Theories of Remedy Mechanisms
Homoeopathy still faces the problem of explaining the therapeutic action of medicines diluted beyond the theoretical Avogadro limit of molecular presence. Presently the greatest challenge to those working on homoeopathy is to develop a proper theoretical context for their observations.
According to Gaier (1991) the experimental evidence indicates the existence of a “physicochemical force field” in the potencies. This so -called “force- field” is said to be responsible for carrying forward information of the medicine into stages of ultra molecular dynamization. This hypothesis emphasizes the need to adopt a biophysical paradigm to explain the action of these ultra molecular dilutions in order to understand the nature of the homoeopathic potency.
Anagnostatos et al (1991) provided a clathrate model that describes the formation of complex structures within water through a large amount of hydrogen bonding. These clathrates are hollow gridlike arrangements around an interior cavity and the water molecules assume pentagonal or hexagonal forms due to their hydrogen bonding. It is proposed that during the process of potentization, it is possible for the interior solute molecules to be expelled from the clathrates. The “empty” clathrates would then serve as nuclei for new clathrates and thus the initial base solute maintains its original pattern with increasing dilution and succussion stages. It is suggested that resonance between a coherence pattern of the solution and a frequency pattern of the organism would result in an interaction with a biological system.
Resch and Guttman (1991) propose a system whereby there exists a hierarchic system organization of a liquid. Within this system there exists the presence of hydrophobic molecules, such as dissolved gas molecules.
It is proposed that these molecules strongly influence the oscillating pattern of the whole liquid by taking over structural information from the solution and dynamically preserving it within this oscillating behaviour.
A level of hydrophilic solutes with surrounding water molecules exists in a subordinate level in the liquid. The hydrophilic solutes form “hydration shells”
that influence the whole solution structure. The oscillation pattern is modified and the information pertaining to the dissolved solutes is spread throughout the solution. In the process of dilution an interface forms between the solute and the solvent which allows for the integration of the structural information from the solute into the more diluted solution. With subsequent dilution the ratio of starting solute is decreased but the informational content is retained. The „structure makers‟ (gases) then maintain these changes via the effect of their oscillating pattern. It is further concluded that the system organization of the new solution is improved by shaking, which has the effect of maintaining the integral configuration and functionality of the new solution.
The theory of organization in liquids does not, however, explain how potency information is retained in lactose during the process of trituration.
Resch and Guttman (1987) propose that the flexible three-dimensional network of lactose monohydrate (milk sugar) with its many loose hydrogen bonds and surrounding water molecules, contribute to the dynamic maintenance of the structural features in the presence of solutes. During the process of trituration, the actions of diluting and grinding the lactose results in an entirely new system that is increasingly differentiated by the grinding. Simultaneously, the static aspects of order of the solid solution help in the retention of the structural information of the new solution, and hence favour the retention of some form of informational content of the original solute. It is hypothesized by Resch and Guttman that so-called “void-lattices” (vacancies) develop in the crystalline lactose that serve to preserve the static framework of the solid material and thus in doing so retain the informational content of the dissolved solute.
Using state-of-the-art techniques (TEM, SAED, and ICP-AES) we have demonstrated the presence of nanoparticles of the starting materials and their aggregates even at extremely high dilutions. The confirmed presence of nano-particles challenges current thinking about the role of dilution in homeopathic medicines. We have found that the concentrations reach a plateau at the 6c potency and beyond. Further, we have shown that despite large differences in the degree of dilution from 6c to 200c (10 12 to 10 400), there were no major differences in the nature of the particles (shape and size) of the starting material and their absolute concentrations (in pg/ml).
How this translates into change in biological activity with increasing potency needs further study. Concrete evidence of the presence of particles as found by us could help take the research in homeopathy a step forward in understanding these potentised medicines and also help to positively change the perception of the scientific community towards this mode of treatment.
A Case of Severe Vertigo: A Cycles and Segments Approach
Oppositional Defiant Disorder: A Case of Platinum metallicum
Materia Medica examples from back issues of the New England Journal of Homeopathy:
The Cycle of Vipera, by Paul Herscu ND, MPH, DHANP
The Cycle of Kali carbonicum, by Paul Herscu ND, MPH, DHANP
The Cycle of Conium maculatum, by Paul Herscu ND, MPH, DHANP with Chris Ryan MD
The Cycle of Carcinosin, by Frank W. Gruber, MD
The Cycle of Bothrops lanceolatus, by Paul Herscu ND, MPH, DHANP
The Cycle of Anacardium: The Mental Sphere, by Paul Herscu ND, MPH