutest detail)

MIND - SENSITIVE [to colors/when hearing of cruelties/to all external impressions/to light/to music/to nature and natural objects/to (sudden) noise/to voices]

VISION - ACUTE (clear, bright and lucid)

HEARING ACUTE (to distant sounds/to music/to noises/to voices and talking)

NOSE - SMELL - acute (with delight in smells)

ABDOMEN - SENSITIVE skin

FEMALE ORGANS - SENSITIVENESS of Uterus

Heroinum

MIND - SENSITIVE (to criticism/to nature and natural objects/to noise/to opinion of others/to sensual impressions)

MIND - SENSITIVEness wanted

MIND - SENSES acute

HEARING - ACUTE

TEETH - SENSITIVE, tender (brushing)

NOSE - SMELL acute

MOUTH - TASTE acute

CHEST - SENSITIVE Mammae

SKIN - SENSITIVENESS (to touch)

GENERALS - TOBACCO - aversion to and sensitive to smell of tobacco

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

MIND - SENSES acute

MIND - SENSITIVE to touch

MIND - SENSITIVE to noise

MIND - SENSITIVE (to colors/to light)

MIND - SENSITIVE when hearing of cruelties

MIND - SENSITIVE - to all external impressions/to nature and natural objects/to noise (sudden/voices)

VISION - ACUTE

HEARING - ACUTE (to noises/to music/voices and talking)

NOSE - SMELL acute (delights in smells)

MOUTH - TASTE, acute

ABDOMEN - SENSITIVE skin

FEMALE ORGANS - SENSITIVENESS of Uterus

Heroinum

MIND - SENSITIVE (to criticism/to nature and natural objects/to noise/to the opinion of others)

MIND - SENSITIVE to sensual impressions

MIND want of sensitiveness

MIND - SENSES acute

HEARING - ACUTE

NOSE - SMELL acute

MOUTH - TASTE acute

TEETH - SENSITIVE, tender (brushing)

CHEST - SENSITIVE Mammae

SKIN - SENSITIVENESS (to touch)

GENERALS - aversion to and sensitive smell of tobacco

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

MIND - SENSES acute

MIND - SENSITIVE - to touch/to noise

VISION - ACUTE

HEARING - ACUTE (to noises)

MOUTH - TASTE acute

4.3.1.7

Detachment, indifference, apathy and feelings of detachment are general withdrawal symptoms associated with synthetic recreational drugs (Palfai and Jankiewicz, 1997).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

            MIND - DETACHED (from daily activity/from his family/from people)

            MIND - INDIFFERENCE, apathy (in evening/to personal appearance/to business affairs/to company, society/to duties/to everything/to external things/to his family/to joy/to pain/to pleasure)

            MIND - Joyless/taciturn/looks hours out of window

Heroinum

MIND - DETACHED

MIND - INDIFFERENCE, apathy [+ desire for feeling/to agreeable things/to business affairs/to her children/to his condition/to (domestic) duties/with ennui/to everything/to external impressions/to external things/to his family/to usual intellectual occupation/to irritating, disagreeable things]

MIND - INDIFFERENCE, apathy - joyless/to life/to loved ones/toward others/to pain/to parents/to pleasure/to suffering

MIND - ANXIETY # indifference (as if all her conscious anxiety)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - DETACHED

MIND - INDIFFERENCE (to everything)

MIND - INDIFFERENCE - joyless

Cocainum hydrochloricum

MIND - INDIFFERENCE (to personal appearance)

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

4.3.1.8

Anxiety, fear, restlessness

Taking drugs can remove feelings of anxiety, restlessness and fear. However, these feelings can also occur as a result of ceasing to use the drugs or after administering the

drugs (Palfai and Jankiewicz, 1997).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - ANXIETY [in evening/# cheerfulness/from anticipation/causeless/of conscience/with fear/during flushes of heat/about future/for others/while riding/about salvation/when speaking (in company/on waking)]

MIND - FEAR [of being alone/of death/of ghosts/something will happen/of insanity/of her condition being observed/of robbers/of suffocation (at night)/of trifles/with fear]

MIND - STARTING, startled - anxious

DREAMS - FEAR - panic

MIND - RESTLESSNESS (in evening/anxious/busy/walking)

VERTIGO during ANXIETY

THROAT - ANXIETY and apprehension in throat

STOMACH - ANXIETY

RESPIRATION - ANXIOUS

CHEST - ANXIETY in

GENERALS - RESTLESSNESS

Heroinum

MIND - ANXIETY [when alone/# contentment/# indifference (“As if all her conscious anxiety had gone into her subconscious and her conscious was anxiety free/about business/about own children/anxiety of conscience/in the dark/on waking from frightful dreams/about his family/about future (about the coming day)/on waking]

MIND - FEAR - of the bed/losing control/of the dark/to neglect his duty/of failure/something will happen/of misfortune/in a narrow place/of opinion of others/to go to sleep (lest she dreams)

MIND - ACTIVITY; desires it

MIND - RESTLESS (anxious/of conscience/on waking)

ABDOMEN - RESTLESSNESS, uneasiness, etc.

SLEEP - RESTLESS

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - ANXIETY [about his family/about future/rising from chest]

MIND - FEAR of cancer/that his memory would fail/of robbers/of talking, lest he should say something wrong]

MIND - RESTLESSNESS (internal)

DREAMS - about restless children

MDMA

MIND - ANXIETY (causeless)

MIND - FEAR of losing control

MIND - FEAR, insanity

MIND - RESTLESS

RESPIRATION - ANXIOUS

CHEST - ANXIETY within

SLEEP - ANXIOUS/SLEEPLESS from anxiety/WAKING frequent with anxiety

DREAMS - ANXIOUS (“As if all her conscious anxiety had gone into her subconscious”

DREAMS - restless

Cocainum hydrochloricum

SLEEP - Restless

4.3.1.9

Heat, warmth, fever

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system can produce hyperthermia, which leads to sensations of heat, warmth, and the development of fever, especially with the use of Cocaine (Palfai and Jankiewicz, 1997:112). Indians living in the Andes chew coca leaves, can live comfortably in 30° F, 10000 feet above sea level (Emmett and Nice, 1996: 72).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - ANXIETY during flushes of heat

EAR - HEAT in meatus

FACE - HEAT (flushes)

FACE - PERSPIRATION during heat

MALE ORGANS - HEAT

CHEST - HEAT in region of heart

CHEST - HEAT morning, on waking

BACK - HEAT in cervical region

EXTREMITIES - HEAT - Hand

EXTREMITIES - HEAT - Upper limbs

SKIN - COLDNESS with internal heat

GENERALS - HEAT - flushes of (daytime/from least exertion/ext. upwards/+ perspiration and anxiety/during sleep)

GENERALS - Lack of vital heat

GENERALS - HEAT - sensation of

GENERALS - HEATED, becoming

HEAD - PAIN > warm room

PERSPIRATION - WARM

GENERALS - WARM - desire for warmth

FEVER # chills

Heroinum

FACE - HEAT (flushes)

EAR - HEAT (r.)

MOUTH - HEAT

THROAT - HEAT (after cough/ext. stomach)

CHEST - HEAT (flushes)

CHEST - PAIN during heat

EXTREMITIES - HEAT - Foot/hand (dry)

GENERALS - HEAT - flushes of (evening/with perspiration/in room/sensation of (# sensation of cold)

THROAT - PAIN > warm drinks

GENERALS - FOOD and DRINKS: desires warm drinks (hot)

GENERALS - WARMTH > (desires warmth of stove)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

HEAD - HOT with coldness of body

HEAD - HEAT with coldness of extremities

SLEEP - SLEEPLESSNESS during heat

GENERALS - HEAT - flushes of

GENERALS - lack of vital heat

GENERALS - HEAT - sensation of (# with sensation of coldness)

GENERALS - HEAT - sensation in upper part of body

COUGH - WARM > drinks/> air

GENERALS - > WARMTH

EXTREMITIES - PAIN < fever

FEVER - heat in general/intense heat at night

FEVER - PERSPIRATION with heat

COUGH - LOOSE during fever

MDMA

GENERALS - HEAT, flushes # chills

FACE - HEAT, flushes

CHEST - WARMTH

GENERALS - > WARMTH

Cocainum hydrochloricum

BACK - HEAT ext. back

4.3.1.10

Anger, rage, fury, violence

Withdrawal of drug usage can result in an emotional imbalance. This results in a variety of behaviours such as rage, anger and fury and being violent (Palfai and Jankiewicz, 1997).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND -  ANGER (from disappointed love/about pain/with difficult respiration/sudden/violent)

DREAMS - ANGER

MIND - RAGE, fury (violent)

MIND - VIOLENCE - aversion to

MIND - VIOLENT

COUGH - VIOLENT

DREAMS - VIOLENCE

Heroinum

MIND - ANGER morning on waking/# tranquillity/from contradiction/about disorder/easily/with himself/violent/on waking

MIND - IMPATIENCE with anger

DREAMS - ANGER

MIND - RAGE, fury (with cursing)

MIND - VIOLENT

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - ANGER

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

4.3.1.11

Numbness

Overdose symptoms and toxicity of drugs can produce numbness and tingling. Cocaine applied locally also produces numbness (Palfai and Jankiewicz, 1997: 324).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

HEAD - “As if numb”

HEAD - PAIN with numbness

MOUTH - NUMBNESS /palate)

MOUTH - NUMBNESS of Tongue

LARYNX AND TRACHEA - NUMBNESS - trachea

GENERALS - NUMBNESS externally

Heroinum

GENERALS - NUMBNESS - of affected parts/externally

HEAD - “As if numb” - in forehead (evening ext. bone of nose)

HEAD - “As if numb” in vertex

Cocainum hydrochloricum

GENERALS - NUMBNESS ( externally)

EXTREMITIES - NUMBNESS in fingers

MDMA

No evidence for this theme in the available literature

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

4.3.1.12

Tingling, itching, burning

Signs of heroin use can be itching, scratching and sensation of tingling (Hanson, 2012: 259).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

HEAD - TINGLING

FEMALE ORGANS - TINGLING, voluptuous

EXTREMITIES - TINGLING [Fingers (r./4th)/Foot/Hand]

EYE - ITCHING (l.)

NOSE - ITCHING (inside)

MOUTH - ITCHING on palate

RECTUM - ITCHING (around anus)

CHEST - ITCHING - in axilla/in nipples of mammae (r.)

EXTREMITIES - ITCHING - l./in bend of elbow/forearm/in leg/in thigh/upper limbs

SKIN - ITCHING (< warm bathing)

SKIN - ITCHING in spots

EYE - PAIN burning (r.)

MOUTH - PAIN - burning in palate

Heroinum

HEAD - TINGLING [in vertex (side l./r.)

NOSE - TINGLING in tip

NOSE - PAIN - burning, smarting in root of nose

MOUTH - PAIN burning (in lips/in tongue)

FACE - TINGLING - Lips ext. to nose

EXTREMITIES - TINGLING in foot (standing)/hand/leg/upper limbs)

EYE - ITCHING

NOSE - ITCHING in nostrils/in tip

MOUTH - ITCHING (in palate)

EXTREMITIES - ITCHING - Lower limbs/Thigh/Wrist

SKIN - ITCHING (without eruptions)

CHEST - PAIN - burning [in mammae (l./under)

EXTREMITIES - PAIN - burning in l. hip

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

THROAT - TINGLING

EXTREMITIES - TINGLING in feet [in heels (l.)]

EAR - ITCHING (l.)

MOUTH - ITCHING in palate

LARYNX AND TRACHEA - ITCHING in larynx

EYE - PAIN - burning

FEMALE ORGANS - PAIN in vagina during coition burning

EXTREMITIES - PAIN in palms of hands (burning)

Cocainum hydrochloricum

THROAT - PAIN in pharynx, burning

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

4.3.1.13

Tranquillity

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - TRANQUILLITY, serenity, calmness

Heroinum

MIND - TRANQUILLITY, serenity, calmness (from heavy rain)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - TRANQUILLITY (in stressful events)

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

users can report feelings of affection, tranquillity and peace (Hanson, 2012:365).

MIND - TRANQUILLITY, serenity, calmness

4.3.2. Second order analysis

The first order sensations were defined using a dictionary (Collins, 2006) and related synonyms were identified using a thesaurus (Collins, 2006). New, relevant synonyms

were used and were subjected to a literature search. The confirmed synonyms were confirmed as second order sensations.

Table 5 shows a list of the first order sensations and the second order sensations/themes

Table 5: Second order analysis from the first order sensations/themes

First order sensations or themes  Second order sensations/themes

Impatient                                                                                                                                                     Aggravate, rage, impatient, itchy, anger

Irritation                                                                                                                                                      Irritated, intolerant, anxious, excitement, hurry

Detached                                                                                                       Indifference, separate, isolate, alone, forsaken          

Sensitive                                                                                                       Irritable, acute, touchy, sore, raw, difficult, secretive

The researcher observed that several second order sensations ‘go full circle’ to the original common sensations extracted, thus confirming the first order sensations/themes.

4.3.2.1

Impatience

Withdrawal symptoms of Cocaine include being impatient, agitated, restless and anxious (Hanson, 2012:310).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - HURRY, haste (but unconcerned)

Heroinum

MIND - IMPATIENCE (with anger/about his children/about trifles)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - IMPATIENCE

SKIN - SENSITIVENESS (to touch)

GENERALS - TOBACCO - aversion to - sensitive to smell of tobacco

MIND - SENSES - acute

HEARING - ACUTE

NOSE - SMELL - acute

MOUTH - TASTE acute

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum         

            No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

MIND - SENSES acute

VISION - ACUTE

HEARING - ACUTE

MOUTH - TASTE acute

MIND - SENSITIVE - to touch/to noise

4.3.1.7

Detachment, indifference, apathy

Indifference, apathy and feelings of detachment are general withdrawal symptoms associated with synthetic recreational drugs (Palfai and Jankiewicz, 1997).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - DETACHED (from daily activity/from own family/from people)

MIND - INDIFFERENCE, apathy (in evening/to personal appearance/to business affairs/to company, society/to duties/to everything/to external things/to

own family/to joy/joyless/to pain/to pleasure/taciturn/looks hours out of window)

Heroinum

MIND - DETACHED

MIND - INDIFFERENCE, apathy (+ desire for feeling/to business affairs/to her children/to his condition/to (domestic) duties/with ennui/to everything/to external impressions/to external things/to own family/to usual intellectual occupation/to irritating, disagreeable things/joyless/to life/to loved ones/to others/to pain/to

Parents/to pleasure/to suffering)

MIND - ANXIETY # indifference (“As if all her conscious anxiety”)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - DETACHED

MIND - INDIFFERENCE (to everything/joyless)

Cocainum hydrochloricum

MIND - INDIFFERENCE (to his personal appearance)

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

 

4.3.1.8

Anxiety, fear, restlessness

Taking drugs can remove feelings of anxiety, restlessness and fear. However, these feelings can also occur as a result of ceasing to use the drugs or after administering the

drugs (Palfai and Jankiewicz, 1997).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - ANXIETY [evening/on waking/# cheerfulness/from anticipation/causeless/of conscience/with fear/during flushes of heat/about future/for others/while riding/about salvation/speaking (in company)]

MIND - STARTING, startled - anxious

VERTIGO - ANXIETY, during vertigo

THROAT - ANXIETY and apprehension in throat

STOMACH - ANXIETY

RESPIRATION - ANXIOUS

CHEST - ANXIETY in

MIND - FEAR [of being alone/of death/of ghosts/something will happen/insanity/of her condition being observed/of robbers/of suffocation (at night)/of trifles]

MIND - ANXIETY with fear;

DREAMS - FEAR - panic

MIND - RESTLESSNESS (evening/anxious/busy/> walking)

GENERALS - RESTLESSNESS

Heroinum

MIND - ANXIETY [when alone/# contentment/# indifference (“As if all her conscious anxiety had gone into her subconscious and her conscious was anxiety free)/about business/about own children/of conscience/in the dark/on waking from frightful dreams/about own family/about future (coming day)/on waking]

DREAMS - ANXIOUS (“As if all her conscious anxiety had gone into her subconscious”)

MIND - FEAR of the bed/losing control/of dark/to neglect his duty/of failure/something will happen/of misfortune/in a narrow place/of others opinion of others/to go to sleep (lest she dreams)

MIND - ACTIVITY desires it

MIND - RESTLESSNESS (anxious/of conscience/on waking)

ABDOMEN - RESTLESSNESS, uneasiness, etc.

RESPIRATION - ANXIOUS

CHEST - ANXIETY in SLEEP

SLEEP - SLEEPLESSNESS from anxiety

SLEEP - WAKING frequently with anxiety

SLEEP - RESTLESS

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - ANXIETY (about own family/about future)

MIND - FEAR - of cancer/that his memory will fail/of robbers/of talking, lest he should say something wrong

MIND - RESTLESSNESS (internal)

DREAMS - CHILDREN about restless children

CHEST - ANXIETY rising from chest

MDMA

MIND - ANXIETY, causeless

MIND - FEAR - of losing control/of insanity

MIND - RESTLESSNESS

DREAMS - restless

Cocainum hydrochloricum

SLEEP - Restless

4.3.1.9

Heat, warmth, fever

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system can produce hyperthermia, which leads to sensations of heat, warmth, and the development of fever, especially with the use of Cocaine (Palfai and Jankiewicz, 1997: 112). Indians living in the Andes, who chew coca leaves, can live comfortably in 30° F, 10000 feet above sea level (Emmett and Nice, 1996: 72).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - ANXIETY during flushes of heat

EAR - HEAT in Meatus

FACE - HOT (flushes)

FACE - PERSPIRATION during heat

MALE ORGANS - HOT

CHEST - HEAT in region of heart

CHEST - HEAT in morning, on waking

BACK - HEAT in cervical region

EXTREMITIES - HEAT - Hand/upper limbs

SKIN - COLDNESS with internal heat

GENERALS - HEAT flushes [in daytime (from least exertion)/ext. upwards/with perspiration and anxiety/during sleep]

GENERALS - HEAT - lack of vital heat/”As if hot”

GENERALS - HEATED, becoming

HEAD - PAIN > warm room

PERSPIRATION - WARM

GENERALS - desires warmth

FEVER - # chills

Heroinum

FACE - HEAT (flushes)

EAR - HEAT (r.)

MOUTH - HEAT

THROAT - HEAT (after cough/ext. stomach/flushes)

CHEST - PAIN during heat

EXTREMITIES - HEAT in foor/in hand (dry)

GENERALS - HEAT flushes (in evening/with perspiration/in room)

GENERALS - lack of vital heat

GENERALS - “As if hot” (# with sensation of cold)

THROAT - PAIN > warm drinks

GENERALS - FOOD and DRINKS - desires: warm drinks/hot drinks

GENERALS - > WARMTH/desires warmth of stove

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

HEAD - HEAT with coldness (of body/of extremities)

SLEEP - SLEEPLESSNESS during heat

GENERALS - HEAT flushes

GENERALS - HEAT - lack of vital heat

GENERALS - “As if hot” (# sensation of coldness/in upper part of body)

COUGH - > WARM drinks

GENERALS - > WARM air

GENERALS - > WARMTH

EXTREMITIES - PAIN during fever

FEVER - heat in general/at night intens/perspiration with heat

COUGH - LOOSE during fever

MDMA

GENERALS - HEAT flushes # chills

FACE - HEAT flushes

CHEST - WARM

GENERALS  > WARMTH

Cocainum hydrochloricum

BACK - HEAT ext. up the back

4.3.1.10

Anger, rage, fury, violence

Withdrawal of drug usage can result in an emotional imbalance. This results in a variety of behaviours such as rage, anger and fury and being violent (Palfai and  Jankiewicz, 1997).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - ANGER (from disappointed love/about pains/with difficult respiration/sudden/violent)

DREAMS - ANGER

MIND - RAGE, fury (violent)

MIND - VIOLENCE aversed to

MIND - VIOLENT

COUGH - VIOLENT

DREAMS - VIOLENCE

Heroinum

MIND - ANGER - morning on waking/on waking/# tranquillity/from contradiction/causede by disorder/easily/with ownself/violent

MIND - IMPATIENCE with anger

DREAMS of ANGER

MIND - RAGE, fury (with cursing)

MIND - VIOLENT

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - ANGER

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

 

4.3.1.11

Numbness

Overdose symptoms and toxicity of drugs can produce numbness and tingling. Cocaine applied locally also produces numbness (Palfai and Jankiewicz, 1997:324).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

HEAD - “As if numb” in forehead

HEAD - PAIN with numbness

MOUTH - NUMBNESS (in palate/in tongue)

LARYNX AND TRACHEA - NUMBNESS in trachea

GENERALS - NUMBNESS externally

Heroinum

GENERALS - NUMBNESS - of affected parts/externally

HEAD  - “As if numb” [in forehead (in evening ext. bone of nose)/in vertex]

Cocainum hydrochloricum

GENERALS - NUMBNESS (externally)

EXTREMITIES - NUMB fingers

MDMA

No evidence for this theme in the available literature

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

4.3.1.12

Tingling, itching, burning Signs of heroin use can be itching, scratching and sensation of tingling (Hanson, 2012:259).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

HEAD - TINGLING

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - TINGLING, voluptuous

EXTREMITIES - TINGLING [hand/in fingers (4th/r.)/foot]

EYE - ITCHING (l.)

EYE - PAIN burning (r.)

NOSE - ITCHING (Inside)

MOUTH - ITCHING - Palate

MOUTH - PAIN - burning in palate

RECTUM - ITCHING (around anus)

CHEST - ITCHING - axilla/nipples of mammae (r.)

EXTREMITIES - ITCHING - l./in bend of elbow/on forearm/leg/thigh/upper limbs

SKIN - ITCHING (< warm bathing/in spots)

Heroinum

HEAD - TINGLING [vertex (sides)]

NOSE - TINGLING in tip

FACE - TINGLING in l ips ext. nose

EXTREMITIES - TINGLING in foot (standing)/hand/leg/upper limbs

EYE - ITCHING

NOSE - ITCHING - Nostrils/tip

MOUTH - ITCHING - Palate

EXTREMITIES - ITCHING - in lower limbs/in thigh/in wrist

SKIN - ITCHING (without eruptions)

NOSE - PAIN - burning, smarting in root

MOUTH - PAIN - burning (in inside of lips)/tongue

CHEST - PAIN - burning [in mammae (under/l.)]

EXTREMITIES - PAIN - burning in l. hip

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

THROAT - TINGLING

EXTREMITIES - TINGLING in heels (l.)

EAR - ITCHING (l.)

MOUTH - ITCHING - Palate

LARYNX AND TRACHEA - ITCHING in larynx

EYE - PAIN burning

FEMALE ORGANS - PAIN in vagina during coition - burning

EXTREMITIES - PAIN in palms of hands

Cocainum hydrochloricum

THROAT - PAIN, pharynx, burning

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

4.3.1.13

Tranquillity

MDMA

users can report feelings of affection, tranquillity and peace (Hanson, 2012:365).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - TRANQUILLITY, serenity, calmness

Heroinum

MIND - TRANQUILLITY, serenity, calmness (from heavy rain)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - TRANQUILLITY (= calmness / serenity) (during stressful events)

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

MIND - TRANQUILLITY, serenity, calmness

4.3.2.

Second order analysis The first order sensations were defined using a dictionary (Collins, 2006) and related synonyms were identified using a thesaurus (Collins, 2006). New, relevant synonyms were used and were subjected to a literature search. The confirmed synonyms were confirmed as second order sensations.

Table 5 shows a list of the first order sensations and the second order

sensations/themes.

 

Table 5: Second order analysis from the first order sensations/themes

First order sensations or themes  Second order sensations/themes

Impatient   =    Irritated, intolerant, anxious, excitement, hurry

Irritation  = Aggravate, rage, impatient, itchy, anger

Detached = Indifference, separate, isolate, alone, forsaken

Sensitive = Irritable, acute, touchy, sore, raw, difficult, secretive

The researcher observed that several second order sensations ‘go full circle’ to the original common sensations extracted, thus confirming the first order sensations/themes.

4.3.2.1

Impatience

Withdrawal symptoms of Cocaine include being impatient, agitated, restless and anxious (Hanson, 2012:310).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - HURRY, haste (but unconcerned)

Heroinum

MIND - IMPATIENCE (with anger/about own children/about trifles)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - IMPATIENCE

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

4.3.2.2

Irritability can occur as a withdrawal symptom, or it can be experienced after administering a drug (Palfai and Jankiewicz, 1997: 311).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - IRRITABILITY (causeless/towards children/being dependent/towards husband/during menses/from noise/from trifles/when working)

EYE - IRRITATION

Heroinum

MIND - IRRITABILITY (in afternoon/with discouragement/when disturbed/to her family/before menses/when questioned/taciturn)

GENERALS - IRRITABILITY, lack of physical

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - IRRITABILITY (caused by everything/from helplessness/from trifles/from in larynx)

MDMA

MIND - IRRITABILITY

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

4.3.2.3

Excitement and exhilaration are some of the effects and reasons for the usage of drugs.

These sensations occur due to changes in the various neurotransmitters like dopamine serotonin etc in the brain (Emmett and Nice, 1996).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - EXCITEMENT (# sadness/# tranquillity/in company)

MIND - EXHILARATION - in open air/blissful

Heroinum

MIND - EXCITEMENT (desires it)

Cocainum hydrochloricum

MIND - EXCITEMENT

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

4.3.2.4

Alone, forsaken, isolated, separated

The after effects of drugs can lead to feelings of separation, isolation and being forsaken. These symptoms often tempt the user to use the drug again to alleviate

these sensations (Palfai and Jankiewicz, 1997).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - COMPANY - aversed to (desires solitude/yet fear of being alone)

MIND - DELUSIONS - being alone (and all about her were dead and still/no one else exists/being alone in the world)

MIND - FEAR of being alone

MIND - DELUSIONS - is forsaken

MIND - FORSAKEN feeling (“As if isolated”)

MIND - DELUSIONS - body and mind are separated/body and soul are separated/spirit had separated from body/were separated from himself/he were separated from himself and his own life/strange thoughts are separated from him/is separated from the world

Heroinum

MIND - ANXIETY when alone

MIND - DELUSIONS - being alone (in the world)/is forsaken/separated (from himself/from the world)

MIND - FORSAKEN feeling (“As if isolated”/feels joyless

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - DELUSIONS - body and mind are separated/separated from the world (with a bubble)

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

4.3.3

Some second order sensations/themes led to third order sensations. The synonyms and definitions of the second order sensations/themes

provided new keywords for the third order search. Once the synonyms were confirmed by the literature, they were taken as confirmed third order sensations.

Table 6 shows a list of the second order sensations/themes and the third order sensations/themes

 

Table 6: Third order analysis from second order sensations                                    Second order sensations or themes Third order sensations/themes

Sore = Angry, raw, aching, burning, irritable, sensitive

Raw = sore, red, bloody, cold, chill, sensitive, haemorrhage

Difficult = Hard, awkward

Secretive = Reserved

4.3.3.1

Sore and raw

Lysergic acid diethylamide

HEAD - PAIN - sore [in forehead (above eyes/in spots)]

EYE - PAIN - sore (“As from a foreign body)

MOUTH - PAIN - sore in palate (swallowing saliva)

MOUTH - PAIN - sore in tongue (l. side/tip)

ABDOMEN - PAIN - sore spleen

RECTUM - PAIN - soreness

FEMALE ORGANS - PAIN - sore in uterus (on pressure)

CHEST - PAIN - sore, bruised - morning/< lying/in mammae (before menses/going stairs up and down/in sternum)

EXTREMITIES - PAIN - sore, bruised in first toes

LARYNX AND TRACHEA - PAIN - rawness in larynx

Heroinum

HEAD - PAIN - sore in vertex

EYE - PAIN - sore (l.)

FACE - PAIN - sore, bruised [in jaws (lower r./in lips)

MOUTH - PAIN - sore in palate

TEETH - PAIN - sore, bruised

THROAT - PAIN - sore (l./r./> eating/in oesophagus)

ABDOMEN - PAIN - sore (in iliac region/< pressure)

FEMALE ORGANS - PAIN - sore (in ovaries/in uterus)

GENERALS - PAIN - sore, bruised (in joints/in muscles)

DREAMS - AMOROUS - raw

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

EAR - PAIN - sore (r.)

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

            No data available for this theme in the literature

4.3.3.2

Hard

Lysergic acid diethylamide

FACE - ERUPTIONS - hard

RECTUM - HEMORRHAGE from anus from hard stool

STOOL - HARD (with blood)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

STOOL - 1. hard, 2. soft stool.

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

Heroinum

No data available for this theme in the literature

 

4.3.3.3

Awkward

Lysergic acid diethylamide

            EXTREMITIES - AWKWARDNESS (in fingers/in hands)

Heroinum

MIND - AWKWARD (drops things/strikes against things)

EXTREMITIES - AWKWARDNESS in hands (drops things)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - AWKWARD

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

 

4.3.3.4

Reserved, secretive

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - SECRETIVE

Heroinum

MIND - RESERVED

MIND - SECRETIVE

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - RESERVED

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

 

4.3.3.5

Difficult

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - ANGER with difficult respiration difficult

MIND - CONCENTRATION

MIND - CONCENTRATION difficult (except on abstract subjects/cannot fix attention/difficult during conversation/when preparing food/on one subject/studying)

MIND - STUDYING difficult

RECTUM - HEMORRHAGE from difficult stool

RESPIRATION - DIFFICULT (“As from abdomen”/ascending/after exertion/sitting bent forward/walking)

EXPECTORATION - DIFFICULT

Heroinum

EYE - OPENING the eyelids difficult

RESPIRATION - DIFFICULT (when hurried)

DREAMS - DIFFICULTIES on journeys

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - CONCENTRATION - difficult (driving/studying (= reading))

EXPECTORATION - DIFFICULT

RESPIRATION - DIFFICULT on inspiration

SLEEP - WAKING - difficult

MDMA

            No data available for this theme in the literature

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

4.3.3.6

Red, bloody, hemmorhage

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - COLORS - desires red

EYE - red (edges of lids)

FACE - red (evening/by excitement)

FACE - ERUPTIONS - red (cheeks/chin)

MOUTH - Tongue red

FEMALE ORGANS - MENSES bright red

DREAMS - COLORED red

MIND - DELUSIONS sees blood

NOSE - EPISTAXIS (l./bright blood)

MOUTH - BLEEDING - Gums (easily)

RECTUM - HEMORRHAGE from anus (after stool/from difficult stool/from hard stool)

STOOL - HARD with blood

FEMALE ORGANS - LEUKORRHEA bloody

GENERALS - LOSS of blood

Heroinum

FACE - ERUPTIONS - red Cheeks

MOUTH - BLEEDING of gums (when cleaning them)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

THROAT - DISCOLORATION - red tonsils

NOSE - DISCHARGE - bloody

NOSE - EPISTAXIS (< blowing the nose)

Cocainum hydrochloricum

RECTUM - HAEMORRHAGE from anus

MDMA

            No data available for this theme in the literature

4.4

Summary of Data Analysis

4.4.1

Sensations

The extraction process generated several sensations and themes that appeared common amongst the selected remedies. Sensations and themes were included if they

Were found in at least two of the selected remedies. The different sensations/ themes that represent the synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies are Listed in Table 7.

 

Table 7: Groups of sensations obtained through the extraction process

Separated           Weakness            Anxiety            Heat           Dryness         Excitement       Sensitive                            Anger

Isolated               Faintness            Restless            Warmth                           Euphoria                                    Acute                Rage

Alone                  Indifference        Fear                  Fever                               Elation               Sore                  Fury       

Forsaken             Apathy                Irritated                                    Red                                                        Exhilaration                                Violent

Detached             Numbness           Impatient                                                             Blissfull

Neglected                                                                                                          Ecstasy 

                                                                                                                          Cheerful

                                                                                                                          Carefree

                                          Laughing

                                          Content

 

Table 8 includes proposed themes/sensations to describe the central sensation, passive, and active as well as compensatory reactions.

Table 8: Proposed sensations/themes and reactions of the homoeopathic remedies belonging to the synthetic recreational drug isolate group

Sensation                                        Passive Reaction                                        Active Reaction                              Compensation

Anxiety                                           Heaviness                                                   Anger                                              Euphoria

Restlessness                                    Numbness                                                   Rage                                               Ecstasy                                               

Fear                                                 Dullness                                                      Violent                                           Elation

Excitement                                      Faintness                                                     Impatient                                       Tranquility

Dryness                                           Weakness                                                    Irritable

Indifference                                     Coldness                                                     Acute     

Isolation

4.4.2

Themes

1. Anxiety

2. Dryness

3. Euphoria, ecstasy, elation, excitement

4. Coldness

5. Indifference, apathy

6. Nervous affection - increased activity, numbness, restlessness, weakness, tingling, increased sensitivity

7. Isolation, detachment, separation

8. Fearlessness (although it is not a prominent theme, it is present in all the remedies except in Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum)

9. Tranquillity, serenity and calmness

10. Loquacity is present in all five remedies

11. There is a general desire for sweets present in all remedies except in MDMA

12. Common physical affections of the remedies include:

                                               a) A common sensation of dryness in the throat

                                               b) Diminished appetite

                                               c) Distension of the abdomen

                                               d) Sleeplessness

4.5

Miasmatic classification

The five selected remedies were classified into specific miasms based on Sankaran’s miasmatic model (Sankaran, 1997). Each remedy was categorized as a particular

miasm if the literature showed a clear predominance of the themes associated with that miasm.

Some remedies showed themes belonging to more than one miasm. The miasmatic keywords used to determine the miasms are listed in Appendix A and Appendix E.

Certain words have been italicised in relation to the relevant keyword of a particular miasm.

4.5.1

Lysergic acid diethylamide

              AIDS miasm seems to predominate in this remedy. There are several traits of the AIDS miasm present in the remedy, particularly that of merging, which is typical of the AIDS

              miasm with its lack of boundaries.

Merging

Delight in merging with another (God, human, animal, plant or stone) or deep fear of it.

Merging of Senses, merging with Music.

I felt as if the universe had been passed into the neurons of my brain and engraved in my genetics.

Nature, Animals - Immersion of awareness in inanimate objects, animating them.

Connection

“Feeling of confidence in conversation with people. Feel tuned in to a higher level of communication. Feel more at ease with my body. I feel confident in my nonverbal

communication.”

 “Sense of belonging and community with the group today, felt really at ease with them, much more than usual. Don't feel so independent and self contained.”

Disconnection

“I felt very disconnected from people and found great solace in being alone with nature. There was a deeply spiritual aspect to it, and at times a real beauty in my isolation.”

“Disconnected to whole process of proving.

Disconnected from my emotional process.

Disconnected from others around me.”

“Increasing sense of 'indifference' and not caring, or cannot be bothered to relate symptoms, etc.”

“Feel spaced out and apathetic.”

Detached

MIND - DETACHED (from daily activity/from family/from people, isolated, desires to be alone

“Wanting to be alone - feeling uncomfortable in a room of fellow provers. Wanted to go to a quiet room somewhere.”

 “Feeling lonely, forsaken and abandoned.”

MIND - COMPANY - aversion to - desire for solitude/aversion to yet fear of being alone

Nature, animals

“Notice flocks of birds, their movements, patterns and numbers. Feel high, as if my cares have all receded.”

“Nature feels very close to me - enhanced connection with it. Particularly noticed the birds - ravens, crows and pheasants.”

“Felt strong magical connection with Nature.”

MIND - NATURE - loves boundaries (between dimensions are thinning/inner and outer realities inverted/dissolved between self and child

MIND - DELUSIONS - personal boundaries dissolved (between self and family and friends/she did not know who he was/confusion)

MIND - DELUSIONS - connected - feeling of oneness with his fellow man and the whole of the universe

            MIND - CONFUSION of mind (as to his identity/as to his personal boundaries/depersonalization

“Delusion that the telephone keeps ringing.”

“I'm writing numbers backwards, i.e. the 6 before the 1 when writing 16.”

There is also a theme of travel in the AIDS miasm. The lack of boundaries encourages one to travel. The idea of local and distant becomes one (Fraser, 2002:171). This is of relevance as the experience of taking LSD is often referred to as a ‘trip’.

             MIND - TRAVELLING - desire for

(Rubrics and proving data from Norland, 1999.)

4.5.2

Heroinum

The researcher is of the view that Heroinum belongs to the Cancer and Sycotic miasms.

Cancer miasm

MIND - INDUSTRIOUS, mania for work

“I became obsessive about cleaning and tidying up.”

“Felt my life is in order and under control.” 11P 03 XX.XX NS.

“Feel calm, in control and happy.”

MIND - FEAR - losing control

 “Feel I have to take responsibility at work.”

 “I was irritable with everybody because of the chaos.”

MIND - CHAOTIC

“Decided to clean and polish the house to put things in order and calm the mind.”

MIND - desires ORDER

MIND - DISORDER, sensitive to

“I'm a compulsive list maker and finished everything and ticked it off. Being in control

Of events and on top of everything is very important to me. Also knowing that the house is tidy makes me feel good in myself

- I hate untidiness and mess.”

MIND - DESIRES - full of desires (for grandeur/for unattainable things

Sycotic miasm

“Friend leaves me in charge of bus with valuable antiques on it. I return to bus to find have left keys in the door and some things are missing.

Guilt.

Let myself down. Do I cover up or confess.”

 “Feelings of guilt and restlessness.”

 “Thoughts of abandonment, betrayal, loss, guilt.”

 “Fear of forgetting something important. Shame

of it.”

MIND - SHAMEFUL

DREAMS - SHAMEFUL

“Unusually frustrated, angry and unforgiving with myself when things go wrong.”

“I am doubting everything about myself.”

“Feelings of suspicion about my new patient.”

MIND - AILMENTS FROM (embarrassment/reproaches/shame/of body looks ugly)

MIND - EMOTIONS suppressed

MIND - weakness of memory

MIND - SECRETIVE

 

Warts

SKIN - “Wart drops off.”

“Verrucas are coming to the surface and seem drier.”

(All rubrics and proving data from Snowdown, 2002.)

4.5.3

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

The Tubercular miasm seems to predominate in this remedy.

Tubercular miasm “Instead of the irritability there is a sensation of power. Mind is very sharp. Pick up everything very quickly.”

 “Feel the mind is sharp and fast. I react fast. Talk and think fast.”

MIND - CONCENTRATION - difficult

MIND - MENTAL POWER increased

“Feeling of happiness and optimism.”

“Im a bit restless.”

 “Inner restlessness and tension.”

            MIND - RESTLESSNESS (internal)

“Chills and shivers.”

“I became more chilly.”

“I was a bit chilly.”

             FEVER - heat in general/at night

“Very fatigued - had to sit down.”

“I'm generally fatigued and weak.”

“Craving for sweets came back.”

“Disturbing cough without expectoration. Dry cough.”

“Ceaseless cough, dry.”

“Suffocating cough.

No expectoration but I can feel both lungs in the back when I cough.”

              COUGH - DRY (almost constant)

“Feel like my respiration is not 100% fine. Like in asthma [prover has asthma] I can’t inhale fully

              RESPIRATION - ASTHMATIC

“I woke up soaking in perspiration including the beddings. The perspiration is especially on the back and legs.”

FEVER - PERSPIRATION with heat

PERSPIRATION - < during SLEEP

MIND - ACTIVITY + weakness in general

MIND - > open AIR

MIND - MUSIC - desire for

“I feel good and enjoy listening to music.”

“Had epistaxis.”

NOSE - EPISTAXIS (< blowing the nose)

THROAT - INFLAMED - follicular (l. Tonsil)

 “There's a fungus on both feet on the toes - its itching, it is an old symptom for him.”

(Rubrics and proving data was obtained from an email from Michael Chein on 4 October 2011.)

4.5.4

MDMA

The AIDS miasm appears to predominate in this remedy.

AIDS miasm

Loss of appetite; anorexia (MDMA is related to the slimming pill).

Dryness of the mouth, throat and vagina.

Lack of boundaries can result in inappropriate relationships or bonding that is not suitable and can be harmful.

Subjects feel more aware, ‘grounded’ and at peace.

Many subjects reported that they were more communicative.

Emotional warmth, lack of emotional barriers.

All senses are enhanced (touch/sound).

Clarity of mind

Dispersion; Release of ‘Body Armour’

Oversensitive to environmental influences.

Extreme sensitivity of the whole nervous system.

(Rubrics and proving data was obtained from an email from Dr Marion Weston on 11 July 2012.)

4.5.5

Cocainum hydrochloricum

The main miasm of Cocainum hydrochloricum is unclear; however there are features of the cancer, leprosy and sycotic miasm.

Cancer Miasm

MIND - DEEDS - “As if he could do great deeds”

MIND - AMBITION increased

MIND - INDUSTRIOUS

GENERALS - FOOD and DRINKS: desires sweets

GENERALS - INDURATIONS of glands “As if small foreign bodies”

Leprosy Miasm

MIND - DELUSIONS - being abused/parts of body are absent/of bugs and cockroaches/sees bugs/worms/is covered with worms

MALE ORGANS - “As if penis were absent”

SKIN - “As if worms under the skin”

SKIN - BUGS; sensation of

Sycotic Miasm

MIND - AUDACITY

MIND - AMBITION increased

MIND - DELUSIONS - he is persecuted/he was pursued (by enemies) (Rubrics from Radar 10, Archibel S.A., 2005.)

 

CHAPTER 5

ANALYSIS OF SYNTHETIC RECREATIONAL DRUG ISOLATE GROUP REMEDIES

5.1

Specific characteristics of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group

 

CHAPTER 5

ANALYSIS OF SYNTHETIC RECREATIONAL DRUG ISOLATE GROUP REMEDIES

5.1

Specific characteristics of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group

Through the group analysis process, the researcher has proposed specific characteristics found in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group, as outlined below.

5.1.1

Mind themes

Anxiety

Difficulty in concentration - with increased mental activity

Suppression of emotions

Fearlessness

Feelings of indifference and apathy

Loquacity

Restlessness

Feelings of tranquility, serenity and calmness

Ecstasy, euphoria, cheerful, elation, excitement, joy

 

5.1.2

Physical themes

Dryness of the throat

Diminished appetite

Nausea

Cramping pain in the stomach

Distension of the stomach

 

5.1.3

General themes

A desire for sweets

Sleeplessness

 

5.2

Mental and emotional expressions of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group

Positive feelings

Feelings of euphoria, ecstasy, cheerfulness, excitement, bliss, positive, optimistic and laughing are expressed through all five drug remedies. These desired effects are one of

the reasons users administer drugs. Other feelings include of peace, tranquillity, calmness, fearlessness, contentment and being carefree.

The opposite feelings to this are also present. There are feelings of sadness, dullness, despair and discontentment.

Anxiety

Anxiety is a common sensation in this drug group. The anxiety is noticeable mainly as a mental symptom, but is also evident at a physical level and can be felt in different areas of the body. The main feeling of anxiety is about the future. Together with anxiety, restlessness appears to be a common sensation in the drug group. The restlessness can also be seen at a mental and deeper physical level.

Fear

The common fears encountered in this drug group can be of losing control, going insane, robbers and feeling that something will happen. The opposite feeling of fearlessness is also common and can also be felt when one is under the influence of a drug.

Indifference

There are feelings of indifference, apathy, detachment, isolation, separation from the world/people etc. on the mental level. These feelings can manifest on a physical level

as symptoms of numbness, analgesia, anaesthesia and coldness.

Feelings of isolation and detachment can lead to feelings of clairvoyance, which can be seen in several of the drug remedies.

Delusions and Dreams

Delusions are a major manifestation in the drug remedies. The delusions or hallucinations can be expressed through the various sensory areas. Visual distortions can include seeing triangles, circles and vibrations. Hearing illusions can include sounds being beautiful and visible.

Some of the more common delusions include the following:

Being criticized;

Being pursued;

Separated

 

The common themes in dreams include being amorous, anxious, of being pursued, and death or dead bodies, which are all indicative of drug remedies.

5.3

Polar opposites seen in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group

 

Analyzing the data revealed prominent polarities within the synthetic recreational drug isolate group remedies, including:

         Heat vs. coldness;

         Euphoria, elation, cheerful vs. sadness, despair, discontentment;

         Hypersensitive vs. lack of sensation

5.4

Pathological tendencies in remedies from the synthetic recreational drug isolate group

5.4.1

Complaints of the throat

Lysergic acid diethylamide

INTERNAL THROAT: anxiety, constriction, dryness, lump, pain, spasms, tickling

Heroinum

            INTERNAL THROAT: choking, constriction, coldness, dryness, heat, inflammation, lump, narrow, pain, swallow

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

             INTERNAL THROAT: inflammation, lump, pain, tingling

Cocainum hydrochloricum

             INTERNAL THROAT: dry, burning, tickling, constricted, scratching

MDMA

………..INTERNAL THROAT: dry, constricted, scratching, raw

 

5.4.2

Involvement of the eyes and vision

Lysergic acid diethylamide

EYE: Agglutinated, coldness, discharge, discolouration, dryness, ecchymosis, heaviness, irritation. Itching, lachrymation, pain, swelling, tingling, twitching

            VISION: acute, bright, changing, clarity, colours, confused, dim, dazzling, distorted, enlarged, illusions, objects, moving, triangles, vibration

Heroinum

EYE: heaviness, itching, lachrymation, pain, photophobia, tired, pupils contracted

VISION: colours, fire, foggy, rays, swimming

                                               Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

EYE: heaviness, lachrymation, pain, photophobia,

VISION: mistakes

                                               Cocainum hydrochloricum

EYE: glaucoma, dilated pupils

MDMA

EYE: Nystagmus, dilated pupils

VISION: increased clarity, colours are bright, intense, and painfully pleasurable

5.4.3

Complaints of the stomach

Lysergic acid diethylamide

              Anxiety, distension, fullness, gagging, nausea, pain, sinking, thirst, vomiting.

Heroinum

              Emptiness, eructation’s, fullness, heartburn, hernia, nausea, pain, thirst, vomiting.

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

               Eructation’s, hiccough, nausea, pain, retching, thirst, thirstless, vomiting.

Cocainum hydrochloricum

    Hiccough, vomiting, pain, haemorrhage.

MDMA

Eructation’s, nausea, cramping

5.4.4

Affection of the nervous system

Lysergic acid diethylamide

Tingling: female genitalia

Twitching and tingling of the eye

Numbness: mouth, larynx and trachea, head

Spasm of the throat

Formication of the spine

Trembling: cervical region of the back

Trembling, tingling and weakness: extremities

General: analgesia, convulsions, faintness, numbness, synaesthesia, trembling, weakness

Heroinum

Numbness of the head

Tingling of vertex, nose, face, extremities

Twitching and weakness of extremities

General symptoms of analgesia, anaesthesia, faintness, numbness, weakness and trembling

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

Twitching: face

Tingling: extremities

Paralysis: face, generals

Weakness: generals

Cocainum hydrochloricum

Paralysis: throat, larynx and trachea, muscles of deglutition

Formication: skin of hands and forearms

Numbness: extremities, general

Paralysis of senses: general

Paralysis agitans: general

Chorea, alcoholic tremors, senile trembling

MDMA

Seizures, tremors in upper and lower limbs, convulsive movement, analgesia

Extreme sensitivity of the whole nervous system. All senses are enhanced.

5.4.5

Complaints relating to sleep

Lysergic acid diethylamide

             Sleepiness, sleeplessness, unrefreshing, waking issues, yawning

Heroinum

Anxious, disturbed, heavy, light, prolonged, restless, sleepy, sleepless, unrefreshing, waking problems

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

            Deep, disturbed, refreshing, sleepiness, sleeplessness, unrefreshing, waking problems

Cocainum hydrochloricum

Restless, sleeplessness

MDMA

Tired, drowsy, sleeplessness, restless, narcolepsy

5.4.6

Male genitalia/sex

Lysergic acid diethylamide

Eruptions on penis

Sexual desire: increased

Heroinum

Sexual desire: increased, wanting or diminished

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

Sexual desire: diminished

Cocainum hydrochloricum

            “As if penis were absent”

MDMA

Impotence with increased sensitivity

Orgasm impossible

5.5

Proposed vital sensations and reactions according to Sankaran

Sensation can be expressed in four different ways:

1. as a sensation itself,

2. as a passive reaction,

3. as an active reaction,

4. as compensation (Sankaran, 2005b:22).

In the synthetic recreational drug isolate group, there was a variety of sensations:anxiety, restlessness, fear, excitement, dryness, indifference and isolation.

Sensations such as anxiety, restlessness and  dryness were noticed on mental, physical and general levels.

The passive reaction to these sensations appears to be of heaviness, numbness, dullness, faintness, weakness and coldness.

The active reaction can be described by the sensations of anger, rage, acute, violence, impatience and irritation.

The compensatory reaction is described by the sensations of ecstasy, elation and euphoria. Another feeling of compensation can be of tranquillity.

5.6

Clinical Applications

1) Mental disorders: Anxiety, manic depression, delusions, drug abuse, ADHD, paranoid states

2) Chronic fatigue.

3) Glaucoma and visual disorders.

4) Anorexia Nervosa.

5) Headaches.

6) Stomach pain (cramping)

7) Narcolepsy, sleeplessness and other sleeping disorders

8) Neurological diseases: Chorea, paralysis, senile and alcoholic tremors, formication.

5.7

General drug characteristics

Typical general drug characteristics according to Traub (in Lewis, 2007):

Feelings of isolation, impressions and perceptions are increased, pleasant feelings (euphoria, elation) and fantasies, dreamy/spaced out, delusions hallucinations, numbing of pain, addiction/ dependence, disorientated/confusion, beautiful visions, distorted perception of space and time and self destructive, could be identified in the synthetic recreational drug isolate remedy group.

Evidence of certain characteristics is reflected in the following features listed below (obtained from a variety of materia medicas and proving materials).

5.7.1

Isolation, forsaken, escapism

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - FORSAKEN feeling (“As if isolated”)

MIND - ESCAPE, attempts to (to sit and think)

DREAMS - ESCAPING

Heroinum

MIND - DELUSIONS - is forsaken

MIND - “As if FORSAKEN” (“As if isolated”)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

“Im very much with myself, it's difficult to share. Aversion to talk.

“The remoteness continues.”

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

5.7.2

Numbness/lack of sensation

Lysergic acid diethylamide

HEAD - “As if numb in forehead”

HEAD - PAIN and numbness

MOUTH - NUMBNESS

LARYNX AND TRACHEA - NUMBNESS in trachea

GENERALS - NUMBNESS externally

Heroinum

HEAD - “As if numb” in forehead/in vertex

GENERALS - NUMBNESS - of affected parts/externally

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

            “Blunt sensation regarding my presence in my own body.”

Cocainum hydrochloricum

EXTREMITIES - NUMBNESS, fingers

GENERALS - NUMBNESS (externally)

Local sensory paralysis

MDMA

            No evidence for this theme in the available literature

5.7.3

Hypersensitive

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - AWARENESS heightened (of body/consciousness expanded/for details/for individuality in all things)

MIND - SENSITIVE (to colors/to all external impressions/to light/to music/to nature and natural objects/to noise)

Heroinum

MIND - SENSES acute

MIND - SENSITIVE (to criticism/to nature and natural objects/to noise/to opinion of others/to sensual impressions/want of sensitiveness)

SKIN - SENSITIVE (to touch)

Cocainum hydrochloricum

Hearing is greatly increased

Roaring and noises in the head

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

MIND - SENSES acute

VISION - ACUTE

HEARING - ACUTE

MOUTH - TASTE acute

MIND - SENSITIVE (to touch/to noise)

5.7.4

Spaced out/Dreamy/Out of this world

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - DELUSIONS - of bodily space, energy and dimension/was carried into space (lying/expanded/feels his home is not on earth/was

spread through space/is a tiny point in the vastness of space)/is moving in a new world/is in several worlds simultaneously

Heroinum

MIND - DREAM; as if in a

MIND - DELUSIONS - everything seems unreal/ otherworld is close to her/is in a parallel world/is separated from the world (with a bubble)/spaceless

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

5.7.5

Hallucinations/ Delusions: visual, auditory, tactile

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - DELUSIONS - tactile/can taste colour/beautiful visions (delightful/fantastic/horrible/monsters/has real visions/visual)/of hearing/beautiful/of sight and hearing

Heroinum

MIND - DELUSIONS

VISION - COLORS before the eyes - blue/halo of fire/FOGGY (> closing eyes)/RAYS/SWIMMING of objects

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - DELUSIONS - hearing music/head were inflated

Cocainum hydrochloricum

MIND - DELUSIONS; illusions of hearing/visions

MDMA

VISION: intense and painfully pleasurable

5.7.7

Confusion/Disorientation

Lysergic acid diethylamide

             MIND - CONFUSION of mind (about daily affairs/as to his identity (and personal boundaries/depersonalization/knows not where he is/while riding/of situations/of time/on waking/

Heroinum

MIND - CONFUSION of mind (as to time)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - CONFUSION of mind

Cocainum hydrochloricum

No data available for this theme in the literature

MDMA

No data available for this theme in the literature

5.8.

General plant drug themes

Sankaran (2002:516) proposed certain plant ‘drug’ themes. Certain themes from the plant ‘drug’ group correspond to themes of the synthetic recreational isolate drug group, as outlined below.

However, the theme of benevolence - with the need to do something in order to feel a sense of belonging, is not reflected in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group.

Therefore, this theme can help differentiate between the plant ‘drug’ group and the synthetic recreational drug isolate group.

5.8.1

Alienation and isolation

The feelings of alienation and isolation in the plant ‘drug’ group has been identified in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group as feelings of isolation, being forsaken and a desire to escape from reality (See 5.1.1).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - FORSAKEN feeling - isolation, sensation of

Heroinum

MIND - FORSAKEN feeling - isolation; sensation of

5.8.2

Upliftment

The sensation of upliftment in the plant ‘drug’ group has been expressed in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group as feelings of joy, euphoria, excitement, contentment etc

(See 5.1.6).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - EUPHORIA

Heroinum

MIND - CONTENT

5.8.3

Hypersensitivity or lack of sensitivity

The lack of sensitivity or hypersensitivity in the plant ‘drug’ group has been discussed in

5.1.2 and 5.1.3 as themes of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group.

5.8.3.1

Hypersensitivity

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - SENSITIVE (to all external impressions)

Heroinum

MIND - SENSES acute

MIND - SENSITIVE

MDMA

MIND - SENSES acute

5.8.3.2

Lack of sensitivity

Lysergic acid diethylamide

GENERALS - NUMBNESS externally

Heroinum

            GENERALS - NUMBNESS of affected parts (externally)

Cocainum hydrochloricum

GENERALS - NUMBNESS (externally)

5.8.4

Increased mental activity

Another common theme from the plant ‘drug’ group is an increased mental activity in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group:

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - ACTIVITY; desires (creative activity/restless)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - ACTIVITY + weakness general

MDMA

            Produces intense activity - physically, mentally, psychically

5.9

Drug themes can be related to their constituents

The three main constituents of the synthetic recreational drug molecules are Hydrogen,

Carbon and Nitrogen. The chemical formulas for each of the synthetic recreational drugs are:

1) Lysergic acid diethylamide: C20H25N3O 

2) Heroin: C21H23NO5 

3) Methylphenidatum hydrochloride:

4) Cocainum hydrochloride: C14H19NO2 

5) MDMA: C11H15NO2

Some themes from the synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies can be attributed to the elements

from which they are constituted. Certain themes in Nitrogen and Hydrogen will be discussed as they also appear in the synthetic drug isolate remedies.

5.9.1

Comparison with remedies from the mineral kingdom

5.9.1.1

Nitrogen

According to Scholten, one of the themes in Nitrogen is the desire for enjoyment. As long as they can enjoy life, everything is good. If they lose the possibility to feel happy, they can become discontented and irritable (Scholten, 1993:151).

Recreational drugs are often administered for their euphoric effects and their ability to make one happy and content.

The Nitrogen themes of enjoyment and happiness

(Scholten, 1993:151) can also be seen in the synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies. Some examples from the synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies are listed below:

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - CHEERFUL

MIND - ECSTASY

MIND - EUPHORIA

MIND - EXCITEMENT (in company)

MIND - EXHILARATION - blissful

MIND - BLISSFUL feeling

Heroinum

MIND - CONTENT (forgets all his ailments and pains/with himself)

MIND - EUPHORIA (# sadness)

MIND - EXCITEMENT (desires it)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - CHEERFUL

MIND - LAUGHING during sleep

Cocainum hydrochloricum

MIND - EXCITEMENT

MIND - EXHILARATION

MDMA

Feelings of bliss, ecstasy, euphoria.

 

Another theme in Nitrogen is to feel relaxed and satisfied. If they are not relaxed, they will vent their feelings of tension (Scholten, 1996:172)

They need to let go from time to time or else the tension will build up too much. Similarly, people also use drugs from time to time to relieve or vent their tensions and problems.

According to Scholten, the essence of Nitrogen is assertiveness and the need to show others who they are. They like other people to notice and admire the success that they have achieved (Scholten, 1996:172). The main feelings of Nitrogen is to be free and released, without being bound down (Sankaran, 2009:199).

 

5.9.1.2

Hydrogen

The other element that significantly contributes to the themes of the synthetic recreational isolate drug group. Several themes of Hydrogen will be discussed with examples of the themes found in the synthetic recreational isolate drug group.

1) Scholten suggests that the main theme in  Hydrogen is a sensation or desire to be one. They want to experience the world as one total unity and merge with others (Scholten, 1996:76). However,

This is not a common theme in the synthetic recreational isolate drug group, and is found only in Lysergic acid diethylamide.

Lysergic acid diethylamide

Merging

Delight in merging with another (God, human, animal, plant or stone)

Merging of Senses, merging with Music

MIND - DELUSIONS - connected - oneness with his fellow humans and the whole of the universe, a feeling of

In Hydrogen, if the individual is unable to experience unity, they feel separated and

Estranged from their family and the world. They can feel lost and alone (Scholten, 1996:76 - 77).

However, the feelings of isolation in the

synthetic recreational isolate drug group do not stem from not experiencing unity. In the synthetic recreational isolate drug group, there can be a desire to be alone or they feel isolated because of the sensation of indifference or apathy, or they want to live in ‘their’ own world and escape from reality.

Sankaran also suggests the feelings of isolation and separation with themselves or with others occur in a hydrogen patient (Sankaran, 2009:133).

These themes have been identified earlier as themes of the synthetic recreational isolate drug remedy group.

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MIND - ESTRANGED

Heroinum

            MIND - FORSAKEN feeling - isolation; sensation of

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - FORSAKEN feeling - isolation, sensation of

MIND - DELUSIONS - is lost

2) Another theme in Hydrogen is of absolute truth. They search for the truth and want to know why things are the way they are (Scholten, 1996:76). The search for the truth is not a common, prominent theme in the synthetic recreational isolate drug group.

Lysergic acid diethylamide

             MIND - TRUTH; desire for

Heroinum

              MIND - TRUTH; telling the plain

3) There are also feelings of being spaceless and timeless in Hydrogen. They find it difficult to judge distance and time does not exist for them. Their whole experience is simple and exists now, in the present. Hence there are feelings of timelessness and spacelessness (Scholten, 1996:77). The feelings of being spaceless and timeless in the synthetic recreational isolate drug group can be due to the distortion, confusion and ‘spaced out’ effects of the drugs.

Lysergic acid diethylamide

              MIND - DELUSIONS in time (time seems earlier/day is endless/exaggeration of time)

Heroinum

  MIND - TIME - appears longer; passes too slow

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

  MIND - DELUSIONS - spaceless

4) With the inability to orientate themselves, it can lead to feelings of confusion and they don’t know where they are anymore (Scholten, 1996:77).

Lysergic acid diethylamide

              MIND - CONFUSION of mind (knows not where he is)

Heroinum

MIND - CONFUSION of mind (to time)

Methylphenidatum hydrochloricum

MIND - CONFUSION of mind

 

The delusions, moods and senses in Hydrogen are similar to the delusions, moods and senses found in the drug remedies. The delusions include: being separated from the world, unreal, being pursued and criticized. Similar moods include: laughing, cheerful, optimistic, feeling peaceful and content. However, the synthetic recreational isolate drug

group has more feelings of ecstasy, euphoria, excitement and exhilaration compared to

Hydrogen. The senses in Hydrogen and synthetic recreational isolate drug group are also expressed as being sensitive. However, the senses in the

synthetic recreational isolate drug group are more acute and distorted, producing many hallucinations.

Two general symptoms listed in Hydrogen also correspond to the general symptoms from the synthetic recreational drug remedies. The two general symptoms include:

Desire: Sweets

Sleep: Sleeplessness (Scholten, 1996:78):

 

5.10

Comparison of other plant drug remedies with the synthetic recreational drug isolate group

5.10.1

 

Remedies from the plant kingdom

Cannabis indica, Anhalonium lewinii, Opium and Coca are classified as being organic plant ‘drug’ remedies. Each of the above plant ‘drug’ remedies have certain common drug themes as well as different themes compared to the synthetic recreational drug isolate group.

1) Cannabis indica has sensations like other drug remedies of being absentminded, dreamy, with exaggerated senses of sound and colour (Scholten, 1996:78). The feeling of joy is a common sensation in many drug remedies, and also expressed in Cannabis indica. However, the feeling of joy in Cannabis indica is expressed as floating freely (Sankaran, 2002:726) as Cannabis indica has the main feelings of expanding and feeling free. The opposite sensation of being heavy, dragged down and oppressed (Sankaran, 2002:290) is also seen, which is not found in synthetic recreational drug isolate group.

2) In Anhalonium lewenii, common drug themes that can be seen are: strong out of body experiences, cosmic experiences with shapes and colours and confusion of senses (Scholten, 1996:78). There is also a feeling of merging with one’s surroundings or feeling of being one, similar to Hydrogen and LSD (Sankaran, 1997:9). However, in Anhalonium lewinii, there is a main feeling of expansion and shrinking which is not expressed in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group (Sankaran, 2002:290).

The feelings in Anhalonium lewinii is of expansion of the whole being, and therefore, the feelings of joy are also expressed as being expanding and boundless (Sankaran, 2005c:726).

3) In Opium, the main sensation is of intense pain and suffering, which is not a main sensation in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group. The compensatory reaction of by being peaceful, serene and tranquil is however shared with the synthetic recreational drug isolate group (Sankaran, 2002:290).

The feelings of joy in Opium  can be expressed as being calm or steady, where they can experience peace and avoid the pain and suffering (Sankaran, 2005c:726).

Heroinum and Opium share some common themes such as painlessness, anxiety and increased sensitivity. However, Heroinum has themes of confusion, shame, isolation and wanting to be carefree (Snowdown, 2002).

4) Coca has beautiful visions, spaced our feelings and feelings of isolation which can be seen in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group. However, it is the only drug remedy that has a keynote symptom of “Desire for Grandeur” and delusions of being a great person (Sankaran, 1997:66).

5.10.2

Comparison with the Rubiaceae family

Some themes from the synthetic recreational drug isolate group correspond with themes from the Rubiaceae family. These include themes such as sleeplessness, desiring activity, the passive reaction of dullness and a compensatory feeling of tranquillity (Sankaran, 2002:474 - 475). However, the main sensation in the Rubiaceae family is stimulation and they desire stimulation which is not expressed as a central sensation in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group. Individuals requiring a remedy from the Rubiaceae family will continuously generate ideas in the mind and the person’s mind will be stimulated with more and more ideas. These themes are not found in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group (Sankaran, 2002:964).

5.10.3

Comparison of remedies from Papaveraceae group with synthetic recreational drug isolate group

Comparison with the Piperaceae family

Common themes from the Piperaceae family that overlap with themes from the synthetic

recreational drug isolate group include: feeling cheerful and excited, with a passive reaction of dullness (Sankaran, 2005a:20). However, the main feeling in the Piperaceae family is the desire for amusement because life is boring, dull and painful and they want to be pleasurably amused, which is not the main sensation expressed in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group (Sankaran, 2005c:965). The Piperaceae family is also the only family with a sensitivity to pain and boredom, while the Papaveraceae family has a sensitivity to only pain, not boredom (Sankaran, 2007b:1706).

5.10.4

Comparison of remedies from Papaveraceae group with synthetic recreational drug isolate group

Comparison with the Papaveraceae family

The synthetic recreational drug isolate group has many features similar to the Papaveraceae family: an active reaction of rage and violence; a passive reaction of fainting, analgesia and numbness, the compensatory feeling of tranquillity and calmness

and the symptom of numbness (Sankaran, 2005a:20). In the Papaveraceae family, they

desire no pain and want feelings of pleasure to cut of the sensations of pain and suffering in their life. They just need to anesthetize themselves from the outside (Sankaran, 2005c:965). Recreational drugs are sometimes administered to anaesthetize the pain and suffering in one’s life. However, the synthetic recreational drug isolate group does not have a main theme of this intense suffering, pain and agony with experiences of death and dying as in the Papaveraceae family (Sankaran, 2005c:698). The Papaveraceae family also has no desire for stimulation as in the Rubiaceae family or to divert themselves from boredom as in the Piperaceae family.

5.11

Comparison of remedies from Aves group with synthetic recreational drug isolate group

Comparison with the animal kingdom: Class Aves

Some themes from the synthetic recreational drug isolate group overlap with themes from Class Aves. Some of the common themes shared are: euphoria, elation, joy, detachment and the numerous delusions. The delusions in Class Aves involves the perception of themselves being separated, as well as being pursued, which is also a

common delusion in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group. However, the Class Aves has a common delusion of body parts being enlarged or separated, which is not established in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group.

The theme of detachment in the synthetic  recreational drug isolate group is expressed mainly on the mental sphere, but it is not a main theme which is present on every level like in the bird remedies. The joy and elation in bird remedies is also expressed more from a sensation of lightness

and freedom, which is not the issue in synthetic recreational drug isolate group (Harkhu, 164

2011:91 - 92).

Other common themes shared, as proposed by Shore (2004) and Fraser (2009) in Class Aves are: issues of disorientation, appetite, spiritual awareness, clairvoyance and restlessness.

Class Aves can be differentiated from the synthetic recreational drug isolate group by the Class Aves animal characteristics such as the desire for and/or sensation of biting, feelings of freedom, emptiness, vacancy, floating, lightness, restriction/cramping/ constriction, and swelling and enlargement of parts (Harkhu, 2011:70 - 71).

5.12

AIDS Miasm and the synthetic recreational drug isolate group

In chapter 4, it was seen that specific synthetic recreational drug isolate remedies (MDMA

and LSD) produced certain AIDS miasmatic features. Similarly, the synthetic recreational drug isolate group as an entirety also share a few similarities with the AIDS miasm.

Certain sensations and reactions from the

synthetic recreational drug isolate group overlap with themes from the AIDS miasm.

The main sensations derived from the synthetic recreational drug isolate group were:

anxiety, restlessness, fear, excitement, dryness, indifference and isolation.

The theme of vulnerability in the AIDS miasm incorporates sensations such as fear, anxiety, anger, rage, and violence, where rage and violence were active reactions of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group.

The passive reaction of numbness and the sensation of indifference in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group corresponded to the themes of indifference and a lack of feelings/emotions in the AIDS miasm.

The feeling of isolation is also linked to the main theme of disconnection and isolation in

the AIDS miasm. The AIDS miasm also has the theme of dispersion, which explores the subject of thirst, water and dryness. Dryness was a prominent sensation of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group, as this sensation was seen on the mental, physical and general levels.

Table 9: Common themes between the AIDS miasm and synthetic recreational drug isolate

remedy group

5.13

AIDS miasm and related remedies

According to the Fraser, the AIDS miasmatic picture corresponds to remedies from Class insecta, Class Aves, Lacs of mammals, drug remedies, certain remedies from the mineral and vegetable kingdom, sea remedies and the AIDS nosode (Fraser, 2002:54 - 59). Remedies from the drug family include traditional drug remedies such as Coffea cruda, Opium, Agaricus muscarius, Cannabis indica, Anhalonium lewenii, to recent

remedies such as MDMA, LSD 25 and Heroinum

(Fraser, 2002:122). Fraser proposes AIDS miasm

themes Synthetic recreational drug isolate remedy group

Fear, anxiety, rage, anger, violence

Fear, anxiety, rage, anger and violence were

active reactions of the synthetic recreational

drug isolate group. Indifference/Lack of feelings emotion Numbness and the sensation of   indifference in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group were the passive reactions.

Isolation/disconnection/separation

One of the common delusion of the synthetic

recreational drug isolate group was separation

Dispersion - water, thirst, dryness

Dryness was a prominent sensation of the

synthetic recreational drug isolate group, as

this sensation was seen on t he mental,

physical and general levels.

that the different remedies share similar themes of the AIDS miasm. However, the remedies can differentiated according to the characteristics of the kingdom or group they belong to, particular themes, issues and the individual remedy characteristics (Fraser, 2002:48).

5.13.1

Drug and bird remedies

Drug abuse has become a major issue as it closely meets the overpowering needs of many individuals (Fraser, 2002:55). The themes of isolation, secrecy, feeling of numbness and disconnection from the pain of modern existence often relate to the issues of a person in an AIDS miasmatic and disease state. AIDS has also been associated with drug abuse (intravenous use of drugs), as it is one mode

of transmitting the virus (Fraser, 2002: 124).

According to Fraser (2002:54), remedies from Class Aves have a strong connection to the AIDS miasm as birds are able to live freely without any restrictions or boundaries, and they are able to move, free of the constraints of the earth (Fraser, 2009:95).

                                   

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Due to the paucity of comprehensive material medica, repertory, provings and clinical information of the synthetic recreational drug isolate group, the researcher aimed to extract and evaluate common themes and symptomatology that manifested in the homoeopathic remedies  belonging to the synthetic recreational drug isolate group.

Conducting this study extracted and clarified the common sensations and characteristics of the group. The extracted and analyzed data was also able to demonstrate a clear picture of the similarities in the synthetic recreational drug isolate group as a whole.

This was accomplished by applying Sankaran’s methodology and analysis to the synthetic recreational drug isolate group. Therefore, this research has shown that Sankaran’s methodology of group analysis can be applied to related remedies, as they share common characteristics that define them as a group.

6.1

Group analysis approach to homoeopathy

In current times where scientific processes do minate, it is crucial to develop a more systematic methodology and approach to homoeopathy. Theories also need to be

explored to the highest level before being recognized or disapproved. Then only can a profession progress closer to mainstream science.

The outcome of this study has confirmed the applicability of Sankaran’s group analysis methodology to the synthetic recreational drug isolate group. Therefore, group analysis

has proved to be an example of a systematic process.

It is imperative that when applying the group analysis methodology to a specific group, it must be correctly and carefully applied to avoid producing misleading and false interpretation of information.

 

 

Vorwort/Suchen                  Zeichen/Abkürzungen                        Impressum