Acridotheres tristis = Indian myna
Feeding: Indian mynas are omnivorous thus their diet consistsof a wide variety of foods including frogs, snails, and bird eggs. They also eat fruits and seeds. They are scavengers and are oftenon the ground searching for food. Onecan often see Indian mynas on the backs of cattle removing ticks from them. When alternatives
are not available, the Indian myna may rely on fruits and seeds. (Arkive 2017)
184.108.40.206 Homoeopathic Proving of Acridotheres tristis:
In 2010 Asima Hoosen conducted the proving of Acridotheres tristis. The following key concepts were identified by Hoosen (2010) incl. following:
Anxiety, Depression, Dreams, Fatigue and Insomnia.
Anxiety was experienced by several provers. The anxiety experienced was often related to a sense of impending danger, and resulted in the prover feeling panicked.
Most of the anxiety experienced by the provers was accompanied by insecurities and also a sense of confusion. The original proving also showed improvement in
the normal anxiety of provers. (Hoosen 2010)
The depression in the remedy expressed as a feeling of sadness, a sense of emptiness and of having less motivation and no will to do anything. Also afeeling of wanting to be left in isolation, as well as the need for solitude. Depression on the physical plane was described as lethargy and body aches. (Hoosen 2010)
A prover described being perused or being attacked in their dreams. (Hoosen 2010)
Fatigue and insomnia:
The proving actually improved the sleeping patterns of some of the provers. Others felt extremely tired and had exhaustion to the point where they wanted to lie still and just sleep. Physically, the provers experienced unsteadiness and weakness of the limbs. (Hoosen 2010)
Physicals: Headaches: Pains being described as sharp. Heavy sensation Headache with accompanying eye symptoms behind and around the eye.
Allergic Rhinitis: Nasal congestion +:Mucous production Profuse lacrimation Constant sneezing Haemorrhoids: Protruding and bulging (no bleeding orpain) (Hoosen, 2010)
Acridotheres tristis could possibly be prescribed for the following symptoms:
Anxiety (experienced by several of the provers, in particular performance anxiety and anxiety of impending danger). felt panic stricken. The anxiety + by a sense of confusion and insecurity (exploring a new avenue).
Depression: described as a feeling of sadness, emptiness, being de-motivated with no will to study or work. It can also be seen that the depression is further extended into the physical plane, in that provers experienced lethargy and body aches.
Headaches: mainly of a sharp nature and a heavy sensation. The headaches reported had a great propensity to the region of the eye, behind or around the eyes.
Allergic rhinitis: Characteristic symptoms of nasal congestion + copious nasal mucous production, profuse lachrimation and constant sneezing are suggestive of allergic rhinitis.
Haemorrhoids: described as a protruding bulge with no bleeding and no pain. Only experienced by one prover it remains to be a significant manifestation as the prover was not exposed to the contributing factors in the development of haemorrhoids.
Fatigue: Several provers experienced symptoms of extreme tiredness and exhaustion to a point where the provers felt a desire to lay still and sleep.
There were also associated physical sensations of the body feeling tight along with body aches, unsteadiness and weakness of the limbs.
Insomnia: An improvement in sleeping patterns was experienced in 40% of the provers. In most of the cases provers experienced deep sleep and woke up refreshed.
[Asima Goolam Hoosen]
The Indian myna is predominantly a bird of urban and cultivated areas, it is also closely associated to man, as a pet, or an unpopular invasive pest (Common Myna, 2007).
This abundant passerine is both an aggressive and intelligent bird, which competes against any native species for food and nesting hollows. They are one of the world’s most successful birds due to its being a formidable competitor and its ability to adapt easily to any environment (Indian myna birds, 2006). There are many substances waiting to
be proved, however some additional factors need to be considered.
First, is the substance available? Some Homoeopaths subscribe to the idea that a useful remedy should be a local one, within easy reach of the patient, as nature will always provide an accessible cure (Sherr, 1994:49). As argued by Sherr the proving remedy of choice should be that of an indigenous source (Sherr, 1994:49). Even though the remedy of choice Acridotheres tristis is indigenous to South Asia, from Afghanistan to India and Sri Lanka, it is still a common bird in S. Africa
(Common Myna, 2007).
Native range: Native to the Indian subcontinent and adjacent areas the Indian myna (Common myna, Acridotheres tristis) has expanded its range in the 20th century, possibly assisted by introductions throughout the Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Vietnam and Southern China (Harrison, et al.1997:454). Their approximate range is from eastern Afghanistan to India and Sri Lanka to Bangladesh (May and Sodhi, 2006:2).
Known introduced range: Indian mynas spread throughout much of Southeast Asia in 1900s and have been widely introduced around the world, establishing itself in South Africa (May and Sodhi, 2006:2). Indian mynas were released in Durban around 1900, and now occur from Kwa-Zulu Natal to the Gauteng, Mpumalanga and the Free State provinces of South Africa (Harrison, et al.1997:454).
Indian mynas are generally dark or dull birds that have fluted calls, and like most starlings; the sexes are similar. This 25-cm long bird has a dark brown body and wing plumage, with brown wings and white primary coverts, and primaries black with basal half white (Common Myna, 2007). The face and at the top of the head black; the hind-neck slate, vinaceous-brown on black; pump and under-tail coverts white (Ginn, et al. 1989:612).
The bill, bare skin around the eyes and strong legs are bright yellow (Common Myna, 2007:1). In flight the white patches of the wings and the dark tail with a white tip make this bird unmistakable (Liversidge, 1991:187).
Raucous and conspicuous, it is often accused of displacing other bird species from gardens, probably unjustly (Harrison, et al. 1997). They are aggressive, and will attack almost any aggressor, including man, that threatens an active nest or young (Ginn, et al. 1989:612).
Like most starlings, the Indian mynas are fairly omnivorous, eating fruit, nectar and insects (Tidemann, 2005), also following ploughs and grazing cattle to take any prey
(Ginn, et al. 1989:612).
The Indian myna breeds from September to January. Indian mynas breed in hollows; building untidy nests of twigs, leaves, grass, paper and feathers that are placed in a tree
or building, or even in leaf clumps of screw pines.
They usually lay two to five eggs, which are plain bright bluish-green with a glossy shell. The incubation period is about seventeen days. The fledging period is about 24 days (Ginn, et al. 1989:612).
Negative impacts: Common mynas are able to establish themselves in almost any habitat and, as a result, have become an invasive species in some areas outside of the native range. They are considered a pest because they eat grain and fruit from agricultural crops, and they are also seen as an annoyance for their communal roosting behaviour and droppings in the vicinity of human habitation (Lin and Root, 2007).
Positive impacts: Common mynas may be helpful in reducing insect populations in agricultural areas. In India, Acridotheres tristis is known to protect the crops by feeding on insect pests (May and Sodhi, 2006:2).
On the Hawaiin Islands, they help control populations of cutworms (spodoptera mauritia). In 1883, common mynas were introduced into the cane fields of Australia to combat insect pests such as plague locusts and cane beetles. Common mynas also pollinate and disperse seeds of economical trees. Common mynas are often sold as pets for their intelligence and ability to mimic human speech (Lin and Root, 2007).
Mind: Activity desires (creative activity/at work)
Ailments from - anxiety/domination/indignation/mental exertion
Anger - # affection/# tranquillity/about disorder/with himself
Antagonism with herself
Anxiety (# exhilaration/during anger/> breathing/about own children/about money matters/with shuddering/with weariness)/Fear (of failure in examinations/to lose his lucrative job/of undertaking new enterprise/
of poverty/with sadness)
Cares about others
Change - desires it in life/desires change
Clarity - of mind/of purpose
Company - aversed to/> when alone/cannot bear anybody/wants to wrap himself in a blanket/aversion to company and desire for solitude/aversion to intimate friends/aversion to company during headache/
desires and > company/desires company of his family/relations and surroundings 1 41
Concentration - active (# tranquillity)/difficult (during conversation/studying/talking)
Confident (# discouragement/feels safe to be natural)
Confused - lost feeling
Conscientious about trifles
Content/discontent - with himself with being good for nothing sensation
Delusion - slow motion working/were an outcast/has done wrong
Disturbed, averse to being
Feeling at ease
Escapes from responsibilities
Estranged - from own family/from friends and relatives/from own self
Firm - drawing the line
Forsaken feeling - sensation of isolation (> occupation)
Free spirited/high spirited
Hatred - vengeful and detached
Hopeful # discouragement
Indifference to welfare of others
Irresolute (indecision/and irritable)
Irritability (# despair/during headache/before menses/during menses/with sadness/on waking/with weakness)
Desire to be in sunlight
Loathing of work
Memory - loss of memory from mental exertion/weak (for what was about to do/for everyday things/for what has happened/from mental exertion)
Mental power increased
Mistakes in writing
Nature - loves
Occupation - >/desire to
Power - sensation of
Prostration - from slight mental exertion/< thinking of work
Quick to act
Reassured easily when anxious
Reflecting (in sadness)
Rejuvenated, feeling of being
Rest - desire to
Restlessness anxious - driving from place to place
Sadness (when alone/> when alone/anxious/and desire to weep)
Sensitive to criticism
Speech - confused/incoherent
Talking in sleep
Thinking - of the future/profound
Tranquility serenity, calmness (reconciled to fate)
Undertaking nothing, lest he failed
Weeping - cannot weep, though sad
Loss of will power (with insight, self awareness increased)
“As if he had two wills”
Vertigo: morning (> rising)/evening/night
+ difficult concentration, difficult 1 N
+ heaviness in head/+ pain in forehead
Tendency to fall (to l.)
“As if floating” (while sitting)/”As if intoxicated”
In bright light
From mental exertion
With nausea (middle of chest)
> Sleep/with sleepiness
“As if head is turning round”/”As if whirling in forehead”
Head: “As if cotton wool internally”/”As if enlarged in occiput”/”As if it would float off”
Heat > cold applications
Heaviness in occiput ext. vertex
Pain - morning (on waking)/+ nausea/+ pain in nape of neck/+ vomiting/> washing in cold water/after eating/from artificial light/from looking downward/from looking upward/before menses/< mental exertion/< motion (of head)/> after sleep/> during sleep/< stepping heavily/> tea/pulsating ext. temples/eyes (above l./behind/between)/
in occiput (pulsating/ext. r. eye/ext. down back of neck)/in occiput and forehead/pulsating l./temples (l./on cough/hammering/> pressure/wandering)/burning (forehead r./occiput r.)/bursting/dull in occiput/jerking in brain/lancinating in forehead/pressing in forehead (l./ext. eyes/ext. temples)/pulsating (< noise)/sharp (l. temple)/sore (in forehead/on motion/on touch/temples)
“As if head were separated from body”/“As if worm on forehead”
Eye: red during headache
“As if eyes were falling out”
Fluffy sensation behind eye
Itching > rubbing
Lachrymation - during coryza/profuse
Pain - > closing/when looking steadily/burning (r./during headache/itching/with lachrymation)/sore (inner canthi/during headache/on motion of eyes)
Photophobia - during headache/from artificial light
Ear: “As if full”
Itching in meatus
Pain - > pressure/swallowing/in eustachian tube/in external ear/with headache/stitching (l./r.)
Nose: Congested (< cold air)
Coryza - morning on waking/with lachrymation/lying/> sitting up
Discharge - > soon after blowing/clear/copious (< blowing)/watery/white/yellow
Dry inside - r./< inspiration
Obstructed [+ [watery) discharge]
Pain - burning - r./morning on waking/in bones/during coryza/nostrils inside/around nose
Sneezing - constant/with coryza/paroxysmal
Face: Eruptions- pimples on chin (l./white)/on cheeks
Hot (during anxiety)
Pain - throbbing in lower jaw/burning in lips around mouth
Perspiration - eyebrows/upper lip
Mouth: Bleeding gums
Dry with thirst
Itching in palate
Pain - sore in gums
Taste - bitterish-putrid/”As from spoiled meat”
Throat: Dry (itching/with thirst)
Disposed to hawk
“As if a lump” > swallowing
Pain - burning (“As from a hot ball”/> cold air)/rawness/scratching/sore
Swallowing (difficult > liquids/impossible by constriction of esophagus)
Appetite - diminished (morning/indifference to food)/increased [morning (at night/after breakfast/after eating)/increased (at night/after eating)
Emptiness (> eating/without hunger)
“As if full” after eating
Gagging from coughing
Heartburn (After excitement)
Nausea - > drinking/> after eating/pain in stomach
Pain - > lying on side with legs drawn up/during nausea/burning (ext. to throat)/cramping (concentration difficult/intermittent/during vertigo/> warmth)
Thirst (+ dry tongue/extreme/drinking water)
Pain - burning - ext. l. hypochondria/cramping, griping (> after stool)/in hypochondria (l./r.)/cramping, griping during stool
Rectum: Hemorrhoids protrude during stool
Stool: Light coloured
Smells - penetrating/offensive/strong
Urine: Dark (brown/orange/yellow)/yellow
Sediment - mucous (thick/yellow)
Female organs: Leukorrhea (during menses/transparent)
Menses - absence of pain, flow only/painful (cold/> pressure/> warmth)
Pain - in uterus (before menses/during menses/ext. back)/cramping in uterus during menses/sharp (in uterus)
Larynx: Voice hoarse
Cough: Night (with perspiration/waking from the cough)
Dry/”As from dust”
Irritation in pit of throat/Itching in throat/tickling in throat
< lying in bed/< motion/> sitting up
Pressure in trachea
Sleep - disturbing/preventing
> warming chest
Expectoratiom: Grayish/thick/transparent/white albuminous
Chest: Constricted - bending forward/ext. stomach
Pain - cutting on deep inspiration
Back: Eruptions - pimples/rash in cervical region (alternating sides/l./r.)
Formication - > pressure/cervical region (l.)/sacrum (l.)
Heaviness, weight in cervical region
Numbness - > part lain on/cervical region/dorsal region - scapulae (l.)/sacrum
Pain - lumbar region (r./> lying/during motion/in lumbar region (constricting/cramping/lancinating)
Stiffness in cervical region (r./in occiput during headache/> pressure/on waking/> warmth)
Weakness - cervical region/lumbar region
Extremities: Cracking in joints - > shoulder
Dryness of sole of foot
Heat - in palm of hand with anxiety/legs (> cold air/uncovers them)/foot burning [uncovers them/> cold air/< open air/pricking/foot - sole (burning)]
Heaviness - from mental exertion/in shoulder/in leg
Itching in foot - sole
Numbness - > exercising/> lying/> pressure/> warmth/upper limbs (l. shoulder/shoulder ext, to finger tips/in shoulder > when stretched)
Pain - > continued motion/shoulder (r./+ pain in r. jaw/on becoming cold/> pressure/pulsating/> warm application)/hip (r./beginning to move/rising from a seat/
on stooping)/r. thigh/r. ankle/heel (l./> pressure/walking)/burning in hip > motion/cramping l. calf/cutting in shoulder (l./when cold)/sharp in heel (l./l. shoulder)/
stitching [> pressure/> warmth/l. upper arm/shoulder (l./when chilly)/l. elbow/thigh (above r. knee)/knee (l./moving/> stretching)/stitching in ankle (> motion)]
Tingling - elbow (l./> exercising/> pressure)/l. thumb
Disturbed by nightmare
Light, much tossing around
NEED for sleep
Sleepy - morning/evening/constant/with heaviness of head/after waking/during work
Waking - difficult morning/frequent with restlessness/too late
Dreams: Anger/anxious (with perspiration)being attacked/birds/childbirth/about children/climbing/confident/death of relatives - grandmother/difficulties on journeys/dirt/disease/embarrassment/
escaping/fear of falling/room filled with feathers/fights/fleeing/frightful - waking him/hunting/desire to kill/mother/mountains/pleasant/pursued (by a man)/religious/responsibility/snakes
without fear/snakes without fear/striving/vexatious/work
Fever: + thirstless/# chills/heat/perspiration absent
Perspiration: during anxiety
Skin: Eruptions - rash - < bathing in hot water/burning (itching)/red
Generals: Constriction internal of bones
Excess of energy (night/on waking)
Food and drinks: Desires: Choc./fried eggs/fat/(citrus) fruits/nuts/seeds/sweets; >: apples; <: smell of meat cooking; Aversion: food + hunger
“As if influenza”
Pain - bone (aching)/aching (on waking)
Trembling externally (>)
Weakness (morning on waking/> lying/>/from sleepiness/with vertigo/> walking in open air)
The predominant symptoms belonging to the mental and emotional spheres of this remedy include depression, memory weakness, isolation + need for solitude and a great sense of uncertainty with a conflict of will.
Anxiety was also reported in several of the provers however Prover 6 experienced a reduction of the normal anxiety (cured symptom). Dreams of being attacked and
pursued, and in particular dreams of struggling with unsuccessful efforts. An improvement in sleep was experienced (cured symptom). The characteristic physical symptoms include headaches, dizziness, extreme fatigue, skin eruptions (pimples and rashes), haemorrhoids, severe dysmenorrhoea and numbness of the upper limbs and back.
Other symptoms to consider include headaches, fever, general tiredness, loss of appetite and severe coughing, are suggestive of influenza.
A number of provers experienced symptoms associated with rheumatic complaints such as general muscle aches + tiredness, trembling or unsteadiness of the limbs.
Other symptoms indicate a possible use in the treatment of gastro-intestinal complaints which include nausea, abdomen