Protea cynroides = Flowering heads/= King. Protea/= King Sugar. Bush/= Artichoke.-flower/= Reuse protea/= Indlungi/= Isiqalaba/= Isiqwane/= Grootsuikerkan/= Honeypot.

http://ir.dut.ac.za/handle/10321/588

Vergleich: Enthält: C + N + wenig P; Siehe: Proteaceae + Anhang (Izel Botha) + Staatssymbol S. Afrika

 

Not traditionally used, but seem to mirror the stresses, reactions and illnesses of the migrant workers

AETIOLOGY: DANGER AND SURVIVAL

Danger from water, drowning

Protective mechanism: Care only for your own survival, ignore threat if it doesn’t affect you directly

Avoid danger, Deception, Flight or fight: attack first, else flee

Threatened by those more powerful

Struggle to survive – “they will kill me and eat me”

Pursued, Raped, Murder, Robbers, muggers

Flight or Fight

Attak first, else flee, because they are mot powerful and protected

Sudden attack

 

STAGE 1: AWARENESS:

Awareness of one’s surroundings, absorbing all the information the senses are bombarded with.  There is a strong connection to the family or group and the softness and vulnerability is evident, but there is someone else to take care of all the needs.

TRANSITION WITH ANXIETY

There is a realisation that all is not as it seems and that there is danger threatening survival.

STAGE 2: EGO, RESTRICTION AND REBELLION

The anxiety about survival results in the hypertrophy of the ego in an effort to ensure survival.  The rules of the group are restrictive and through disobedience one runs the risk of being cast out of the

group.  The desire to express the individuality leads to irritability and aggression whenever it is restricted.  The expression is however possible due to the restless energy generated by the desire to stand and fight for acknowledgement of self.

STAGE 3: EXHAUSTION

All the fighting does not remove the danger.  The constant vigilance results in exhaustion.  In an attempt to protect oneself, a hard protective exterior is projected over the natural softness resulting in a disconnection from everyone and everything.  This pushes the individual to the other extreme, away from the connectiveness into total detachment.

STAGE 4: BALANCE AND ACCEPTANCE

During the introspection brought on by the detachment in stage three, universal questions arise as to balance in an attempt to reconnect with family and friends.  This results in feelings of resignation and acceptance of fate.  There is sadness in the loss of the individual expression but a realisation that in embracing the finer things in life communication can be re-established.  There is remorse over past behaviour.

POSSIBLE CLINICAL                                        APPLICATION

Asthma                                                                      Headache

Autism                                                                      Influenza

Back pain                                                                  Menopausal syndrome

Constipation                                                              Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)

Dementia

Diarrhoea                                                                  Premenstrual syndrome

 

Protea cynroides [Izel Botha]

The Proteaceae family is one of the most prominent flowering families in the southern hemisphere. It is known to have existed 140 million years ago and is thus one of the oldest flowering plants on earth. It is named after the Greek mythological sea god, Prometeus, who was said to be able to change his shape and appearance into various animate and inanimate forms at will. Linnaeus, the Swedish botanist, chose the name Protea because of the great variability within the genus (Leonhardt & Criley, 1999; Paterson-Jones, 2007). The French botanist, Jussieu, assigned the family name Proteaceae (Leonhardt & Criley, 1999). There are about 1700 recognised species within the family Proteaceae, 400 of which occur in Africa of which 330 species in the south-western Cape (Paterson-Jones, 2007). Protea is a large genus with 136 species, 117 native to the African continent and 82 from South Africa (Leonhardt & Criley, 1999; Vogts, 1982). Proteaceae can be divided into two subfamilies: Proteoideae and Grevilleoideae (Rebelo, 1995).

The amazing variety in plant size, habit, flower size and colour of the genus Protea was the reason it was named after the Greek god Proteus, who could change his shape at will. The flower bud of Protea cynaroides looks remarkably like the globe artichoke vegetable with the Latin name of Cynara scolymus and this led the botanist Linnaeus to give it the species name cynaroides.

Protea species are found in the winter, all-year round and summer rainfall areas, ranging from the Cape northwards through Central Africa to East and West Africa (Paterson-Jones, 2007: 10). They are neither herbaceous nor annual, but are always woody. Their structural habit varies from groundcover forms with creeping stems or underground stems, to vertical shrubs and trees (Rebelo, 1995). All are united by the common characteristic of possessing glabrous leaves with a prominent petiole or leaf stalk (Rourke, 1982). The leaves are generally large, lignified, hard and leathery and will snap rather than fold when bent (Rebelo, 1995). Their leathery texture allows them to withstand the drying effects of the winds. The wind, in their natural habitat, is also moisture laden, sometimes supplying the only water to the plant in the summer months (Eliovson, 1983). Drought resistance and water conservation is thus an important feature of the leaves, and their high carbon to nitrogen ratio renders them indigestible to most insects (Rebelo, 1995).

 

Protea flowers are involucres. The flowers are composed of three fused perianth segments enclosing three anthers, and a fourth anther in a perianth segment that falls free when the flower opens, exposing the style with its pollen presenter. The style attaches to the perianth tube, terminating in the hairy ovary. These sessile flowers are arranged in spirals on a compound receptacle, with the youngest in the centre, and are enclosed by the coloured bracts (Vogts, 1982). The floral biology of proteas is protandrous, with anthesis occurring prior to the stigma becoming.

The anthers release their pollen before the stigma of the same flower is receptive (Award Publications Limited, 2005). receptive; a mechanism to help insure cross pollination. The large, red coloured terminal inflorescences, long pollen presenters and copious amounts of nectar attract pollinators (Hargreaves, et al., 2004). Pollination occurs predominantly through Cape Sugarbirds, Promerops cafer, and other nectar eating native birds, as well as rodents, insects - honey bee and Great Protea Beetle, Trichostetha fascicularis - and the wind, as proteas are incapable of self-pollination (Leonhardt & Criley, 1999; Rebelo, 2007a). After flowering, the flower-heads close up, forming woody capsules (seed-heads) which are able to withstand fires (Moore, 2006; Paterson-Jones, 2007). The starry brown base of the seed-head remains on the plant after the seeds are released. Protea cynaroides can yield up to 400 fertile seeds from each flowering head. The seeds can be sown about four to six months after the flowers have bloomed. The mature seed remains viable for three to four years. Proteas generally flower in the third or fourth year from seed, but in favourable conditions Protea cynaroides has been known to flower in the second season (Eliovson, 1983).

Proteas can be propagated from seed, but commercial growers usually propagate from cuttings/known to root quickly, but rooting times are variable among species (Leonhardt & Criley, 1999).

Wu, Du Toit, Reinhardt, Rimando, Kooy and Meyer (2007) point out that difficult-to-root stem cuttings tend to contain higher amounts of endogenous rooting inhibitors, (rutin and tannic acid) which delay or inhibit root formation, compared to easy-to-root stems containing high concentrations of root promoters (catechol, chlorogenic acid, phloroglucinol and phlorogenic acid).

Proteaceae roots show elaborate clumping of hairy rootlets, termed proteoid roots,33 which sufficiently increase the surface area per unit length of root by 140x (Lamont, 2003; Shane & Lambers, 2005). The proteoid roots, resembling fragments of cotton wool, develop in the rainy season and are an auxiliary system which may double the mass of the plant‘s permanent root structure. These roots are twice as efficient at picking up water and nutrients as normal roots (Moore, 2006). These roots are metabolically active, excreting carboxylates, protons, phenolics and water. The root clusters also secrete enzymes into the rhizosphere, enhancing the exudation of acid phosphatase, especially when the availability of phosphorus in the soil is low. They also enhance solubilisation processes, promoting the release of iron, calcium, phosphorus, manganese and zinc ions from insoluble organic and inorganic forms. Toxic aluminium and calcium ions are also released, but tend to be immobilised by carboxylates. Lastly, these roots, with their associated rootlets and root hairs, maximise the soil-root water potential gradient pathway for nutrient whose uptake is controlled by mass flow, and minimise the path length for nutrients whose uptake is dependent on diffusion. This means that nutrient uptake is maximised, especially in the impoverished soils where proteas normally grow (Lamont, 2003; Shane & Lambers, 2005). Relatively low concentrations of nutrients are thus required for normal growth and the plants are effective at absorbing phosphorus from soils with

low phosphorus status (Leonhardt & Criley, 1999).

It also follows that an excess of phosphates in the soil may prove fatal to the plant, as the proteoid roots will absorb nutrients indiscriminately. The same holds true for rich and poorly drained soil. Good drainage is thus vital to wash away excess nutrient (Moore, 2006). It is possible to induce local proteoid root formation during a summer drought, if that part of the root system receives sufficient water (Lamont, 2003). Most Protea species are thus located in the nutrient-poor soil derived from Table Mountain sandstone.

A few species occur in limestone and calcareous soils and a few grow in dry, shale-derived soils (Rebelo, 1995). They prefer an acidic soil, with a pH of about 5.0 to 5.5 (Eliovson, 1983).

Members of the Proteaceae family, especially Protea cynaroides, have adapted to survive fires by growing from large boles or rootstocks, also known as lignotubers.34 The woody lignotuber contain many dormant buds, which are stimulated to produce more growth after a fire has killed the aboveground parts of the plant (Moore, 2006; Rebelo, 1995). The woody seed capsules also protect the seeds from fire. Once the fire has burnt out, the seed-heads will open and the wind will disperse the seeds. This survival strategy is known as serotiny (Moore, 2006; Paterson-Jones, 2007).

 

Protea cynaroides, breath-taking in its magnificence and perfection (Eliovson, 1983: xix), has been South Africa‘s national flower since 1976 (Eliovson, 1983; Vogts, 1982). It is also evident on the national coat of arms, representing ...the beauty of our land and the flowering of our potential as a nation... [It] symbolises the holistic integration of forces that grow from the earth and are nurtured from above (Government Communication and Information System, 2000).

The name cynaroides, like Cynaria, alludes to the similarity of the flower-head to that of the globe artichoke, Cynaria scolymus. It is adaptable, hence its habitat is extremely varied: it occurs from the Cedarberg in the northwest to Grahamstown in the east, on all mountain ranges in this area, except for the dry interior ranges, and at all elevations, from sea level to 1500 meters high (Jamieson, 2001). Proteas has been successfully commercially cultivated in Australia, New Zealand, the U.S., particularly in California and Hawaii, Zimbabwe, Israel, Madeira, Tenerife, El Salvador and Maui (Parvin, 1991). This results in innumerable local races or variants differing in growth habit, stature, colour, size, the structure of flower-head and flower time (Rourke, 1982). It is an upright woody shrub with large, stiffly erect, solitary terminal flower-heads and distinctly stalked leaves (Paterson-Jones, 2007; Rebelo, 1995). The bush is comparatively small for such a giant flower, and the flower-heads face upwards towards the sun (Eliovson, 1983). Most plants are one metre in height when mature, but may vary according to locality and habitat from 0.35 metres to 2 metres in height (Jamieson, 2001). Typically it is found as scattered, solitary plants, rarely in dense clumps (Rebelo, 1995). It has short, pink, dense, velvety hairs on the numerous involucral bracts (Paterson-Jones, 2007; Rebelo, 1995) and the flower-heads are between 12 and 30 centimetres in diameter with widely spaced bracts arranged in a peak of flowers (Leonhardt & Criley, 1999; Paterson-Jones, 2007). The colour of the bracts varies from a creamy white to a deep crimson, but the soft pale pink bracts with a silvery sheen are the most prized (Jamieson, 2001). Each plant can bear 10 to 20 heads (Leonhardt & Criley, 1999).

The recommended harvesting stage is the soft-tip stage when bracts have lost their firmness and begin to loosen but still adheres and few insects are present, because anthesis has not yet occurred. If the flowers are picked too early, they will not open (Leonhardt & Criley, 1999). They never wilt and die, but simply fade from a fresh flowering head into a dried one, retaining its beauty (Eliovson, 1983).

The King Protea, as a symbol, has been in the news repeatedly since the South African 1994 elections. There have been numerous cries for the old springbok sports emblem, viewed as a divisive and racist symbol, to be replaced by the Protea for all national sport teams. Most of the South African teams complied, but the rugby team has stubbornly held onto the springbok emblem, refusing to accept the Protea as their badge. Hartman (2008), however points out that even the Protea could be viewed as a racist symbol in South African rugby, as it was the symbol reserved for use of the South African coloured rugby team under apartheid. It was this struggle around the acceptance of the Protea symbol that tweaked the interest of the researcher to investigate the homoeopathic remedy picture of Protea cynaroides and its potential application in the treatment of South African diseases prevalent at this time in history.

 

Endemic diseases were traditionally treated by utilising indigenous substances, plants available to the inhabitants of the area (Farooquee, Majila & Kala, 2004; Louw, Regnier & Korsten, 2002). This, partnered with the concept of the Doctrine of signatures, (Law of Signatures) lead to the development of the notion that Nature provides a cure for the diseases common to the area in the plants endemic to that area (Ball, 2007). For example, Arnica montana grows in mountainous regions and is used to treat bruises and muscle strain (Atha, 2001; Foster & Johnson, 2008) and Cinchona officinalis is found in the tropics and contain the alkaloid37 quinine used in the treatment of malaria, endemic to those regions (Foster & Johnson, 2008). This notion also connects to Jung‘s theories of the collective consciousness - that we are the product of the experiences of our ancestors (Read, Fordham & Adler, 1960). This is not only a European notion. African philosophy also hold the widespread belief that Motho ke motho ka Batho - a person is a person through other persons (Augusto, 2007) (kein Mensch ist einen Insel). Although no literature was available on the medicinal uses of Protea cynaroides, Protea repens has been used traditionally as an ingredient of cough syrups (Van Wyk & Gericke, 2007). It is the researcher‘s opinion that perhaps, because of Protea cynaroides’ ancient relationship to the African continent, it may hold the answers we need to the medical questions prevalent on this continent.

 

The concept that plants are marked with signs that indicate their purpose. It has been used for centuries in herbal medicine to draw a correspondence between a particular plant and its medicinal use (Foster and Johnson, 2008).

The idea is that the plant resembles the organ or the disease, for example Chelidonium majus contains an orange-yellow sap, indicating its use for gallbladder afflictions. It depends on subjective analysis of the plant, including natural history, chemical properties, taste, smell and appearance to connect the patterns observed to the application of the plant as medicine (Wood, 1997).

A basic nitrogenous organic compound, usually colourless with alkaline properties, having a marked physiological effect on the nervous and circulatory system. It serves no function in the plant kingdom, but is the active ingredient in many herbal medicines (Foster & Johnson, 2008; Wood, 1997).

 

            CONCLUSION

It would appear that different researchers advocate the use of different methodologies, be it to make it easier to have compliance by participants or because of the type of symptoms yielded. A summary of the main points of each of the methodologies can be seen in Table 1. Most of the authors agree, though, that it is important to describe the source of the remedy as meticulously as possible, for that would ensure strict standards for the remedy‘s manufacture and ensure the reproducibility of the trial.

Dantas (1996) highlights possible difficulties that may be encountered when conducting homoeopathic pathogenic trials. He cites the truthfulness, trustworthiness and conscientiousness of the provers, the purity and power of the medicine, individual differences between participants, diet and lifestyle of the provers and supervision of the subjects as possible stumbling blocks. This study aimed to be cognisant of these factors and to address possible pitfalls in the methodologies which may precipitate the collection of inaccurate data and to minimise such factors.

In studying these different methodologies, the researcher concluded that there is a need to validate the claims made by each of the developers of the different methodologies. No in-depth studies encompassing all methodologies are available, and the claim made by each advocate is based on experience in one methodology alone. There seems to be a great variation within the methodologies, for even the dose and potency of the remedies administered vary.

It is therefore important to establish a baseline for comparing the methodologies, so as to minimise the variables, while still adhering to the basic principles stipulated within each of the methodologies.

According to Anthroposophical medicine, the predominance of one feature of a plant represents the creative structural principle (Husemann & Wolf, 1982: 323), which signifies the plant‘s use as a medicinal plant. The materia medica of Protea cynaroides is presented in the paragraphs below and serves as an explanation of the data presented. Every effort was made to retain the individual expressions of the various provers. The main areas focused on in the presentation are the mental and emotional symptoms, the general symptoms and the physical symptoms.

            Hot

Burning pain

Heat in head

Hot flushes ascending

Hot breath

> Exposure to sun

Chest pains in heart and mammae

Heart symptoms and palpitations

Inflammation

Sweet taste

Desires: sweets/berries/chocolate;

Sexual desire and libido increased

Eyes and vision symptoms

Gratitude

Heroic dreams

Dreams of pregnancy

Spiritual dreams

            Cold & dry

Withdrawn and closed

Aversion to company

Solitude >

Detached and dissociated

Feel spaced out and drugged

Heaviness

Constipation

Cramping, squeezing pains

Constriction in chest

Oppression in chest

Desire fresh air

External pressure ameliorates

> Warmth

Borborygmy

Resentful and brooding

Introspective

            Hot & wet

Back pain > stretching

Skeletal muscle afflictions

Nervous afflictions

Sociable

Loneliness ameliorated by company

Consolation ameliorates

Dreams of friends and journeys

Sensitive to all impressions

Laughing over serious matters

Childish

Bladder inflammation and dysuria

Restlessness

Energised

Curious

Cheerful

Innocent

Restless extremities

Heat in extremities

Haemorrhaging

Congestion > discharge

Diarrhoea

Bursting headache

            Cold

Fear of death and awareness of danger

Indifference

Alienation, forsaken

Suicidal despair

Suffocation and coughing

Fear of death, evil and the devil

Lung afflictions

Influenza

< Cold and noise

> Warmth

Hearing and smell symptoms

Lack of response

Anxiety with palpitations

Dreams of danger, of being attacked and of violence

Mental/emotional

Evolution of the consciousness of Protea cynaroides which revolves around the struggle to survive.

 

Aetiology: Danger and Survival

Danger from water, drowning

Everyone knows what to expect, but doesn‘t talk about it, dangerous if you talk about it or are in the wrong place at the wrong time

Protective mechanism: Care only for your own survival, ignore threat if it doesn‘t affect you directly

Avoid danger

Deception

Threatened by those more powerful

Struggle to survive - they will kill me and eat me

Pursued

Raped

Murder

Tension and danger

Robbers, muggers

Flight or fight

Attack first, else flee, because they are more powerful and protected

Sudden attack

 

STAGE 1

AWARENESS: Aware of one‘s surroundings, absorbing all the information the senses are bombarded with. There is a strong connection to the family or group and the softness and vulnerability

is evident, but there is someone else to take care of all the needs.

SENSES SENSITIVE: Alert to any danger which may be approaching

All my senses are heightened

Optimum ability to be alert in any situation

Instinct heightened

Awake and aware - like after a very strong coffee

Allergies to dust, mould

ABSORB EVERYTHING: Very large appetite - wanting to eat constantly

Intense, almost unquenchable thirst, for cold water, dinking a large volume every time

If I put down the one cup, I wanted to drink another cup Accompanied by a decreased urge to urinate

No boundaries

CONNECTION: GROUP OR FAMILY: Connectedness to everything, attachment and a need to connect to something bigger

compassionate

family/tribe

Many childhood memories: memories of dead relatives, ex-boyfriends

Feel loving, motherly, nurturing

Romance

Thoughts of children, babies, newborn babies still with the umbilical cords attached

Great feeling of unity & of oneness with the group and seeking to unite the members of this group

Cannot let go - need each other.

Dependent

Feeling of being at home

Peaceful

Desire to communicate

Very aware of time

Strength and energy from the group

Desire honesty

Desire company of partner, family - unconditional love

HAPPINESS: Childlike

Playing, playful

Laughing

No responsibility

SOFTNESS & VULNERABILITY: Want it to be soft, so as not to harm the substance

Sensitive, delicate

Light

Gentle and kind and loving

Thinness: lace, silk - fragile, like broken eggshells

Timid

Weak and vulnerability

Need of nurturing, protection, care

TRANSITION: There is a realisation that all is not as it seems and that there is danger threatening survival.

ANXIETY: Not knowing what is going on around me frightens me

Standing by my conviction, not being perfect, not doing what is expected of you would result in out casting, abandonment

Going against the rhythm of nature.

Exam tension and what if I don‘t know the answer, anxiety about being watched

Anticipating some danger or disease

Adrenaline rush and panic attack

Sensed something is wrong, insecure

Anxiety about what others are thinking, Don‘t want to care - but if I don‘t, people really won‘t like me!

STAGE 2

The anxiety about survival results in the hypertrophy of the ego in an effort to ensure survival. The rules of the group are restrictive and through disobedience one runs the risk of being cast out of the group. The desire to express the individuality leads to irritability and aggression whenever it is restricted. The expression is however possible due to the restless energy generated by the desire to stand and fight for acknowledgement of self.

RESTRICTION: Restricted and constricted by rules. Cannot do what I want.

Want to be free, desire to escape: Although if I was meant to die I would embrace it, but not be caged up and have my freedom taken away. Death is better than torture. I am a survivor, I will escape, I don‘t need anyone to like or help me

Trapped/captive

Outcast / Lonely / Isolation

Restless, > activity

Rebellious - Desire to survive alone, following no rules, childlike anger

Desire independence: I feel I‘ve given so much all my life, is it too much to expect a little in return

Suppressed emotion: I couldn‘t like let go, experience like this whole like emotion completely and fully because I was like aware of the other people that were in the lab and it was like ‗come on now, don‘t start a scene, don‘t make a scene, don‘t cause a scene‘

Multiple personalities, it was the struggling, the conflict between like who I know myself to be and this person like now I have become

Aversion to company, want to be left alone

IRRITABILITY: Annoyed, frustration

Irritated by dependence: So sick of being dependant on a bunch of useless selfish losers

Irritability when misunderstood

Irritated by noise, hunger, lack of organisation

Irritability about time - it goes too slowly

Irritated when things does not go her way, as planned, as supposed to be, not what she wanted to do, lies, when things are out of her control

>: sex/company of partner/exercise/activity;

<: people making demands/people preventing her from doing what she wants to do, having too much to do;

Irritated when people show no gratitude for what she has done

AGGRESSION: Fighting and winning

Attack first, else flee, because they are more powerful and protected

No, everyone‘s going to attack me. I‘m going to kill them!

Aggressive due to impatience, contradiction

Hate, hostile

Childlike anger

Desire to bang and to break, to chop, to hit, to beat, kick, smash and to scream.

I have to bang, I have to like beat, I have to like hit so that I can release, there is like too much of like energy, too much of like emotion that is like within and it like has to come out

Road rage: On my drive there I wanted to take out another car, because they were racing me and they beat me because someone slowed down in front of me/why are they allowed the license if they don‘t drive properly

Put on a brave front but feeling insecure and scared inside

Anger at world and restriction

EGO: I am here I exist.

Ego is stronger - My ego is strengthened and I am destined for greater things the world has to change, and I will make myself part of that change Did not meet my standards. Loved feeling like I was in the spotlight.

I didn‘t care to listen because it had nothing to do with me

I‘m right, you‘re wrong

Creative - artistic. Making a master piece. Potential to do great things.

Feeling of being in control, powerful: Inner power, inner strength that was inside. Inner courage and motivation. win against all odds

Celebrating your own uniqueness

Hero: Sense of pride, belonging, victory, strength/ boldness, diversity.

Independence: I must survive on my own. I don‘t need anyone. I am a survivor, I will escape, I don‘t need anyone to like help me, i can do it on my own So independent. Like I did not need nybody

I‘m going to do it my way. Just get over it. Do your thing I do my thing. I was happy although I was doing the injustice by getting two guys to propose to me, but if someone else did it I was very angry. I‘ve put everything into place and that‘s how it‘s gonna be. Who cares if there is no order, if I do it my way? At point it‘s when I don‘t want people around me, because they‘re, they‘re a pain and they‘re stopping me from doing things.

Confidence: would do it all the same if it happened again, no regrets. I have the ability to tell people exactly how I feel, and not worry about the reaction. I felt that I had every right to be that angry. I prefer to work alone because nobody can keep up.

Competitive. I didn‘t ever... like if someone was talking, like... I have to get my story in. I‘ll wait my turn but I want to get my story in. I was so upset that they could not see it from my perspective. dreamt that I was participating in a competition and that I had to do some obstacles in order to win but I then told them to make it more difficult as the obstacles were too easy...

ENERGY and RESTLESSNESS: Restless: internal restless energy

Clumsy and hyperactive. It feels like I‘ve had 3 cups of very strong coffee!

An energy rush comes upwards like a kind of sexual energy

Vigour

Imagine different colours of energy frequencies leaving the bowl. Almost like lightning. Electric! Mostly red. An impatience of the energy of the remedy to burst forth. And then I just felt like I was this generator of energy. The charger of life for myself. My own life support.

Can you isolate a force from energy? There is no force without energy. Energy is there, it moves because of energy operating.

Anger, was an energised depression

All the fighting does not remove the danger. The constant vigilance results in exhaustion. In an attempt to protect oneself, a hard protective exterior is projected over the natural softness resulting in a disconnection from everyone and everything. This pushes the individual to the other extreme, away from the connectiveness into total detachment.

TIRED / EXHAUSTED: Physically exhausted and feeling frustrated:what a waste of time wanting to fight tiredness but no energy to do so

Felt weak, like all my energy had drained out

Mentally exhausted: it‘s like I‘ve blown a gasket or something That‘s how I feel, like an overworked mother or sleep deprived person.

Woke up exhausted, want more sleep

Don‘t have the energy to move.

DETACHED: Disoriented.

Distant, Detached (and at ease)/Feeling detached from body In my own world, Want to be in my own space There was a little wall between us the whole time

Dream: One of them was a picture of 4 rows of trees. The middle 2 rows were close together, indicating that the child had formed a close relationship with someone. The distance between the outer rows of trees + the inner, showed that the child was distancing himself from his other family members & they were complaining about this to the social worker.

Spaced out: Floaty, dazed, zoning out, Feel dazed - as if in drug-induced state, unfocused, distant from everything Detached, dreamlike state. Everything is fuzzy and I‘m fading away not focused. Sort of like head in the clouds kind of thing. not in tune with what I‘m supposed to be doing. I didn‘t feel like I was really in there, like it was really going right. Feel like I am running into a big cloud! It‘s like the lights are on and no-one is there.

Disconnected: I feel very emotionally cut off and quite short, I didn‘t feel sad, or emotionally involved at all. Don‘t want to talk you just needed to stay there, don‘t like come close to me and it‘s so weird, I know. And like I felt like more that they needed me and when they left I felt like no, I don‘t need anything Finding it difficult to connect just lost track of what I‘m doing - feel like I‘m in a trance. little interest or care to anything surrounding.

I kind of would switch off what I was doing

Existence: I did not exist as if my emotions are taken over by another person

Indifference: Want to be a cold being, nothing can shake me I am indifferent

Hard hearted: And I literally could have shot him, and not felt anything. Stopped loving Destructive, as in disconnected

Dream: My first dream just came back to me. I didn‘t like this dream because we had found my sister lying in a parking lot in this massive oil spill. She had been stabbed in the abdomen. My mom decided we had to get rid of the body because else we would get blamed for killing her. I noticed that my sister started moving and wasn‘t dead. She died in my arms. My mom stayed emotionless throughout and was only concerned with disposing of the body.

Forgetful: I felt like brain dead, like ditsy, I forgot things like all the time can‘t keep track of what I‘m thinking If I need to do anything I have to write it down, or make a to do

Lost track of time: Where am I, what‘s going on, what number are we on, am I grinding. I feel slowed up and stupid

Loneliness not in tune with what I‘m supposed to be doing. I didn‘t feel like I was really in there, like it was really going right

Difficulty concentrating: I find it hard to focus, I can‘t concentrate. It‘s as though my mind has been covered by something that prevents it from communicating with what my eyes see. My concentration levels today were very low!!! I don‘t even register if people are talking to me.

Disorganised: I feel very muddled and all over the place!

HARDNESS: Protection: I have been nervous about his arrival all week, cause I didn‘t want to get too attached to him, but I found that I was quite hard, and cut off I see an image of an ostrich egg in my mortal. The hard shell, its durability fascinates me. It feels safe, protective.

Strength

Defence

STAGE 4

During the introspection brought on by the detachment in stage three, universal questions arise as to balance in an attempt to reconnect with family and friends. This results in feelings of resignation and acceptance of fate.

There is sadness in the loss of the individual expression but a realisation that in embracing the finer things in life communication can be re-established. There is remorse over past behaviour.

BALANCE: How do I balance life?

Either I was super happy with like everything and who I was in the world, or I absolutely loathed everything and who I was in the world. And there was no in-between

Order and pattern versus chaos and mess brings reality into this illusion

I want to sway and be free. Swirl or move but stay in one spot and well grounded.

CALMNESS AND RESIGNATION: Calm and at peace with yourself and who you are: You might not live life as everyone else expects you but do live life as life expects you and you expect from yourself. And then in every situation choose the best option available for yourself. And then I felt this calm Out of the dark - having this knowledge about yourself. Don‘t allow your mind to be the battle field of negative thoughts.

No positive image will ever come out. You are your own friend and you are your own enemy. And then I felt more connection with my soul.

Resignation: felt like I was being pushed and pulled like a wave in the sea. Feel calm. My childhood is sort of gone now, it‘s way back then. And it was, it wasn‘t like a bad thing necessarily, it was just a bit sad, like rite of passage, change you, you your phase. And then I was also thinking about things you have to do as an adult, which you take for granted when you‘re young and you‘ve got parents who do it for you and you‘ve got all of it to do by yourself.

Keep it simple. Focus on the essential. Secret lies in the small things. I feel less internal drive as if things are softer somehow.

Ability to cope on hearing bad news as if prepared for bad news. Facing your troubles instead of avoiding the darkness and the effort.

Seeing through the lie and making your own mind up about what the truth is. I don‘t want to be in the dark. I don‘t want to be kept in the dark. I want to know what is happening. Knowledge is powerful for me. You have to know. It is vital to know.

I feel less internal drive as if things are softer somehow.

 

Repertory:

Mind: Absentminded (dreamy)

Absorbed

Activity [desires it (creative]

Affectionate

Alert

Ambition increased (competitive)

Anger (from contradiction/when misunderstood/when things wanted are refused)

Antagonism with herself

Anxiety [about own family (their safety)/about future/about (own’s) health/with impeded respiration/sudden]/Fear [losing control/of death/with desire to escape/something will happen (to his family)/of insanity/of snakes/sudden]

Ardent

Art - ability for

Awareness heightened (beautiful things)

Awkward

Benevolence

Change - aversion to/desires it

Chaotic

Cheerful

Childish behaviour

Clarity of mind

Colors - desires them

Company - aversion to [desire for solitude/yet fear of being alone/aversion to the presence of strangers]/desires company (of children)

Concentration difficult

Confidence - want of self confidence/confident

Confusion [as to his identity (sense of duality)/as to time]

Conscientious

> Consolation

Content (with himself)

Courageous

Dancing

Danger - awareness of; heightened

Delusions - ants (bed is full of ants)/is not appreciated/being attacked/sees (billowy) clouds/impression of danger/being double/of emptiness/enlarged (parts of body)/evil/he doubted his own existence/floating on  closing eyes/ unwanted by friends/sees insects/is misunderstood/hearing music/is an outcast/is trapped/has no weight

Depersonalization

Despair

Destructiveness

Detached

Determined

Dissociation from environment

“As if in a dream”/”As if had taken drugs”/”As if heavy”/”As if has 2 wills”

Dullness

Duty - performs in a perfunctory manner

Dwells on past disagreeable occurrences

Feels at ease

Egotism

Energized feeling

Ennui

Escape, attempts to

Excitement

Exertion - physical >/desires it (in open air)

Fastidious

Fight- wants to

Forgetful

Forsaken feeling (sensation of isolation)

Gratitude

Hatred (and revengeful)

Haughty

Heedlees

Helpless

High spirited

Hurry

Impatience

Impulse morbid (to stab others)

Inconstancy

Indifference

Indignation

Injustice, cannot support it

Insecure mental

Introspection

Irrational

Irritability (from noise/from trifles)

Jealousy

Jewellery - desires to wear it

Kill; desire to (with a knife)

Laughing (over serious matters)

Laziness (with sleepiness)

Learning - desire for

Libertinism

Love - feelings of coming towards her and from her

Memory - active/weakness

Mental power increased

Mildness

Mischievous

Mistakes; making (spelling/writing)

Mood changeable

Morose

Nature - loves it

Occupation - >/desire to

Offended easily

Playful/desires to play

Positiveness

Power - sensation of

Prostration of mind

Protected feeling

Purity - desire for

Rage

Reading <

Rebellious

Reproaching oneself

Resignation

Restlessness (> motion)

Sadness

> Seaside

Self control increased

Selfish

Senses acute

Sensitive (to all external impressions/to noise/to opinions of others/passage of time)

Sentimental

Shrieking (feels as though she must shriek)

Spaced out feeling

Speech - repeats same thing

Spirals - at awe

Spirituality

Striking (desires to strike)

Suicidal disposition

Suspicious

Sympathetic

Taciturn

Talking - desire to talk to someone/in sleep

< Thinking

Thoughts - disagreeable/of the future/os the past/profound/rushing/sexual/thoughtful/two trains of thought/vacant/vanishing/wandering

Time - appears shorter, passes too quickly/appears longer, passes too slowly

Timidity

Trance

Tranquillity (settled, centred and grounded)

Trifles seem important

Desire for truthfulness

Unconsciousness - automatic conduct/trance

Unfortunate - feels it

Sensation of unification

Violent

Weeping (desire to weep)

Wilderness - desires

Writes indistinctly

Vertigo: Looking downward

< Motion/< rising

+ nausea

Head: Congestions

Eruption [pimples (on occiput)]

Formication

Heat (in occiput)

Heaviness (# clearness of mind)

Itching of scalp

“As if light”

Pain [+ nausea/aching/bursting/dull/ext. back/in eyes/in forehead/< motion/< noise/occiput (ahing)/pressing (“As from a band”/outward)/> pressure/pulsating/stitching/< sun/temples (l./r./ext. vertex pulsating)/

In vertex/on waking]

Perspiration of scalp (forehead)

“As if pulled backward”

Tingling

Eyes: Closing the eyes - desires it/involuntary/must close them

Red

Dryness

Heaviness (lids)

Iching (l./r.)

Lachrymation (r./sensation of)

Pain (burning)

Hearing: Impaired (for the human voice)

Face: Clenched jaw

Dark/red (with heat)

Eruptions (pimples)

Lips dry

Heat

Itching (l./chin/forehead)

Pain (aching/above eyes/jaws/pressing)

Perspiration

Tingling < warm room

Nose: Congestion (sinuses)

Coryza (l./r./bloody/with discharge/postnasal)

Discharge [bloody (blowing the nose)/clear/thick/watery/white/yellow]

Dry (inside)

Obstruction (+ hay fever)

Odours; imaginary and real (something burning/flowers/putrid/of smoke/sweetish/tobacco)

Pain (burning/sinuses)

Sneezing [with asthma/in hay fever/ineffectual efforts/(prolonged) paroxysms/urging]

Smell: Acute (burning/flowers/perfumes/sweets/tobacco/unpleasant)

Mouth: Dry (“As if dry”/thirstless/with thirst)

Eruptions

Salivation (profuse)

Taste - metallic/sour

Teeth: Grinding (< during sleep)

Pain in lower teeth

Throat: Catarrh

Choking (“As if choking”)

Dry

Itching

Lump

Mucus

Pain (r./burning/< cold/with dryness/”As from something sharp”/sore/stinging/stitching/< swallowing/> warm drinks/> warmth)

Swallow - constant disposed to

Thick sensation

External throat: Constriction

Pain

Stomach: Appetite - capricious/diminished with thirst (in daytime/with thirst)/increased (morning)

Eructations

Nausea (+ eructations/after coffee/during eructations/ext. throat/during heat/looking down/< motion/in throat/in waves)

Vomiting

Pain [cramping/in epigastrium (< after eating)/gnawing]

Thirst (+ dry lips/during headache/for large quantities/unquenchable)/thirstless

Abdomen: Distension (constipation/after eating)

Flatulence

Gurgling

Pain [burning/cramping (before diarrea)/< after eating/(r.) hypogastrium/< motion/> pressure/stitching/> after stool/(cramping) before stool/region of umbilicus (> pressure)]

Rumbling

Rectum: Constipation (> drinking)

Diarrhea (morning/sudden)

Flatus

„As if a lump“

Pain - tenesmus

Straining/urging

Stool: forcible, sudden, gushing (like an explosion)

Like balls/hard/mucous/offensive/watery (yellow)

Bladder: Inflamed

Urination - dysuria/frequent/seldom/urging absent

Kidneys: Pain

Urethra: Pain - burning/ < after urination

Urine: yellow - dark/copious

Male organs: Sexual desire increased

Female organs: “As if menses would appear”

Menses - copious/dark/scanty/too short (2 days)

Pain (bearing down)

Sexual desire increased

Respiration: Asthmatic

Deep (desire to breathe)

Difficult (with heat/inspiration/“As if water in lungs“/on waking

Hot breath (sensation as if)

Snoring

Suffocation; attacks of

Cough: > drinking/dry/loose/fromoppression in chest

Expectoration: Difficult/yellow

Chest: Constriction (“As from a band”)

Eruptions

Itching (axillae/mammae)

Oppression (< during cough/< inspiration)

Pain [l./r./burning/contracting/cutting/gnawing/heart/< inspiration/in mammae (sore)]

Palpitation of heart (with anxiety)

Back: Eruption (painful/pimples)

Heat

Itching [in dorsal region scapulae/between shoulders]

Pain [aching/cervical region (ext. to temles)/in dorsal region (scapulae/between shoulders)/lumbar region/> rubbing/> sitting erect/sore/> straightening up the back]

Perspiration

Tension [cervical region (nape of the neck)]

Weakness (lumbar)

Extremities: Awkwardness/incoordination

Coldness

Cramps (in nates)

Eruptions

Formication (evening/upper limbs)

Heat [feet (burning/uncovering)]

Itching [ankle/fingers/forearm (r.)/hands/legs/lower limbs/> scratching/shoulders/upper limbs (l./> scratching)]

Jerking (legs/lower limbs)

Motion (involuntary/irregular)

Numbness

Pain [aching/dull/feet (burning)/fingers/hands/hips/joints knees/legs (calves)/lower limb/rheumatic/> rubbing/shoulders/sore/upper limbs (sore)/wrists]

Sleep: Deep

Disturbed (by the slightest noise/by dreams/by thoughts)

Restless (from bodily restlessness)

Sleepiness (afternoon/< after eating/opening eyes difficult/with heaviness/overpowering)

Sleepless (from pain/from restlessness/from slight noise)

Unrefreshed (morning)

Waking too early

Yawning

Dreams: Anger/(talking) animals/anxious/arguments/arrested for murder/being attacked/birds/being bitten (by animals)/blood/breathing under water/old boyfriend/(about) rescuing children/churches/colored/competition/confused/crime (concealment of/had committed a crime/danger/of the dead/difficulties/(own) disease/distorted images/dogs/drowning/eating (chocolate)/embarrassment/own family/fights/fish (people who are fish)/flood/flying/food/(old) friends/guilt/helpless feeling/being a hero/horrible/house/imprisonment/injustice/journeys/beautiful landscape/lecture/lucid/many/monsters/being a murderer/mutilation/nightmares/being obese/pregnant (being/friend is)/taken prisoner/pursued/rape/relationships/robbers/robbing/running/sea/searching/sexual (violence)/sick people/snakes/spiritual/supernatural things/has committed a theft/unpleasant/unremembered/violence/vivid/watching herself from above/water (danger in water/dirty)/; from danger/waves (huge wave approaching)

Fever: with chilliness

Internal heat (while body feels cold to the touch)

Perspiration: Cold/profuse

Skin: Dry

Eruptions [> cold applications/pimples (painful)/rash]

Formication

Itching (l./r.)

Generals: l. then r.

r. then l.

> in open air/desire for open air/”As if a draft”/desires cold air

Symptoms ascending/complaints appearing suddenly

Clothing intolerant

< becoming cold

Energy - sensation of/sensation of expansion/

Desires to be fannedsensation of falling

> eructations

Food and drinks:

Desires: alcoholic drinks/berries/bread/cheese/cherries/chicken/chocolate/coca cola/cold drink, cold water (without thirst)/(cold/healthy/rich) food/fish/(red/strawberries) fruit/ice cream/milk/olives/peanut butter/spicy Indian pickles/spices/sugar/sushi/sweets/vegetables/water/wine/tobacco;

>: coffee; <: bread; Aversiont to: fat/rich food;

Formication

Sensation “As if from a hangover”

Flushes of heat (extending upward/with palpitatios”)/”As if heat”/heat in waves

Heaviness

Inflamed joints

Influenza

Lassitude

< looking downward

Loss of fluids

Motion from affected part <

Pain (aching/growing pains/burning)

> Pressure

Restlessness

> scratching with hands

< from loss of sleep

Strength, sensation of

Stretching out (>)

> exposure to the sun/warmth (bathing)

Wavelike sensations

Weakness (with headache/muscular)

Weariness

 

COMPARISON OF PROTEA CYNAROIDES THEMES TO THAT OF THE AIDS MIASM

 

Table 19

Comparison Between the AIDS Miasm Themes and the Themes of Protea cynaroides Theme

AIDS Miasm                                     Protea cynaroides

Connection                                                                                                

Responsibility                                                                                

Disconnection                                                                                           

Indifference                                                                                  

Dispersion                                                                                                 

Instability                                                                                                  

Extremes                                                                                                   

Confusion                                                                                                 

Femininisation                                                                                           

Vulnerability                                                                                 

Discontent                                                                                                 

Infection                                                                                                   

Confidence                                                                                               

Boundaries and Obstruction                                                           

Childhood                                                                                                 

Dream Themes                                                                                          

 

Connection:

MIND - Benevolence

MIND - Depersonalization

MIND - Sensitive

MIND - Sentimental

MIND - Sympathetic

MIND - Unification - desire for

MIND - Unification - sensation of unification

Responsibility:

MIND - Conscientious

MIND - Anxiety - family; about his (for safety of family)

MIND - Company - desire for - children; of

Disconnection:

DREAMS - Pursued

MIND - Company - aversion to (desires solitude)

MIND - Confusion - identity; as to his

MIND - Delusions - friends - unwanted by friends

MIND - Detached

MIND - Drugs - taken drugs; as if one had

MIND - Spaced - out feeling

MIND - Trance

Indifference:

MIND - Despair

MIND - Ennui

MIND - Selfish

Dispersion:

DREAMS - Flying

DREAMS - Journeys

DREAMS – Water (danger - in water; from danger)

DREAMS – Waves (huge wave approaching)

MIND - Delusions - clouds - sees

MIND - Delusions - floating - closing eyes, on

MIND - Delusions - music - hearing music

MIND - Delusions - weight - no weight; has

MIND - Spirals - awe at

STOMACH – Thirst (+ dry lips/for large quantities/unquenchable)

Instability:

MIND - Chaotic

MIND - Childish behaviour

MIND - Sensitive - external impressions, to all

Extremes:

DREAMS - Distorted - images

MIND - Ambition - increased

MIND - Delusions - enlarged - parts of body

MIND - Power - sensation of

STOMACH - Appetite - increased appetite

Confusion:

MIND - Concentration - difficult

MIND – Confusion (as to his identity)

MIND - Confusion - identity; as to his - duality, sense of

MIND - Confusion - time; as to

MIND - Mistakes; making (spelling errors/repeating words)

Instability:

MIND - Chaotic

MIND - Childish behaviour

MIND - Sensitive - external impressions, to all

Extremes:

DREAMS - Distorted - images

MIND - Ambition - increased

MIND - Delusions - enlarged - parts of body

MIND - Power - sensation of

STOMACH - Appetite - increased appetite

Confusion:

MIND - Concentration - difficult

MIND – Confusion [about own identity (sense of duality)/to time]

MIND - Mistakes; making (spelling errors/repeating words)

Femininisation

CHEST - Pain - left

DREAMS - Pregnant – being her friend)

DREAMS - Sexual

EAR - Pain - left

EYE - Itching - left

NOSE - Coryza - left

HEAD - Pain - temples - left

FEMALE ORGANS - Sexual desire - increased

GENERALS - Side - left - then right side

SKIN - Itching - left

Vulnerability:

DREAMS - Children; about (rescuing)

DREAMS - Danger

DREAMS - Violence

GENERALS - Weakness

MIND - Delusions - trapped; he is

MIND - Heedless

MIND - Power - sensation of

MIND - Suspicious

Discontent:

MIND - Anger (from contradiction/when misunderstood/when things he wants are refused)

MIND - Discontented

MIND - Irritability (from noise/from trifles)

MIND - Kill; desire to (with a knife)

MIND - Restlessness (> motion)

Infection:

DREAMS - Disease - own disease, his

DREAMS - Water - dirty

GENERALS - Influenza

Confidence:

MIND - Confidence - want of self confidence

MIND - Confident

MIND – Content (with himself)

MIND - Reproaching oneself

MIND - Suicidal disposition

Boundaries and obstruction:

DREAMS - House

MIND - Delusions - attacked; being

MIND - Helplessness

SKIN - Sensitiveness (to touch)

Childhood:

MIND - Company - desire for - children; of

MIND - Playing (desire to play)

MIND - Thoughts of thepast

Dream themes

DREAMS - Anger

DREAMS - Children; about (of rescuing)

DREAMS - Disease

DREAMS - House

DREAMS - Journeys

DREAMS - Violence

DREAMS – Water (from danger in water/dirty)

From the data presented, it is evident that a strong link exists between the proving symptoms elicited in the Protea cynaroides proving and those belonging to the AIDS miasm. The implication of this will be discussed in the following chapter.

 

CONCLUSION

The hypotheses tested were

1st dealt with the reproducibility of proving symptoms, striving to prove that symptoms produced in consecutive years while applying the same methodology are comparable,

2nd different methodologies yield different numbers, types and quality of symptoms, thirdly that differences exist between the symptoms yielded by the placebo and the verum groups within the same methodology and lastly that it is possible to develop an integrated methodology based on the relative effectiveness of the proving methodologies.

The reproducibility of symptoms were the highest in Groups one (C4 methodology) and three (Dream methodology). It was noted, however, that the congruency observed in the Dream proving methodology group was due to the low number of symptoms elicited through its application. It is thus evident that the C4 and Sherr methodologies are the most reproducible based on rubric presence, as opposed to Group 3, the Dream proving methodology, where the high level of similarity lies in the absence of rubrics.

From the data, it was evident that the different methodologies did in fact yield different numbers, types and quality of symptoms. The methodologies that yielded the most rubrics are the C4 trituration and the Sherr proving methodologies. Not only do they yield a large number of rubrics, but they also yield a much larger number of rubrics than produced by the placebo portion of the Sherr proving methodology. In the Dream proving methodology group there is much less rubrics present at each rubric level than yielded by the C4 trituration and the Sherr proving methodologies. The relative effectiveness of the three methodologies in producing symptoms are discussed in Chapter 5, as well as their affinity for producing symptoms related to specific chapters, which is discussed under section 5.4.

In looking at Groups one (C4 proving) and two (Sherr proving) it is evident that these methodologies are more effective in eliciting responses in provers with odds ratios indicating that rubrics are more likely to be present in these groups than absent. These groups are up to three times more effective in producing rubrics than Group three and up to six times more effective than the placebo group. The odds ratios for placebo portion of the Sherr proving and the Dream proving indicate that rubrics have a greater chance of being absent within these groups than they have of being present. The chances are greater in the placebo than in Dream methodology group, though, indicating that the active remedy does elicit more symptoms than the inactive.

The conclusion can thus be drawn that the methodologies employed in Groups one and two (C4 and Sherr methodologies) are more likely to produce symptoms than not and that the placebo control and Group three (Dream methodology) are more likely not to produce symptoms. One can thus assume that the more effective methodologies are those tested in Groups one and two. No significant difference exists in the symptoms experienced when comparing the C4 and Sherr methodologies and the methodologies are thus equivalent. The differences between these groups lie in their chapter affinities, which would be further explored in the following chapter under section.

It is also evident that the application of the various methodologies yielded enough symptoms to allow for the compilation of a comprehensive repertory and materia medica presented in this chapter, thus validating the assumption.

The materia medica and its relation to the AIDS miasm are discussed further in the following chapter under section 5.6.

 

DISCUSSION

The aim of this study was to compare the most commonly employed proving methodologies:

a.       the C4 trituration proving methodology,

b.      the Sherr proving methodology

c.       the Dream proving methodology,

by application in order to ascertain the validity of the claims made in terms of the efficiency of the method to elicit reproducible symptoms.

C4 proving methodology, as employed in Group one, was chosen on account of the controversy that surrounds it. As discussed in Chapter 2, authors like Dellmour (1998) object to the acknowledgement of these provings through publication and inclusion in repertories. It was thus important to investigate the claims and to test the merits of this methodology, as it promises a deeper understanding of the remedy proven and is much less time consuming.

The methodology tested in Group two, the Sherr proving methodology, was selected based on its widespread use as the acknowledged methodology for conducting scientifically acceptable provings. This method is widely cited as the acceptable model for conducting provings and serves as a gold standard (European Committee for Homeopathy, 2004, 2008; International Council for Classical Homoeopathy, 1999).

The Dream proving methodology was employed in Group three. Scholten (2007) feels that meditation provings are more accurate than Dream provings in giving the essence of the remedy. The Dream proving methodology was chosen to represent the more intuitive methodologies, for the researcher did not possess skills to adequately apply a methodology like the meditation proving methodology in order to assess its effectiveness.

 

Dream provings are also less time consuming to carry out and thus carry merit to be investigated.

 

During the course of the research, 70 provers were recruited to test the unknown substance through application of the three methodologies mentioned above. These provers comprised of both female and male participants, representing all four ethnic groups. The majority of the provers were either homoeopaths or homoeopathic students, although members of the general public who indicated an interest in participating were also included.

The end result of the data collection was the formulation of 1 373 rubrics utilised for analysis purposes, resulting in 881 verified rubrics that comprise the repertory for Protea cynaroides.

The statistical analysis presented in the previous chapter indicated the relative effectiveness of each method as well as the reproducibility of the symptoms elicited, analysed both in terms of rubric level and in terms of repertory chapter.

This chapter explain the findings presented in Chapter 4 in order to identify the apparent strengths and weaknesses of each methodology towards developing an integrated methodology that minimises the pitfalls identified and concentrating on the strengths. Each methodology applied will be discussed in chronological order below to facilitate the discussion.

The factors taken into consideration when assessing the strengths and weaknesses of each methodology are as follows:

 

Reproducibility of symptoms elicited

Number of symptoms elicited

Types of symptoms elicited

Quality of symptoms elicited

 

These factors will give an indication of the reproducibility and relative effectiveness of each method which would allow for the identification of the positive elements to be incorporated into an integrated methodology, and also to highlight the pitfalls in order to allow for the development of mechanisms to minimise their occurrence.

 

Table 6

Similarity in Rubric Occurrence in 2008 and 2009 Presented by Repertory Chapter

Repertory                               Group 1:                                            Group 2:                                            Group 3:                                Total

Chapter                       C4 Trituration Proving                                   Sherr Proving                         Dream proving                                  

                                                n          %                                            n          %                                            n          %                               

Mind                                      356      62                                           368      64                                           372      65                               572

Vertigo                                   14        58                                           12        50                                           22        92                               24

Head                                      66        54                                           72        59                                           88        72                               122

Eye                                         40        54                                           42        57                                           56        76                               74

Vision                                     6          77                                           12        35                                           28        82                               34

Ear                                          18        36                                           36        72                                           50        100                             50

Hearing                                  4          33                                           12        100                                         4          33                               12

Face                                        52        60                                           50        57                                           78        89                               88

Mouth                                    2          48                                           38        83                                           24        52                               46

Teeth                                      14        100                                         2          14                                            4          29                               14

Nose                                       68        51                                           96        72                                           94        70                               134

External Throat                      6          100                                         0          0                                             6          100                             6

Throat                                     2          49                                           40        61                                            48        73                               66

Expectoration                         0          80                                           4          40                                           4          40                                            0

Larynx                                    0          0                                             4          100                                         4          100                             4

Respiration                             6          45                                           28        78                                           18        50                               36

Cough                                                29                                           4          29                                           6          43                               14

Stomach                                 72        63                                           62        54                                           104      91                               114

Abdomen                               50        66                                           24        32                                           70        92                               76

Rectum                                   28        93                                           8          27                                           14        47                               30

Stool                                       22        100                                         2          9                                             16        73                               22

Bladder                                  6          60                                           4          40                                           10        100                             10

Urethra                                   10        100                                         4          40                                           10        100                             10

Urine                                      10        100                                         4          40                                           10        100                             10

Chest                                      48        51                                           46        49                                           64        68                               94

Back                                       34        41                                           50        60                                           66        79                               84

Extremities                             116      46                                           162      64                                           200      79                               252

Fever                                       8          100                                         2          25                                           2          25                               8

Kidneys                                  8          100                                         8          100                                         8          100                             8

Male Organs                           2          50                                           2          50                                           2          50                               4

Female Organs                       52        87                                           20        34                                           50        83                               60

Male-/Female Organs             2          100                                         2          100                                         2          100                             2

Skin                                        20        63                                           22        69                                           22        69                               32

Perspiration                            6          100                                         4          67                                           4          67                               6

Chill                                        2          100                                         2          0                                             2          100                             2

Sleep                                      36        67                                           32        59                                           44        81                               54

Dreams                                   200      71                                           122      43                                           144      51                               284

Generals                                 202      73                                           144      52                                           166      60                               278

Mean                                       68                                                       53                                                       73

 

ANALYSIS OF THE INCIDENCE OF RUBRIC WITHIN SPECIFIC CHAPTERS FOR THE THREE METHODOLOGIES APPLIED

In order to ascertain whether the methodology has an affinity to elicit symptoms in particular organs, one has to look at the individual chapters and interpret

the results obtained. Below is listed an interpretation and discussion of the results obtained when applying each proving methodology.

            Abdomen

This chapter shows a low occurrence of rubrics in the C4 group and the rubrics are more likely to be absent than present in both the C4 group and the dream three. In analysing the incidence, it is evident that significant differences exist between all the groups when carrying out a pair-wise comparison. Based on these comparisons it is evident that the verum Sherr group is more effective in eliciting symptoms in the Abdomen chapter than the other two methodologies employed. The placebo Sherr group, however, elicited a higher number of symptoms than the Dream group. This illustrates the School of Homeopathy‘s (2004) field theory, and that everyone in the field experience the effect of the proving albeit in different degrees of intensity, as expressed by Rosenbaum et al. (2006). This raises the question of the necessity of including placebo provers in the group and insinuates that Jansen (2008) is correct in viewing placebo as a waste of provers.

            Back

In the C4 group, the Back chapter reflects a high incidence of rubrics, much higher in fact than the incidence in any of the other groups. A significant difference is observable in comparing the results to those obtained in the other two groups. This may indicate that the mechanical action of trituration augments the effects of the remedy, making physiological strains on the body more pronounced. Less weight should be given to symptoms in this chapter with regard to Group one provers as this is probably more due to the physical strain of the process than the effect of the remedy. It should, however, not be discarded, as the symptoms did occur to a lesser degree in the other groups, most notably in Group two where the odds ratio indicates a higher probability of rubric occurring within the chapter than of being absent.

The relationship between the Dream group and the placebo Sherr group should be noted, where there is virtually the same incidence of rubrics. In the Dream group 11 rubrics are present in the Back chapter and in the placebo

 

Jeremy Sherr group 10. This means that there is no significant difference observable between the groups.

            Bladder

These symptoms are more likely to be absent than present in the C4 group and the Dream group, but due to the small number of rubrics presenting this chapter results pertaining to the presence in the C4 group appear inflated.

No significant differences are observable between the three groups with regards to this chapter, leading to the assumption that the rubrics in this chapter is reproducible through all methodologies and does not show an affinity

to a specific methodology employed. The odds ratio, however, indicates that the Sherr group, both the placebo and verum sections, have a higher likelihood of producing bladder symptoms, indicating the possible affinity of this methodology for producing rubrics in the Bladder chapter. The presence of five rubrics is however too small to make a conclusive decision.

            Chest

When studying the C4 group, the moderate occurrence of rubrics within this chapter is comparable to the incidence in the verum Sherr group and the Dream group, thus reflecting no significant differences when applying a pair-wise intergroup analyses with the C4 group. Significant differences are however observable when comparing the verum Sherr group and the Dream group, as well as the verum Sherr group to the placebo portion. Rubrics also have a higher chance of occurring than of being absent in the C4 group and the verum Sherr group, marking this chapter as a significant chapter in the proving of Protea cynaroides, but not a characteristic chapter with regards to a particular proving methodology.

This is one of the few chapters where a significant difference is observable between the placebo Sherr group and the Dream group. This is due to the incidence

of 14 rubrics within the chapter in the Dream group, compared to one rubric in the placebo Sherr group.

            Chill

This chapter did not feature in the C4 proving or either section of the Sherr proving data elicited. It occurred as a single rubric during the application of the Dream proving methodology and is thus negligible in the proving of Protea cynaroides.

            Cough

The moderate occurrence of rubrics within this chapter on application of the C4 group methodology is similar to the incidence in the verum Sherr group and the Dream group. This, yet again, seems to be a significant chapter in the proving of Protea cynaroides, but not a characteristic chapter with regards to a particular methodology. Here again it is observable that rubrics have a greater chance of occurring than not in the C4 group and the verum

Sherr group, thus leading to the conclusion that these methodologies are more likely to elicit symptoms belonging to this chapter. Chapter 5

            Dreams

The Dreams chapter is the second largest chapter, containing 142 rubrics. In comparing the data pertaining to the Dream chapter it is evident that dream symptoms are more likely to occur in the verum Sherr group and in the Dream group. The incidence is however higher in the verum Sherr group than in the Dream group, where the methodology name insinuates a high occurrence of dream related symptoms. In looking at the data generated by applying the C4 and placebo Sherr group, it is evident that in this chapter there is a low occurrence of rubrics and consequently rubrics are more likely to be absent than present. Significant differences are found to exist between the C4 group occurrence of the rubrics in this chapter and that of the verum Sherr group and the Dream group respectively, but not when comparing the verum Sherr group and the Dream group. The verum Sherr group and the Dream group methodologies are thus much more effective in eliciting symptoms in the Dreams chapter.

The paucity of dream symptoms present in the C4 group is possibly due to the fact that the C4 proving takes place during the trituration process and consequently means that none of the provers sleep during the proving and are thus not able to experience dream symptoms.

             Ear

This chapter shows a high occurrence of rubrics in the C4 group, but a total absence in the Dream group. Rubrics are more likely to occur than to be absent in the C4 group only. In analysing the incidence, it is evident that significant differences exist between the C4 group occurrence of the rubrics in this chapter and that of the verum Sherr group and the Dream group respectively. The C4 methodology is thus more effective in eliciting symptoms related to the ear than the verum Sherr and Dream proving methodologies. No significant difference exists between the placebo and verum sections of the Sherr group, emphasising this methodology‘s lack in producing symptoms pertaining to the Ear chapter.

              Expectoration

Despite the small number of rubrics present in this chapter when applying the C4 proving methodology, the chances of eliciting the rubrics when applying any of the three methodologies are slim. The verum Sherr group shows the highest incidence of rubrics present in this chapter (three) and is the only section more likely to produce symptoms related to expectoration. This leads to the conclusion that Expectoration is not an important chapter in the proving of Protea cynaroides, but it is not possible to make assumptions regarding the chapter affinity due to the small number of rubrics present.

            External Throat

This chapter represents a small number of rubrics and the likelihood of the rubric being absent when applying the C4, Dream and placebo Sherr methodologies are high. There is also no significant difference observable in any of the comparisons between the data elicited when applying the different methodologies, but the highest incidence and probability of occurrence is seen in the verum Sherr group. External throat is thus not an important chapter in this proving.

            Expectoration

Despite the small number of rubrics present in this chapter when applying the C4 proving methodology, the chances of eliciting the rubrics when applying any of the three methodologies are slim. The verum Sherr group shows the highest incidence of rubrics present in this chapter (three) and is the only section more likely to produce symptoms related to expectoration. This leads to the conclusion that Expectoration is not an important chapter in the proving of Protea cynaroides, but it is not possible to make assumptions regarding the chapter affinity due to the small number of rubrics present.

            Extremities

Extremities is the 4th largest chapter with 126 rubrics. The high incidence of rubrics reflected in this chapter for the C4 group is much higher than the incidence observed in the verum Sherr group and the Dream group and a significant difference is observable in comparing the results in the C4 group to those obtained in the other two verum groups. This yet again may be due more to the physical strain of the process than the effect of the remedy, resulting in less weight being given to symptoms in this chapter with regards to the C4 group provers. Yet again, symptoms should not be discarded, as the symptoms were elicited, although to a lesser degree, in the other groups.

It is however more likely to be absent than present in all the groups except in the C4 group.

            Eye

A large proportion of rubrics present in this chapter belong to symptoms elicited during the application of the C4 proving methodology. Rubrics also have a higher probability of occurring than of being absent in the C4 group, in contrast to the other groups. It is interesting to note that no significant difference exist between the eye symptoms in the C4 group and the verum Sherr group, but significant differences are observable between the C4 group and the Dream group. It is, however, evident that no significant differences exist when comparing the verum Sherr group to the other groups. Eye is thus a prominent chapter in the C4 group and, to a lesser extent, the verum Sherr group methodologies, but insignificant when applying the Dream proving methodology.

            Face

A moderate number of rubrics are present in the face chapter when applying the C4 and Sherr proving methodologies. Rubrics also have a higher probability of occurring than of being absent in these groups. No significant differences thus exist between these groups. Significant differences are observable between the C4 group and the Dream group, the verum Sherr group and placebo Sherr group and the verum Sherr group and the Dream group.

This is due to the greater likelihood of rubric absence in the Face chapter of the placebo Sherr group and the Dream group, leading to the assumption that this is a more prominent chapter in the C4 group and verum Sherr group.

            Female organs

This chapter features most strongly in the verum Sherr group. There is an evidently low occurrence of rubrics when applying the C4 group and the Dream group methodologies and consequently rubrics are more likely to be absent than present. In analysing the incidence, it is evident that significant differences exist between occurrence of rubrics within this chapter between the C4 group and the verum Sherr group as well as between the verum Sherr group and placebo Sherr group. No significant difference is observable in the comparison between the C4 group and the Dream group. The verum Sherr group is thus much more effective in eliciting symptoms in the Female chapter. The earlier observation made in the Dream chapter is possible again true for the C4 group due to the fact that there are few long term effects of the proving and symptoms that would take a longer time to develop like hormonal changes that would affect the menses would not manifest during the four hours in which the trituration takes place.

            Fever

This chapter did not feature in the C4 proving data elicited. The verum Sherr group and the Dream group methodologies did elicit symptoms in this chapter, but did not reflect a significant difference when comparing them to the C4 group. The most prominent methodology is that applied in the verum section of the verum Sherr group, eliciting all four the rubrics. The verum Sherr group is the only group reflecting a higher probability of symptoms occurring than of them being absent.

            Generals

The Generals chapter is the third largest chapter in this proving, containing 139 rubrics. When comparing the number of rubrics generated when applying the various proving methodology, it is evident that an average to moderate number is present in all the verum groups and no significant differences exist when comparing the incidence of rubrics in the C4 group to that of the verum Sherr group and the Dream group. Rubrics also have a higher probability of occurring in these than of being absent. A significant difference does however exist between the verum Sherr group and the Dream group and between the verum and placebo sections of the Sherr group. The significant differences observable is due to the high number of rubrics absent in this chapter when applying the Dream group and the placebo Sherr group methodologies. This leads to the conclusion that the Generals chapter is an important chapter in the proving of Protea cynaroides. This is to be expected due to the fact that any proving would produce a number of general symptoms (Kent, 1995).

            Head

In the C4 group there is a large proportion of rubrics present in the Head chapter. Rubrics also have a higher probability of occurring than of being absent when applying this methodology, as well as the Sherr methodology. It is interesting to note that no significant difference exist between the head symptoms in the C4 group and the verum Sherr group, but significant differences are observable between the C4 group and the Dream group and between the verum and placebo sections of the Sherr group. This is due to the greater likelihood of rubric absence in the Head chapter of the Dream group and the placebo Sherr group. Head is thus an important chapter in the C4 group and the verum Sherr group methodologies, but insignificant when applying the Dream proving methodology.

            Hearing

These symptoms are more likely to be present than absent in the C4 group, whereas the opposite holds true for the other groups. No significant differences are observable between the three groups with regards to the Hearing chapter, leading to the assumption that the small number rubrics in this chapter make it impossible to draw a conclusion as to a particular affinity to a specific methodology employed. One can, however, note that the C4 group was the only group to elicit all six rubrics representing this chapter.

            Kidneys

This chapter represents a small number of rubrics (four) and the likelihood of the rubric being absent when applying the C4 and Dream proving methodologies is high. Three rubrics are present in the verum and two in the placebo sections of the Sherr group. There is also no significant difference observable any of the group comparisons, leading to the conclusion that the Kidneys chapter is probably not a significant chapter in this proving.

            Larynx

Only two rubrics represent this chapter. When applying the C4 and Sherr (verum and placebo sections) proving methodologies, one rubric was elicited in each of the groups and the likelihood of the rubric occurring is even to the likelihood of it being absent. There is also no significant difference observable in the comparison between the data elicited when applying the Sherr group or the Dream group methodologies compared to that of the C4 group. Larynx thus seems to be an insignificant chapter in the Protea cynaroides proving.

            Male Genitalia

This chapter represents a small number of rubrics (two) and the likelihood of the rubric occurring is equal to the likelihood of it being absent when applying the C4 group methodology and in the placebo Sherr group. There is also no significant difference observable in the comparison between the data elicited in any of the groups. The Male genitalia chapter also seems to be an insignificant chapter in the proving of this remedy.

            Male and Female Genitalia

The one rubric representing this chapter is present in all three groups and is thus likely to always occur when conducting this proving.

            Mind

Mind is the largest chapter, containing 286 of the rubrics produced as a result of the Protea cynaroides proving. A large number of rubrics were elicited in this chapter during the application of all 3 the proving methodologies. Rubrics also have a higher probability of occurring than of being absent in the three verum groups. No significant difference exists between the mind symptoms in the C4 group and the verum Sherr group, but significant differences are observable between the C4 group and the Dream group, verum Sherr group and the Dream group and the placebo and verum sections of the Sherr group. The difference between the C4 group and the Dream group and the verum Sherr group and the Dream group laid in the fact that the C4 group elicited 224 rubrics and the verum Sherr group 203 compared to the 177 in the Dream group. The rubrics in this chapter are reproducible throughout all the Dream group methodologies and does not show a strong affinity to a specific methodology employed. This is to be expected due to the fact that any proving would produce mind symptoms (Kent, 1995).

            Perspiration

The low occurrence of rubrics (one out of the Dream group) within this chapter on application of the C4 group methodology is identical to the incidence in the verum Sherr group and the Dream group. With all three methodologies it is unlikely that the Dream group rubrics in the Perspiration chapter would occur, thus leading to the conclusion that this does not seem to be a significant chapter in the proving of Protea cynaroides.

            Rectum

In the C4 group, this chapter reflects a low occurrence and rubrics are more likely to be absent than present. In analysing the incidence, it is evident that significant differences exist between the C4 group occurrence of the rubrics in the Rectum chapter and that of the verum Sherr group and the Dream group. The verum Sherr group and the Dream group methodologies are thus much more effective in eliciting symptoms in the Rectum chapter. This yet again can be explained by the fact that disorders of digestion takes time to manifest, and during the trituration proving, ascending potencies every hour prevents the development of these types of disorders.

            Respiration

This chapter shows a high occurrence of rubrics elicited by the application of the C4 proving methodology, followed by a significantly lower incidence in the verum Sherr group and the Dream group. Rubrics are more likely to occur than to be absent in the C4 group alone. In analysing the incidence, it is evident that significant differences exist between the C4 group occurrence of the rubrics in this chapter and that of the verum Sherr group and the Dream group. The C4 methodology is thus more effective in eliciting symptoms related to the respiration than the Sherr and Dream proving methodologies.

            Skin

The high occurrence of rubrics within this chapter on application of the verum Sherr group methodology and the moderate occurrence in the C4 group reflect no significant difference to exist between these groups. A significant difference exists when comparing the incidence between the verum Sherr group and the Dream group. In the Dream group and the placebo Sherr group it is observable that rubrics have a greater chance of occurring than not, but the opposite is true for the C4 group and the verum Sherr group. This thus seems to be a significant chapter when applying the C4 and Sherr proving methodologies.

            Sleep

Sleep symptoms were elicited in the application of all the verum proving methodologies, and show a higher probability of occurring than of being absent. No significant differences are evident in comparing the rubric incidence in all three the verum groups, but a significant difference is evident when comparing the verum and placebo sections of the Sherr group. The Sleep chapter can thus be seen significant chapter in the proving of Protea cynaroides, not showing a particular affinity to a proving methodology. It is interesting, however to note that although the C4 proving did not elicit significant symptoms in the Dreams chapter, it was able to affect the sleep of the provers.

            Stomach

No significant differences are observable between the data elicited in the C4 group and the verum Sherr group. In these groups, rubrics also reflect a tendency to occurring rather than of being absent. Significant differences are observable between the C4 group and the Dream group, the verum Sherr group and the Dream group and between the placebo and verum sections of the Sherr group. The difference between the C4 group and the Dream group and the verum Sherr group and the Dream group lays in the fact that the C4 group elicited 29 rubrics and the verum Sherr group 37 rubrics compared to the nine rubrics produced in the Dream group. The rubrics in this chapter show an affinity to the C4 and Sherr proving methodologies employed.

            Stool

This chapter did not feature in the C4 proving data elicited. This observation is again due to the fact that digestive disturbances take longer to manifest than the duration of the C4 proving. The verum Sherr group and the Dream group methodologies did elicit symptoms in this chapter, but the Dream group has a larger probability of not producing the symptoms than of producing it. This thus reflects that this chapter is favoured by the Sherr proving methodology, but that it is insignificant when applying the C4 and Dream methodologies.

            Teeth

This chapter did not feature in the C4 proving data elicited. The verum Sherr group and the Dream group methodologies did elicit symptoms in this chapter, thus reflecting a significant difference when comparing them to the C4 group. No significant difference exists between the verum Sherr group and the Dream group data. However, due to the small number of rubrics (seven) representing this chapter, one cannot draw a definite conclusion, but this chapter does seem to be favoured by the Sherr and Dream methodologies. This also supports the observation that the C4 methodology does not elicit symptoms that are more insidious in developing.

            Throat

A large proportion of rubrics present in this chapter were elicited during the application of the C4 and Sherr proving methodologies. Rubrics also have a higher probability of occurring than of being absent within these groups.

No significant difference were found to exist between the throat symptoms in the C4 group and the verum Sherr group, but significant differences can be observed between the C4 group and the Dream group. The difference between the C4 group and the Dream group lays in the fact that the C4 group elicited 23 rubrics compared to the 13 in the Dream group. The Dream group also shows a higher probability of rubric absence. The rubrics in this chapter show an affinity to the application of the C4 and Sherr proving methodologies.

            Urethra

The low occurrence of rubrics within this chapter on application of the C4 group methodology is similar to the incidence in the Dream group. No significant difference is thus observable between the C4 group and the Dream group. With the C4 and Dream proving methodologies it is unlikely that the five rubrics in the Urethra chapter would occur, but the opposite is true for the Sherr methodology, both in its placebo and verum section. This concurs with the findings in the Bladder chapter. But, yet again, the presence of five rubrics is too small to make a conclusive decision on whether there exists a definite affinity within the Sherr group methodology for this chapter.

            Urine

This chapter did not feature in the C4 proving data elicited. The verum Sherr group and the Dream group methodologies did elicit symptoms in this chapter, but due to the small number of rubrics (five) representing this chapter the differences were not significant when comparing the groups. It is interesting to note that both the C4 group and the Dream group have a higher probability of the rubric being absent, while the opposite is true for the Sherr group‘s verum section. The verum Sherr group thus may favour the development of symptoms related to urine, but the results are inconclusive. This concurs with the conclusion drawn in the Urethra chapter.

            Vertigo

This chapter represents a small number of rubrics and the likelihood of the rubric occurring is equal to the likelihood of it being absent when applying the C4 group methodology. In the Dream group, rubrics are more likely to be absent and in the verum Sherr group they are more likely to be present. No significant difference is observable in the comparison between the data elicited when applying any of the methodologies. Vertigo seems to be favoured by the Sherr proving methodology, where with the C4 proving methodology it is not possible to draw a conclusion either way.

            Vision

The rubrics present in this chapter were predominantly elicited during the application of the Sherr proving methodology, followed by the C4 proving methodology. Rubrics reflect a tendency to occur rather than of being absent in the C4 group and two. No significant difference is observable when comparing the C4 group and the verum Sherr group, but a significant difference is evident between the C4 group and the Dream group and the verum Sherr group and the Dream group. The difference when comparing the C4 group and the verum Sherr group to the Dream group lays in the fact that the C4 group elicited 11 rubrics and the verum Sherr group 17 rubrics compared to the 5 in the Dream group. The C4 group and two thus reflects an affinity for eliciting symptoms in the Vision chapter, where the Dream group does not.

 

AN INTEGRATED METHODOLOGY

The most effective methodologies are those employed in Groups one and two, namely the C4 trituration and the Sherr proving methodologies. In comparing the chapters where these methodologies predominate, it is evident that a combination of the C4 and Sherr proving methodologies would yield the most effective proving. The C4 methodology seems to be most effective in eliciting acute responses (organs of sensation - eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin- as well as those organs in which diseases develop quickly, for example the respiratory system.

In applying the Sherr methodology, it is evident that both acute and more insidious symptoms develop, although the senses are not favoured as prominently as in the C4 proving. Disorders of the digestive and reproductive systems are thus more evident on application of the Sherr methodology, but disorders of the respiratory system also occurred.

From the data presented in the sections above, it is evident that the Dream proving methodology is only marginally more successful in eliciting proving symptoms than the placebo portion of the Sherr methodology. The methodology does not cause provers to experience large numbers of symptoms and is more likely to not elicit a response than to elicit one.

 

The integrated methodology proposed is as follows:

STAGE 1: Roles are assigned to the parties involved. The selected proving committee decides on the exact protocol and the remedy, as well as assigning prover numbers, remedy codes and starting dates. Provers are screened for suitability as suggested by the Sherr methodology. The committee also allocates supervisors to the provers.

The pre-proving interview takes place, comprising of the taking of a complete case history and a physical examination to establish the baseline symptoms of the prover. Informed consent should be obtained from all participants in writing to comply with ethical standards and to protect the rights of the provers. During this interview, notebooks are distributed and the provers are required to keep notes of their normal state at least one week prior to commencing the proving.

STAGE 2a: The first phase of administration of the proving substance takes place through performing a C4 trituration of the substance. At least 10 provers should form part of this group. Experienced C4 provers should be favoured for this stage, especially if they have worked together for long enough to develop a group dynamic. Initially provers do not have the confidence to record all the symptoms they experience, or the ability to identify which symptoms are relevant; this only comes with experience. The C4 proving would allow for the preliminary development of a remedy picture. After each trituration level a group discussion should take place in order to discuss the provers‘ experiences and to verify the symptoms noted.

The experiences and symptoms reported by the C4 provers would then be extracted and collated. These experiences are then categorised according to the different levels, i.e. whether the symptoms fall under the physical, emotional, mental or spiritual levels. The data from the different levels can then be analysed to reveal the predominant themes of the proving. These themes can then be arranged to indicate the evolution of the experiences elicited during the proving process.

STAGE 2b: The symptoms elicited through the C4 proving would then be verified by carrying out an orthodox proving based on the guidelines laid down by Sherr (1994). The prover group should include a minimum of 15 verum provers. The use of placebo provers are optional, but should not include more than 10%, as any larger a group would serve no purpose, as expressed by Jansen (2008). Here, provers should be sensitive individuals able to accurately record the symptoms they experience.

The posology should ensure a large likelihood for the development of symptoms, without putting the prover‘s future health at risk. The suggested three doses per day for two consecutive days elicited a large proving response, as it is important to have frequent repetition of the dose until proving symptoms emerge and then to discontinue further doses.

All symptoms elicited during both phases of the proving should be verified through a personal interview with the prover. This should take place as close to the experience as possible to prevent provers from losing touch with the experience. This would ensure that the researcher can fully appreciate all the aspects of the symptoms experienced in order to record the description of the symptoms as comprehensively as possible.

STAGE 3: The provers from phase two meet with the supervisors in order to discuss the symptoms experienced, to verify the symptoms and to ensure that all the descriptions are as concise as possible. The provers from both proving phases meet as a group to discuss their symptoms and experiences. All the valid symptoms are extracted from the notebooks and the remedy name is announced. The extraction process can be carried out using NVivo software for the thematic coding of the symptoms. The themes identified during the extraction process of the C4 trituration proving data can be utilised as starting nodes.

STAGE 4: The extractions are collated and typed. Toxicological data is added and the symptoms are edited by the co-ordinator.

STAGE 5: The symptoms are repertorised and graded.

STAGE 6: Publishing of the proving

 

In following the integrated methodology described in the preceding paragraphs, complete symptoms can be elicited on all levels, i.e. a comprehensive description of symptoms can be obtained pertaining to the physical, general, mental, emotional and spiritual levels. This description would facilitate deeper understanding

of the cycles present in the development of the consciousness of the remedy and result in a materia medica that would immediately be applicable in practice. Prescription of the remedy would facilitate clinical verification of the symptoms elicited, completing the investigation of the remedy picture.

 

            PROTEA CYNAROIDES AND THE AIDS MIASM

At first glance, Protea cynaroides seems to belong to the Acute miasm, possessing features of fear of sudden attack coupled with a fight or flight response.

This response is characterised by anxiety, heart palpitations and a bounding pulse (Sankaran, 1999). These features are only evident in the aetiology of the mental/emotional symptoms of the remedy, indicating the presence of a more evolved miasm.

Stage one of the mental/emotional development, shows to the Psora miasm. There is a sensitivity to all stimuli which produces functional disturbances e.g. itching, nausea, headaches and diarrhoea (Hahnemann, 1995).

Protea cynaroides also exhibit features of the Tuberculinic miasm: Oppression with a desire to break free from the restrictions. This feeling, however, is only evident in the second developmental stage of the protea.

This desire to break free, however, develops into extreme destructive reactions, taking on Syphilitic features in stage four, thus developing beyond the racing pace of the Tuberculinic miasm (Sankaran, 2000).

The miasm that encompasses features of all the miasms discussed above is the AIDS miasm. Comprised of features combining Psora and Syphilis, it is similar to the Tuberculinic miasm, but where Psora is dominant in the Tuberculinic miasm, Syphilis dominates the AIDS miasm.

In the development of the consciousness of Protea cynaroides, as illustrated in the previous chapter under section 4.3.1, the emergence of the AIDS miasm is evident. In stage one there are no boundaries for the individual, who is dependent on the family/group to provide the boundaries. These boundaries are however too restrictive for the emerging individualism, resulting in the desire to break away from the group. In an effort to compensate for the feelings of abandonment, the ego hypertrophies to create the illusion of strength and individuality. A large amount of energy is required to maintain this state (Norland, 2003b).

When the energy resources are depleted, the individual withdraws, detaching from society and emotions, becoming cold and hard in an effort to create new, artificial boundaries. In this state, the realisation develops that the only true safety lies within the family and group. There is a resignation, but also sadness for that which has been lost in the process (Norland, 2003b).

It is thus evident that this remedy shares common themes with the AIDS miasm. It is the researcher‘s opinion that it mirrors the predominant social state present in South Africa, and perhaps the African continent. Protea cynaroides may be able to relieve some of the anxiety and aggression present in this society, paving the way to peace and resignation.

 

Conclusion

From the data presented above, one can thus conclude that in order to elicit symptoms representing all 38 chapters present in the Protea cynaroides proving, the C4 trituration proving and the Sherr proving methodologies would have to be combined. Although Group two is able to elicit the majority of symptoms, it would be even more effective when it is combined with the C4 proving methodology, as illustrated by the suggested integrated methodology is presented in this chapter.

 

CHAPTER 6

6.1 CONCLUSION

The aim of this study was to compare the most commonly employed proving methodologies in order to ascertain the reproducibility of each method and to compare the relative effectiveness of each of the methods. This was done with the purpose of developing an integrated methodology.

In the preceding chapters data were presented regarding the history of provings and proving methodologies. The most commonly employed methodologies were firstly the Hahnemannian Methodology, the original methodology, where provings were carried out unblinded, utilising no placebo controls and the sample sizes were small. Symptom verification was carried out by selecting trustworthy and conscientious volunteers (Dantas et al., 2007) and personally verifying every symptom elicited to ascertain the true nature of the symptom (Hughes, 1912; Rosenbaum & Waissen-Priven, 2006). Strict rules existed about the diet and lifestyle of the provers in order to minimise the variables (Dantas et al., 2007; Hahnemann, 1999; Raeside, 1962). These restrictions are very difficult to impose on a 21st century lifestyle.

The second methodology discussed was Kent‘s methodology, where the importance of self-examination prior to the commencement of the proving, through keeping a pre-proving diary in the preceding week, was emphasised. Participants were also unaware of the name and nature of the substance (Kent, 1995). Provers were also selected based on their susceptibility to certain substances to ensure that they were sensitive to the substance investigated during the proving process.

The next methodology discussed was the Dream proving methodology, which elaborate on single-blind studies that cover a limited time span and focus mainly on the Dreams of the provers. During these trials no placebo control were used. The merit of this methodology lies in the provers‘ emotional responses to the dreams, as the dreams have the ability to illustrate the provers‘ uncompensated feelings and reactions.

The Vithoulkas methodology proves substances using toxic, hypotoxic and highly potentised doses. The medicine is administered 3x daily for a month or until symptoms appear. Symptoms recorded were drawn from all three levels of the organism: mental, emotional and physical. The provings were always conducted as a double-blind study utilising a 25% placebo inclusion. The sample size consisted of 50 to 100 provers.

The next methodology, the Sherr methodology, is also known as the standard Hahnemannian proving (Hogeland & Schriebman, 2008: XV). These provings were carried out on a sample size of 15 - 20 provers as double blind studies including 10 - 20% placebo provers. The suggested posology is oral administration of

six doses over two days. Pre-proving diaries are kept for one to two weeks prior to commencing the proving.

The Sankaran methodology followed a protocol midway between the Dream provings the standard Hahnemannian provings. The provings are also single blind studies, carried out by 5 - 25 volunteers who observe and record all physical and emotional symptoms, as well as dreams, incidents and observations of others.

In an attempt to standardise proving methods, the International Council for Classical Homoeopathy (ICCH) recommended guidelines for good provings which comprise of a sample group of between 10 - 20 provers. It is recommended using two to three potencies during the proving, as well as including a placebo control of 10 - 30%.

The Herscu methodology provided a guideline to others who are interested in conducting provings. It suggested a group size of 15 to 40 people, which made allowances for placebo controls (5 in every 40 provers) and potential dropouts. Prover sensitivity should be considered when selecting the provers in order to assure that the proving group comprise of different constitutional types.

The School of Homeopathy bases its methodology on the protocol laid out by Hahnemann in the Organon of Medicine and takes into account the comments and clarifications made by Kent, Sherr and Herscu, but emphasise the dynamics of the group proving on the premise that the whole group is involved in the proving, not only those who take the remedy. Administration of the remedy can be orally or through meditation.

 

At the Nature Care College, Gray attempted to develop standards to ensure the quality of modern provings and also verify the findings of older provings. The methodology follows guidelines laid down by Sherr and Herscu.

The proving design withheld the name of the substance, but utilised no placebo control. The remedy was administered twice daily as five drops sublingually until symptoms developed.

Meditative Provings were carried out by up to four groups of provers, comprising of six to 12 members, sitting in meditation circles. The potencies utilised varies from 30C to 10M. During meditative provings all the information were intuited or channelled whilst the group is sitting in a circle meditating. The final methodology discussed was the C4 proving, which took place during a trituration process. Participants record all the symptoms they experience during the trituration, and discuss these experienced during a wrap-up conversation after the trituration process. The participants are usually not aware of the substance being triturated.

 

From this data, three main methodologies were identified by virtue of the similarities between them. The C4 proving was identified as the first group as it contained some elements of the meditative provings as well.

1. The trituration process forms part of the remedy preparation, as set out in the GHP (Benyunes, 2005), and should thus logically precede any methodology requiring the oral administration of medicine.

2. The second group was classified under the Sherr methodology, as it represented a modernisation of the Hahnemannian and Kentian methodologies. It also had features in common with the Vithoulkas, Sankaran, ICCH, Herscu and Nature Care College methodologies.

3. The last group represented the unblinded studies of meditative provings and the School of Homeopathy and was group under the Dream proving methodology. The last two groups required the oral administration of the proving substance, although the assignment of the second and third groups were random.

In order to conduct the research 70 provers were recruited to test the unknown substance through application of the three methodologies mentioned above. Each group comprised of 20 verum provers, 10 in each year, with an additional 10 provers in Group two as placebo provers, as indicated in Table 2. The proving experiences recorded by these provers were then analysed to test the hypotheses below.

The hypotheses were formulated firstly to illustrate that different methodologies yield different numbers and types of symptoms, secondly to prove the reproducibility of symptoms elicited during consecutive provings of the same substance, utilising the same methodology and thirdly that differences exist between the symptoms yielded by the placebo and the verum groups within the same methodology. From testing these hypotheses, the strengths and weaknesses of individual methodologies could be identified, as is discussed below, in order to formulate an integrated methodology presented under section 5.5 in the previous chapter.

The first methodology, the C4 proving methodology, is unique because no dose of the medicine is taken orally. The proving symptoms are based on the experiences of the participants during the trituration process, thus requiring provers who are familiar with trituration, as well as those who are sensitive enough to notice the subtle changes brought about during the proving.

 

The C4 proving is mainly limited to the four hours during which the trituration takes place, and consequently few symptoms are experienced once the trituration have been completed. The limitation of this method lies in the fact that the development of more insidious symptoms are limited to those provers who are very sensitive to the substance and would react to the olfactory mode of medicine administration. It also confirmed Sherr‘s (1994: 16-7) observation that provings offering a short cut to an inner essence lack the larger totality of physical, general and long term symptoms.

The advantages of this methodology also lie in the short duration of the proving, which would inspire better compliance from the provers. Provers are also more willing to participate due to the relative scarcity of long term effects.

 

The Sherr proving methodology was the second methodology identified and is modelled on the methodology proposed in The Dynamics and Methodology of Homoeopathic Provings (Sherr, 1994). This methodology represents an updated version of the methodology developed by Hahnemann and is able to accommodate a 21st century life style.

In the application of this methodology, provers take several oral doses of the proving substance, usually six doses during a 48 hour time span, but discontinue the administration of doses as soon as proving symptoms develop. The duration of the proving varies according to the nature of the proving substance, but normally lasts for four to six weeks.

The limitations of this methodology rest in the strict inclusion criteria which excludes a large proportion of the female population due to the fact that the use of oral contraceptives is prohibited.

The longer duration also caused potential participants to be hesitant to enlist, as life has to be put on hold for the duration of the proving in favour of a moderate lifestyle.

The Sherr methodology has however been used extensively and has proved its worth as an efficient and scientifically acceptable method, complying with most of the ICCH regulation regarding provings and the ethics of provings. It is also placebo controlled, which makes it admissible under phase one clinical trials.

 

The final methodology, the Dream proving methodology, represents the sentiments of group provings, seminar provings and meditative provings, where the minimum dosages are administered and most of the proving takes place in the subconscious mind, represented by dreams and imagery. It can be adjusted to suit any time frame and is less rigorous in its application. It has thus gained popularity among those who do not want to be limited by a scientific method.

 

The disadvantage lies in the fact that this makes standardisation of the method nearly impossible, especially since even the dosages are non-standardised, ranging from olfaction to oral dosages. During the application of this methodology, attempts were made to standardise the posology in order to limit the variables and make it comparable with the other two methodologies. The once daily dose, however, produced markedly less symptoms, leading to the conclusion that more frequent repetition is needed to ensure that a proving response is elicited.

 

In applying these methodologies in the proving of Protea cynaroides, the purpose was to test the four stated hypotheses:

 

Hypothesis 1: Proving symptoms are reproducible when applying identical proving methodologies in consecutive years.

The results of the statistical tests presented in Chapter 4 reflected a reasonable level of reproducibility, but highlighted the fact that different provers would result in different symptoms due to their individual susceptibility and sensitivity to the proving substance. There was, however, not one of the groups that exhibited a reproducibility level of less than 50%, leading to the conclusion that the symptoms produced in consecutive years while applying the same methodology is comparable. This effectively proves the first hypothesis.

Hypothesis 2: Some proving methodologies are more effective in yielding proving symptoms than others, in terms of number, type and quality of symptoms elicited.

The discussion around the chapter affinity of the different methodologies presented under section 5.4 illustrated that it is indeed the case. Strong chapter affinities were observable when applying the C4 and Sherr proving methodologies. The C4 methodology seems to favour the chapters dealing with the senses, evident in the Ear, Eye, Hearing, Mouth, Nose, Skin and Vision chapters where the C4 rubrics were more prevalent than the Sherr rubrics. The Sherr methodology was evident in the remainder of the chapters, indicating the wide applicability of this methodology.

The Dream methodology indicated the least amount of chapter affinities, eliciting mainly Mind, Dream and General symptoms, but not as prominently as these chapters feature under the application of the Sherr methodology. From this study it is thus evident that different methodologies yield different types of symptoms.

Hypothesis 3: A distinct difference exists between the symptoms yielded by the placebo and verum groups within the same methodology.

 

The investigation into the differences existing between the symptoms yielded by the placebo and the verum groups within the Sherr proving methodology, proved the hypothesis to be true, as discussed in section 5.2, and is evident in the number of rubrics produced by each section. The verum portion elicited 63% of the total rubrics compared to the placebo portion which only elicited 28%. Placebo provers thus elicit far less symptoms during the proving process than verum provers, proving that homoeopathic drug provings are not a placebo response, but that the administration of the medicine results in the development of clearly observable symptoms in the participants. The presence of proving symptoms within the placebo group, however, may lend support to the theories as to the group/field effect (Norland, 1999) and quantum entanglement (Lewith et al., 2006; Milgrom, 2007; Walach et al., 2004), bringing into question the usefulness of including placebo provers in the sample. It rather supports Jansen‘s (2008) suggestion that provers act as their own control by comparing the symptoms elicited during the proving to those experienced in the pre-proving diarisation period.

 

Hypothesis 4: In studying the relative effectiveness of proving methodologies it is possible to develop an integrated methodology. From the data gathered during this investigation, clear conclusions could be drawn regarding the relative effectiveness of the three methodologies employed. This data was sufficient to allow for the development of an integrated methodology, as presented in the previous chapter under section 5.5, that would aid in the conduction of reproducible and scientifically verifiable proving.

 

As assumed, the proving did produce clearly observable symptoms in healthy provers. The symptoms gathered through the application of the methodologies were also comprehensive enough to develop a complete materia medica and repertory for Protea cynaroides.

 

 

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