Staphylococcus aureus

 

Krankheit: Bartakne/Mundgeschwüre;

 

Vergleich: Siehe: Nosoden allgemein + M.R.S.A.. (= Methicillin-resistenter Staphylococcus aureus). + Spenglersan Kolloid K

 

Azadirachta indica, Staphylococcus aureus und der Typhus-Erreger Salmonella typhosa

 

Unverträglich: Stillen nach Verzehr kann in Säugling Durchfall verursachen

 

Antidotiert von: Hep. Rheum-r. (= Gartenrabarber). Rheum.

 

[C. Vuong/M. Otto]

The opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis has become the most important cause of nosocomial infections in recent years. Its pathogenicity ...

Staphylococcus aureus belongs to the genus Staphylococcus of the family Staphylococcaceae (Prescott, Harley and Klein, 1999: 503).

2.4.2 Morphology and Identification

Staphylococcus aureus are facultative anaerobic, non-motile, Gram-positive cocci that usually form irregular clusters. They are catalase positive, slime producing and oxidase negative, ferment glucose anaerobically and have teichoic acid in their cell walls. (Prescott, Harley and Klein., 1999: 503, 782.) Staphylococcus aureus forms small, smooth, cream coloured (occasionaJly white) colonies that are 1-2mm in diameter (Cheesbrough, 1985: 192). Temperature range for growth is 10-42° C, with an optimum of3S-3TC (Cheesbrough, 1985: 226).

2.4.3 Epidemiology

Approximately 20% of all staphylococcal infections are autogenous. Transmission is most frequently by direct contact with an infected individuaJ but may be by air or via fomites. (Kumar and Clark, 1998: 21.) Staphylococcus aureus is demonstrating increasing resilience to many commonly used antibiotics (Mansouri, 1999: 377).

Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus is ubiquitous; it is carried in the anterior nares of about 30% of healthy adults and on the skin of about 20%. Newborns and nursing mothers are predisposed to staphylococcal infections, as are patients with influenza, chronic bronchopulmonary disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, pulmonary emphysema), leukaemia, neoplasms, transplants, prostheses or other foreign bodies, surgical incisions, diabetes mellitus, and indwelling catheters. Patients receiving adrenal steroids, irradiation, immunosuppressants, or antitumor chemotherapy are also at risk.

(Beers et al., 1999:1147.)

2.4.4 Staphylococcus aureus Infections

Staphylococcus aureus ranks among the most important bacterial pathogens, causing a wide variety of suppurative diseases (e.g. superficial and deep abscesses, osteomyelitis, mastitis) and toxinoses (food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome) (Palmer, 1998: 125S).

Coagulase-positive staphylococci like Staphylococcus al/reus can be the cause of pimples, impetigo, boils and carbuncles, wound infections and abscesses pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, nephritis, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, enteritis and enterotoxin poisoning, and widespread seeding if the lymph nodes become infected (Prescott, Harley and Klein, 1999: 784).

Major infections include:

e Food Poisoning. This results from ingestion offood contaminated with preformed heat-stable enterotoxins A, B, C, D and E in varying combinations.

Staphylococcus aureus accounts for approximately 5% of all food poisoning in the UK. Contamination is usually due to an infected individual. (Kumar and Clark, 1998: 21.) Foodstuffs such as canned food, processed meats, milk and cheese favour the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The illness is manifest within six hours of ingestion of contaminated food and affects virtually all

individuals who have eaten such food. Unlike food poisoning that is due to other organisms, staphylococcal food poisoning is characterized by the presence of persistent vomiting. Abdominal discomfort, diarrhoea and a mild fever may also be present. (Kumar and Clark, 1998: 21.)

Toxic shock syndrome is a syndrome caused by staphylococcal exotoxins, characterised by high fever, vomiting, diarrhoea, confusion, and skin rash that may rapidly progress in severe and intractable shock. Toxic shock syndrome occurs predominantly in menstruating women who use tampons. After widespread publicity of the role played by tampons and diaphragms as well as the withdrawal of some tampons from the market, the incidence in women dropped precipitously. About 15% occur postpartum or as postoperative staphylococcal wound infections, which frequently appear insignificant. Cases have also been reported in association with influenza., osteomyelitis and cellulitis. (Beers et al., 1999: 1149.)

G Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) also known as Ritter-Lyell Syndrome, is an acute, widespread erythema and epidermal peeling (Beers et al., 1999:798), and is caused by strains

of Staphylococcus aureus that carry a plasmid-borne gene for the exfoliative toxin or exfoliatin (Prescott, Harley and Klein., 1999: 784).

SSSS almost always occurs in infants, children less than six years old, and immunosuppressed adults or adults with renal failure (Beers et al., 1999: 798).

2.4.3 Epidemiology

Approximately 20% of all staphylococcal infections are autogenous. Transmission is most frequently by direct contact with an infected individual but may be by air or via fomites. (Kumar and Clark, 1998: 21.) Staphylococcus aureus is demonstrating increasing resilience to many commonly used antibiotics (Mansouri, 1999: 377).

 

Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus is ubiquitous; it is carried in the anterior nares of about 30% of healthy adults and on the skin of about 20%. Newborns and nursing mothers are predisposed to staphylococcal infections, as are patients with influenza, chronic bronchopulmonary disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, pulmonary emphysema), leukaemia, neoplasms, transplants, prostheses or other foreign bodies, surgical incisions, diabetes mellitus, and indwelling catheters. Patients receiving adrenal steroids, irradiation, immunosuppressants, or antitumor chemotherapy are also at risk.

(Beers et al., 1999:1147.)

2.4.4 Staphylococcus aureus Infections

Staphylococcus aureus ranks among the most important bacterial pathogens, causing a wide variety of suppurative diseases (e.g. superficial and deep abscesses, osteomyelitis, mastitis) and toxinoses (food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome) (Palmer, 1998: 125S).

Coagulase-positive staphylococci like Staphylococcus al/reus can be the cause of pimples, impetigo, boils and carbuncles, wound infections and abscesses pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, nephritis, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, enteritis and enterotoxin poisoning, and widespread seeding if the lymph nodes become infected (Prescott, Harley and Klein, 1999: 784).

 

Major infections include:

e Food Poisoning. This results from ingestion offood contaminated with preformed heat-stable enterotoxins A, B, C, D and E in varying combinations.

Staphylococcus aureus accounts for approximately 5% of all food poisoning in the UK. Contamination is usually due to an infected individual. (Kumar and Clark, 1998: 21.) Foodstuffs such as canned food, processed meats, milk and cheese favour the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The illness is manifest within six hours of ingestion of contaminated food and affects virtually all

individuals who have eaten such food. Unlike food poisoning that is due to other organisms, staphylococcal food poisoning is characterized by the presence of persistent vomiting. Abdominal discomfort, diarrhoea and a mild fever may also be present. (Kumar and Clark, 1998: 21)

e Toxic Shock Syndrome. Toxic shock syndrome is a syndrome caused by staphylococcal exotoxins, characterised by high fever, vomiting, diarrhoea, confusion, and skin rash that may rapidly progress in severe and intractable shock. Toxic shock syndrome occurs predominantly in menstruating women who use tampons. After widespread publicity of the role played by tampons

and diaphragms as well as the withdrawal of some tampons from the market, the incidence in women dropped precipitously. About 15% occur postpartum or as postoperative staphylococcal wound infections, which frequently appear insignificant. Cases have also been reported in association with influenza., osteomyelitis and cellulitis. (Beers et al., 1999: 1149)

G Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome. Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) also known as Ritter-Lyell Syndrome, is an acute, widespread erythema and epidermal peeling (Beers et al., 1999:798), and is caused by strains of Staphylococcus aureus that carry a plasmid-borne gene for the exfoliative toxin or exfoliatin (Prescott, Harley and Klein., 1999: 784).

SSSS almost always occurs in infants, children less than six years old, and immunosuppressed adults or adults with renal failure (Beers et al., 1999: 798).

2.5 Staphylococcus epidermidis

2.5.1 Classification

Staphylococcus epidermidis belongs to the genus Staphylococcus of the genus Staphylococcaceae (Prescott, Harley and Klein., 1999: 503).

2.5.2 Morphology and Identification

Staphylococcus epidermidis are Gram-positive cocci, colonies are usually nonhaemolytic and white (Cheesbrough, 1985: 227). Staphylococcus epidermidis cultures can be distinguished from Staphylococcus aureus by their lack of clumping factor and their failure to coagulate plasma (Greenwood, Slack and Peutherer, 1992: 210).

2.5.3 Epidemiology

Streptococcus epidermidis is usually more resistant to antibiotics than Staphylococcus aureus (Cheesbrough, 1985: 227). Approximately 20% of all staphylococcal infections are autogenous. Transmission is most frequently by direct contact with an infected individual but may be by air or via fomites. (Kumar and Clark, 1998: 21.)

Pathogenic Staphylococcus epidermidis is ubiquitous; it is carried in the anterior nares of about 30% of healthy adults and on the skin of about 20%. Newborns and nursing

2.5.4 Staphylococcus epidermidis Infections

The most common coagulase-negative staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis increasingly a cause of nosocomial bacteremia associated with catheters and other foreign bodies and an important cause of morbidity (especially prolongation of hospitalisation) and mortality in debilitated patients (Beers et aI., 1999: 1148). The organisms cause particular problems after cardiac surgery; in patients fitted with ventriculovenous cerebrospinal fluid shunts; in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis; and in immunosuppressed patients (Greenwood, Slack and Peutherer, 1992:210).

The emergence of coagulase-negative staphylococci as major pathogens reflects the increased use of implants such as cerebrospinal fluid shunts, intravascular lines and cannulae, cardiac valves, pacemakers, artificial joints, vascular grafts, and urinary catheters (Greenwood, Slack and Peutherer, 1992: 210).

 

 

Allerlei: Staphylococcus aureus besiedelt Haut in Neurodermitis/Impetigo (= verbunden mit Herpes simplex)/wird getötet von Colloidal Silber/Arg-n.

Im Laufe der Kindheit werde fast jeder Mensch von S. aureus besiedelt. Nach der Pubertät sinke der Anteil der Bakterien-Träger wieder, sagt die Immunologin. Die kugeligen Keime leben schließlich unauffällig auf der Haut oder Nasenschleimhaut von etwa 25% aller Erwachsenen. Nur hin und wieder zeigt der harmlose Mitbewohner sein zweites Gesicht. Als aggressiver Krankheitserreger kann er dann nicht nur Haut- und Weichteile befallen, Abszesse und Furunkel verursachen, sondern auch für lebensbedrohliche Lungenentzündungen und Sepsis. sorgen.

"Warum ¾ der Menschen die Bakterien nach kurzer Auseinandersetzung rasch wieder abschüttelten, weiß man nicht", sagt Bröker. Genauso unbekannt sei, warum sich die Mikroorganismen

unter gewissen Umständen zum aggressiven Keim wandelten.

Staphylococcus aureus, a coagulase-positive species, can be the cause of many pustular skin infections, wound infections, toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome, as well as infections

in almost every region of the body (prescott, Harley & Klein, 1999: 784).

 

[Dr. Reiner Heidl]

In einer internistischen und zwei Allgemeinarztpraxen wurden vom August 1992 bis Februar 2001 insgesamt 98 Patienten in eine Anwendungsbeobachtung mit dem

Präparat SANUKEHL Staph D6 Tropfen aufgenommen. Das homöopathische Prüfpräparat SANUKEHL Staph D6 besteht ausschließlich aus Staphylococcus aureus e volumine

cellulae in der 6. Dezimalverdünnung.

SANUKEHL Staph D6 wurde entsprechend der Isopathie in einem sehr breiten Anwendungsgebiet eingesetzt, wobei der bevorzugte Einsatz unabhängig vom Alter der Patienten war.

Als Hauptindikationsgebiete wurden Angina tonsillaris, Otitis media, Sinusitis sowie rezidivierende Harnwegsinfekte und Enteritis genannt. Begleittherapien sollten im Erhebungsbogen

dokumentiert werden.

Die Therapiedauer bei den Kindern (< 12 Jahre) war im Durchschnitt mit 58,5 ± 105,6 Tagen um etwa 2/3 kürzer als in der Erwachsenengruppe mit 186,4 ± 157,3 Tagen.

Ein besseres Bild bietet die differenzierte Betrachtung innerhalb von Therapiezeiträumen. So steht bei den unter 12-Jährigen eine Therapiezeit von bis zu 25 Tagen deutlich im Vordergrund

(63,2% aller Patienten).

Bei den Erwachsenen waren die größten Gruppen mit 47,4% der Patienten mit mehr als 150 Therapietagen und 21,1% mit einer Therapiezeit zwischen 25 und 50 Tagen.

Bei 58 Patienten wurden die Tropfen eingenommen, und bei ebenfalls 58 Patienten wurden die Tropfen eingerieben. Mehrfachnennungen waren notwendig, da bei 18 Patienten sowohl

eingenommen als auch eingerieben wurde. Die Dosierungsempfehlungen wurden eingehalten.

In der Gruppe der unter 12-Jährigen wurden die Tropfen zum Einnehmen und zum Einreiben altersgerecht dosiert. Die mittlere Dosierung der Einreibung war in der Monotherapie

annähernd doppelt so hoch wie in der Kombinationstherapie. In der Kombinationstherapie wurden die Tropfen zum Einnehmen sogar höher dosiert als in der Monotherapie. Von den in die

Studie eingeschlossenen 98 Patienten wurden alle zum ersten Mal mit SANUKEHL Staph D6 Tropfen behandelt.

Aus diesem Grund war ein Vergleich zwischen Erst- und Wiederholungsanwendern nicht anzustellen.

Der Fortschritt der Behandlung wurde jeweils durch Befunderhebung zu Beginn und am Ende der Therapie ermittelt. 86,6% der Patienten und 88,7% der Ärzte bezeichneten die Wirkung der Behandlung als „sehr gut“ und „gut“. In der Beurteilung durch Arzt und Patient waren die „sehr gut“-Bewertungen in der Erwachsenengruppe tendenziell besser; in der Kindergruppe wurde andererseits aber ausschließlich mit „sehr gut“ und „gut“ geurteilt.

Im Anwendungsverhalten wurde 83,7% aller in die Studie eingeschlossenen Patienten eine gute bzw. sehr gute Compliance bescheinigt.

62,9% der Patienten und 59,8% der Ärzte stuften die Verträglichkeit mit „sehr gut“ ein, während 33,0% der Patienten und 39,2% der Ärzte SANUKEHL Staph D6 eine gute Verträglichkeit bescheinigten. Mit einer mäßigen Verträglichkeit wurde durch 4,1% der Patienten und 1,0% der Ärzte geurteilt. Eine schlechte Verträglichkeit wurde sowohl von Patienten- als auch von

Ärzteseite in keinem Fall angegeben. Es gab keinen Studienabbruch und keine unerwünschten Ereignisse.

 

[Fritz Johann Madel]

http://ir.dut.ac.za/handle/10321/1835

Toxins and Enzymes produced by Staphylococcus aureus.

1) Leukocidin

This enzyme inhibits phagocytosis, induces aggregation of leukocytes, eventually kills them by rupturing their cell membranes (Burrows,1973; Atlas,1988.)

2) Enterotoxin

Staphylococcal enterotoxins are toxins which cause food poisoning. These induce symptoms of violent nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea with no associated fever.

Convalescence is usually as rapid as the onset of disease. (Jawetz et al. 1984:197-227.)

4) Haemolysins

3) Coagulase

This enzyme, acts on fibrinogen and initiates clotting of blood.

The deposit of fibrin and the entrapment of red blood cells as well as platelets, eventually forms a clot which walls off the body's immune system from destroying the micro-organism.

(Jawetz et al. 1984:197-227.)

Staphylococcus aureus produces a number of haemolysins which can cause necrosis in the skin, dissolve erythrocytes and platelets, and also lyse smooth muscle. (Jawetz et al. 1984:1~7-227.)

5) Other pubstances

Hyaluronidase - a spreading (Burrows,1973i Atlas,1988), by the Staphylococcus, include factor which can staphylokinase cause necrosis (results in fibrinolysis) proteinase, lipase, B-Iactamase

and many more. B-Iactamase has been one of the main factors resulting in bacteria becoming increasingly more resistant to the penicillin group of antibiotics, making it more difficult to annihilate

them (Jawetz et al 1984: 197-227.)

RESILIENCY

Staphylococci are relatively resistant to drying, to 7.5% sodium chloride (Jawetz et al, 1984:135-139.) and able to withstand heat up to 60° C (Burrows, 1973.)

They are however readily inhibited by chemicals like hexachlorophene 3% but variably sensitive to many antimicrobial drugs.

The pathogenic staphylococci are resistant to penicillins due to the B-Iactamase production.

Bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to methicillin and cephalosporins.

This resistance is independent of B-lactamase production.

It is the result of a change in the target molecule for penicilin.

"Tolerance" implies that bacteria are inhibited by a drug but not killed by it. This can be contributed to a lack of activation of autolytic enzymes in the cell wall.

Plasmids can also carry genes for resistance to tetracyclines, erythromycins, and aminoglycosides. (Jawetz et al, 1984:135-139).

Simillarly, bacteria are now becoming resistant to the aminoglycoside drugs.

Lcoli, haeruginosa (Navashin et al, 1980:305-308) and streptococci (Courvalin et al. 1980:309-320) which can be very virulent and detrimental to man in their own way (Jawetz et al, 1984:238, 243, 201-207) contain aminoglycoside enzymes like:aminoglycoside-3'-phosphotransferaseI, aminoglycoside-3'-phosphotransferase II and streptomycin-3'-phosphotransferase which makes the organism

Resistant to antibiotics like kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, paramycin and other aminoglycosides found (Navashin et aI, 1980:305-308).

This research on B-Lactamase can even path the way to influence activity of haemolysin and streptolysin, hyaluronidase, Streptokinase and other enzymes, if used to make up a Homoeopathic

nosode, this may aid in the treatment of diseases caused by these pathogens.

PATHOGENICITY TO MAN

Staphylococci aureus is a bacterium that most of us are in close contact with in our every day lifes.

Environmentally, it is found in water, soil, milk and air (Gerbhardt and Nicholes, 1975.)

The microbe is commonly found on the skin and on the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, sinuses, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract.

30 – 50% of the general population harbour the microbe on the anterior nasal mucosa while higher concentrations have been found among hospital staff and infections like abscess, acne, otitis media,

pneumonia, tonsillitis, meningitis, pleural empyema, endocarditis and sepsis.

It has also been responsible for a syndrome called "toxic shock syndrome".

This syndrome was first described in young women who use tampons within 5 days of the onset of menstruation. It is a severe infection causing a high fever, vomiting and sometimes death.

"Toxic shock syndrome" can also occur in men, women and children with post operative staphylococcal wound infections. (Jawetz et al, 1984:142-201.)

Another very serious disease caused by the staphylococci, involves the metaphysic of long bones, ie osteomyelitis.

Here the primary growth of the micro-organism is located in the terminal blood vessels of the metaphysis.

This may lead to necrosis and chronic suppuration. (Jawetz et aI, 1984:142-201.)

Most hospital strains of Staphylococcus aureus, are resistant to the most common antibiotics.

Staphylococcus ococcus aureus, as well as many other bacteria, contain R-plasmids, that carry the genes which code for enzymes like B-Lactamase (Plested et aI, 1983:111-126.)

The plasmids are transmitted from bacteria to bacteria by transduction and perhaps also by conjugation (Jawetz et al, 1984:135-139.)

If correct precautions are not taken, then post surgical or wound staphylococcal infections are common (Burrows,1973.)

(Rawlins, E.A. 1984.)

 

 

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