Salicaceae

 

http://ir.dut.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10321/752/Kasiparsad_2012.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Vergleich: Siehe: Group Analysis Evaluation + Malphigiales

 

[Suraj Vishal Kasiparsad]

Introduction: This study aimed to apply the methodology of group analysis, as proposed by Sankaran, to an under-represented and poorly-understood biological class.

The intention of the study was to extend the group understanding of the biological class, with a view to more notable utilization of the individual members of the class as therapeutic substances.

The Salicaceae Family was to the knowledge of the researcher, under-utilized in homoeopathy and was expected to have a much larger scope

of use than is current.

Methodology:

1st The family, Salicaceae, was classified taxonomically.

2nd an extraction of all rubrics pertaining to the Salicaceae family was done using the Radar® repertory program. Those rubrics that contained

at least two remedies from the Salicaceae Family were retained and the rest were eliminated.

3rd A search of Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica® and other resources was utilized to derive common sensations, reactions to sensation, and

to classify the remedies miasmatically.

Results: The primary sensation was a burning sensation, with heat or a sensation of being burnt, which was confined primarily to the respiratory, genitourinary and gastrointestinal system. The next sensation, which was on the physical level, was of a stinging sensation, which may be interpreted as either a tingling or a prickling sensation. This sensation was found to be mostly confined to the skin. Another sensation was a feeling of being alone, in isolation, detached from surroundings, or being forsaken. Passive reactions included numbness, inflammation, tearfulness, trembling and crying.

Active reactions were restlessness, irritation and wanting to sneeze.

 

1.                  The family, Salicaceae, was classified taxonomically.

2.                  An extraction of all rubrics pertaining to the Salicaceae family was done using the Radar® repertory program. Rubrics that contained at least two remedies from the Salicaceae Family were sorted out, the rest eliminated. A search of Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica® and other resources was utilized to derive common sensations, reactions to sensation, and to classify the remedies miasmatically.

Results:

1st sensation: burning, with heat or a sensation of being burnt, which was confined primarily to the respiratory, genitor-urinary and gastrointestinal system.

2nd sensation: on the physical level, was of a stinging sensation, which may be interpreted as either a tingling or a prickling sensation. This sensation was found to be mostly confined to the skin.

3rd sensation: feeling of being alone, in isolation, detached from surroundings, or being forsaken.

Passive reactions: numbness, inflammation, tearfulness, trembling and crying.

Active reactions: restlessness, irritation and wanting to sneeze.

Conclusion: Salicaceae: Affinity for all orifices, with many pathological tendencies occurring throughout the gastrointestinal, genitor-urinary and respiratory system.

 

A Group Analysis of the Salicaceae plant family of homoeopathic remedies in terms of known materia medicae.

[Suraj Vishal Kasiparsad]

Introduction:

This study aimed to apply the methodology of group analysis, as proposed by Sankaran, to an under-represented and poorly-understood biological class. The intention of the study was to extend the group understanding of the biological class, with a view to more notable utilization of the individual members of the class as therapeutic substances.

The Salicaceae Family was to the knowledge of the researcher, under-utilized in homoeopathy and was expected to have a much larger scope of use than is current.

Methodology:

The family, Salicaceae, was classified taxonomically. Secondly, an extraction of all rubrics pertaining to the Salicaceae family was done using the Radar® repertory program. Those rubrics that contained at least two remedies from the Salicaceae Family were retained and the rest were eliminated.

 A search of Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica® and other resources was utilized to derive common sensations, reactions to sensation, and to classify the remedies miasmatically.

Results:

The primary sensation was a burning sensation, with heat or a sensation of being burnt, which was confined primarily to the respiratory, genitourinary and gastrointestinal system.

The next sensation, which was on the physical level, was of a stinging sensation interpreted as either a tingling or a prickling sensation. This sensation was found to be mostly confined to the skin.

Another sensation was a feeling of being alone, in isolation, detached from surroundings, or being forsaken.

Passive reactions included numbness, inflammation, tearfulness, trembling and crying.

Active reactions were restlessness, irritation and wanting to sneeze.

Miasmatically the task was a challenge, as the researcher found materia medica to be lacking in certain remedies. Many of the remedies were found to be Acute, Sycotic, Malarial or Leprous.

Conclusion:

The Salicaceae

Family had an affinity for all orifices, with many pathological tendencies occurring throughout the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and respiratory system. The researcher felt that the Group analysis of remedies was a powerful tool that can assist in a homoeopathic prescription. It gave great insight to the Salicaceae

Family, and exposed the researcher to the lesser known remedies.

 

Introduction:

This study aimed to apply the methodology of group analysis, as proposed by Sankaran, to an under-represented and poorly-understood biological class. The intention of the study was to extend the group understanding of the biological class, with a view to more notable utilization of the individual members of the class as therapeutic substances. The Salicaceae Family was to the knowledge of the researcher, under-utilized in homoeopathy and was expected to have a much larger scope of use than is current.

Methodology:

The family, Salicaceae, was classified taxonomically. Secondly, an extraction of all rubrics pertaining to the Salicaceae family was done using the Radar® repertory program. Those rubrics that contained at least two remedies from the Salicaceae Family were retained and the rest were eliminated. A search of Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica® and other resources was utilized to derive common sensations, reactions to sensation, and to classify the remedies miasmatically.

Results:

The primary sensation was a burning sensation, with heat or a sensation of being burnt, which was confined primarily to the respiratory, genitourinary and gastrointestinal system. The next sensation, which was on the physical level, was of a stinging sensation, which may be interpreted as either a tingling or a prickling sensation. This sensation was found to be mostly confined to the skin.

Another sensation was a feeling of being alone, in isolation, detached from surroundings, or being forsaken.

Passive reactions included numbness, inflammation, tearfulness, trembling and crying.

Active reactions were restlessness, irritation and wanting to sneeze.

Miasmatically the task was a challenge, as the researcher found materia medica to be lacking in certain remedies. However many of the remedies were found to be Acute, Sycotic, Malarial or Leprous.

 

Conclusion:

The Salicaceae Family had an affinity for all orifices, with many pathological tendencies occurring throughout the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and respiratory system. The researcher felt that the Group analysis of remedies was a powerful tool that can assist in a homoeopathic prescription. It gave great insight to the Salicaceae Family, and exposed the researcher to the lesser known remedies.

There are a total of 10 members of the Salicaceae family and its derivatives, used in homoeopathy as remedies. These were analysed in terms of common sensations, responses and reactions they evoked in proving experiments and other symptomatology. The literature was collected from various homoeopathic sources viz. Radar® 10 –Repertory program, Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica and other selected materia medicae.

Upon derivation of the commonalities within the Salicaceae plant family, the individual species were then differentiated in terms of Sankaran’s miasmatic classification, with a view to elucidating the finer points of differentiation, within the family. Ultimately the results of this investigation were seen to extend the scope of use of the Salicaceae Family in homoeopathic practise.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

“The practice of homoeopathy is not easy. Perhaps one factor that makes it difficult is that homoeopathy is probably one of the very few, if not the only, scientific discipline, which has a method of identification that begins with specifics, rather than going from the broad to the narrow. Each patient’s state is to be identified into a remedy state. And this is done through symptoms alone”

(Sankaran, 2002:19).

Until now our knowledge has been rather haphazard. We see this not only in the pictures of individual remedies, which often consist of a disordered heap of symptoms. We see this even more clearly in groups of remedies, which although botanically or chemically related, at first sight hardly seem to have any relationship with each other homoeopathically (Scholten, 1993).

Scholten, (1993) has stated that the function of a homoeopath is to combine medicine with the art of cure. We can add these qualities to the fact, that “homoeopathy is a science that is in the process of being developed and that it still has some way to go before it reaches the top.

“A deduction of this statement can possibly be that, the scientific evidence needed to prove efficacy and sustainability of homoeopathy is in constant evolution and its true potential is yet to be discovered. Recently Scholten, (2008) has explained this in an interview in which he stated that “homoeopathy as a science is developing enormously. The results are getting better and better, for more severe diseases. The understanding of remedies has deepened and many more remedies have become known. A new textbook of homoeopathy is needed all the time, as homoeopathy is in development. To explain his statement further Scholten stated that one can compare it with physics and the writings of Newton. Just as Newton’s writings have not changed but rather his basic ideas have been reformulated in order for students to apply his concepts. In the same way homoeopathy is evolving.”

An important aspect to this particular methodology are the notions that [homoeopathic] remedies belonging to a particular botanical family share certain common characteristics in terms of susceptibility to external stimuli and typical reactions to such stimuli (Wulfsohn, 2005). The common characteristics are broadly called the ‘Sensation’ of the particular botanical family (Sankaran, 2002).

In homoeopathic practice so far, we have used symptoms as the only, or almost only, guide to the remedy, without really considering the source of the drug (Scholten, 1993).

Our materia medica is constantly expanding, and as more and more new remedies are added under each rubric, often no single remedy emerges at the end of a repertorization (Sankaran, 2004). A system of homoeopathic prescribing is needed to help practitioners both study the remedies and prescribe more accurately for each individual (Sankaran, 1994).

AIMS AND PURPOSE OF THE GROUP ANALYSIS RESEARCH PROJECT

The researcher aimed to extract a common set of characteristic symptomatology that exists within the group of remedies belonging to the Salicaceae Family.

This was done by analyzing the remedies according to the group analysis method as proposed by Rajan Sankaran (Sankaran, 2002). This study further aimed to test the validity of the method as a means of expanding homoeopathic materia medica knowledge, and to elucidate potential problem areas within the methodology.

The researcher accomplished this by:

1. Identifying a set of sensations common to the Salicaceae group of homoeopathic remedies according to materia medica symptomatology.

2. Identifying reactions to the sensations in terms of passive, active and compensatory reactions.

3. Classifying individual remedies (species) according to Sankaran’s extended Miasmatic Model (Sankaran, 2002).

The purpose of this study was to subject a poorly understood biological family (Salicaceae) to a particular investigation with a view to extend the overall group understanding, and, as a result, allow a more notable utilisation of individual members as therapeutic substances.

RATIONALE FOR THE GROUP ANALYSIS OF REMEDIES BELONGING TO THE SALICACEAE PLANT FAMILY

1. Various methodologies of group analysis of homoeopathic remedies -have been used as a means of extending understanding of remedy relationships- as proposed by various noted homoeopathic authors (Scholten, 1993; Sankaran, 2002).

2. Sankaran’s methodology has been applied to a number of plant families (as defined botanically) with apparent success (Sankaran, 2002).

3. The broad application of Sankaran’s methodology has not been explored utilising the Family Salicaceae.

4. Application of the methodology is to extend the understanding of the family under investigation, and to increase the utilisation of previously under-represented remedies in new contexts.

There are a total of 10 members of the Salicaceae family and its derivatives, used in homoeopathy as remedies. These were analysed in terms of common sensations, responses and reactions they evoked in proving experiments and other symptomatology. The literature was collected from various homoeopathic sources viz. Radar® 10 - Repertory program, Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica and other selected materia medicae.

Upon derivation of the commonalities within the Salicaceae plant family, the individual species were then differentiated in terms of Sankaran’s miasmatic classification, with a view to elucidating the finer points of differentiation, within the family. Ultimately the results of this investigation were seen to extend the scope of use of the Salicaceae Family in homoeopathic practise.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

The Practice of Homoeopathy

Homoeopathy is a holistic form of complementary medicine, aiming to treat the whole person rather than just the physical symptoms. It works on the principle that the mind and body are so strongly linked that physical conditions cannot be successfully treated without an understanding of the person’s constitution and character (Lockie, 2006).

The term homoeopathy comes from the Greek words homeo meaning similar and pathos meaning suffering and disease. This form of medicine works by stimulating the body’s ability to heal itself by giving administering very small doses of highly diluted substances. This therapeutic method was developed by H. towards the end of the 18th century.

The key principle of homoeopathy is founded upon the Law of Similiars or “Similia Similibus Curantur” which means “Like cures Like”.

 Hahnemann has made this law the complete basis of a system of medicine. According to this law, the choice of medicine to be prescribed, must have the capability of producing most similar

symptoms of the disease that is to be cured, in healthy persons. The medicine or remedy is hence known as the similimum. A patient’s first consultation with a homoeopath will last at least an hour or more; with the practitioner asking detailed questions about the patients current health, medical history and lifestyle. Some questions may seem strange and intrusive, but the important thing to remember with homoeopathy is that it treats the individual in a holistic way. The homoeopath needs to understand how the patient experiences their symptoms and how these symptoms affect his or her life, so that the most appropriate medicine can be prescribed. Due to the fact that treatments are individualised to each patient, it is not uncommon for different people with the same condition to receive different treatments (Bell, Ernst, Mansky and Khalsa, 2009).

In order to undertake the task of treating the whole person the homoeopathic practitioner needs to be equipped with a multitude of skills and also have access to essential tools. During a consultation

a many of signs and symptoms are recorded, the homoeopathic practitioner needs to deduce the most appropriate remedy for the patient by utilising his understanding of the principles of homoeopathy, a repertory and materia medica (Bhatia, 2009).

The principles of homoeopathy were first published in the Organon of Medicine. It was written by the Father of Homoeopathy, Samuel Christian Hahnemann. The Organon contains the principles governing the practise of homoeopathy and also has the doctrines and practical instructions for the practise of homoeopathy in a logical and elaborate way.

In order to determine the uses of a remedy in homoeopathy, it needs to be proven. A homoeopathic proving is a scientific exercise done on healthy subjects (volunteers), were provers receive the medicinally active substance over specific time period. The provers then record all signs and symptoms experienced by them in addition to details recorded by a homoeopath. Once the specified timeframe is elapsed all signs and symptoms are collated and categorised into mentals, generals and particulars, which form the picture of the drug substance being proved (Datta, 2011).

A compendium of these provings are known as a materia medica. The word “materia medica” originates from the Latin word “mater” which means materials and “medica” refers to their use in medicine. Therefore a materia medica translates to a book of medicines.

The first Homoeopathic Materia Medica was written by Hahnemann. It was called “Materia Medica Pura”. During his life, Hahnemann proved a hundred different remedies that formed the basis of our materia medica and these are still used today. In the hundred and fifty years since his demise approximately 3000? more remedies have since been proven. A rubric is a symptom found in a repertory.

A repertory is a systematic listing of symptoms with the remedies. It is like an index to all rubrics and their remedies, which are arranged alphabetically so that they may be found with ease.

During a homoeopathic consultation, the homoeopath needs to elicit from the patient, symptoms that resemble the totality of the case. The totality of symptoms is a combination of a group of symptoms that has individualising characteristics of the patient, and it is these characteristics that point to that single remedy that has a peculiar symptom picture. Choosing those symptoms that are relevant and constitute the totality of symptoms is a skilful art. Translating those symptoms into pertinent rubrics is one of the most critical aspects of the homoeopath’s task.

Finding these rubrics in a repertory as expressed by the patient is known as repertorizing. The process of repertorizing enables the homoeopath to rapidly narrow down the choice of remedies from a few thousand to just a handful. The remedy to be prescribed is finally decided upon by referring to materia medica and concluding as to which remedy encompasses the patient best. Over the last two hundred years, the ever increasing size of our materia medica and repertory has made the process of repertorization increasingly laborious.

The task of diligent and attentive study of materia medica and the ability to acquaint ourselves with the specifics of each remedy is today virtually impossible (Taylor, 2002).

Group analysis in Homoeopathy

“The Group analysis approach to case taking, prescribing and the development of materia medica, is the first major paradigm shift since the inception of homoeopathy,” (Wulfsohn, 2005).

There seems to be two schools of thought. On the one hand there are those homoeopaths who are the strict repertory users, who will repertorize every case to arrive at the correct similimum. Opposing the repertorization or scientific method, is the group analysis method of prescribing. In a homoeopathic consultation, hundreds of potential remedies will enter a homoeopaths’ mind, in most cases they are the polychrests, which are remedies that have been over studied and over prescribed. A large percentage of the time, patients will receive a polychrest as a remedy, but very often, a polychrest is not what the patient may require. Since the late 18th century, there has been an explosion of provings that has resulted in approximately 3000 remedies that make up the materia medica, a list that is constantly growing (Leisegang, 2007). In many cases a large percentage of these remedies are never prescribed. This can be due to limitations in the memory capacity of the homoeopath as it is humanly impossible to remember the essence and symptoms of every single remedy available to the homoeopath.

The opinions of homoeopaths and the various methodologies employed in the practice of homoeopathy are changing constantly. It has therefore become necessary to get the opinion of a few homoeopaths in response to the use of group analysis, as some homoeopaths may have views that have not yet been published.

De Schepper (2007) states that, “using other approaches is okay as long as the homoeopathic principles are not trampled on. Unfortunately this happens far too much as speculation occurs without following our basic principles such as provings!

Clinical cases cannot take the place of provings and what we don't need is more and more remedies but better application of good management and recognizing the vast array of our well known remedies. Many homoeopaths can't even translate the language of the patient into the language of the materia medica”.

Clearly De Schepper does not fully support the group analysis approach, and thinks that homoeopaths should rather stick to the basic principals as outlined by Hahnemann.

One of the more recent developments, in homoeopathy has been the transition from considering remedies as stand-alone entities to seeing them as members of remedy families that share common characteristics (Ulman and Ullman, 2002).

Sankaran uses the group analysis method to analyze remedies by family. He has come to the conclusion that in each family of plants, there exists a set of symptoms, which are common to that particular family. He states that the commonality in each plant kingdom is sensitivity. However, as he later discovered, that despite the common feelings or sensation, there was still a wide

difference in remedy pictures or symptomatology of the different remedies of the same family. After deliberating the last piece of his puzzle he realized that the difference occurs because each remedy belongs to a different miasm (Sankaran, 2002).

Scholten (1993) is the other pioneer in group analysis. He observed that in practice, it is often difficult to achieve a good and rapid cure, and one of the reasons for this is that the remedy required is often not well known. Scholten looked at groups of remedies and then extracted from these groups, common symptomology. He has warned that group analysis is the least successful on the level of local complaints; however when it comes to general characteristics of a case, group analysis can be applied very well. Group analysis can also influence the course of case taking as it does lead to the development of themes and themes appear to be an efficient way of handling the information given by patients. In his opinion the group analysis method

 is very effective in obtaining mind pictures of remedies; this is because the mind picture is always present in one form or another in a remedy (Scholten 1993).

Scholten, (2004) feels that group analysis is an attempt to classify homoeopathic remedies into family groups. He also stated that group analysis is an important stage in the ‘maturing' of the science

of homoeopathy.

 

Utilizing the idea of remedy families is the wave of the future in homoeopathic practice. In order to treat five billion individuals we need more than fifty polychrests or even five hundred medicines.

Now we have a chance to understand how to use so many more medicines, until our relatively limited capacity to do provings catches up with the real need for homoeopathic care throughout the world (Ulman et al., 2002).

Ullman (2007) believes that homoeopaths should employ as many strategies as is needed to find the correct remedy, as there is no single way to find the best medicine.

Kerschbaumer, a South African homoeopath who is the distributor of Radar® says that for him, repertory, irrespective of how clear the case is essential, purely because he wants to confirm every case.

He believes that group analysis or repertory is not intended to give the right remedy, as it is the materia medica that ultimately decides.

He also adds that a poorly proven remedy is basically poor materia medica, and a homoeopath should not prescribe a poorly proven remedy, as it is unreliable information (Kerschbaumer, 2007).

Vithoulkas (2008) expressed his concerns about the various so called “new ideas” to homoeopathy as the very basis for the destruction of the principles and practise of what he calls Hahnemanian homoeopathy. Vithoulkas says that the “new ideas” or group analysis as proposed by Scholten’s; Homoeopathy and the Minerals (1993), are destroying the principles and practise of homoeopathy

as applied by Hahnemann.

Vithoulkas refers to these homoeopaths doing imaginative provings as “experimenters.”  He foresees this as allowing hundreds of imaginative homoeopaths now starting to imagine hundreds

of different proving for the same remedy, which is unfair to those practitioners who rely on provings when prescribing. Some homoeopaths have claimed that there is no need for any real remedy,

a person just needs to write the name of the remedy and the potency on a piece of paper, place a glass of water over it and the potentised remedy is prepared. Others have stated that by merely thinking about the remedy the patient is cured. This makes the practise of homoeopathy unscientific and thus make it difficult to defend the idea that; homoeopathy is nothing more than the placebo effect.

Furthermore, Vithoulkas is of the opinion that the concept of projections or vital sensations is a slippery path for a homoeopath to take as it will lead to confusion amongst practitioners as they are not recorded in the materia medica. In practise, he says is that all a homoeopath needs to do is match the patients’ symptoms to the remedy symptoms as recorded in the proving; and for such a task we have the tools and the rules.

Finally he says that these new extreme ideas firstly create confusion in the minds of uninformed students, it further allows for the ridiculing of homoeopathy and also it gives ammunition to the foes of homoeopathy.

Saine (2001) calls the new methodologies advocated primarily by Sankaran and Scholten “Speculative Medicine.” He finds the new approaches to homoeopathy incompatible with Hahnemann’s method.  He lashed out at so called homoeopaths who do provings by placing the remedy under a pillow, teachers that falsify follow up consultations to demonstrate their cleverness in prescribing and some teachers that teach as illuminated gurus possessed with mystical knowledge.

Saine goes against the improper use of the doctrine of signatures, as all Hahnemann had said that the shape of a substance could be used to determine the organ the plant was likely to assist in, and he

 (Hahnemann) criticized the idea that the source of a remedy has a bearing on the symptoms it produces.

Hahnemann explicitly stated that signatures were inadequate for revealing the inner healing properties of medicine. Saine feels that Materia medica and repertories are part of the fundamental principles

of homoeopathy and should not be regarded as the “basics” of homoeopathy as referred to by the “speculative” homoeopaths. Hahnemann made it clear that departures from pure homoeopathy

cease to be part of the homoeopathic method and should cease to be called homoeopathy (Saine), 2001.

Saine contends that even though the road led by Hahnemann is narrow, rugged and laden with difficulties, it is worth the effort as it has proven to be the road of true knowledge and success. He hopes that his opinion will call to action the urgent need to understand, protect and further develop the legacy that has been inherited from the masters of the past.

Moskowitz (2002) opposes Saine’s “Homoeopathy versus Speculative medicine in an article called “Against Divisiveness”. Moskowitz (2002) is of the opinion that these new teachings bring into perspective a new depth of understanding of the theory and practice of homoeopathy. To him the new teachings merely supply an extra dimension that confirms or fine-tunes the customary process of remedy selection. Moskowitz (2002) in reference to Scholten’s group analysis method says that certain aspects of remedies already known to us can sometimes become clearer. There is nothing speculative about this method as Scholten simply extracts symptoms from the repertory and scrutinizes them in a different way. He merely rearranges and reinterprets what is already there, just like all other writers on materia medica before.

Regarding Sankaran’s classification of remedies into kingdoms, families, and mineral or chemical subgroups. It follows the goal of materia medica study, i.e., learning to recognise each remedy by distinguishing it from all others, especially from those most closely resembling it. Farrington initiated this by organising his lectures into groups of remedies according to kingdoms and families, his goal “to show the genius of each drug, and the relations which drugs bear to one another. When drugs belong to the same family, they should have a similar action.”

Computer software has aided a whole new generation of homoeopaths all over the world to continue Farrington’s project.

Moskowitz (2002) finally says that Sankaran, Scholten, Mangialavori and others are good classical homoeopaths. He finds it disappointing that critics have not even attended the seminars or read the writings of these homoeopaths and yet still voice their opinions in a harsh manner. He does not find the concepts of essences, analysis by families or miasmatic analysis of families as speculative.

He agrees that quality homoeopathy can still be practiced without these new concepts, but, the methodologies employed in the new teachings do require free and open debate.

2.5. Sankaran’s Methodology

In 1997, Sankaran discussed the ‘natural classification of drugs’ by actually specifying the distinguishing features of plant, animal and mineral remedies (Sankaran, 1997). Sankaran’s major breakthrough is published as an initial two volume set:

“An Insight into Plants” (Sankaran, 2002). Dr Sankaran’s latest addition to analysis of remedies by family is “Insight into Plants Volume 3”.

It presents explorations of vital sensation for six more plant families and the Fungi kingdom. The presence of many illustrative cases from Dr Sankaran's practice and from colleagues worldwide confirms and adds dimensions to many remedies (Taylor, 2002).

According to Sankaran, plant remedy patients are seen to have a problem with sensitivity (Sankaran, 2002)– as plants due to their sessile nature need to be sensitive and adaptive to changing environmental conditions. Sankaran posed the question to himself of whether there is a relationship between the botanical classified plant families and a particular form of expressed sensitivity in the homoeopathic literature. In general he found this to be the case, although he found it necessary to group certain plant families that are less well represented in the homoeopathic literature.

Sankaran has stated that the Bombay School group analysis method does not exist to replace proper study of the materia medica, repertory and Organon (Sankaran, 2004).

In a recent analysis by Wulfsohn in 2005 of the family Graminae, he stated that the work on group analysis of the plant families needs to go on, as there is a tremendous backlog.  Even more recently in 2007, Vogel and Leisegang suggested that group analysis on both biological and non-biological groups in homoeopathic literature needs to go on.

2.6. The Salicaceae Family

The group of remedies to be discussed has been stated in present materia medica and are said to be very useful in treating ailments related to acute colds, influenza, severe prostration, tinnitus and hoarseness. Symptoms like indigestion, flatulence, nausea and vomiting are well treated using remedies belonging to the Salicaceae Family. A group analysis of these remedies will assist homoeopaths

in a better understanding of these remedies and therefore enable much more accurate prescribing of remedies and understanding of the patient.

Salicylic acid: derived from the Salix genus. It is a key ingredient in many skin-care products for the treatment of acne, psoriasis, calluses, corns, keratosis pilaris, and warts. As a remedy it is not well utilised. Salicylic acid is also used as an active ingredient in gels which remove verrucas (plantar warts). Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid or ASA) is believed to act against fever, pain and inflammation by interfering with the synthesis of specific prostaglandins in the body. Because of its ability to inhibit the formation of blood clots, aspirin is also used in low doses to prevent heart attack and stroke and

to control unstable angina. The drug’s usefulness in preventing certain cancers, the dangerous high blood pressure that sometimes occurs during pregnancy (toxemia), and migraine headaches is also

under investigation (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004).

At this stage, very much due to its novelty, the work on the group analysis of plant families is mostly of a very basic nature - especially in the case of plant families that are poorly represented in the homoeopathic literature. Thus there exists a need to fill in the gaps and bring out the differences where plant families are large and/or diverse in nature.

 

Salix alba: known as the White Willow. It was originally found in Western Europe alongside rivers, lakes and other naturally occurring bodies of water. It prefers hot humid climate and

now can be found commonly in North America (Botanical online, 2011). The herbal extracts of Salix alba, has been used in dyspepsia relating to the debility of digestive organs. Also in acute diseases,

for treatment of worms, chronic diarrhoea and dysentery (Grieve, 2007).

Populus tremuloides: known as the trembling Aspen, quaking Aspen or American Aspen. It is a highly adaptive tree as it is able to grow in a variety of soil conditions ranging from shallow and rocky soil

 to the coarse loamy sands and heavy clays. It is the most widely distributed tree in North America and has also spread to Northwestern Ontario (Runesson, 2011).

Populus tremuloides: used in intermittent fevers. It has been employed as a diuretic in urinary affections and in gonorrhoea (Grieve, 2007). It has also been used in dyspepsia, cystitis and night sweats.

Other digestive complaints like nausea and vomiting, indigestion, flatulence and acidity have been successfully treated (Vermeulen, 1997).

Populus candicans: = the balm of Gilead tree has been stated by some researchers to be native to Arabia. It has since been cultivated in Europe, Northern America and can now be found along roadsides or streams from Georgia to Minnesota (Sievers, 1930).

Populus candicans: acute colds, acute hoarseness, burning irritation of the eyes, nose, mouth, throat and air-passages. It is remarkable in aphonia and is known as the instantaneous voice producer (Vermeulen, 1997).

Salix lasiolepis: = Arroyo Willow, it is a dicot that is native to California.  It generally grows in wetlands along streams in foothills and mountains. Nowadays it can also be found in Washington, Idaho and New Mexico (calflora.org, 2011).

An infusion of the bark of Salix lasiolepis has been used in the treatment of colds, chills, fevers and measles. A decoction of the bark has been used as a wash for itchy skin. Infusions of the leaves and catkins has been used in the treatment of colds and diarrhoea (pfaf.org, 2011).

Salix nigra: = Black Willow is found throughout the Eastern United States and adjacent parts of Canada and Mexico. The species is most common on the margins of rivers and occupies the lower wetter land. It flourishes slightly below water level and is not damaged by flooding and silting (Pitcher and McKnight, 2011).

Studies on Salix nigra have revealed the bark to have antioxidant, fever reducing, antiseptic and immune boosting properties. These effects seem mostly due to salicin a chemical found in Salix nigra,

from which aspirin is made (Ehrlich, 2010).

Salix purpurea: = Purple Willow is a common shrub of river edges, streams and damp hillsides. They are distributed throughout Britain and Ireland (JPR Environmental, 2011). The bark of Salix purpurea when taken internally can be used in the treatment of gout, rheumatism, arthritis, diarrhoea, headaches and fevers. The leaves can be used for chronic dysentery, cancerous sores and colic

(Natural medicinal herbs.net, 2011).

2.7 Taxonomy of the Salicaceae

According to Uva, Neal and Di Tomaso (1997) the taxonomic classification of the Salicaceae should be as follows:

Table 1: Taxonomy of the

Salicaceae

An organism may be classified into the kingdom Plantae for the following reasons:

a) Body-type: multicellular with cell walls made of cellulose.

b) Prokaryotic / eukaryotic: eukaryotic.

c) Food consumption: photosynthesis (absorbs light).

d) Reproduction: both sexual and asexual.

e) Environment: land and water (Kingdom Plantae, 2009).

The subkingdom Tracheobionta refers to those plants in the Kingdom Plantae that have specialized cells for conducting water and sap within their tissues. The term given to describe the conducting vessels is vascular.

Tracheobionta includes flowering plants, conifers and ferns. Mosses are excluded here, as they are the “primitive” plants or nonvascular plants. Water carrying tissues within these vascular plants are called tracheids, these enable plants to evolve into larger structures. In the principal reproductive phase, vascular plants produce diploid (two sets of chromosomes per cell) spores, hence the term sporophyte.

During the principal reproductive phase of the non-vascular plants, gametes which are Kingdom Plantae - Plants Subkingdom Tracheobionta - Vascular plants Superdivision Spermatophyta - Seed plants

Division Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants

Class Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons

Subclass Dilleniidae - Order Salicales - Family Salicaceae - Willow family haploid (one set of chromosomes per cell) are produced and hence the term gametophyte, (Tracheobionta, n.d.).

The superdivision Spermatophyta refersto those plants that produce seeds, or flowering plants. All the Spermatophyta are heterosporous; (producing two kinds of spores unlike each other). The group is characterised by the marked development of the sporophyte, into its parts (root, stem, leaves, flowers), (Wordnet, 2008).

The division Magnoliophyta consists of those plants commonly called the flowering plants, or the angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, roots, and vascular or conducting tissue (xylem and phloem). Ovules develop into seeds, and are enclosed within an ovary, hence the term angiosperm, meaning "enclosed seed." The flowering plants are the source of all agricultural crops,

cereal grains, grasses, broad leaved shrubs, trees, garden and roadside weeds (Wordnet, 2008).

The class Magnoliopsida refers to seed plants that produce an embryo with paired cotyledons (dicotyledons) and net-veined leaves, (Class Magnoliopsida, 2009).

The subclass Dilleniidae are a group of trees, shrubs and herbs having polypetalous or gamopetalous corollas and often have ovules attached to the walls of the ovary. The family Salicaceae

refers to that genera of trees or shrubs that have hairy catkins (Wordnet, 2008).

2.8. Salicaceaein Homoeopathy

The Salicaceae family has a total of 8 remedies which are used in homoeopathy. Unfortunately not all of the remedies are well proven and hence have poor representation in the repertory.

Salix-fragilis is the most well proven remedy followed by Salix-alba, Populus- tremuloides, Populus- candicans, Salix-nigra, Salicinum, Salix-purpurea and finally, Salix- lasiolepis

Miasmatic Theory

According to Murphy, (n.d) miasms are the underlying susceptible weakness from which various acute and chronic diseases manifest. Whilst Hahnemann was in practice, he found to his dismay that a large number of Chronic diseases could not be helped, and the disease state continued to progress, despite the fact that he prescribed a carefully selected similimum. After deliberating he found out that chronic diseases nearly always had a specific pattern that could be related to Psora, Sycosis and Syphilis, which are the chronic miasms. He concluded that chronic diseases resulted from suppressed scabies, gonorrhoea and syphilis respectively. He then suggested that in order to treat these diseases, anti-miasmatics need to be utilised (Sankaran, 1997).

Sankaran (1997): any classification is just a means to an end, a way of looking at things. Miasmatic classification has helped him greatly by simplifying remedy selection and the practice of homoeopathy has become much simpler and prescribing more certain. Vithoulkas, Boenninghausen and Morrison (n.d) believe that there is no reason to be limited to three miasms. Vithoulkas states that rather than postulate that tuberculosis is a combination of two miasms, why it should not represent a fourth chronic miasm. Further, Vithoulkas points out that the first step should be a clear definition of miasm. “Based upon what has been said thus far, a miasm can be defined as a predisposition toward chronic disease underlying the acute manifestations of illness:

 1) Which is transmissible from generation to generation and

 2) Which may respond beneficially to the corresponding nosode prepared from either pathological tissue or from the appropriate drug or vaccine?”

2.10. The Role of Miasms in Disease

In contradiction to Sankaran’s arguement De Schepper has presented an alternative arguement which holds that; a miasm is an invisible polluting substance, which once it gains entrance, overpowers the vital force and pollutes the entire being.” Each miasm creates a weakness or tendency towards a particular group of diseases. If the miasm is not eradicated with an appropriate

antimiasmatic remedy, it will persist throughout the patients’ life and may be transmitted to sex partners and even children. This may also explain why some people develop chronic ailments from minor ailments (De Schepper, 2006).

Notwithstanding the arguement around the precise nature of miasms, Sankaran has summarised the various miasmatic types as follows;

The Acute Miasm (Sankaran, 1994)

The Psoric Miasm (Sankaran, 1994)

The Syphilitic Miasm (Sankaran, 1994)

The Malarial Miasm (Sankaran, 1994)

The Typhoid Miasm (Sankaran, 1994)

The Ringworm Miasm

The Sycotic Miasm (Sankaran, 1994)

The Cancerinic Miasm (Sankaran, 1994)

The Tubercular Miasm (Sankaran, 2002)

The Leprosy Miasm (Sankaran, 2002)

 

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHOD

3.1. Definition of Salicaceae remedies

The first step was to properly define the Salicaceae group of plants in terms of current botanical taxonomical knowledge. It is important to note that scientific knowledge is constantly evolving and

in many instances there may be disagreements. Therefore internet search engines were used to access websites linked to educational institutions that seemed to be the most reputable. This was done

in order to check the selection of Salicaceae family of remedies currently identified in the homoeopathic literature and to understand the relationships between the Salicaceae and related botanical families.

The family Salicaceae was then classified by consultation with online texts, purely because in certain cases classification does change as more research is done by botanists. The researcher consulted multitudes of online texts to find the most accurate description of the Salicaceae. The descriptions given in online texts where then compared to the actual physical attributes of the Salicaceae plants

and then the most accurate descriptions were selected. The relationship of botanical families was important to understand possible 'super family' commonalities in sensation.

Next the Salicaceae remedies used in homoeopathy were listed. The list was obtained using Radar® computer software. Radar® was used on the basis of availability to the researcher and that the researcher has previously had experience with this particular program. Only materia medica that has been previously published was used in the actual research, however anecdotal literature was sometimes used if published works are lacking.

3.2. Sample selection

Step by step methodology.

a) Open Radar®-

b) Open a repertory

c) Select “Family of Remedies”

d) Hold down “Shift” and “?” simultaneously, a command box appeared, type “*Salicaceae,” press the “enter” key twice.

e) The entire list of 8 remedies belonging to the Salicaceae family was given.

The sample list included the following remedies; Populus tremuloides, Populus canadicans, Salix alba, Salix fragilis, Salix lasiolepis, Salix nigra, Salicinum and Salix purpurea.

3.3. Data processing

A computer repertory search was done with Radar® 10 to list all rubrics containing the selected remedies with the proviso to exclude rubrics containing more than 100 remedies. It is a homoeopathic

fact that rubrics containing large number of remedies are extremely broad and general.

These rubrics therefore contained little of the ‘characteristic’ nature required by the method. Sankaran, used Mac Repertory in his group analysis of families and ideally it would be a good choice, but

he also states that any good homoeopathic software with similar functions will suffice (Sankaran, 2002).

Step by step methodology

a) Having opened the Radar® repertory, “Comparative Extractions” was selected.

b) “All symptoms with at least one remedy”, was selected

c) In the “Remedy selection window”, parameters for “maximum rubric size” and “Degrees equal to, or >” 100 was set.

d) Remedy selection was done by typing out abbreviations for each remedy, e.g. pop, then Populus tremuloides was selected.

e) Once all 8 remedies were selected in the “Comparative extraction” window, all rubrics containing at least one of the Salicaceae remedies was extracted.

f) In order to examine the extraction, and make it easier to scrutinize, the extraction was exported to M.S Excel, to get the file in a table form.

Data analysis

3.4.1. Phase One – determination of the group ‘vital sensation’

’The selected rubrics was then scanned for any commonalities. Sensation in this sense is defined as the reported “...consciousness of perceiving or seeming to perceive some state or condition of one’s body or its parts or senses or of one’s mind or its emotions...” (Allen 1990). Mentals, generals and symptoms particular to various body parts will be analysed for common sensations. Only rubrics with at least two remedies from the Salicaceae Family and that had a sensation in the rubric, was selected. To test out the accuracy of the selected set of sensations, the researcher then searched the homoeopathic literature for examples of remedies, which fit the proposed vital sensation of the Salicaceae family. This test was done by keyword searches of Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica (Archibel, 2004).

The Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica is a huge library program enabling the homoeopath access to hundreds of old and new homoeopathic books and magazines, many times the amount of literature than anyone could store at home (Wichmann, 2004).

Step by step methodology

a) The Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica was accessed, and then by utilising the search function; the sensation e.g. “burning” followed by each individual remedy or “Salicaceae” was inserted.

b) All literature pertaining to the respective sensation was extracted.

c) The search was repeated using synonyms of each sensation. This exercise gave the researcher a more in depth understanding of the vital sensation.

Once a set of sensations was clear, the researcher looked at what reactions these sensations engendered. In other words a person feeling a particular sensation or set of sensations might be inclined to act or respond in certain ways. The actual reactions were chosen from descriptions of actions and desires to act or even avoid acting in the repertory, materia medica and provings. In general terms a reaction could be passive, active (to varying degrees), or compensatory. A key set of reactions was then selected and then divided into active reactions, passive reactions or compensatory reactions.

These reactions are sometimes observed to be equal and opposite to the sensation (Sankaran, 2004: 141). Consider an example where a patient says he feels as if he is “stuck,” or “caught up.”

If a patient is in this situation, an active reaction will be “wants to move,” passively will be “unable to move,” and the compensation will be “he is always on the move.” Compensation involves a covering up of the current situation as a form of camouflage. It can be simplified as an act of will, requiring large amounts of energy, for example, a patient who is extremely restless and cannot sit still has to attend a lecture. His compensation will be to make a concerted effort to sit still with his legs tightly interlocked and constantly remind himself that he must not move. An ideally suited profession for this person will involve lots of movement like a sportsman or postman (Sankaran, 1991: 177).

3.4.2. Phase two – miasmatic classification of the group

Having defined the group characteristics (based on the sample remedies) the individual members of the entire family of remedies were analysed in terms of evidence of characteristics within the remedy, and the particular expression of these characteristics in terms of Sankaran’s extended miasmatic model. According to Sankaran each miasm has a specific set of keywords. By inserting

the keywords for each miasm into Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica and limiting a search to the Salicaceae family, an analysis for each remedy with regards to every miasm is produced.

Step by step methodology

a) A search was done in Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica

b) Keywords relevant to each miasm, e.g. Acute miasm, i.e. acute or sudden or violent or panic or danger or reflex (as discussed earlier), within the parameters of Salix-fragilis, was done.

 This search was repeated for each remedy for each miasm.

c) This exposed all literature with the selected keywords in the Salicaceae Family.

The keyword search results in a quantitative ranking of the Salicaceae remedies.

Using this ranking cannot be the final word on miasmatic classification, as the large well proven remedies and remedies where there are re-quotation of original sources by other authors through the generations tend to score high on all miasmatic groups. Therefore qualitative statements were used to help guide the miasmatic classification, and the keyword searches simply provided a framework

for the final classification.

As mentioned earlier, the Salicaceae family of remedies are poorly represented in terms of homoeopathic literature. However from the above rubrics above, it is evident that the most common sensations are tingling, pain- burning and a feeling of isolation.

The researcher now needed to understand each of sensations in its totality.

First and Second order Analysis

According to Chapman (1996), tingling is a sensation of touch, which can be described as slight prickles, stings, or tremors, as from cold, a sharp blow or like excitement. Synonyms include prickling, stinging, quivering or shivering. To have a prickling, stinging sensation, as from cold, a sharp slap, or excitement: tingled all over with joy.

To cause a prickling, stinging sensation or feeling.

The following rubrics were extracted from Encyclopedia Homoeopathica containing the word “tingling,” the search was limited to the Salicaceae family:

Face: Literary evidence suggests tingling to occur around the mouth, on the face, specifically the lips, nose and right ear. [(Stirling 1999) - Salix fragilis - Lower part of face] Weird tingling

 in lips. Slight numbness and metallic pins sensation. [(Stirling 1999) - Salix fragilis - Smell and nose]

Tingling sensation in nostrils. Feel sneeze coming on but never happens. [(Stirling 1999) -

Salix fragilis - Lower part of face] Strong tingling in and around lips. Still pursing lips when tense, no clenching of jaws, which is where physical tension would normally show. [(Allen 1879)

 - Salicinum - Ear] -

Tingling in the right ear (third day).

Chest: A tingling sensation is also felt in the mammary of the chest. [(Schroyens 2001) - Salix fragilis - Chest] CHEST - TINGLING - Mammae in

Extremities: Tingling only felt in the finger tips. [(Schroyens 2001) - Salix fragilis - Extremities] EXTREMITIES - TINGLING - Fingertips

The researcher concluded that a “tingling” sensation may be experienced mostly in the upper body, i.e. chest, arms and head.

As mentioned earlier, the word “tingling” has the synonyms prickling, stinging, quivering and shivering. To get a deeper understanding of “Tingling” as a sensation within the context of the

Salicaceae family. A search for the above synonyms was done in Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica limiting the search to the Salicaceae Family. This yielded the following results.

A search for the word “Stinging” yielded the results below;

Skin: The skin experienced a stinging burning sensation just below the surface. [Murphy (unknown) - Populus candicans - Skin] Skin harsh, dry and cold with burning - stinging - [Murphy (unknown) -

Populus candicans - Skin] The skin is harsh, generally dry and cold with a stinging burning behind the surface as if an eruption would appear or as if sweat would break out.

Generals: The whole body feels a stinging restless irritation. [(Organon 1880) - Populus candicans] ... all movements dull, heavy, laboured, uneasy, clumsy; stinging, pricking, restless irritation, as if an eruptive fever were about to come to the surface; feels as if perspiration would break out; fearful dreams, after fitful sleep; lame, sore, tired; hopeless foreboding, < morning/after sleep;

The following extract which illustrates the “stinging” sensation experienced, also shows the power of Populus candicans.

[(Organon 1880) - Populus candicans] ...Took teaspoonful doses every night till four fluid ounces were used in all, at first mixed with sugar, powdered sufficient to saturate or absorb the tincture, but found it so powerfully burning, penetrating, irritating and stinging to the whole mouth, throat, oesophagus and stomach, that it was taken in a little cold sugared water, as water alone caused precipitation.

The odour and taste were strong, penetrating, pungent, pricking, stinging, irritating, oppressive and suffocating, soon diffusing a burning, feverish state throughout the system, with entire unrest.

Another synonym of tingling is the sensation of “Prickling,” a word search for this word within the Salicaceae

Family in Enyclopaedia Homoeopathica, produced the results below;

Skin: Has a burning prickling feeling on the face, chest, hands and fingertips. [(Clarke 1904) - Populus candicans - Skin] Burning prickling on face, chest, and hands, the parts became dark red and swollen, and there were blisters as large as walnuts, hanging down like bags of water, with watery, acrid, sticky oozing, external heat like coals of fire on skin, at times internal heat, with cool skin, >> hot

applications, ... [Murphy (unknown) - Populus candicans - Skin] Finger-ends thickened, horny insensible to pinching and prickling. [(Organon 1880) - Populus candicans - Skin] Balm of Gilead * buds exude a resinous gum, popularly used for sores and eruptions.

In April, 1875, Miss S. E. C., aged 35, dark, spare, handled the freshly-gathered buds, when preparing them for use in alcohol. Five hours after, she had burning prickling on face, chest and hands;

the parts became dark red and swollen, and small vesicles appeared within twelve hours, directly increasing in size and commingling with watery, acrid, sticky oozing. Great external heat, like coals of fire on the skin. The blisters were remarkable in size and shape, hanging down like bags of water, as large as walnuts.

(The researcher is still fascinated by these statements and is quiet perplexed. It seems heat is relieved by more heat). There was, at other times, persistent internal heat and burning, with cool skin;

relieved by hot applications. Medicinal washes were applied by a physician. Two months afterwards, she was similarly affected, upon applying the Populus tincture to the fingers of another person

(whose eruption was helped thereby). On this occasion she had only homoeopathic remedies.

The power of Populus candicans as a remedy is shown below. The researcher has included the extract below to make readers aware of this uncommon remedy and to expand its use. [Organon -

Populus candicans]. While gathering the buds on a warm, sunny day, the peculiar characteristic odour emanating from the whole tree was freely inhaled. Strong, disagreeable, warming, pungent,

burning, penetrating, irritating to the eyes, nose, skin, mucous membranes of mouth, throat, and air passages, and oppressive to the respiration and circulation.

In one hour he was feverish, with congestion of head and brain, fullness, heaviness, dullness, soreness, with expansive pressure, as if swelled; and burning, deadening, feverish heat, as if the whole head, internal and external, were burned or scorched by an overpowering hot sun. These symptoms increased till evening; he felt feverish all over, with vertigo and marked oppression of the vital forces, and circulation as if overheated; fatigued, faint, languid, exhausted, with burning, throbbing oppression. Next day, after a fitful, restless, dreamy sleep, felt sore all over and lame, as if bruised.

These symptoms gradually passed away, but not wholly, for several weeks. When the deep brandy-coloured tincture was ready for use, it required no small degree of courage to commence taking it internally, from the dreaded remembrance of the effects induced by inhaling the odour previously.

Took teaspoonful doses every night till four fluid ounces were used in all, at first mixed with sugar, powdered sufficient to saturate or absorb the tincture, but found it so powerfully burning, penetrating, irritating and stinging to the whole mouth, throat, oesophagus and stomach, that it was taken in a little cold sugared water, as water alone caused precipitation. A dose was taken every night until the never-to-be-forgotten sufferings were overwhelmingly repugnant and unbearable, so that, to the present time, memory brings back the dreadful feelings and sufferings amounting to fearfulness, anguish, and all but despair. The odour and taste were strong, penetrating, pungent, pricking, stinging, irritating, oppressive and suffocating, soon diffusing a burning, feverish state throughout the system, with entire unrest.

Further analysis of synonyms revealed sensations of heat, use of the word hot, burnt and boils.

[(Hale 1 unknown) Populus tremuloides] - Toxical Effects.

Dr. Paine says of his experiments with Populin: "In doses of five to ten grains, in a healthy person, 1. a warm, pungent sensation in the stomach, 2. a glow of heat on the entire surface.

Generals: The body felt hot all over and > hot applications. [(Murphy) - Populus candicans] > hot applications; < moving/before menses/after food and drink/lifting arms/contact of clothes/after sleep; [(Stirling 1999) - Salix fragilis - Perspiration] Feel hot and sweaty, sweat smells pungent, urine strong and dark.

[(Stirling 1999) - Salix fragilis - Temperature and weather] hot flushes (at night). Very chilly one moment then hot all over, especially face better for fresh air.

Face and Head: Notice the aversion to food and drink, this was due to the feeling of the internal surface of the mouth and stomach being burnt.

[(Organon) - Populus candicans] - Cerebellum and neck burning, hot, and painful, feeling as if the capillary circulation were congested and oppressed; tongue and mouth feel burnt and dry, and yet are moist; wants drink, but can take but little, and feels worse after food or drink, as if the internal surface of the mouth and stomach were burnt. Cold, warm, hot, sour, bitter, and sweet drinks are repulsive. Nothing suits, nothing goes to the right spot, nothing relished. [(Murphy) - Populus candicans - Head] hot head with cold limbs. Cold-sores on lips. (Nat-m.) Burning irritation of eyes, nose, mouth, throat and air passages. Weight on vertex.

[(Homoeopathic links) - Salix alba - Face] Eruptions, boils, red shiny, chin

[(Stirling 1999) - Salix fragilis - Temperature and weather] Feeling very cold in myself but externally hot especially face and head.

Genitals and Rectum: Boils on the labia and burning of the vagina. Hot burning urination.

[(Murphy) - Populus candicans - Female] Vagina burns as if scalded [(Homoeopathic links) - Salix alba - Urethra] Sensation hot wire in urethra 9 h.

Chest and Abdomen: Boils under left armpit [(Stirling 1999) - Salix fragilis - Outer chest] Pimple/boil appeared in left armpit. [(Schroyens 2001) - Salix fragilis - Chest]

CHEST - ERUPTIONS - Axilla – Boils

The third sensation which exists on the emotional level is the feeling of being forsaken or a sense of isolation. Forsaken according to Chapman (1996), means “to desert or abandon” can also mean “to renounce or to give up something or someone.”

Isolation means the act of segregating oneself, a feeling of loneliness, act of separation, being in solitude. Upon analysing the words Isolation and Forsaken, it became apparent that words like alone,

detached, company aggravates are all related to a sensation of being Forsaken or isolated. Hence a search for the above keywords yielded results below.

Mind: A complete feeling of being forsaken and a delusion of being alone.

[(Schroyens, 2001) - Salix alba - Mind]

MIND - DELUSIONS - forsaken; is

[(Schroyens, 2001) - Salix alba - Mind]

MIND - FORSAKEN feeling - isolation; sensation of [(Allen 1874) - Populus candicans - Mind] - Feels unable to do anything, but as though something must be done, as if the will were paralysed as to power, with the sense of suffering increased, no rest anywhere, mind anxious, restless, oppressed and all functions seem spellbound, as if they must act and cannot, cannot bear to see or be with any one, but restless, unhappy, fearful and foreboding when alone, as if mind and body must be in action and yet withheld from action by oppression and obstruction.

[(Homoeopathic links 1999) - Salix alba - Mind] < Company, > when alone.

 [(Homoeopathic links 1999) - Salix alba - Mind] Detached, as if in a dream

[(Organon) - Populus candicans] Cannot bear to see or be with anyone, but restless, unhappy, fearful and foreboding when alone, as if the whole mind and body must be in action, and yet withheld from action by oppression and obstruction.

[(Richardson) - Populus tremuloides] Fear of people and of crowds, of being approached, of the night, and of being alone; trembling weakness of body.

[(Schroyens 2001) - Salix fragilis - Mind]

MIND - ANXIETY - alone; when [(Schroyens 2001) - Salix fragilis - Mind]

MIND - COMPANY - aversion to - > when alone [(Schroyens 2001) - Salix fragilis - Mind]

MIND - DETACHED [(Schroyens 2001) - Salix fragilis - Mind]

MIND - FEAR - alone, of being [(Stirling 1999) - Salix fragilis] I realized when we were talking about the proving that I had stopped going to my Buddhist group when we first took the remedy

(with which I have been involved for some years) because when I last went after taking the remedy I felt alienated as if I did not belong. I also felt like that when I went to the School's graduation ceremony. I went on my own because my friend dropped out due to illness. I just could not cope with not knowing very many people and felt very alone, isolated and not part of the group.

I slunk off and cried all the way home because I felt so lonely. I could not cope with talking to people I did not know.

[(Stirling 1999) - Salix fragilis - Mind] Driving to work 21.30 h. Strange sense of timelessness and unreality. I knew the road and yet it all looked foreign. Felt detached.

[(Stirling 1999) - Salix fragilis - Mind] Partner late home. Felt worried that he had had an accident or thought he might be with another woman, felt quite detachedabout it.

[(Stirling 1999) - Salix fragilis - Mind] Boyfriend phoned last night, made me feel terrible guilt at the thought of ending the relationship. Is there any way it could work? Started to cry with loneliness

 this morning, while writing this.

[(Stirling 1999) - Salix fragilis - Mind] It's my birthday, I feel tearful and alone. I feel my whole life is hopeless and that I am uncreative and useless. Spells of sobbing uncontrollably. I have tried so hard to make my life work and I feel like this. What do I have to do?

[(Stirling 1999) - Salix fragilis - Mind] I feel awful, depressed, lonely, tearful. Woke in the night with a strange feeling. I'm not sure if it was in my body or my mind but it was a sensation of things not being right within me.

The researcher concludes that one of the primary sensations in the Salicaceae family is a burning hot sensation, with heat confining itself mostly to the respiratory system, genitourinary system and gastro intestinal system.

The table below provides reactions to these sensations.

 

Table 3: Sensations and reactions of the Salicaceae family of Homoeopathic remedies

SENSATION                                   PASSIVE REACTION                          ACTIVE REACTION

Tingling                                             Numbness                                                              Wants to sneeze

Burning-Pain                                      Inflammation,   Irritation                                 Isolation/ Forsaken/Alone

Crying, tearful                                   trembling                                                           Restless

Prickling              

Burnt(as if)            

Tickling             

Heat (sensation of)

 

4.2 Miasmatic Classification of the Salicaceae Family

Based on Sankaran’s Extended miasmatic model, (1997)  the researcher did a miasmatic keyword search in Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica limiting results only to the Salicaceae Family.

Below is an illustrative table of which miasm the remedies from the Salicaceae Family belong. Note that there does not seem to be one miasm that covers the entire family.

                       Pop                 Pop-cand        Sal-al                        Sal-fr              Sal-l                Sal-p                        Salin                Sal-n

Acute              +++                 ++                   +                          +++                 ++                                          +                      ++

Typhoid

Ringworm      +                                             +                          ++                                                                                                +

Malarial                                                                                 ++             

Sycotic           ++                   +                     +                          ++                   +                                            +                      +

Tubercular                              +                     

Cancerinic      ++                   ++                   ++                          ++                   +                     +                                                      +

Leprosy          +                      +++                 +                          ++                   +++         

Syphilitic        +                                                                     ++                   +++         

Table 4: Miasmatic Classification according to Key word search. The “+”indicates the predominance of the miasm In the remedy.

4.2.1. Reasons for Non-miasmatic classification

A major difficulty encountered by the researcher in investigating the appropriate miasm, as described in 2.12 (i) to 2.12 (x) was that the following tended to give false results:

  Repetition of identical materia medica by numerous authors.

  Insufficient materia medica for certain remedies.

However sufficient evidence was found by the researcher for the classification of the following remedies according to miasms.

4.2.2) Populus tremuloides

4.2.2.1) Acute aspects of Populus tremuloides

[Homoeopathic Links - Populus tremuloides - Stool] FORCIBLE, sudden, gushing

[Murphy - Populus tremuloides - Bladder] Bladder - URGING, to urinate, - sudden - hasten to urinate, must, or urine will escape

[Rastogi - Populus tremuloides] Violent  pain just behind the pubes towards the close of the act.

[Richardson - Populus tremuloides] In panic disorders, when no apparent reason can be given for the attacks, Populus tremuloides  can be of service (cf. Cherry Plum, Rock Rose).

The following symptom also suggests an element of panic:

[Homoeopathic Links - Populus tremuloides - Dreams] 'I'm in danger. I'm kidnapped and kept in a jute bag. There is not enough air in the bag.'

Richardson gives examples of how a Bach flower remedy may be used in combination with homoeopathic Populus tremuloides.

[Richardson - Populus tremuloides] The remedy belongs to the group of FOR THOSE WHO HAVE FEAR., together with Rock Rose, Mimulus, Cherry Plum, and Red Chestnut.

Aspen treats those fears that creep up unnoticed and cannot be explained. Usually, no concrete reason can be given for them, and a general uneasiness of existence persists almost constantly.

However, in some instances, the fear seems to have a concrete origin; yet, within the sphere of this origin, there exist uncertainties and threatening dangers that do not have a clearly defined form.

[Richardson - Populus tremuloides] Apprehension, fears of dangers ahead; those may be real in possibility yet are still undefined.

[Richardson - Populus tremuloides] Tremulousness and nervousness, with a feeling that one is "raw" and unshielded from dangers.

Below the power of Populus tremuloides is described in acute cases.

[Hale 1 - Populus tremuloides] In three cases of extensive disease of the bladder and prostate, where the urine was scanty and contained a large proportion of blood and pus, and the tenesmus was exceedingly painful, the Populus in doses of five drops of the 1x dil. every three hours, relieved in a very short time. It had no curative effect on the structural lesion, but made the patients more

comfortable. In several cases where the tenesmus occurred in women, and the symptom was due to reflex irritation, the 2x dil. afforded prompt relief.

4.2.2.2) Ringworm aspects of Populus tremuloides

Populus tremuloides seems to be a major remedy for tenesmus and irritation of the urinary organs. The literature below suggests the remedy may fall into the category of the ringworm miasm.

[Allen - Populus tremuloides] - Very copious discharge of urine, and irritation of the bladder and urethra.

[Blackwood- Populus tremuloides] - There is severe tenesmus, and vesical irritation following laparotomy or ovariotomy

[Hale 1 - Populus tremuloides] In three cases of extensive disease of the bladder and prostate, where the urine was scanty and contained a large proportion of blood and pus, and the tenesmus was exceedingly painful. In several cases where the tenesmus occurred in women, and the symptom was due to reflex irritation, the 2x dil. afforded prompt relief.

[Lilienthal - Urinary difficulties - Populus tremuloides] Catarrh of the bladder; vesicular and urethral irritation; scalding of the urine; painful micturition

[Schroeyens - Populus tremuloides - Urethra] URETHRA – IRRITATION

4.2.2.3) Sycotic aspects of Populus tremuloides

[Homoeopathic links - Populus tremuloides - Dreams] 'Of having lost and forgotten everything. Guilty feeling for having forgotten my mother.' 'I wake up with the feeling that I do not have to feel

guilty anymore.’

[Schroeyens - Populus tremuloides - Generals] GENERALS – WEAKNESS

[Schroeyens - Populus tremuloides - Mind] MIND - MEMORY - weakness of memory - proper names

4.2.2.4) Leprosy aspects of Populus tremuloides

[Richardson - Populus tremuloides] The inner life of despair, loss, grief, and the reality of death may open up in a new dimension of depth and overwhelm and frighten the service-oriented explorer, as he grows in compassion and understanding

4.2.2.5) Syphilitic aspects of Populus tremuloides

[Richardson - Populus tremuloides] The inner life of despair, loss, grief, and the reality of death may open up in a new dimension of depth and overwhelm and frighten the service-oriented explorer, as he grows in compassion and understanding.

4.2.3) Populus candicans

4.2.3.1) Acute aspects of Populus candicans

[Blackwood - Populus candicans] - This remedy is indicated in acute colds when there is a deep, hoarse voice, or aphonia; also in anaesthesia of the surface of the body, with thickening of the finger ends, which are horny and insensible

[Boericke - Populus candicans] Seems to have a remarkable power over acute colds, especially when accompanied by a deep, hoarse voice, or even aphonia

[Boericke - Populus candicans - Respiratory] - Acute hoarseness

[Murphy - Populus candicans - Throat] Rawness and soreness of throat. Throat is red, dry, burning.

Acute hoarseness. Pharynx and larynx feel dry and the voice weak and toneless. Throat and nostrils burn. Throat, burning and paralysis.

[Schroeyens - Populus candicans - Larynx and trachea] LARYNX AND TRACHEA - VOICE - lost - cold - during an acute

[Blackwood - Populus candicans - Nose] NOSE - CORYZA – acute

[Allen - Populus candicans - Fever] - Sudden coldness of extremities, with numbness of them and heat of head

[Allen - Populus candicans - Sleep] - Dreams frightful, vivid. fearful, after fitful sleep

4.2.3.2) Sycotic aspects of Populus candicans

[Clarke - Populus candicans - Generalities] – Weakness

[Organon - Populus candicans] Occasional sweat on head and neck gave no relief; usually dry heat (no chill); extreme weakness; emaciation

4.2.3.3) Cancerinic aspects of Populus candicans

[Allen - Populus candicans - Skin] The eruption returned each year with fear and expectation of death, loquacity, discussing repeatedly her symptoms, vertigo from lifting head.

[Clarke - Populus candicans - Mind] - Expectation of death.

4.2.3.4) Leprosy aspects of Populus candicans

[Murphy- Populus candicans - Mind] Discusses her symptoms with everyone. Loquacity. Hopeless foreboding, worse after sleep.

[Allen - Populus candicans - Mind] - Hopeless foreboding, agg. Sleep

[Allen - Populus candicans - Mind] - Feels unable to do anything, but as though something must be done, as if the will were paralysed as to power, with the sense of suffering increased, no rest anywhere, mind anxious, restless, oppressed and all functions seem spellbound, as if they must act and cannot, cannot bear to see or be with any one, but restless, unhappy, fearful

and foreboding when alone, as if mind and body must be in action and yet withheld from action by oppression and obstruction.

[Allen- Populus candicans - Fever] - Fever and unrest; Fever, with congestion of brain, fullness, heaviness, dullness, soreness, with expansive pressure, as if swollen, deadening heat in head as if scorched by the sun, vertigo, oppression of vital forces and circulation as if overheated, fatigue, faintness and burning, throbbing oppression.

[Clarke - Populus candicans - Generalities] - Burning irritation of eyes, nose, skin, mucous membrane of mouth, throat, and air passages, and oppression of respiration and circulation.

A dose was taken every night until the never-to-be-forgotten sufferings were overwhelmingly repugnant and unbearable, so that, to the present time, memory brings back the dreadful feelings and sufferings amounting to fearfulness, anguish, and all but despair. The odour and taste were strong, penetrating, pungent, pricking, stinging, irritating, oppressive and suffocating, soon diffusing

a burning, feverish state throughout the system, with entire unrest.

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Sleep] SLEEP - WAKING - fright, as from

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis] Speed. It's all going so fast. Not sure we are doing the right thing. I am very frightened about what if it doesn't come right. Looking for houses.

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Dreams] and very frightening. I felt as though I was trying to protect someone

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Dreams] DREAMS - FRIGHTFUL - waking him

4.2.5.2) Malarial aspects of Salix fragilis

[Stirling - Salix fragilis] So stuck for ages - and our relationship has been really dodgy all year - loads of things going badly. Suddenly everything is changing and so fast

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] Feeling depressed, restricted, stuck. Want change, focus.

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND – CONTEMPTUOUS

[Stirling - Salix fragilis] Attacks and periodicity. Many new symptoms started in the two weeks before actually taking the remedy. These remained and intensified

throughout the proving. 04P 00 XX. XX NS. Symptoms were generally worse on waking and in the evening and better in the middle of the day

4.2.5.3) Sycotic aspects of Salix fragilis

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] Don't want to talk to anyone. Feel guilty for behaving unreasonably towards my boyfriend

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] I felt bored with the proving and guilty because I did not want to write things down anymore

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] Boyfriend phoned last night, made me feel terrible guilty at the thought of ending the relationship

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND – SECRETIVE

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] Buried, stagnating, secretive

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Generals] GENERALS - WEAKNESS

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Generals] GENERALS - WEAKNESS – tremulous

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND - MEMORY - weakness of memory

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND - MEMORY - weakness of memory - do; for what was about to

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND - MEMORY - weakness of memory - read; for what he has - just read

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND - MEMORY - weakness of memory - streets; familiar

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND - RESTLESSNESS - weakness – during

4.2.5.4) Cancerinic aspects of Salix fragilis

[Stirling - Salix fragilis] In Willow Tree I feel that there is a suddenness which means that these sorts of events occur really quickly. The other unusual thing is that I had a symptom of being convinced that I was pregnant - no matter what precautions I took. I had no control over my body's desire to become pregnant.

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] I felt as if I were removed from reality. People were being aggressive to me. I felt as if people were picking on me unfairly and being aggressive towards me. I was in the supermarket and I was waiting for a woman in front of me to move along. Whilst I was waiting I was not really concentrating and my trolley slightly bumped her. She stalked of telling her friend that people had no manners today and that an 'excuse me' wouldn't hurt, etc. I just couldn't deal with it. I couldn't respond. I felt removed from the situation like I did not have any real control

over what happened. It made me go home and cry. I then went out and the car incident happened and the other man was shouting at me calling me names and I just drove off crying. I felt very

depressed. I also felt as if I had no energy at all.

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] Very unhappy about the state I am in feel out of control; don't know if I will be able to show my face at school again. Decided to take some Arsenicum 1M to try and regain some control of myself. It felt as if there were two states of me, one that didn't care and one that did. It felt that the me that didn't care was the remedy and the state that did care was me.

The state that I felt I had to deal with was me not the remedy.

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] Woke up feeling a lot better today. I realized how much I try and control things and really want to let go. It feels better

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] Anger and irritability, why isn't life going the way I want it. Helplessness and out of control

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] I feel out of control of my mind and body I have the feeling that something has taken possession of me and gone right through me like a drug. I do not feel in control

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Dreams] I had a night of disturbing dreams About wars and horrible things. Felt it was all out of control

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND - DELUSIONS - superhuman; is - control; is under superhuman

4.2.5.5) Leprosy aspects of Salix fragilis

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND - FORSAKEN feeling - isolation; sensation of

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] Feelings of despair continued. Desperate need to get things clarified with partner as to future plans and goals. Feeling trapped and burdened. Partner appeared to be shutting off which made me feel more hopeless and desperate. Feel a bit hopeless

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] Felt completely bleak. Feelings of being hopelessat everything and useless. Despair of things ever being any different. Tears are flowing easily

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] It's my birthday, I feel tearful and alone. I feel my whole life is hopeless and that I am uncreative and useless. Spells of sobbing uncontrollably. I have tried so hard to make my life work and I feel like this. What do I have to do.

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] Feeling uptight. Too much to do. Least thing frustrates me. Forgetful. Work myself into a 'tizz' because haven't got ingredients for dinner. On the edge of tears.

Feel dreadful. Sulk all evening

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] Felt completely bleak. Feelings of being hopeless at everything and useless. Despair of things ever being any different. Tears are flowing easily.

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] Felt completely bleak. Feelings of being hopeless at everything and useless. Despair of things ever being any different.

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND - DESPAIR - future, about

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND - DESPAIR - recovery, of

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND - WEEPING - despair, from

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] Feelings of despair continued. Desperate need to get things clarified with partner as to future plans and goals. Feeling trapped and burdened

I am wondering if he will ever resolve these feelings and feel despair at the thought that, he may never move on

4.2.5.6) Syphilitic aspects of Salix fragilis

!!Die originale Bachblüte wird hergestellt aus Kätzchen der Salix alba!!

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] I go to my Writing Group and read a short piece I have written. When I have finished, everyone falls silent. I realize the piece is very 'dark' - full of death and destruction. Despair of things ever being any different. Tears are flowing easily. 

[Stirling - Salix fragilis - Mind] Felt completely bleak. Feelings of being hopeless at everything and useless. Despair of things ever being any different.

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND – DESPAIR

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND - DESPAIR - future, about

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND - DESPAIR - recovery, of

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND - WEEPING - despair, from

[Schroeyens - Salix fragilis - Mind] Feelings of despair continued. Desperate need to get things clarified with partner as to future plans and goals. Feeling trapped and burdened I am wondering if he will ever resolve these feelings and feel despair at the thought that, he may never move on

4.2.6) Salix lasiolepis

!!Die originale Bachblüte wird hergestellt aus Kätzchen der Salix alba!!

4.2.6.1)Acute aspects of Salix lasiolepis

 [Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] Bitterness and disillusionment; depression; moroseness; self-pity; sudden venting of acrid feelings or anger. depression; headaches and migraines; oppression of

chest, cramp-like constriction; violent heart palpitations; gastritis; jaundice; visceral response of disgust after experience of abuse or neglect

4.2.6.2) Sycotic aspects of Salix lasiolepis

[Murphy - Salix lasiolepis - Mind] This remedy is of use in all mental disorders involving resentment and blame. Malingering (Chicory), passive aggressive personality, antisocial and in disruptive behaviours (Holly.). In cases of fixedideas, delusions and even paranoia may express the Willow state.

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] Chronic resentment in response to only minor faults of others, while the major portion of guilt or failure resides with oneself; exaggerated and irrational blaming, pointing to a scapegoat.

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] Gastric and duodenal ulcers - patients with character neurosis.

4.2.6.3) Leprosy aspects of Salix lasiolepis

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] Psychosomatic complaints from suppression of aggressive impulses (see below); anger and disgust may arouse visceral and intestinal response (vomiting, colic, ulceration, constipation Visceral response of disgust after experience of abuse or neglect; dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea; connective tissue disease; urticaria (skin allergies), (psoriasis); insomnia from recurring thoughts.

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] Depression of vitality from having submerged one's anger; an organism turned against itself; self-injury or self-mutilation. oppression of the chest, contractive

oppression and agitation in chest, anguished oppression of chest, 'protest cough'; spasmodic oppression of chest.

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] The remedy Willow belongs to the group of For Despondency or despair, as classified by Bach.

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] At the bottom of this dynamic lies the bitterness and dormant despair felt in a self not fully actualized, whose true destiny has not been fulfilled

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] Founded resentment, on the other hand, shows genuine sadness and disappointment; despondency and despair may weigh heavily, should one be unable to rise above the limiting circumstances

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] This remedy is prepared by boiling the male and female catkins. The group of FOR DESPONDENCY OR DESPAIR lists Willow as a foremost healer for deep-seated feelings of resentment and grief from being treated unfairly. While being in this state, fate appears unfavorable because of the failures of others; one mourns the loss of grace.

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] Unhappiness and despair that one believes to be caused by others; sense of having received injustice

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] At the bottom of this dynamic lies the bitterness and dormant despair felt in a self not fully actualized, whose true destiny has not been fulfilled

4.2.6.4) Syphilitic aspects of Salix lasiolepis

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] Gastric and duodenal ulcers - patients with character neurosis

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] The remedy Willow belongs to the group of For Despondency or despair, as classified by Bach.

 [Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] Founded resentment, on the other hand, shows genuine sadness and disappointment; despondency anddespair may weigh heavily, should one be unable to rise above the limiting circumstances

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] This remedy is prepared by boiling the male and female catkins. The group of FOR DESPONDENCY OR DESPAIR lists Willow as a foremost healer for deep-seated feelings of resentment and grief from being treated unfairly. While being in this state, fate appears unfavourable because of the failures of others; one mourns the loss of grace.

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] Unhappiness and despair that one believes to be caused by others; sense of having received injustice

[Richardson - Salix lasiolepis] At the bottom of this dynamic lies the bitterness and dormant despair felt in a self not fully actualized, whose true destiny has not been fulfilled

4.2.7) Salix purpurea

No identifiable miasm, due to lack of materia medica,

4.2.9) Salix nigra

4.2.9.1) Acute aspects of Salix nigra

[Anshutze - Salix nigra] - In cases of acute gonorrhoea with much erotic trouble

[Krishna Kumar - Salix nigra - Physical symptoms] You can prescribe this remedy in acute gonorrhoea where there is some erotic trouble. Chordee is one of them

[Murphy - Salix nigra - Diseases] Diseases - PROSTATITIS, inflammation - acute

[Murphy - Salix nigra - Male] Male - PROSTATITIS, infection - acute

[Schroeyens - Salix nigra - Urethra] URETHRA - DISCHARGE - gonorrhoeal – acute

[Anshutze - Salix nigra] - It answers the purpose, it robs night of its terrors and it leaves no unpleasant consequences in its train

[Murphy - Salix nigra - Mind] Mind - INSANITY, general – erotic

4.2.8) Salicinum

4.2.8.1) Acute aspects of Salicinum

[Varma - Salicinum] Uses: It is reported to be useful in acute rheumatism and in influenza

4.2.8.2) Sycotic aspects of Salicinum

[Clarke - Salicinum - Generalities] - Muscular weakness; grasping power diminished

[Schroeyens - Salicinum - Generals] GENERALS – WEAKNESS

4.2.9) Salix nigra

4.2.9.1) Acute aspects of

Salix nigra

[Anshutze - Salix nigra] - In cases of acute gonorrhoea with much erotic trouble

[Krishna Kumar - Salix nigra - Physical symptoms] You can prescribe this remedy in acute gonorrhoea where there is some erotic trouble. Chordee is one of them

[Murphy - Salix nigra - Diseases] Diseases - PROSTATITIS, inflammation - acute

[Murphy - Salix nigra - Male] Male - PROSTATITIS, infection - acute

[Schroeyens - Salix nigra - Urethra] URETHRA - DISCHARGE - gonorrhoeal – acute

[Anshutze - Salix nigra] - It answers the purpose, it robs night of its terrors and it leaves no unpleasant consequences in its train

[Murphy - Salix nigra - Mind] Mind - INSANITY, general – erotic

4.2.9.4) Cancerinic aspects of Salix nigra

[Clarke - Salix nigra] - Man, 35, lost control of his sexual appetite, and the more he indulged the worse the craving became, and indulgence made him a physical wreck

[Krishna Kumar - Salix nigra - Physical symptoms] Used in material doses it helps in cases of masturbation and controls spermatorrhoea Moderates sexual passion.

Controls genital irritability. It has been used after history of masturbation or spermatorrhea. 

 

CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS OF THE SALICACEAE FAMILY

The researchers aim ultimately was too increase the scope of use of the Salicaceae

Family of remedies and to get a much needed clearer understanding of the family.

5.1 Relation to Physiological Systems

The Salicaceae Family seems to have a great affinity for certain physiological systems, Predominately;

• Skin

• Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal System

• Genito-urinary System

• Respiratory System

• Nervous System

A majority of symptoms and pathologies were closely related or involved the above systems.

5.2 Pathological tendencies of the Salicaceae Family

The Salicaceae group of remedies can be used for the following ailments.

• Fever (Populus candicans)

• Congestion (Salix nigra)

• Vaginal Thrush (Populus candicans)

• Boils on Face, vaginal labia and under armpit (Salix alba, Salix fragilis)

• Burning irritation of eyes, nose, mouth and throat (Populus candicans)

• Rheumatism and gout of fingers and toes (Populus candicans)

• Extreme weakness (Populus candicans, Populus tremuloides, Salix alba, Salix fragils)

• Emaciation (Populus candicans)

• Acute hoarseness and aphonia (Populus candicans)

• Dysmenorrhoea (Populus candicans)

• Acute colds (Populus candicans)

The researcher concludes that one of the primary sensations in the Salicaceae family is a burning sensation, with burning pains internally and externally

confining itself mostly to the respiratory system, genitourinary system and gastrointestinal system.  Also interesting is a sensation of the internal gastrointestinal tract, particularly the mouth and

stomach being burnt.

[Organon - Populus candicans] Head confused, with expansive fullness; all parts feel lame, swollen, inflamed, thickened, painful, burning; throbbing of whole head and brain, especially the cerebellum and cerebro-spinal axis; dullness of the senses, as from congestion. Cerebellum and neck burning, hot, and painful, feeling as if the capillary circulation were congested and oppressed;

tongue and mouth feel burnt and dry, and yet are moist; wants drink, but can take but little, and feels worse after food or drink, as if the internal surface of the mouth and stomach were burnt.

[Murphy (unknown) - Populus candicans - Throat] Rawness and soreness of throat. Throat is red, dry, burning. Acute hoarseness. Pharynx and larynx feel dry and the voice weak and toneless. Throat and nostrils burn. Throat, burning and paralysis Interestingly it was found that hot applications are used to relieve the burning.

The two remedies Salix fragilis and Populus candicans, which very clearly are indicated for the tingling and stinging sensation, may confidently be used for paraesthesia.

[(Stirling 1999) - Salix fragilis - Lower part of face] Weird tingling in lips. Slight numbness and metallic pins sensation.

[(Schroyens 2001)  - Salix fragilis - Extremities] EXTREMITIES - TINGLING - Fingers – Tips

[Murphy (unknown) - Populus candicans - Skin] Skin harsh, dry and cold with burning- stinging. Burning prickling on face, chest, and hands. Blisters hanging down like bags of water

The sensation of being alone and detached from surroundings, or being forsakencan effectively be used in current times for AIDS orphans, because they have a sense of abandonment. Possibly

Salix alba and Salix fragilis can be considered for all individuals affected by AIDS.

[Schroeyens - Salix alba - Mind] MIND - FORSAKEN feeling - isolation; sensation of

[(Schroyens, 2001) - Salix fragilis - Mind] MIND - WEEPING - forsaken feeling; from

[(Homoeopathic links) - Salix alba - Mind] Delusion, alone

5.3. Miasmatic Classification

The miasmatic classification of the Salicaceae

Family has been the most difficult task according to the researcher. Revisiting the literature and analysing the remedies, has brought the researcher to the conclusions below.

Populus tremuloides appears similiar to the well-known Acute remedy

Aconitum napellus as the remedy has a fear of impending danger, violent pains, and is also a remedy for panic disorders. This has prompted the researcher to classify Populus tremuloides

as belonging to the Acute miasm.

Populus candicans has excellent use acute conditions such as colds, coryza and hoarseness. However more importantly there is also a feeling of oppression of vital energy, respiration and circulation. The remedy has a strong desire to do something about this, however is unable to get the resources to implement change. There is a desire for change like the tubercular miasm,but the will is

paralysed, unable to anything. In the tubercular miasm there is “hectic activity in order to break free from this oppression,” (Sankaran, 2002:55). All functions seem spellbound- hence the researcher feels this remedy belongs in the Leprosy miasm. There is intense hopelessness as well as a desire for change but no intense activity (Sankaran, 2002:55).

Salix lasiolepis has many images of self disgust, resentment and self pity. There are also complaints from suppression of aggressive impulses. The remedy turns against itself causing self-mutilation.

It therefore seems that this remedy belongs in the Leprosy miasm.

Salicinum seems Sycotic due to the remedy having generalized weakness, however there is no conclusive evidence due to lack of literature.

Salix nigra tends to be extremely Sycotic mainly due to its use in treating sexual complaints like gonorrhea. This may be disproven in future when more literature becomes available.

Salix fragilis has been extremely difficult to classify. The recent proving done by Stirling (1999) has given the researcher a considerable amount of literature to analyse. The researcher after much deliberation has concluded the remedy to be largely Malarial, mainly because there is a great deal of suddenness in the remedy. Many provers experienced frightening dreams, waking from fright

and a feeling of helplessness. The Acute miasm comes to mind here. Sycosis is also evident as there is weakness of body and mind. A sense of guilt lingers with regards to relationships and the remedy also wants to be secretive. The Malarial miasm is the only miasm between the Acute and Sycotic miasm.

The researcher has been unable to classify Salix alba and Salix purpurea miasmatically due to lack of materia medica and other supporting literature. 

The following table suggests possible classification of Salicaceae.

 

Populus tremuloides Acute

Populus candicans Leprosy

Salix alba       

Salix fragilis   Malarial

Salix lasioplepsis        Acute

Salicinum        Sycotic

Salix nigra      Sycotic

 

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION & RECOMENDATIONS

6.1 The Group Analysis Approach to Homoeopathic Prescribing

The researcher has concluded that the group analysis approach to the study of materia medica has certainly increased his depth of understanding a previously under utilised family of remedies, namely

Salicaceae. The study of materia medica was previously done on individual remedies only, and since there are thousands of remedies being used in homoeopathy, for a homoeopath to study

every single remedy is clearly an impossible task. Using the Group analysis method will enable homoeopaths to learn more about a certain family of remedies in a shorter space of time.

Homoeopathic software has empowered practitioners by giving them access to hundreds of volumes of materia medica at a click of a mouse. It has enabled homoeopaths to arrive at the right remedy in a much more scientific manner and also gives them more confidence in their prescription. The arduous task of repertorization which would normally take sometimes even an hour can be done

in a few minutes, this gives the practitioner sufficient time to analyse a case further and ask confirmatory questions. These mere tools are purely to assist the homoeopath and cannot replace the art of taking a good case history and performing a medical examination. In practise, a homoeopath is able to use group analysis as a guide to possibly narrow down his choice of remedy for prescription.

During repertorization, knowing the sensation of a remedy or where the patient is miasmatically, could possibly give the homoeopath insight to his patients disease and the steps required to return the patient to health.

6.2.  The Salicaceae Family

Reflecting on the Salicaceae Family, it has become quiet evident that, although the researcher has seen advantages of the methodology. The methodology does not work well if good solid scientific provings are not done on the entire family or class of remedies. It was quiet evident that the lack of provings for Salicinum and Salix purpurea did hinder the researchers objectives to a slight degree and if high quality provings were done, classifying the remedies miasmatically and finding applicable sensations would be much clearer. The proving of Salix fragilis by Stirling has provided the researcher with a better understanding of the family in terms of sensation and miasm. This is largely due to the fact that the proving was fairly recent and further affirms that homoeopaths

need provings to be available verbatim and must be of high quality.

6.3.  Suggestions for Further Research

There exists a need for more cured cases and what would be interesting is to use slightly different approaches to the methodology. One would be to get an entire group of homoeopaths do the exact same research using different software packages. This will allow a deeper understanding of the same group and increase the utilisation of the group of remedies further.

There are hundreds of Families of homoeopathic remedies that exist, so group analysis must continue in earnest.

6.4.  RECOMENDATIONS

The researcher has tremendously enjoyed his journey into the world of Group Analysis and the experience has certainly intensified his passion for homoeopathy.

When the researcher was first introduced to Group Analysis during his academic tenure, he found it rather daunting, as he had to change his method of studying materia medica. However once he realised that, human beings are naturally stubborn and resistant to change, was he then able to understand the concepts and methodologies used. It is the fear of the unknown that sometimes deters

us from great discoveries.

The use of group analysis gives the homoeopath another powerful weapon to dissect and analyse the most difficult cases in order to fulfill the purpose of returning the sick to health. It allows the homoeopath greater insight into the Salicaceae group of remedies, and exposes him to the lesser known ‘smaller’ remedies. It will with time solve the complex puzzle plaguing all homoeopaths

of “which is the right remedy.”

 

 

 

 

 

Vithoulkas refers to these homoeopaths doing imaginative provings as “experimenters.” He foresees this as allowing hundreds of imaginative homoeopaths now starting to imagine hundreds

of different proving for the same remedy, which is unfair to those practitioners who rely on provings when prescribing. Some homoeopaths have claimed that there is no need for any real remedy,

a person just needs to write the name of the remedy and the potency on a piece of paper, place a glass of water over it and the potentised remedy is prepared. Others have stated that by merely thinking about the remedy the patient is cured. This makes the practise of homoeopathy unscientific and thus make it difficult to defend the idea that; homoeopathy is nothing more than the placebo effect.

Furthermore, Vithoulkas is of the opinion that the concept of projections or vital sensations is a slippery path for a homoeopath to take as it will lead to confusion amongst practitioners as they are not recorded in the materia medica. In practise, he says is that all a homoeopath needs to do is match the patients’ symptoms to the remedy symptoms as recorded in the proving; and for such a task we have the tools and the rules.

Finally he says that these new extreme ideas firstly create confusion in the minds of uninformed students, it further allows for the ridiculing of homoeopathy and also it gives ammunition to the foes of homoeopathy. Saine (2001) calls the new methodologies advocated primarily by Sankaran and Scholten “Speculative Medicine.” He finds the new approaches to homoeopathy incompatible with Hahnemann’s method. He lashed out at so called homoeopaths who do provings by placing the remedy under a pillow, teachers that falsify follow up consultations to demonstrate their cleverness

in prescribing and some teachers that teach as illuminated gurus possessed with mystical knowledge.

Saine goes against the improper use of the doctrine of signatures, as all Hahnemann had said that the shape of a substance could be used to determine the organ the plant was likely to assist in, and he

 (Hahnemann) criticized the idea that the source of a remedy has a bearing on the symptoms it produces.

Hahnemann explicitly stated that signatures were inadequate for revealing the inner healing properties of medicine. Saine feels that Materia medica and the repertories are part of the fundamental principles

of homoeopathy and should not be regarded as the “basics” of homoeopathy as referred to by the “speculative” homoeopaths. Hahnemann made it clear that departures from pure homoeopathy cease

to be part of the homoeopathic method and should cease to be called homoeopathy (Saine), 2001.

Saine contends that even though the road led by Hahnemann is narrow, rugged and laden with difficulties, it is worth the effort as it has proven to be the road of true knowledge and success. He hopes that his opinion will call to action the urgent need to understand, protect and further develop the legacy that has been inherited from the masters of the past.

Moskowitz (2002) opposes Saine’s “Homoeopathy versus Speculative medicine in an article called “Against Divisiveness”. Moskowitz (2002) is of the opinion that these new teachings bring into perspective a new depth of understanding of the theory and practice of homoeopathy. To him the new teachings merely supply an extra dimension that confirms or fine-tunes the customary process

of remedy selection. Moskowitz (2002) in reference to Scholten’s group analysis method says that certain aspects of remedies already known to us can sometimes become clearer. There is nothing speculative about this method as Scholten simply extracts symptoms from the repertory and scrutinizes them in a different way. He merely rearranges and reinterprets what is already there, just like all

other writers on materia medica before. Regarding Sankaran’s classification of remedies into kingdoms, families, and mineral or chemical subgroups. It follows the goal of materia medica study, i.e.,

learning to recognise each remedy by distinguishing it from all others, especially from those most closely resembling it. Farrington initiated this by organising his lectures into groups of remedies according to kingdoms and families, his goal “to show the genius of each drug, and the relations which drugs bear to one another.

When drugs belong to the same family, they should have a similar action.”

Computer software has aided a whole new generation of homoeopaths all over the world to continue Farrington’s project. Moskowitz (2002) finally says that Sankaran, Scholten, Mangialavori and others

are good classical homoeopaths. He finds it disappointing that critics have not even attended the seminars or read the writings of these homoeopaths and yet still voice their opinions in a harsh manner.

He does not find the concepts of essences, analysis by families or miasmatic analysis of families as speculative. He agrees that quality homoeopathy can still be practiced without these new concepts, but, the methodologies employed in the new teachings do require free and open debate.

 

2.5. Sankaran’s Methodology

In 1997, Sankaran discussed the ‘natural classification of drugs’ by actually specifying the distinguishing features of plant, animal and mineral remedies (Sankaran, 1997). Sankaran’s major breakthrough is

 published as an initial two volume set:

“An Insight into Plants” (Sankaran, 2002). Dr Sankaran’s latest addition to analysis of remedies by family is “Insight into Plants Volume 3”.

It presents explorations of vital sensation for six more plant families and the Fungi kingdom. The presence of many illustrative cases from Dr Sankaran's practice and from colleagues worldwide confirms and adds dimensions to many remedies (Taylor, 2002).

According to Sankaran, plant remedy patients are seen to have a problem with sensitivity (Sankaran, 2002)– as plants due to their sessile nature need to be sensitive and adaptive to changing environmental conditions. Sankaran posed the question to himself of whether there is a relationship between the botanical classified plant families and a particular form of expressed sensitivity in the homoeopathic literature. In general he found this to be the case, although he found it necessary to group certain plant families that are less well represented in the homoeopathic literature.

Sankaran has stated that the Bombay School group analysis method does not exist to replace proper study of the materia medica, repertory and Organon (Sankaran, 2004).

In a recent analysis by Wulfsohn in 2005 of the family Graminae, he stated that the work on group analysis of the plant families needs to go on, as there is a tremendous backlog. Even more recently in 2007, Vogel and Leisegang suggested that group analysis on both biological and non-biological groups in homoeopathic literature needs to go on.

2.6. The Salicaceae Family

The group of remedies to be discussed has been stated in present materia medica and are said to be very useful in treating ailments related to acute colds, influenza, severe prostration, tinnitus and hoarseness. Symptoms like indigestion, flatulence, nausea and vomiting are well treated using remedies belonging to the Salicaceae Family.

A group analysis of these remedies will assist homoeopaths in a better understanding of these remedies and therefore enable much more accurate prescribing of remedies and understanding of the patient.

 

Salicylic acid: derived from the Salix genus. It is a key ingredient in many skincare products for the treatment of acne, psoriasis, calluses, corns, keratosis pilaris, and warts. As a remedy in homoeopathy it is not well utilised. Salicylic acid is also used as an active ingredient in gels which remove verrucas (plantar warts). Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid or ASA) is believed to act against fever, pain and inflammation by interfering with the synthesis of specific prostaglandins in the body. Because of its ability to inhibit the formation of blood clots, aspirin is also used in low doses to prevent heart attack and stroke and to control unstable angina. The drug’s usefulness in preventing certain cancers, the dangerous high blood pressure that sometimes occurs during pregnancy (toxemia), and migraine headaches is also under investigation (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004).

At this stage, very much due to its novelty, the work on the group analysis of plant families is mostly of a very basic nature - especially in the case of plant families that are poorly represented in the homoeopathic literature. Thus there exists a need to fill in the gaps and bring out the differences where plant families are large and/or diverse in nature.

 

Salix alba is commonly known as the White Willow. It was originally found in Western Europe alongside rivers, lakes and other naturally occurring bodies of water. It prefers hot humid climate and now can be found commonly in North America (Botanical online, 2011). The herbal extracts of Salix alba, has been used in dyspepsia relating to the debility of digestive organs. Also in acute diseases, for treatment of worms, chronic diarrhoea and dysentery (Grieve, 2007).

 

Populus tremuloides: commonly known as the trembling Aspen, quaking Aspen or American Aspen. It is a highly adaptive tree as it is able to grow in a variety of soil conditions ranging from shallow and rocky soil to the coarse loamy sands and heavy clays. It is the most widely distributed tree in North America and has also spread to Northwestern Ontario (Runesson, 2011).

Chiefly used in intermittent fevers. It has been employed as a diuretic in urinary affections and in gonorrhoea (Grieve, 2007). It has also been used in dyspepsia, cystitis and night sweats.

Other digestive complaints like nausea and vomiting, indigestion, flatulence and acidity have been successfully treated (Vermeulan, 1997).

 

Populus candicans: known as the balm of Gilead tree has been stated by some researchers to be native to Arabia. It has since been cultivated in Europe, Northern America and can now be found along

roadsides or streams from Georgia to Minnesota (Sievers, 1930). Used brilliantly in acute colds, acute hoarseness, burning irritation of the eyes, nose, mouth, throat and air-passages. It is remarkable in aphonia and is known as the instantaneous voice producer (Vermeulen, 1997).

 

Salix lasiolepis: = Arroyo Willow, it is a dicot that is native to California. It generally grows in wetlands along streams in foothills and mountains. Nowadays it can also be found in Washington, Idaho and New Mexico (calflora.org, 2011). An infusion of the bark has been used in the treatment of colds, chills, fevers and measles. A decoction of the bark has been used as a wash for itchy skin. Infusions of the leaves and catkins has been used in the treatment of colds and diarrhoea (pfaf.org, 2011).

 

Salix nigra: = Black Willow is found throughout the Eastern United States and adjacent parts of Canada and Mexico. Most common on the margins of rivers and occupies the lower wetter land.

It flourishes slightly below water level and is not damaged by flooding and silting (Pitcher and McKnight, 2011). Studies have revealed the bark to have antioxidant, fever reducing, antiseptic and immune boosting properties. These effects seem mostly due to salicin a chemical found in Salix nigra, from which aspirin is made (Ehrlich, 2010).

 

Salix purpurea: = Purple Willow is a common shrub of river edges, streams and damp hillsides. They are distributed throughout Britain and Ireland (JPR Environmental, 2011).

The bark when taken internally can be used in the treatment of gout, rheumatism, arthritis, diarrhoea, headaches and fevers. The leaves can be used for chronic dysentery, cancerous sores and colic (Natural medicinal herbs.net, 2011).

 

2.7 Taxonomy of the Salicaceae

According to Uva, Neal and Di Tomaso (1997) the taxonomic classification of the Salicaceae should be as follows:

Table 1: Taxonomy of the Salicaceae

 

An organism may be classified into the kingdom Plantae for the following reasons:

a) Body-type: multicellular with cell walls made of cellulose.

b) Prokaryotic / eukaryotic: eukaryotic.

c) Food consumption: photosynthesis (absorbs light).

d) Reproduction: both sexual and asexual.

e) Environment: land and water (Kingdom Plantae, 2009).

The subkingdom Tracheobionta refers to those plants in the Kingdom Plantae that have specialized cells for conducting water and sap within their tissues. The term given to describe the conducting vessels is vascular.

Tracheobionta includes flowering plants, conifers and ferns. Mosses are excluded here, as they are the “primitive” plants or nonvascular plants. Water carrying tissues within these vascular plants are called tracheids, these enable plants to evolve into larger structures. In the principal reproductive phase, vascular plants produce diploid (two sets of chromosomes per cell)

spores, hence the term sporophyte. During the principal reproductive phase of the non-vascular plants, gametes which are

Kingdom Plantae - Plants

Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants

Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants

Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants

Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons

Subclass Dilleniidae – Order Salicales

Family Salicaceae – Willow family

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vergleich: Siehe: Malphigiales + Salix spp. Anhang

 

 

Vorwort/Suchen. Zeichen/Abkürzungen.                                   Impressum.