Fungi Anhang 2


Vergleich: Siehe: Group Analysis Evaluation


Comparison: of Agar. Bol-la. Bov. Sec. Ust. Psil. Monil. Stict. in Anxiety + Confusion of mind + Delusions

Fungi: Anxiety/Confusion of mind/Delusions/burning/itching/restless/irritable/dull/paralysis/sexual desire increased/convulsions


[Kristian Leisegang]

A group analysis evaluation of the Kingdom Fungi of homoeopathic remedies in terms of known material medica

Rationale for the Group Analysis of Kingdom Fungi

a) Rajan Sankaran has developed a methodology of group analysis based on the natural biological classification of organisms. This methodology has been applied to a number of plant families with apparent success (Sankaran, 2002).

b) Other methodologies of group analysis have been proposed by various noted authors - such as Scholten (1993) and Mangialavori (Hiwat et al., 1996) - as a means of extending the understanding of remedy relationships (Wulfsohn, 2005).

c) The application of the methodology, as proposed by Sankaran (2002), to the Kingdom Fungi is needed in order to increase the homoeopathic understanding of the group as a whole and to increase the utilization of the individual under-represented remedies belonging to the Kingdom. Therefore this study aims to subject a poorly understood biological kingdom with a view to extend the overall group understanding as-well-as the individual remedies within the group.

d) The fungi currently have limited use in homoeopathy, with only 3 individual remedies reasonably well understood. Most remedies sourced from the fungi are relatively small and not well documented. Fungi play a crucial role in the organised world,this should be reflected in homoeopathic literature (Vermeulen, 2002: 23).

e) No other group analysis study of the fungi as a kingdom has been undertaken according to the knowledge of the author.


Recent Advances in Homoeopathic Prescribing - Group Analysis

The group analysis approach to homoeopathy is not new. Farrington used kingdom analysis in 1880 and Leeser used periodic table information in 1935 (Winston, 2004: 36). However, it was not until the 1990’s that the first modern application of group analysis began to emerge. Group analysis is an attempt to identify a mechanism for understanding groups of related remedies according to natural classification of the various sources used in homoeopathic practice. Until recently the most important method of studying homeopathic remedies has been to look at each remedy separately and not in the context of a particular group to which it belongs.

The prime movers of group analysis of the modern era are Scholten and Sankaran (Wulfsohn, 2005). Scholten (1993: 23) has defined group analysis as the process of looking at a group of remedies and extracting what is common from that group. Therefore, by extracting the common theme‟s within a particular group of remedies, the understanding of both particular remedy groups as a whole as-well-as the individual remedies belonging to each particular group is enhanced, which has subsequently added another invaluable tool for accurate remedy selection available to the homoeopathic practitioner. Scholten (1993: 23) realized that homoeopathic practitioners have generally used symptoms as the only, or almost only, guide to the remedy, without really considering the source of

the drug. It is, however, becoming very clear that the symptomatology of any drug is intimately related to the source it is drawn from, and that each drug has in it the essence of its source.

However, this knowledge has not been actively or systematically used in differentiating remedies by studying their origin.

If properly understood, this study could enable us to think directly of the kind of remedy needed for the patient, a sort of direct application of the law of simillars.


Kingdom Analysis in Homoeopathy

Sankaran (1994:313) classified patients in terms of kingdoms by identifying the main differentiating features of each kingdom (plant, animal and mineral kingdom). This makes it possible to determine which kingdom the practitioner is to choose his remedy from. The classification of each kingdom included the nature of the complaint, the nature of the individual (disposition), pace and causation factors of complaints, fears, dreams and interests, cravings/aversions and even handwriting and words used by a particular patient.

Minerals: „structure‟ and „organization‟, and the problems of mineral remedies/personalities arise from a break in this structure and organization, breaking in relationships or failure in performance. Are very systematic and tend to be highly organized (Sankaran, 1997: 229). Sankaran continues to classify mineral remedies into metals, cations, anions, salts and acids.

Plants: „sensitive‟ nature. They are affected by changes in the external environment and are capable of adapting to these changes. They are disorganized when compared to a mineral type personality, and are sensitive, soft and emotional beings. Complaints usually present with rapid onset and are changeable with many modalities. They are easily affected emotionally and have abrupt mood changes (Sankaran, 1997: 233).

Animals: „conflict‟ which has at its basis a „split‟ in the self - the animal side and the human side. The animal side is concerned with competition and a need to attract attention and these personalities are therefore attractive  

in their behaviour and appearance. They can also be deceitful, malicious and aggressive (Sankaran, 1997: 233). 

Fungi: classified into their own biological Kingdom, and have not been investigated as such via a group analysis methodology.


Scholten’s Periodic Table

Scholten (1993) turned his attention to the mineral kingdom and noticed trends within the periodic table of the elements. First he created groups of the major elements used in homoeopathy, such as the Carbonicums and the Muriaticums, including their respective salts (e.q. Calc./Nat-m.). By extracting what is common from each group, Scholten defined common themes that can be applied to the group as a whole.

For example, the Carbonicum group has issues around the idea of self worth, needing to find meaning and values within themselves. They too are found to be rather shy and timid, and also hard and consistent workers.

Theme found in all Carbonicum remedies, such as Calc. Mag-c. Nat-c. etc. Each individual element (calcarea, magnesia and natrum in the above example) that forms part of the remedy has its own themes that combine to produce the remedy picture.

Scholten (1996) later used the periodic table of elements to classify and group mineral remedies. He proposed that each row („series‟) corresponds to a general theme, and that each column („group‟) showed the development of the general theme of each series. This allowed the practitioner to pin-point a remedy required from the mineral kingdom to a high degree of accuracy by using a systematic approach defined in “Homoeopathy and the Elements” (1996).


Miasmatic Theory

The term „miasm.‟ comes from the Greek, meaning “pollution or taint”, and was used in relation to various unknown causes of illness from the time of Hippocrates, through the Middle Ages, and into the 18th century.

Hahnemann eventually used the term in his great theory of the origins of chronic disease (de Schepper, 2001: 355). While pondering for years on the reason why some patients would improve with the help of a homoeopathic remedy only to return later with a recurrence of their former disease state that responded less effectively to repetitions of the same remedy, Hahnemann realized that diseases which were not acute infections had to be of a chronic, deep-seated nature (Sankaran, 2000, 449). Through tireless work studying these patients‟ cases, he found patterns of diseases in the patients and their family histories which he felt explained the true basis of chronic disease. He called these patterns „miasms‟ (de Scheeper, 2001: 355) and classified diseases as venereal (sycosis and syphilis) and non-venereal (psora or scabies), and proposed that all disease states had their origin in these „miasms‟ (Sankaran, 2000: 449). Hahnemann therefore proposed that underlying the symptoms of all diseases is an all pervasive miasm or tendency to react in an identifiable set of ways (Hahnemann 1996: 190).

As mentioned earlier, this also began the tendency to systematize the prescription of homoeopathic remedies.


Sankaran’s Concept of ‘Vital Sensation’/has outlined 6 basic levels that should be traced during a homoeopathic case taking (Sankaran, 2005: 250):

Level 1: Pathological (The main complaint or diagnosis)

Level 2: Symptomatic (Description of actual symptoms, such as local symptoms, modalities and location)

Level 3: Emotional (What does it feel like? What is the emotional state of the patient whilst experiencing the symptoms?)

Level 4: Delusion (What does the patient feel like? Symptoms of the neuro-endocine-immune axis)

Level 5: Sensation (The sensation felt in the body when exploring the symptoms)

Level 6: Energy (Background pattern, movements and patterns observed or evoked by the interview experience)

Sankaran (2005: 290) describes sensation as „discernment or consciousness of any experience‟ where the experience itself and the nature of the experience qualify the sensation. Energy patterns received by nerves experienced  as sensation. Sankaran continues to describe the vital sensation as „the general sensation which is common to the mind and body‟.

The sensation level provides a deeper understanding of the patient as a whole, a culmination of the previous four levels that is more reliable due to the multiple sources of evidence rather than relying on physical symptoms or mental/emotional symptoms on their own (Wulfsohn, 2005). According to this view, pathology is a manifestation of the vital sensation - the local sensation and symptoms are expressions of the vital sensation (Sankaran, 2005: 312). The vital sensation is specific, and the most accurate, in terms of kingdom analysis and source identification (Sankaran, 2004b: 5). Sankaran (2005: 293) suggests that all remedy states and disease states are essentially

vital sensations, therefore kingdom classification is essentially a classification of vital sensations (where structure relates to the mineral kingdom, sensitivity relates to the plant kingdom and survival relates to the animal kingdom). This suggestion highlights the importance of the current growing trend in homoeopathic philosophy that leans towards the group analysis method, and underlines the need for more research into this realm of practice in order to add to the modern literature. Wulfsohn (2005) suggested that all rubrics that describe a felt „sensation‟ in the body need to be analyzed for being as possibilities for the central sensation of the particular group.

Examples of sensations include words such as, „burning‟, „tight‟ or „tingling‟ sensations. Mental aspects of vital sensations are important too, such as „trapped‟ or „rage‟.


Fungi Taxonomy

Man has classified the diversity of living things in a variety of ways based on their more striking features and metabolic criteria. The most fundamental distinction has traditionally been between animals (motile and food-ingesting) and plants (static and apparently drawing their nutrients from the soil or in some instances from other plants).

The fundamental features of green plants are that they are phototrophs (= utilizing energy from light) and autotrophs (= synthesizing their organic components from atmospheric carbon dioxide).

Animals on the other hand are chemotrophs (= obtaining energy from organic materials) and heterotrophs (= utilizing the same materials as the source of carbon for the synthesis of their own organic components) (Carlile et al., 2001: 3).

Fungi resemble plants, but lack chloroplasts and do not photosynthesize (Mader, 1998: 539), therefore they are unable to synthesis their energy requirements from sunlight as plants do. No direct evolutionary connection with plants (Vermeulen, 2002: 22). On the fundamental metabolic criteria it is clear that fungi resemble animals rather than plants (Carlile et al., 2001: 4). Yet, fungi clearly aren’t animals, nor do they resemble bacteria or protozoa. Based on their multicellular nature and mode of nutrition, Whittaker placed fungi in their own kingdom (Mader, 1998: 539). 


Kingdom Fungi contains the fungi, which are mostly multicellular eukaryotes of varied structure that share a common mode of nutrition (Mader, 1998: 540). Fungi either live as parasites on other living plants or animals, or they live in decaying matter. In either way they derive their energy by breaking up highly complex substances (when these are broken down in another living organism, the organism suffers) (Vermeulen, 2002: 23).

Therefore, like animals, fungi are heterotrophic and consume performed organic matter. Fungi, however, are heterotrophic by absorption; animals are heterotrophic by digestion (Mader, 1998: 540). Most fungi act as Saprotrophic (= decomposers that aid the recycling of chemicals in ecosystems). They, along with bacteria, enrich the immediate environs with inorganic nutrients and thereby keep chemicals cycling in the ecosystem.

Some fungi are parasitic, especially on plants, and others are symbiotic with plant roots and algae (Mader, 1998: 540). Fungi are characterized by non-motile bodies (thalli) constructed of apically elongating walled filaments (hyphae), a life cycle with sexual and asexual reproduction, haploid thalli resulting from zygotic meiosis, and heterotrophic nutrition. The characteristic cell wall components are chitin and glucans (Griffin, 1994).

Exceptions to this characterization are well known (Alexopoulos et al., 1996: 868). The organisms of the fungi lineage include mushrooms, rusts, smuts, puffballs, truffles, morels, molds and yeasts,

as well as many less well-known organisims (Alexopoulos et al., 1996: 868). About 70.000 species of fungi have been described (Hawksworth, 1991); however, some estimates of total numbers suggest that 1.5 million species may exist (Hawksworth et al., 1995: 616). Their office in the organized world is to check exuberance of growth, to facilitate decomposition, to regulate the balance of the component elements of the atmosphere, to promote fertility and to nourish myriads of the smaller numbers of the animal kingdom4. It is clear they play a vital role in the cycle of life.


Fungi in Homoeopathy

The biological kingdom of fungi has a relatively limited use in homoeopathy, especially when considering the wide variety and ecological importance of the kingdom (Mader, 1998: 540).

Agaricus muscarius (Fly agaric), Bovista lycoperdon (Puff ball) and Secale cornutum (Ergot) are the 3 well represented remedies in the materia medica derived from this kingdom. The other remedies represented in the materia medica and repertories are all considered small remedies and currently have limited use in homoeopathic practice. The author believes that a group analysis of the kingdom will shed more light on the use of fungi remedies in homoeopathy and allow the relatively small remedies derived from this kingdom to play a more significant role in homoeopathic practice.


Kingdom Fungi

The first step was to accurately define the fungi group of remedies used in homoeopathic prescribing, i.e. species (remedies) belonging to the kingdom that have been subjected to a proving and can be found in homoeopathic literature. This step also defined the homoeopathic significance of each individual remedy in terms of number of rubrics (increased number of rubrics corresponds to an increase in significance).

The list of fungi remedies used in homoeopathic literature was obtained via Radar 9.0 computer software (Archibel, 2003), and was tabulated using the following headings: scientific name (species or remedy name); class subdivision; common name; homoeopathic significance according to rubric representation in the repertory according to Radar 9.0 (Archibel, 2003).

Sample Selection

The sample selection was chosen based on the homoeopathic significance of each remedy. The group of 32 was narrowed down by the researcher to just 8 of the more significant fungi remedies. This was done because the group analysis method is particularly focused on characteristic, well-defined features which are poorly represented in the so-called „smaller‟ remedies (Sankaran, 2002: 25). The selected sample group is listed below, in order of most significant to the least significant:

Agaricus muscarius (Fly agaric)

Bovista lycoperdon (Warted puff ball)

Secale cornutum (Ergot)

Ustilago maydis (Corn smut)

Psilocybe caerulescens (Landslide mushroom)

Monilia albicans (Candida)

Sticta pulmonaria (Lungwort)

Boletus laricis (White agaric mushroom; Larch agaric), which has 172 rubrics in Radar 9.0, was made the end point for remedies in which to include in the extraction.

Thus remedies with less that 172 rubrics where excluded from the comparative extraction process.

Data Analysis

Determination of Common Sensations, Reactions and Compensations

The extracted data was analysed in order to propose common sensations of the Kingdom Fungi. The data was scanned for commonalities in sensation (including mental symptoms, general symptoms and symptoms particular to various parts of the body), which were then highlighted by the researcher. The accuracy of the common sensations was cross-checked via a search of the homoeopathic literature. This test was done by using keyword searches of Encyclopedia Homoeopathica (Archibel, 2004), restricting the set of remedies to the fungi group only.

An analysis of the confirmed common sensations was undertaken in an attempt to find common links between them, and to identify possible reactions (active and passive) or compensations to the various extracted sensations.

Each sensation was subjected to a full definition via a dictionary, and then a thesaurus was consulted in order to identify various synonyms relating to the sensation. Each common synonym identified was then subjected to a literature search via Encyclopedia Homoeopathica in order to test is validity. This was done using a keyword search of a particular sensation or common synonym, and limiting the results to the fungi remedies. If the sensation or common synonym was supported by the literature, the researcher submitted it as a sensation, reaction (active or passive) to a sensation, or as compensation. Detailed analysis of the common sensations has been tabulated in Appendix C. The reactions selected by the researcher and confirmed by the literature were divided into 3 different classifications: active reactions, passive reactions and compensatory reactions (Sanakaran, 2002).

Reactions to a particular sensation may include actual actions, a desire to act and or the avoidance or lack of action (Wulfsohn, 2005).

Miasmatic Classification

The different fungi remedies were then individually studied and classified in terms of their miasmatic tendencies, based on Sankaran‟s extended miasmatic model (Sankaran, 2002: 53). Miasmatic keyword searches, limited to the fungi group, were done in Encyclopedia Homoeopathica. This gave the researcher an indication of the possible miasm of each remedy. This classification also involved an analysis of individual characteristics within each remedy, focusing on the particular expression of each in order to differentiate them within the group.


The final selection is listed below, in order of significance:

Agaricus muscarius (Agar.)

Bovista lycoperdon (Bov.)

Secale cornutum (Sec.)

Ustilago maydis (Ust.)

Psilocybe caerulescens (Psil.)

Monilia albicans (Moni.)

Sticta pulmonaria (Stict.)

Boletus laricis (Bol-la.)


Extraction of Rubrics

The sample selection was subjected to the computer repertory extraction process, using Radar 9.0 (Archibel, 2003) computer software package. Parameters were set to exclude rubrics that contain more than 25 remedies (i.e. sensations that are more characteristic in nature), and all rubrics were extracted where there were at least 2 of the above remedies (sample selection) represented. The results of the extraction process have been included in Appendix A. The researcher then scanned the extracted rubrics (Appendix A), selecting those that contain words representing sensation. This list, included as Appendix B, was ranked from smallest (least amount of remedies) to largest.


Analysis of Extracted Sensations

The most common sensations identified via the computer extraction process were burning, itching and stitching. Other common sensations extracted were numbness, heaviness, stupefying/stunning, spasms, rheumatic, tearing, formication, dragging/bearing down sensation, dryness and cramps/labour like pain. The following methodology was used by the researcher in order to identify relationships between the extracted sensations: each sensation

was subjected to a full definition via a dictionary, and then a thesaurus was consulted in order to identify various synonyms relating to the sensation. Each synonym was then subjected to a literature search via Encyclopedia Homoeopathica in order to test is validity. This was done using a keyword search of a particular sensation or synonym, and limiting the results to the fungi kingdom. If the sensation or synonym is supported by the literature,

the researcher then submitted the word as a sensation, reaction (active or passive) to a sensation, or as compensation. Detailed analysis of this process has been tabulated in Appendix C.

First Order Analysis

The sensations of „burning‟ and „itching‟ were found by the researcher to share various common synonyms, namely irritation, tingling and restlessness.

These words were found to apply to the fungi group via the literature search. Below is listed a selection of examples from the literature, in order to illustrate the above ideas:

Agaricus muscarius









COUGH - IRRITATION; from - Air passages; in

GENERALS - IRRITABILITY, physical - excessive

GENERALS - IRRITABILITY, physical - sexual excesses

Agaricus phalloides


Agaricus stercorarius


Boletus laricis



Boletus satanas



Bovista lycoperdon

EXTREMITIES - RESTLESSNESS - Lower limbs - perspiration; during






Monilia albicans






Mucor mucedo

CHEST - PALPITATION of heart - irritable heart

Polyporus pinicola


Psilocybe caerulescens



Secale cornutum


EXTREMITIES - RESTLESSNESS - Lower limbs - evening


GENERALS - IRRITABILITY, physical - excessive




Solanum tuberosum aegrotans


MIND - IRRITABILITY - expression, from unintelligible

Sticta pulmonaria







SLEEP - SLEEPLESSNESS - irritability, from

Torula cerevisiae


Ustilago maydis






SLEEP - SLEEPLESS from irritability, from Dryness, numbness, heaviness and dragging sensation was found by the researcher to all correspond to an idea of dullness or dull.


Paralysis was also identified via numbness. Both dullness and paralysis where confirmed via a literature search as being relevant to the fungi group. Examples from the literature are listed below:

Agaricus muscarius


MIND - SENSES - dull

BACK - PARALYSIS - sensation of - Lumbar region



Boletus luridus


Bovista lycoperdon







Monilia albicans

MIND - DULLNESS - thinking - long; unable to think

MIND - EXCITEMENT - alternating with - dullness

Psilocybe caerulescens

HEAD - PAIN - dull pain - Forehead


Secale cornutum


ABDOMEN - PARALYSIS of intestines

EYE - PARALYSIS - Optic nerve


Ustilago maydis


HEAD - PAIN - dull pain


Second Order Analysis

Passion emerged from the sensations of „burning‟ and „itching‟, but did not have a good number of matches via the literature search. The researcher found that various synonyms corresponding to passion

reflected a theme of increased sexual desire, lust and erotic fancies. The literature was searched again using keywords relating to the sexual sphere, such as sexual desire and masturbation, and also organic

pathology relating to the reproductive system, and a large number of matches were indeed found to relate to the fungi group. A few examples are listed below:

Agaricus muscarius



GENERALS - IRRITABILITY, physical - sexual excesses



MIND - AILMENTS FROM - sexual excesses MALE GENITALIA/SEX - MASTURBATION; disposition to

Bovista lycoperdon



MIND - AILMENTS FROM - sexual excesses         



Psilocybe caerulescens



Secale cornutum




MIND - AILMENTS FROM - sexual excesses

Sticta pulmonaria



Ustilago maydis



GENERALS - WEAKNESS - sexual - excesses, after

MIND - THOUGHTS - sexual

MIND - THOUGHTS - sexual - masturbation, with



The sensation of stitching was found to be defined in relation to sewing fabric - “making a stitch” (Oxford, 1998: 220). The author thus turned to a medical dictionary, finding a more suitable alternative definition:

“A sharp localized pain, commonly in the abdomen, associated with strenuous physical activity, especially shortly after eating - it is a form of a cramp” (Oxford, 1996: 627).

As no useful synonyms to stitching was found in the thesaurus, the researcher instead used „cramp‟ as a substitute, based on the word forming part of the definition of stitching and the fact that cramp was identified as a sensation via the extraction process. Synonyms relating to cramp that proved to belong to the fungi group were spasm and stitch (further confirming the link), and from spasm, the researcher isolated and confirmed convulsions and twitches. Below the researcher has included literature evidence supporting these ideas:

Agaricus muscarius

ABDOMEN - PAIN - cramping


GENERALS - PAIN - cramping - Muscles

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - PAIN - cramping - Muscles



MOUTH - SPEECH - difficult - spasms; from - tongue, from


GENERALS - CONVULSIONS - coition - after



EXTREMITIES - TWITCHING - electric shocks, as from




Agaricus pantherinus


Agaricus phalloides


GENERALS - CONVULSIONS - tetanic rigidity

Agaricus stercorarius

MIND - EXCITEMENT - convulsions - after

Boletus luridus

GENERALS - TWITCHING - subsultus tendinum

Bovista lycoperdon

GENERALS - PAIN - cramping - Muscles

ABDOMEN - PAIN - cramping



FACE - TWITCHING - asthma - before

GENERALS - TWITCHING - subsultus tendinum

Monilia albicans

ABDOMEN - PAIN - cramping - night

ABDOMEN - INFLAMMATION - Colon - spasmodic

Mucor mucedo

NOSE - CORYZA - spasmodic

Russula foetens


Secale cornutum


GENERALS - PAIN - cramping - Muscles

BLADDER - SPASM - urination - after


MIND - LAUGHING - spasmodically

MIND - FOOLISH behavior - spasms, during

ABDOMEN - COMPLAINTS of abdomen - accompanied by - convulsions

EXTREMITIES - CONVULSION - alternately extended and flexed


EXTREMITIES - TWITCHING - paralyzed parts

Sticta pulmonaria

COUGH - WHOOPING - convulsions; with

FACE - TWITCHING - Jaws - Lower - Along

Ustilago maydis


FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - PAIN - cramping - Uterus




Summary of Data Analysis

After extensive analysis of the data obtained via the extraction process, various words have been identified to represent the fungi remedies as a collective group. Table 2 below is a summery of these themes listed next to the source sensation from which they were isolated: Burning

Passion (Sex); Irritation; Restlessness


Passion (Sex); Irritation; Restlessness; Burning


Cramp; Spasm; Convulsions; Twitch


Dullness; Paralysis




Dullness; Numbness









Burning Itching Stitching Cramp Spasm Dryness Heaviness Formication

Irritation Convulsions Twitches

Numbness Paralysis Dullness

Sexual Desire Masturbation Restlessness


Agaricus muscarius

The keyword literature search indicated multi-miasmatic tendencies of Agaricus muscarius, as is often found with archetype remedies. The major indications were the ringworm, sycotic, tubercular and cancer miasms.

Research focused on the disease central to each miasm, and found that Agaricus muscarius has a large tendency towards tuberculsosis, and cited the following examples: Incipient phthisis related to the tubercular

diathesis, anaemia, chorea, twitching ceases during sleep (Boericke, 1927). An addition has been made of Th. Rückert's essay, comparing the symptoms of this remedy [Agar.] with the symptoms of incipient tuberculosis;

they are marked (Hering, 1879). Respiration - Short breath in walking, has to stand still to get breath. Incipient tuberculosis (Hering, 1879). Agaricus will cure the most inveterate chronic catarrhs with dryness and crusts,

in tubercular constitutions, so deep-seated is it (Kent, 1904). I let it alone and watched and waited patiently and the symptoms of Agaricus came up and established the relationship between these two remedies, and

confirmed Hering's observation of the relationship of Agaricus to the tubercular diathesis (Kent, 1904).

Constitutions - TUBERCULOSIN (Murphy, 1993). Diseases - TUBERCULOSIS, lungs (Murphy, 1993).

GENERALS - FAMILY HISTORY of - tuberculosis (Schroyens, 2001).

GENERALS - HISTORY; personal - tuberculosis; of (Schroyens, 2001).

Generals - TUBERCULAR miasm: wide variety of symptoms (Vermeulen, 2002).

This indicates that Agaricus muscarius falls within the tubercular miasm. The oppression and suffocation sensations, intenseness of symptoms and active nature of the tuberculinic miasm well documented.

Calm, composed, sociable, active, and glad of having done his duty (healthful reaction of the organism) (Allen, 1898).

Mental: Intense theorizing, clairvoyant and with love of drums or dancing (Morrison, 1997).

Stomach - After a meal, oppression at the stomach and choking at the oesophagus (Allen, 1898).

Stomach - Oppressive weight in the stomach (Allen, 1898).

Intense thirst for cold water, dry skin (Boericke, 1927).

Sexual organs - Intense exhaustion after coition (Boger, 1938).

Sexually easily excitable, intense and overactive. The desire is excessive in the morning (Master, Undated - A).

Respiratory organs - Labored, oppressed breathing (Boericke, 1927).

Respiratory apparatus - Anxiety; attacks of suffocation (Allen, 1898).

Voice and larynx - Oppression and constriction of larynx; he fears suffocation (Hering, 1879).

Coughing - SUFFOCATIVE, cough (Murphy, 1993).

Chest - Burning inside the chest, and a kind of oppression (Allen, 1898).

Chest - Heart - Cardiac region oppressed, as if thorax were narrowed (Boericke, 1927).

Chest - Suffocation; a feeling of tightness; chest feels too narrow (Vithoulkas, 1992)

On the skin we find many miliary eruptions, the parts looking red and swollen with intense burning as in frost-bite (Choudhuri, 1986).

Sleep and dreams - At night, fear of suffocation; sensation as if the nose were entirely stopped (Allen, 1898).

GENERALS - PAIN - oppressive (Schroyens, 2001).

Child: It is useful in children whose development is arrested, and who refuse to study. They are unable to concentrate while learning, and have an aversion to mental work. The internal restlessness gives them the title of

being 'hyper-active'. As a teenager an Agaricus has bold plans. He tends to reach his father's bar at an early age and develops a craving for alcohol later. The red letter symptom to describe Agaricus is 'Internal Restlessness' (Homoeopathic Links, 1998a).

It renders some remarkably active, and proves highly stimulant to muscular exertion; by too large a dose, violent spasmodic effects are produced (Hughes, et al. 1891).

MIND - ACTIVITY - desires activity (Schroyens, 2001).

MIND - MEMORY - active (Schroyens, 2001).

SLEEPLESSNESS - thoughts - activity of thoughts; from (Schroyens, 2001).

Bovista lycoperdon

According to the quantitative keyword literature search, affinity for the malarial, ringworm, sycotic, tubercular and cancer miasms. Much larger affinity towards the malarial and tubercular miasms.

The researcher found that there was a wide variation of keywords that relate to the tubercular miasm, such as oppression and suffocation sensations, intensiveness and changeability, as-well-as a family history of Tb. itself:

An intense remedy both mentally and emotionally……overflowing anxiety + restlessness and excitement put the patient into such a state that you feel as though she were talking over your

head (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Mind - MOODS, general - changeable, variable (Murphy, 1993).

Bovista patients are very emotional. Their emotions are strong and changeable, despair # hope, or anger with exhilaration. Life to them seems charming at certain times and they love it, whereas at other times it seems

difficult and they hate it (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Mind - MEMORY, general, active (Murphy, 1993).

Mind - MEMORY, general, active - weakness, of (Murphy, 1993).

These are spontaneous, lively, quick acting, active people (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Face - Great changes of color in the face, which is at one time red, at another pale (Allen, 1898).

STOMACH - OPPRESSION - Epigastrium (Schroyens, 2001).

Sexual organs -Intensified sexual desire (Boger, 1938).

Increased sexual desire with frequent pollutions; aggravation from excess of sexual activity (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Respiratory organs - Great scraping in the larynx as if sore, ext. chest, with much tough mucus in the chest, which threatens to suffocate her; this mucus is raised with difficulty and tastes salty

(Allen, 1928).

Suffocation from carbon vapors (Hering, 1879).

Respiratory organs - Oppressed breathing (Allen, 1898).

Another type of reaction preceding menses is a constant inclination to yawn, followed by stitching in throat and a sensation as if the tongue were cut through with a knife, accompanied by painful tensions in the mouth and convulsions of all the facial muscles. This is followed by spasmodic laughter with suffocation, constriction or distention of the throat and lastly by spasms of chest and a dark red face (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Frequent heat and oppression of the chest, with thirst, anxiety, restlessness; relieved by uncovering (Allen, 1879).

Coughing - HECTIC, cough (Murphy, 1993).

CHEST - OPPRESSION (Schroyens, 2001).

Chest - Oppression in the middle of the chest, with fine stitches, on breathing (Allen, 1898).

Chest - Constrictive oppression of the chest; everything seems to be too tight (Clark, 1904).

Oppression of the chest (Clark, 1904).

Phthisis pulmonum - Incessant cough about 5 h., from tickling and rawness in larynx; anxious respiration, > in fresh air, < moving arms; sensation of intense burning in middle of chest, stitches

in chest; abundant expectoration of tough bronchial mucus; chill with burning heat in face; chill mornings, heat afternoon (Lilienthal, 1879).

There is one particular locality, a special cite in Bovista where we find intense itching and that part is the tip of the coccygeus (Choudhuri, 1986).

EXTREMITIES - PAIN - Joints - tubercular family history (Schroyens, 2001).

Upper limbs - Tremor of the hands, with palpitation of the heart and oppressive anxiety (Clark, 1904).

Fever - oppression of chest (Hering, 1879).

Skin: Pustules, changing to obstinate crusts, under the nose, with swelling of the upper tip (Buck, 1987).

GENERALS - PAIN - oppressive (Schroyens, 2001).

GENERALS - HISTORY; personal - tuberculosis; of (Schroyens, 2001). The researcher also cited examples relating to the keywords hectic and activity:

Secale cornatum

This remedy featured under almost every miasm (except acute) when subjected to the quantitative keyword search via the literature. However, Sankaran states that Secale cornatum is a „keynote or signature‟ remedy under

the leprosy miasm (Sankaran, 2002: 55). The researcher was not able to find any major evidence in the literature to counter this statement, as themes of the leprosy miasm are prominent throughout the remedy picture.

Firstly, Secale cornatum is indicated in treatment for leprosy: Leprosy - principal remedy (Guanavante, Undated)

Mind - Loathing of life, despair (Allen, 1910).

Mind - Despair (Guanavante, Undated) Tuczek relates a long series of cases in which ergotism was attended by various symptoms pointing to affections of the nervous centres, such as epileptic fits, mania, ataxia,

stupor, dementia, extreme anxietas, vertigo, religious despair, great lethargy, impossibility to remain standing with eyes shut, loss of power of coherent speech, feeling of being surrounded by a tight girdle, occipital headache, analgesia, Romberg's symptoms, and in every case loss of knee-jerk (Hughes, et al. 1891).

Moods of joy, despair, emptiness; and various violent and demented behaviour (Vermeulen, 2002).

Mind - Paralytic mental diseases; treats his relations contemptuously and sarcastically; wandering talk and hallucinations; apathy and complete disappearance of the senses (Hering, 1879).

MIND - CONTEMPTUOUS (Schroyens, 2001).

MIND - CONTEMPTUOUS - relations, for (Schroyens, 2001).

Mental - Sarcasm and contempt (Vermeulen, 2002).

Contemptuous nature and hopeless.

Diseases - LEPROSY, skin (Murphy, 1993).

Diseases - LEPROSY, skin - spots, on - face (Murphy, 1993).

The face looks like dried beef, wrinkled, shrivelled, scrawny, as if it had not been washed, as if grey dirt had dried on the skin (extremities), a dirty, grey appearance (Kent, 1904).

Face - DISCOLORATION, face - dirty, looking (Murphy, 1993).

Face - ERUPTIONS, facial - leprous, spots (Murphy, 1993).

FACE - ERUPTIONS - leprous spots (Schroyens, 2001). The leprosy miasmatic themes of oppression, dirtiness, despair and disgust are prominent in Secale cornatum:

Head: Inner head - Feels oppressed; stupid, heavy; aches every night; would waken me at night; ameliorated by eating breakfast and exercise (Allen, 1910).

Disgust for food, meat and fats (Allen, 1879).

Pregnancy, parturition - Lochia : dark, very offensive; scanty or profuse; painless or + prolonged bearing-down pain; suppressed, followed by metritis; suddenly change character and become of a dirty brown or

chocolate color, with fetid odor, grows sad and melancholy and fears death; of too long duration (Hughes, et al. 1891).

Female - DISCHARGE, vagina, - dirty (Murphy, 1993).

Pregnancy - LOCHIA, discharge - fetid - character, suddenly changes, becomes dirty brown or chocolate colored (Murphy, 1993).

Female sexual organ - Menstrual blood; thin and black, lumpy or brown fluid and of disgusting smell (Allen, 1910).

Scrobiculum and stomach - Great distress and oppression of stomach (Allen, 1910).

Chest - Dyspnoea and oppression, with cramp in diaphragm (Boericke, 1927). It is following by exhaustion, debility, oppression, heart-burn, and a ravenous appetite, which it is dangerous to gratify (Durham, 1879).

Constant retching and oppression (Durham, 1879).

Chest - OPPRESSION (Murphy, 1993).

Skin - DISCOLORATION, skin - dirty (Murphy, 1993). Female genitalia/sex - LEUKORRHEA - dirty (Schroyens, 2001).

Dry, cool and shrunken skin and aggravation from heat or warm applications (Pierce, Undated)

GENERALS - PAIN - oppressive (Schroyens, 2001).

The patient generally has a dirty appearance with brown or brownish-white spots all over her face and body (Choudhuri, 1986).

She snaps greedily at everything, is very thirsty, is dirty, stools diarrheic, temperature normal, tongue moist (Hughes, et al. 1891).

In afternoon became limp and ill, the transpiration had a disgusting odour, he felt out of sorts (Hughes, et al. 1891).

Clinical - Dysentery, particularly valuable in the collapsed stage, stools involuntary, grumous; with these conditions it has saved many apparently hopeless cases (Allen, 1910). He passed one stool quite involuntarily in my presence, which was very offensive. The thermometer indicated 102° F. The eyelids were stiff and did not at all respond to the touch of my finger. The tongue was dry and stiff like a piece of wood. The lower jaw having dropped, the boy lay with his mouth half open. The eyes were half closed. The part of the conjunctiva which could be seen appeared to be covered with a thin, hazy, layer. The pulse at the wrist was full but soft. The case appeared to be all but hopeless. But we homoeopaths are not quite at sea, as the men of other schools are, when the brain is gravely involved. I prescribed Phos. ac. Again, but in the third decimal potency, to be exhibited every hour (Homoeopathic Recorder, The, 1910).

In carbuncles with gangrenous degeneration (82), in senile gangrene (82) and in leprosy.

Ustilago maydis

Evidence extracted via they keyword search indicated that Ustilago maydis covers the malerial, ringworm, sycotic, tubercular and cancer remedies fairly equally.

The researcher searched the literature for all fungi remedies useful in the treatment of ringworm (tinea), finding that Ustilago maydis produced a large number of matches, along with Tinea unknown species, which, according to Sankaran, is the nosode of the ringworm miasm.

Mind - great irritability, mental weakness and depression (Allen, 1910).

Mind - IRRITABILITY - emission; after (Schroyens, 2001).

Mind - Very depressed. Weeps frequently. Irritable at climaxis/ after emission; when questioned; when spoken to; Aversion to company; desires solitude to practise masturbation. (Vermeulen, 2000).

Head - TINEA, favosa (Murphy, 1993). The researcher thus places this remedy in the ringworm miasm, citing further evidence from the literature:

Throat - IRRITATION (Schroyens, 2001).

Male sexual organs - Irritable weakness and relaxation of the male sexual organs, with erotic fancies and seminal emissions (Allen, 1910).

Sexual organs, Male - Sexual dreams, followed the next day with great physical prostration; pain in the lumbar region; great despondency and irritability (Burt, 1883).

Male - Dull pain in lumbar region, with great despondency and mental irritability (Boericke, 1927).

Sexual organs, Female - Scanty menstruation, from ovarian irritation (Burt, 1883).

Female genitalia/sex - IRRITATION - Ovaries (Schroyens, 2001).

SKIN - The scalp became one filthy mass of inflammation, two thirds of the hair came out, the rest matted together, with oozing of watery semen from scalp, eruption like rubeola on neck and chest, gradually ext. to feet,

thickest on chest and joints, itching aggravated night, rubbing any part brought out the eruption, on face and neck it was in patches like ringworm (Herpes circinatus), but not vesicular (Allen, 1910).

Skin - TINEA, general - tinea, capitis, favosa (Murphy, 1993).

Generalities - Adapted to thin, scrawny, feeble, Adapted to weak, relaxed, atonic cachectic women; irritable, nervous, patients; irritable, despondent, weak pale sunken countenance. (Allen, 1910).

Examples from case material reflecting the essence of the miasm (try): I wasn't a great student. I don't think I tried very hard. Boys were always more important than school work (International Foundation for Homeopathy, 1991).

But I would like to try to get pregnant. He (gynecologist) says that it's not very likely (International Foundation for Homeopathy, 1991).

He has taken the keys to my car and has threatened to take the credit cards. I try not to react, but I feel so helpless and small (International Foundation for Homeopathy, 1991).

I don't know why I want to get pregnant. I think maybe I am trying somehow to connect us again (International Foundation for Homeopathy, 1991).

My whole belly feels like it is heavy, like a big lead weight is in there trying to dissolve, but never does. In the last six months my belly is bigger. I am always touching it and feeling for this big thing in there that never seems to leave me (International Foundation for Homeopathy, 1991).

That is what the dreams are about, wanting and trying to say goodbye and just not being able to let go (weeping). Letting my mother go would seem like freedom, but I hold on to something - her? I don't know. But I can't go on

like this; I will weep myself to death and still not have let go. Maybe it isn't her I can't let go of; maybe it's the anger and the guilt that I swallowed and pushed down inside all those years (weeping) (International Foundation for Homeopathy, 1991).

Psilocybe caerulescens

A tremendous amount of weakness running through the remedy picture of Psilocybe caerulescens, indicating the sycotic miasm:

Failed 5x an examination, from mental weakness (in a prover who never had failed an examination before) (Vermeulen, Undated).

All persons taking the LM6 experienced an extreme weakness and tiredness (Vermeulen, Undated).

Mind - MEMORY, general, active - weakness, of (Murphy, 1993).

EXTERNAL THROAT - WARTS (Schroyens, 2001).

LARYNX AND TRACHEA - VOICE - weak - talking - after (Schroyens, 2001).

BACK - WEAKNESS - Cervical region (Schroyens, 2001).

SLEEP - FALLING ASLEEP - weakness, from (Schroyens, 2001).

GENERALS - WEAKNESS (Schroyens, 2001).

Another key feature of the sycotic miasm is warts, with the researcher finding only a single reference:

The researcher feels that there is enough evidence to support the idea that Psilocybe caerulescens belongs to the sycotic remedy, especially as there are so few rubrics supporting any other miasm.

Monilia albicans

This remedy was very difficult to classify, as very few clues where obtained via the keyword literature search. The researcher believes that Monilia albicans belongs to the sycotic miasm, based on the source material and original provings. The remedy is sourced via a fungus that is naturally found in the human organism (Archibel, 2004), but if there is over-growth of the organism for various reasons, symptoms manifest, known medically as Candida or thrush. This is more common in females, usually affecting the genitor-urinary system (Robbins. et al. 2003: 684). Indicates the sycotic miasm, it has an affinity for the genitor-urinary system (de Schepper, 2001: 383). A major factor for the over-growth of the fungus is due to the over use of anti-biotics in the human organism (Robbins. et al. 2003: 684). This results in a suppression of the immune system, allowing the fungus to freely proliferate. Suppression plays a major role in the sycotic miasm. Any form of suppression, such as vaccinations, overuse of antibiotics or cortisone and even the use of oral contraceptive pills (suppressing the cycle of the female hormonal system) can “fuel the fire” of the sycotic miasm (de Schepper, 2001: 382).

Below the researcher has cited evidence of suppression in Monilia albicans. Thoughtless use of antibiotics (as well as cytostatic and immune-suppressing drugs) damages the intestinal flora and promotes, amongst other things,

the expansion of fungi (Homoeopathic Links. 1998b).

The phenomenon of suppression is very evident in Candida albicans, first of all in the form of suppressed anger (Homoeopathic Links. 1998b).

Suppression (anger) describes the central characteristic of the remedy, the more so as the parasitic growth, e.g. of Candida albicans in the bowels, is suppressive as well (Homoeopathic Links. 1998b).

These people have been inhibited, often hindered and suppressed in expressing their free will and this suppression has become the central theme of their lives (Homoeopathic Links. 1998b).

The resulting (suppressive) effects are enormous and far reaching: It has caused a shifting of existing diseases and a manifestation of new diseases (Homoeopathic Links. 1998b).

Some evidence of suppression as an aetiology:

Weakness is prominent in Monilia albicans, further evidence suggesting the sycotic miasm:

MIND - AILMENTS FROM - anger - suppressed (Schroyens, 2001).

MIND - DESTRUCTIVENESS - emotions; destructiveness from suppressed (Schroyens, 2001).

MIND - MEMORY - weakness of memory (Schroyens, 2001).

MIND - MEMORY - weakness of memory - do; for what was about to (Schroyens, 2001).

MIND - MEMORY - weakness of memory - proper names (Schroyens, 2001).

MIND - WILL - weakness of (Schroyens, 2001).

Skin - URTICARIA, hives - antibiotics, after (Murphy, 1993).

GENERALS - WEAKNESS (Schroyens, 2001).

GENERALS - WEAKNESS - nervous (Schroyens, 2001).

Sticta pulmonaria

Sticta pulmonaria belongs to the tubercular miasm, with very little evidence supporting any other miasm. Firstly, this remedy is indicated for tuberculosis as a disease, strongly indicating the tuberculinic miasm:

Lungwort has been suggested in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis and other chronic bronchial conditions… (British Homoeopathic Journal, 1912).

Diseases - TUBERCULOSIS, lungs (Murphy, 1993).

CHEST - OPPRESSION (Schroyens, 2001).

CHEST - OPPRESSION - Heart (Schroyens, 2001).

Lungs - TUBERCULOSIS, infection (Murphy, 1993).

BACK - TUBERCULOSIS - Vertebrae; of (Schroyens, 2001).

Finally, there is an intense and hectic nature documented in the literature:

Mind - Inability to concentrate the mind upon any one subject; a general confusion of ideas, increasing in intensity all day (after one hour, third day) (Allen, 1910).

Eye - Burning in the eyelids, with soreness of the ball, on closing the lids or turning the eye, increasing in intensity during the entire day (after one hour, third day) (Allen, 1910).

It was found to cause severe coryza, with violent sneezing, intense headache, and conjunctivitis (Clark, 1904).

Case IV. Mr. F., aged 50 years, came to me, saying he had rheumatism all over him……the pain in the neck and head were intense......I gave Sticta Ist, five drops to a tumbler of water, table-spoonful to be taken every hour. Aug. 23. Mr. F. reports himself greatly improved; pains not so severe (Hale, 1886).

There too is much suffocation and oppression running through the remedy picture:

Mrs. P. thirty-six years of age in robust health, took cold and from it a catarrh……She cannot lie down because she has a sensation of suffocation as soon as she is in a recumbent position; unsuccessful desire to sneeze from a titillation in the upper nares; if she falls into a dose while sitting up at night, she awakes with a sensation of suffocation (Hahnemannian Monthly, 1865 - 1866).

Dull oppressive pain in cardiac region (Allen, 1910).

Oppression of lungs (Allen, 1910). Respiratory organs - Whooping cough in early stages. Croupy coughs, during catarrh or influenza. Bronchial catarrh with oppression of the chest; hard racking coughs excited by inspiration (British Homoeopathic Journal, 1912). Cough - After taking a severe cold, hard, racking cough, agg at every inspiration; considerable oppression of chest (Hering, 1879). Inner chest and lungs - Oppression of chest and feeling of a hard mass there; hard, racking cough, excited by inspiration (Hering, 1879).

Clarke writes that Price noticed "one symptom so frequently present in the cases he cured with Sticta that he began to regard it as a characteristic although it was not in the provings: A spot of inflammation and redness on the affected joint like the hectic flush on the cheeks in phthisis." Commenting on the connection between tuberculosis and rheumatism, Clarke says: "Phthisis and rheumatism not infrequently occur in different members of a phthisical family; and rheumatism [as the word implies] is related to catarrh. Sticta meets all these conditions; and it has, like Bacillinum, 'a deep-in headache" (Vermeulen, 2002).

Boletus laricis

Boletus laricis belongs to the tubercular miasm.

Night sweats in Tuberculosis (Master, Undated - B).

Tubercular and other enervating night-sweats 1-4 to 1-2 grains doses, also in chorea in dilatation of heart with pulmonary emphysema, fatty degeneration, profuse perspiration and erythema (Murphy, Undated).

Forehead - Continuous oppressive headache in forehead and temples, all day (sixth day) (Allen, 1898).

Upper face - Weak and languid; poor appetite; every day for the last week, at 12 h. burning pain in upper teeth, l. and in l. temple; pain intense, lasts until midnight, when it gradually passes off; feels it slightly through forenoon. Chest - Sharp darting pains in the left lung, with slight suffocating feeling, causing me to rise up in bed, lasting four hours (fourth day) (Allen, 1983).

Nausea and vomiting - Nausea and slight vomiting of a sour watery fluid, intensely bitter (after four hours, fourth day) (Allen, 1898).

Perspiration - Sweat is light and without relief. Night-sweat in tuberculosis (Murphy, Undated).

Fever - Hectic chills and fever in phthisis, with copious night sweats (Burt, 1883).

FEVER - HECTIC fever (Schroyens, 2001).

Sweat - Profuse, at night, & hectic chills and fever (Vermeulen, Undated).

Intermittent neuralgia (Hering, 1879).



Common sensations have been extracted and analysed by the researcher as an attempt to further understand the Kingdom Fungi in terms of known symptomatology.

In this chapter, the researcher aims to discuss broader concepts and themes that may be synonymous with the group as a whole and to propose more specific pathological tendencies produced by fungi remedies

Sphere of Action

It is noted that certain remedies have an affinity towards specific physiological systems, and the following sphere of action was noted in the case of the Kingdom Fungi:

a) Central Nervous System

b) Peripheral Nervous System

c) Circulation - haemorrhage tendencies

d) Female Sexual Organs - especially uterine and menstrual complaints

e) Male Sexual Organs - sexual desire and masturbation

Pathological Tendencies Relating to Kingdom Fungi

As a direct result of the proposed sensations that represent the fungi group of remedies, certain pathological tendencies have been found by the researcher. Please note that the evidence produced below is sourced from “Concordant Materia Medica” as compiled by Frans Vermeulen (2000), unless stated otherwise.

a) Involuntary movements (twitching and jerking)

There is a clear indication that the fungi remedies produce involuntary movements of the organism, such as twitching and jerking, spasms, and convulsions. Jerking and twitching can be described as a sudden contraction of a muscle in response to a nerve impulse (Oxford, 1998: 349), or a sustained involuntary muscular contraction which may be part of a generalized disorder or a local response to an unrelated condition (Oxford, 1998: 611).

These motions can also be defined as chorea, defined as jerky, involuntary movements (Oxford, 1998: 124).

Agaricus muscarius:

Jerking, twitching, trembling and itching are strong indications.

Chorea and twitching ceases during sleep.


Nervousness and restlessness.


Involuntary movements while awake; cease during sleep: chorea, from simple motions and jerks of single muscles to dancing of whole body; trembling of whole body.

It is esp. useful in muscular twitching of a choreic nature and chorea has not fully developed.

Bovista lycoperdon:

Spasms before menses or after strong emotions (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Twitching in both external ears (Vithoulkas, 1992).


Hiccough [spasm of the diaphragm] before and after dinner.

Secale cornutum:

Twitching; spasms.

Chorea; expression of face varied every moment from a constant play of the muscles.

Cramps in calves and spasmodic twitching of limbs.

Convulsive jerks and shocks in paralyzed limbs. Spasmodic jerks of hand

Tetanic spasms & full consciousness.

Formication, pain and spasmodic movements [Limbs].

Ustilago maydis:

Twitching of eyes, they seem to revolve in circles and dart from object to object.

Clonic and tetanic movements [Limbs].

Restless [sleep]; tossing about.

Nerves - CONVULSIONS, general (Murphy, 1993).

Sticta pulmonaria:

Chorea; after loss of blood.

Restless hands and feet.

Chorea-like spasms [Lower limbs].

GENERALS - CHOREA (Schroyens, 2001).

b) Paraesthesia and Neuralgia

Paraesthesiae, defined as “spontaneously occurring abnormal tingling sensations”, is also referred to as “pins and needles”. It is usually due to partial damage to peripheral nerves, such as external pressure, and may be due to damage of sensory fibers in the spinal cord (Oxford, 1998: 484). Neuralgia is usually described as a burning or stabbing [shooting] pain that follows the course of a nerve (Oxford 1998: 442). A form of peripheral neuropathy, a syndrome of sensory loss [numbness], atrophy and vasomotor symptoms (Berkow, R. et al. 1999: 1491). These conditions reflect the affinity of the fungi remedies too the peripheral nervous system.

Agaricus muscarius:

“As if pierced by needles of ice”; 2 or hot needles.

Various forms of neuralgia and spasmodic affections, and neurotic skin troubles are pictured in the symptomatology of this remedy.

Pains + sensation of cold, numbness and tingling.

Neuralgia + icy cold head.

Neuralgia, “As if cold needles ran through nerves or sharp ice touched them”.

Neuralgia in locomotor ataxia.

GENERALS - PAIN - neuralgic (Schroyens, 2001).

Trigeminal neuralgia of the right side of the face where the pain feels like cold needles piercing the nerves (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Bovista lycoperdon:

Stage of numbness and tingling in multiple neuritis.

Numbness and tingling in multiple neuritis (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Shooting pains between scapulae, along borders, has to "straighten up" to be relieved.

Lower limbs - Numbness and tingling in the legs with inability to stand upright, especially in the afternoon (Vithoulkas, 1992).

GENERALS - TINGLING (Schroyens, 2001).

Secale cornutum

Chronic, sharp, stinging neuralgic pains, which burn like fire.

Neuralgia caused by pressure on nerves by a distended vein.

Insufferable tingling, crawling.


Paralysis… tingling, numbness and prickling. Restlessness.

Numbness of fingertips.

Ustilago maydis

Severe neuralgic, in one or both testicles.

Arms - TINGLING, prickling, asleep feeling (Murphy, 1993).

EXTREMITIES - TINGLING - Upper limbs (Schroyens, 2001).

Intermittent, numb tingling sensation in right arm and hand every day. (Clarke, 1904).

Psilocybe caerulescens

EXTREMITIES - NUMBNESS - Upper limbs (Schroyens, 2001).

EXTREMITIES - NUMBNESS - Lower limbs (Schroyens, 2001).



Monilia albicans

CHEST - TINGLING - swallowing amel. (Schroyens, 2001).

EXTREMITIES - TINGLING - Fingers (Schroyens, 2001).

EXTREMITIES - TINGLING - Foot (Schroyens, 2001).

EXTREMITIES - NUMBNESS - Hand (Schroyens, 2001).

EXTREMITIES - NUMBNESS - Fingers - extending to - upwards (Schroyens, 2001).

Sticta pulmonaria

HEAD - NUMBNESS; sensation of (Schroyens, 2001).

EXTREMITIES - NUMBNESS - Foot - Heel (Schroyens, 2001).

GENERALS - PAIN - neuralgic (Schroyens, 2001).

Increased sexual desire and masturbation

A strong influence of the fungi remedies on the sexual desires was found of both male and female, often leading to sexual pathology, nymphomania and an uncontrollable desire to masturbate. This was found to

even result in the desire to watch pornographic material and to be alone to practice masturbation. However, no evidence of violence was found by the researcher to relate to this desire.

Agaricus muscarius

Great sexual desire (Vermeulen, 2002).

Increased sexual desire in morning [Male].

Sexual excitement; Desire for coition [Female].

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - MASTURBATION, disposition to - itching, from - Clitoris (Schroyens, 2001).

MALE GENITALIA/SEX - MASTURBATION; disposition to (Schroyens, 2001).

Quite a lot of masturbation, with a heavy reliance on pornographic magazines or films to stimulate sexual excitement, may be seen in both sexes. This desire is very strong in Agaricus and is in keeping with the

general character of the remedy -- the search for easy pleasure without much responsibility. These patients, despite the fact that they may feel rotten after coition on a physical or mental level, are not much bothered

by masturbation. The women are many times driven to masturbation by a voluptuous itching of the clitoris (Vithoulkas, 1992)

Bovista lycoperdon

Excessive sexual desire [Male].

MALE GENITALIA/SEX - SEXUAL DESIRE - excessive (Schroyens, 2001).

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - SEXUAL DESIRE - increased (Schroyens, 2001).

Secale cornutum

MALE GENITALIA/SEX - MASTURBATION; disposition to (Schroyens, 2001).

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - MASTURBATION, disposition to (Schroyens, 2001).

MIND - NYMPHOMANIA (Schroyens, 2001).

Ustilago maydis

Desires solitude to practise masturbation.

Uncontrollable masturbation; says he can't break off habit, has no control of himself when passion is aroused [Male].

Spermatorrhoea, & erotic fancies and amorous dreams.Emissions, & irresistible tendency to masturbation [Male].

Talking about women causes an emission [Male].

Psilocybe caerulescens

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - SEXUAL DESIRE - increased (Schroyens, 2001).

MALE GENITALIA/SEX - SEXUAL DESIRE - increased (Schroyens, 2001).

Mind - SEXUAL, behavior, - nymphomania, women (Murphy, 1993).

Sticta pulmonaria

MALE GENITALIA/SEX - MASTURBATION; disposition to (Schroyens, 2001).

MALE GENITALIA/SEX - SEXUAL DESIRE - increased (Schroyens, 2001).

Mind drawn to sexual subjects (Clarke, 1904).

Female sexual organs

Pathology relating to the female sexual organs is very marked in the fungi remedies, particularly focusing on the uterus and menstrual cycle. There is much haemorrhage and leucorrhoea. The established sensations of itching

and burning are apparent here too, especially on the external female sexual organs.

Agaricus muscarius

Severe bearing-down [pain], almost intolerable, esp. after menopause; post-climacteric prolapsus.

Spasmodic dysmenorrhoea.

Menses increased, earlier.

Nipples burn, itch; look red; during pregnancy.

Complaints following parturition and coition.

Leucorrhoea, & much itching.

Leucorrhoea, dark, bloody, excoriating, patient is unable to walk.

Itching, & sexual desire.

Menses & titillation in genital organs.

Female - BLEEDING, uterus, metrorrhagia (Murphy, 1993).

Bovista lycoperdon

Before, during and after menses: pain as if bruised and weary in loins.

Painful urging toward genitals (before menses) & weight in lumbar region. Burning in genitals.

Menses too early and profuse.

Leucorrhoea acrid, thick, tough, greenish (leaving green spots on linen), follows menses.

Traces of menses between periods.

Menses every two weeks, much dark and clotted blood.

Diarrhoea agg. before and during menses.

Disordered menstruation. Metrorrhagia. Affections of the ovaries (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Female - SEXUAL, behavior - voluptuous sensation, tingling, coitus-like (Murphy, 1993

Secale cornutum

Nymphomania during menses; during metrorrhagia.

Brownish, offensive leucorrhoea.

Menses irregular, copious, dark; continuous oozing of watery blood until next period.

During labour no expulsive action, though everything is relaxed. Afterpains; too long and too painful.

Dark, offensive lochia.

Gangrene of female organs.

Menstrual blood of disgusting smell. Uterine haemorrhage.

Uterine haemorrhage & tingling or formication all over body.

Uterine ulcer, feels as if burnt, discharges putrid, bloody fluid.

Labour ceases and twitchings or convulsions begin.

Ulcers on external genitals, discoloured and rapidly spreading.

Puerperal mania; exposes body, tears at genitals, inserts her finger into vagina and scratches until it bleeds.

Ustilago maydis

Affects the female sexual organs.

Flabby condition of uterus.

Congestion to various parts, esp. at climaxis.

Irritability at climaxis.

[Vertigo] at climaxis, and profuse menses.

Nervous [head pain], from menstrual irregularities.

Congestive dysmenorrhoea & severe pain in ovaries, uterus and back; scanty, pale flow with false membranes; & thickly coated tongue and poor appetite.

Cervix (cervix spongy) bleeds easily. [Uterus] Oozing of dark blood, clotted, forming long black strings.

Foul, yellow or brown leucorrhoea.

Agalactia; chronic inflammation and induration of mammae.

[Generally] worse: Climaxis.

Monilia albicans

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - CANCER of - Uterus - precancerous stage (Schroyens, 2001).

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - CONGESTION - Ovaries (Schroyens, 2001).

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - ITCHING - leukorrhea; from (Schroyens, 2001).

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - PAIN - cramping - Uterus - menses - during (Schroyens, 2001).

Sticta pulmonaria

Scanty flow of milk; absence of milk after delivery.


Haemorrhagic tendencies

The action of fungi remedies on the circulatory system manifests in both haemorrhagic diathesis and congestive symptoms. Complications of circulatory disturbances are also noted by the researcher, such as gangrenous conditions.

Agaricus muscarius

Epistaxis when blowing nose, early in morning; followed by violent bleeding.

Swelling and bleeding gums, & pain.

RECTUM - HEMORRHAGE from anus (Schroyens, 2001).

Itching eruption of easily bleeding whitish nodules.

GENERALS - HEMORRHAGE (Schroyens, 2001).

GENERALS - HEMORRHAGE - blood - dark (Schroyens, 2001).

GENERALS - HEMORRHAGE - blood - thick (Schroyens, 2001).

Blood - BLEEDING, general (Murphy, 1993)

Bovista lycoperdon

Has a marked effect …circulation, predisposing to haemorrhages (due to relaxation of capillary system).

Oozing haemorrhages, agg[revated at] night.

Bleeding of nose (early in morning, during sleep; vertigo) and gums.

Haemorrhage; after extraction of teeth.

[Consider] in cases where the circulation is influenced, with relaxation of the capillary system, thereby producing a hemorrhagic diathesis (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Secale cornutum

Haemorrhages; continued oozing; thin, fetid, watery black blood.

Passive haemorrhages in feeble, cachectic women.

Threadlike pulse in haemorrhages.

Purpura haemorrhagica.

Small wounds bleed much. Slight wounds continue to bleed.

Bleeding from gums. Bleeding from bowels.

Olive-green, thin, putrid, bloody stool.

GENERALS - HEMORRHAGE (Schroyens, 2001).

Ustilago maydis


Congestive, passive or slow bleeding or clots; blood dark, but watery.

Haematemesis of a passive nature, profuse, blood venous, & nausea, which amel. after haemorrhage.

GENERALS - HEMORRHAGE (Schroyens, 2001).

Psilocybe caerulescens

MOUTH - APHTHAE - bleeding - easily (Schroyens, 2001).

MOUTH - BLEEDING - Gums (Schroyens, 2001).

Monilia albicans

MOUTH - BLEEDING - Gums (Schroyens, 2001).


FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - CONGESTION - Ovaries (Schroyens, 2001).

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - CONGESTION - Uterus (Schroyens, 2001).

SKIN - ITCHING - bleeding - scratching; after (Schroyens, 2001).

SKIN - ITCHING - bleeding - scratching; after (Schroyens, 2001).

Sticta pulmonaria

Haemorrhages [Causation].

GENERALS - HEMORRHAGE (Schroyens, 2001).

Hysterical chorea coming on after profuse haemorrhage has been cured by Stic[ta pulmonaria]. (Clarke, 1904).

Chilly sensations and reaction to cold

Although no evidence of an aggravation due to cold was uncovered by the researcher via the proposed methodology, it was noted that evidence relating to this tendency was found throughout the literature of the fungi

remedies. There is a general aversion to cold, and tendency to become cold easily and an aggravation of symptoms by cold. This includes cold air, weather, food or drink, and even sensations of coldness in various parts.

The researcher has found this to be an integral manifestation of the fungi remedies.

Agaricus muscarius

Pains + sensation of cold, numbness and tingling.

Sensation of a cold drop or cold weight on parts.

Painful twitching, then parts become stiff and cold.

Burning, itching and redness of various parts, as if frostbitten (nose, ears, fingers and toes).

Icy coldness, like icy needles, or splinters.

Patients are exceedingly sensitive to cold air and damp.


Many symptoms appear when walking in the open air; this is a very general and characteristic aggravation.

Great chilliness in open air, strikes through whole body.

The feeling that the painful part is affected by frost; the pain felt is similar to that of frostbite: this is actually a more general characteristic of Agaricus (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Bovista lycoperdon

Very sensitive to [cold] drafts.

[Chill] during pain. [Chill] After going to bed at night. [Chill] Predominating; becomes chilly even with the pains.

Shivering in evening, spreading from back; and drawing pain in bowels.

[Worse] Cold food.

Chilliness predominates with sensitivity to drafts (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Secale cornutum

Coldness, but doesn't want to be covered up.

Coldness and intolerance of heat.

Sensation of coldness in stomach.

Cold feeling in abdomen and back.

[Abdomen] Coldness and cramps. Coldness and intolerance of being covered & great exhaustion.

Fingertips sensitive to cold.

Coldness; cold, dry skin; cold, clammy sweat.


Psilocybe caerulescens

HEAD - PAIN - cold - becoming; from (Schroyens, 2001).

GENERALS - BATHING - cold bathing - agg. (Schroyens, 2001).

GENERALS - COLD - agg. (Schroyens, 2001).

GENERALS - FOOD and DRINKS - cold drink, cold water - agg. (Schroyens, 2001).

Monilia albicans

GENERALS - COLD - becoming cold - after, agg. (Schroyens, 2001).

GENERALS - COLD - take cold; tendency to (Schroyens, 2001).

HEAD - COLD - air - sensitive to (Schroyens, 2001).

Boletus laricis

Yawns and stretches when chilly.

Severe aching in shoulders and joints and lumbar region [when chilly].

Profuse [sweat], at night, & hectic chills and fever.

Ailments from suppression

Aetiology shared by fungi remedies for various symptom manifestations was observed by the researcher to relate to suppression of other sensation or symptoms, as-well-as from sexual excesses or abuse (see below). The causation of various conditions is an important aspect of homoeopathic case taking and prescribing, resulting in the researcher to search for common aetiologies shared by this group.

Agaricus muscarius

MIND - AILMENTS FROM - anger - suppressed (Schroyens, 2001).

CHEST - MILK - suppressed - metastasis from suppressed milk (Schroyens, 2001).

Convulsions … from suppressed eruptions, and from suppressed milk in nursing women (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Convulsions from suppressed milk.

Epilepsy from suppressed eruptions.

GENERALS - CONVULSIONS - suppressions, from (Schroyens, 2001).

Secale cornutum

indicated in suppressions.

Lachrymation suppressed. Urine suppressed.

Suppression of milk; breasts don't fill properly.

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - MENSES - suppressed (Schroyens, 2001).

GENERALS - SUPPRESSED COMPLAINTS; ailments from (Schroyens, 2001

Ustilago maydis

CHEST - HEMORRHAGE of lungs - menses - suppression of; after (Schroyens, 2001).

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - MENSES - suppressed (Schroyens, 2001).

GENERALS - SUPPRESSED COMPLAINTS; ailments from (Schroyens, 2001).

Monilia albicans

MIND - AILMENTS FROM - anger - suppressed (Schroyens, 2001).

MIND - DESTRUCTIVENESS - emotions; destructiveness from suppressed (Schroyens, 2001).

Sticta pulmonaria

CHEST - MILK - suppressed (Schroyens, 2001).

Ailments from excessive coitus/sexual abuse

The researcher found that consequences of sexual excess and/or sexual abuse to be an important aetiology for various seemingly unrelated conditions manifesting in fungi pathology. This was not a surprise as this project has already established the increased sex drive of the fungi remedies leading to excessive coitus or masturbation. Generally, the overuse or abuse of any vice leads to symptoms manifesting to various degrees.

Agaricus muscarius

Convulsions after coition.

Young nervous hysterical married women who faint after coition.

Hysteria, after sexual excesses.

After coition, great debility, profuse sweat, burning and itching of skin; tension and pressure under ribs. [Male]

Coition, subjective symptoms arising after.

[Causation] Sexual excesses.

GENERALS - CHOREA - masturbation, from (Schroyens, 2001).

GENERALS - MASTURBATION; ailments from (Schroyens, 2001).

General < from coition.

Depletion of energy as a consequence of sexual excessess, masturbation, coitus, etc. (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Convulsions after coition and excitement (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Bovista lycoperdon

Mental symptoms from sexual excesses. Complaints from sexual excess.

MIND - AILMENTS FROM - sexual excesses (Schroyens, 2001).

Confusion and numbness in head, after coition, & staggering.

Vertigo and confusion of head after coition.

Numbness in the head after coition (Vithoulkas, 1992).

Secale cornutum

MIND - AILMENTS FROM - sexual excesses (Schroyens, 2001).

MIND - FORGETFUL - sexual excesses, after (Schroyens, 2001).


GENERALS - SEXUAL EXCESSES; ailments after (Schroyens, 2001).

Ustilago maydis

MIND - AILMENTS FROM - abused; after being - sexually (Schroyens, 2001).

Prostration from sexual abuse.

Irritability; after emission.

Great weakness of sexual system

GENERALS - WEAKNESS - sexual - excesses, after (Schroyens, 2001).


5.3) Mental/Emotional Manifestations of Fungi Remedies

The researcher has so-far discussed sensations and pathological conditions of the fungi remedies that pertain mostly to the physical plane of manifestation, with very few references to the deeper mental and emotional states of the kingdom as a whole. The researcher has just touched on these themes as they are outside the aims of the study as defined in Chapter 3, but they do however colour the picture of the proposed sensations of the fungi group. Below in an outline of common manifestations of mental symptoms found in the fungi remedies:

a)     Anxiety

Confusion of mind



There is a sense of anxiety that is common to the fungi group. The anxiety is usually manifested as a mental symptom, but is also felt as a deeper physical sensation that is felt in various parts of the body, but which stems from a more deep-seated anxious mentality. The following remedies are listed under the rubric „MIND - ANXIETY‟: Agaricus muscarius; Agaricus emeticus; Agaricus phalloides; Bovista lycoperdon; Ergotinum; Monilia albicans; Psilocybe caerulescens; Secale cornutum; Solanum tuberosum aegrotans.

b) Confusion of mind

There is much confusion in the mentality of the fungi remedies. The confusion is especially apparent around their own identity, The following remedies are listed under the rubric „MIND - CONFUSION of mind‟: Agaricus muscarius; Agaricus phalloides; Bovista lycoperdon; Monilia albicans; Psilocybe caerulescens; Secale cornutum; Sticta pulmonaria; Ustilago maydis

c) Delusions

This is an area of great affinity for the fungi remedies. Delusions seem to be such a large manifestation in fungi remedies that it almost seems as if a remedy from this kingdom should not be considered without some sense

of delusions within the symptom picture presented by the patient.

The following fungi remedies listed under the rubric „MIND - DELUSIONS‟: Agar. Bov. Monil. Psil. Russula foetens; Sec. Sol-t-ae. Stict. Ust. The scope of delusions as presented in various fungi remedies is far-reaching.

Some of the more common delusions include the following:

enlarged (distances; body; body parts)



under superhuman control

low weight/incorporeal

visions (fantastic; beautiful; on closing eyes)

d) Irritability

This runs through the whole range of a fungi remedy, as it was part of the sensation extraction section of this study. It is an example of how a theme can run through the organism from a physical level to the sensation level.

The following remedies are listed under the rubric „MIND - IRRITABILITY‟: Agar. Bol-la. Bol-sa. Bov.Monil. Tor. Ust.


5.4) Fungi as a Kingdom

The fungi have been recently classed biologically as a kingdom in their own right, separating them from both the plant and animal groups. They are essentially placed between the plant and animal kingdoms, sharing

commonalities with both (Mader, 1998:539). Taking this into consideration, the researcher expected to identify homoeopathic characteristics of both the plant and animal kingdoms within the group symptomatology of the fungi remedies. Evidence of an „animal nature‟ is reflected in the strong sexual desire of the fungi remedies, leading to sexual excesses or even masturbation. However, there is little evidence of the fungi sharing the more central

animal characteristics of „competition‟ and a „need to attract attention‟, making them „attractive in their behaviour and appearance‟ (Sankaran, 1997: 233). The researcher believes that, generally, the characteristics of the

fungi remedies suggest that the fungi manifests homoeopathically closer to the plant kingdom than the animal kingdom. They seem to be more „disorganised‟, manifesting in mental confusion and various delusions, and have

a more „sensitive‟, „emotional‟ personalities (Sankaran, 1997: 233). However, the themes of „confusion to identity‟ are very curious indeed, as that is how the fungi are viewed biologically. With the scientific problem of classifying the fungi into a an appropriate group, biologists have created a sense of „confusion‟ about the definition of a fungi and which organisms can be placed within that definition, as they are not an animal and not a plant.


6.2) Limitations of the Methodology

Smaller, less adequately proved and homoeopathically less well defined remedies generally provide few, relatively unconnected physical symptoms. There is often a lack of detailed mental and emotional symptoms, making it difficult to outline and understand a central theme/essence of the substance.

The fungi remedies are a relatively small group in terms of rubric representation. They too have a very limited use in homoeopathic prescribing, especially outside the 3 archetype fungi remedies, namely Agaricus muscarius, Bovista lycoperdon and Secale cornutum. Of the 32 fungi remedies used in homoeopathy, 22 have less than 72 rubrics, 9 remedies represented by less than 10 rubrics (Archibel, 2003). Although the sample selection used for the purposes of this study revealed enough data for an accurate extraction of common sensation, the researcher was unable to confirm some ideas proposed in this study by applying them to the lesser known remedies. There too is a lack of in-depth, ‘cured’ cases of the lesser known fungi remedies. Case studies provide detailed insight into the essence of a remedy, allowing a deeper understanding of the symptomatology as manifested by the substance, and also confirming and expanding on symptoms produced through provings. Again, this creates a problem as the themes proposed in this study can’t be fully tested and confirmed in the smaller fungi remedies. Both these problems have a solution in the form of supergroups. A supergroup is essentially a larger group consisting of multiple related families that are individually too small to expose to the sensation extraction process. By joining these ‘small’ groups together, larger, well known remedies become part of the extraction process, allowing common sensations to be extracted and confirmed with greater accuracy. For the purposes of this study, the researcher basically formed a supergroup by using fungi remedies from multiple sub-divisions, namely Ascomycota, Lichen and Basidiomycota. However, the main reasoning for this was so that an understanding of the entire kingdom may be obtained, and not the individual sub-













(Oxford, 1998)

“On fire, very hot; intense; hotly discussed”

“tickling sensation in skin, causing a desire to scratch”

“a sharp localized pain…it is a form of a cramp”

“strong involuntary contraction of muscle”

“deprived of the power to feel”

“having a great weight; a great amount of force; full of sadness or worry”

“without water or moister; thirsty; boring or dull”

“to pull something heavy along; continue slowly and dully”


(Collins, 2005)































































































































Going slowly







Vorwort/Suchen.                               Zeichen/Abkürzungen.                                   Impressum.