Peucedanum galbanum = Blister Bush/= Bergseldery/= Wildeseldery/= Wild celery epilepsy.
Surface covered with a mix of chemicals (psoralen/xanthotoxin/bergapten) causing a phototoxic reaction resulting in blistering 2 - 3 days after exposure. The moment of exposure is innocuous, without
any untoward sensations to the unwary. Exposure of the affected skin to ultra violet light, such as contained in sunlight, triggers the effects of the plant's toxins, leading to severe itching and blistering.
The welts and resulting blisters can be as small as the size of a coin to covering as much exposed skin as came into contact with the plant. Where more than 5% of the body is afflicted, the scarring can be
a serious matter. Washing the affected area immediately after exposure may help but preventing any further exposure to ultra violet light such as the sun or many artificial light sources will reduce +/o. eliminate blistering.
Preventing the blister from forming is the best way to deal with the affliction. Apart from covering the area and preventing any exposure to sunlight, it is useful to directly apply suntan lotion as well, employing as high as possible a screen factor such as factor 50 or 100. Reapply the lotion as soon as the itching starts again. While the red itchy welt is best treated before the blister appears, all is not lost if you are late. Direct application of the spray-on types of sunscreen, particularly those high in alcohol, tends to both dry the welt and reduce the irritation with immediate effect. If sun tan lotion is applied soon enough, the process can be interrupted in its entirety.
If untreated the welt should stop itching and weeping after the first 5 - 7 days. Once this has happened, it should be left exposed to allow the affected area to breathe. Blisters sometimes subside into a tender scab or scar that can take many months to disappear altogether. Mind, skin, extremities and gastrointestinal system.
Comparison of Nat-m. + Sep. + Sulph. + Peucedanum galbanum
Allerlei: known by hikers and botanists for its photodermatitis. The shrub contains furanocoumarins (bergapten, psoralen, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin and imperatorin).
These furanocoumarins are known to be photosensitisers when activated by ultraviolet light. Interact readily with DNA, forming light-induced mono- or diaducts. They are thus phototoxic, mutagenic and photocarcinogenic (Campbell, Mathee and Wewers, 1993:27-28).
Within 24 - 48 hours after contact with the plant and subsequent exposure to sunlight a reaction involving blistering, red-purple pigmentation and intense irritation of the skin will manifest (Campbell, Mathee and Wewers, 1993:27-28).
- Leaf decoction used as a diuretic for treatment of oedema, bladder ailments, kidney stones and gravel.
- Leaf infusion taken orally, used as a steambath, or as a douche as a remedy for miscarriage or to aid expulsion of retained placenta.
- Leaf infusions have also been used to treat glandular swellings, as well as rheumatism, gout and the common cold.
- Preparations combined with Pelargonium grossularioides and Mentha longifolia to suppress menses.
- Preparations combined with Diosma vulgaris are used as a diuretic.
- The plant has also been used as a diaphoretic.
- Obesity in men as well as hypertension have been treated using this plant (Campbell, Mathee and Wewers, 1993:28).
The compounds of the plant are carcinogenic but have been used medicinally in a treatment called phytochemotherapy to treat skin diseases such as psoriasis (Van Wyk, Oudtshoorn and Gericke, 1997:190).
Preparations containing bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen), one of the active components of Peucadanum galbanum, are commercially available at present for the treatment of psoriasis (Martindale, 1993:43).
Due to the potentially carcinogenic nature of the compounds of this plant, its use is contra-indicated during pregnancy (Campbell, 1993: 586-587).
Mind: Absentminded (conversing/dreamy/when spoken to/when at work)
Activity with physical weakness
Anger - morning on waking/# sadness/easily
Anxiety (about own children/of conscience/about future/about money matters)
Change for desire
Company - aversed to/desires solitude/cannot bear anybody
Concentration difficult, cannot fix attention
Confusion – driving/talking/with vertigo
Contemptuous - of everything/of humankind
Content - feeling content with the world
Cursing in rage
Delusions - were confused by a cloud head/is criticized/illusions of hearing/is misunderstood/all she said is a lie/things happen in slow motion/expecting joyful news/hearing
Noise/friends appear as strangers/thieves in house/visions are real/hears own voice as if talking next to him/someone walks behind him/is doing something wrong/is young again
Detached (“As if detached”)
Fear - of poverty/of robbers/on waking
Fire, thinks and talks about it
Impatient - with others/about trifles
Industrious, mania for work
Irresolute – in acting/in choosing things
Irritable (towards children/to own family/during heat/with self/towards husband/on waking)
< before menses
Mental exertion aversed to
Mistakes in speaking, using wrong words using
Mood changeable, sudden
Obstinate, headstrong in the execution of plans/Taciturn
Positiveness. 1. S. 202.
Prostration (with sleepiness)
Rage followed by repentance
Reproaching the doctor
Responsibility aversed to
Restless (busy/on waking)
Sadness (with heaviness of body/with weeping)
Sensitive - to music/to (loud) noise/to opinion of others
Tranquility, serenity, calm (# sadness)
Unreal, everything seems
Weeping (causeless/about everything/involuntary/from music/at sad thoughts/in sleep/at trifles)
With tendency to fall
With sensation of heat in head
“As if intoxicated”
Head: Congestion in forehead
Pain – constriction
Constriction “As from band or hoop”/”As if cotton wool”
Hair – desires to cut hair/greasy
Heat – flushes/painful
Heaviness - on holding head erect/desires to lean on something
Itching of scalp
Noises during headache
Pain – periodic/morning on waking/noon/afternoon/evening/at night on waking/daytime/+ pain in neck/+ eye complaints/+ vomiting/> cold water/> washing in cold water/during heat/> lying on (r.) side/< motion/> resting head quietly on a cushion/awaked from sleep by headache/in forehead (r./l./at night/intermittent)/temples (from noise)/in occiput [>/< pressure/pulsating/ext. eyes (l.)/ext. r. temple]/scalp/vertex (ext. eyes)/sides (small spot/> lying/ext. forward)/pulsating/blinding/burning/bursting/cutting/dull/pressing (“As from a band”/”As from a weight”/> motion)/sharp/sore
Heaviness in eyebrows
Itching (< rubbing)
Lachrymation from itching nose
Opening difficult; hard to keep the eyes open
Pain - < cold air cold/aching l./burning (afternoon)/dull in eyeballs/pressing, pressure, etc, (l./between)/sore (r./in eyeball)/stinging
Sensitive to heat
Ear: Eruptions desquamating
Itching in Eustachian tube
Pain - in mastoid/stitching r. on touch.
“As if stopped” (l.)
Nose: Catarrh post nasal
Congestion to nose
Discharge (in open air/bland/blood-streaked/clear/viscid, tough/watery r./from posterior nares
Bbreath seems hot
Obstruction in morning (on waking/+ discharge)
Burning – r./smarting
Sinuses, complaints of
Sneezing (afternoon/in cold air/constant/dry/ineffectual efforts/with itching/from odors)
Smell: acute (for meat)
Face: Dry (lips)
Eruptions [desquamating/pimples (chin/white)/popular (cheeks/painful)]
Heavy feeling, jaws/articulation.
Itching in eyebrows
Pain – joints of jaw/trigeminal neuralgia l.
Tingling [l./cheeks/(upper) lips]
Mouth: Abscess of gums of. 1. S. 623.
Bleeding, gums when cleaning them
Tongue cracked – fissured/tip/tingling/lacerated
Eruptions – pimples tip of tongue/vesicles on palate
Mucous membrane excoriated
Pain in tongue - > warmth/burning on top of tongue/stinging
Ulcers - cheeks inside/gums/painful
Teeth: Pain during eating/aching/”As from dentition”/in wisdom teeth
Throat: Choking (at night/on coughing) on. 1. S. 700.
“As if constricted”/constriction – l./swallowing difficult
Red – tonsils/uvula
Dry (l./painful/on waking)
“As if foreign body” (of a apple core)
Disposition to hawk/hawking ineffectual
Inflamed tonsils (painless)
“As if a lump” (during sadness)/“As if narrow”
Mucous (morning/after eating/like false membrane/must be swallowed)
Pain – r. ext. to l./in morning on waking/+ dryness/> cold drinks/on empty swallowing/burning must swallow/rawness (swallowing)/scratching (on swallowing)/sore (afternoon/> air/on waking/when yawning)
External throat: “As if enlarged”
Pain – in cervical glands/drawing r./on motion/in sternocleidomastoid muscle/pinched (turning head r.)/sore
. 1. S. 731.
Stomach: Appetite – constant/easy satiety/increased morning/after eating/increased/insatiable/ravenous
Distension (after eating small quantities)
Emptiness - after eating/during nausea
Fullness (morning/after eating/”As if full after eating ever so little”)
Heartburn (after eating)
Nausea [after drinking water/after eating (fats)/from smell of meat/with hunger]
Pain - after fruit/in epigastrium/burning/cramping (after eating/in epigastrium)
Thirst (in morning)/thirstless
Vomiting after drinking
Nausea > vomiting
Vomiting - with nausea/before stool
“As if full”
Pain - < breathing deep/ext. bladder/in hypogastrium during menses/in on exertion/l. (breathing/after eating)/in umbilicus region “As if menses would appear”/cramping, griping (l./morning/in hypogastrium/during stool)/sore (l./< pressure)
Swelling in l. side
Rectum: Constipation (ineffectual urging and straining)
Stool: Frequent/hard/watery, yellow
Bladder: “As if full”
Inflamed (urine burning)
Kidneys: Pain – r./< motion/aching/< pressure
Female organs: Leucorrhea brown. 1. S. 1037.
Menses – copious/dark/too early too (2 weeks)/intermittent for 2 -3 days/scanty/2 days short
Pain – ovaries (> bending double)/in uterus (during menses/on touch)/cramping before menses/cramping in uterus/stitching l. ovary
Sexual desire – increased/diminished
Expectoration: Bloody streaked/thick/transparent/yellow
Cold, drinks. 1. S. 1121.
Dry. 1 S. 1123.
< Lying/> standing
Respiration: Difficult – ascending/during palpitation during
Chest: Oppression (> hawking/with wheezing)
Pain – mammae [l./nipples (r./< touch)]
Pain - in mammae wandering/in the middle of the motion/in l. side (moving l. arm)/aching (sternum)
Back: Cervical region – pimples/heat (+ tingling)/pain (l./ breathing deeply/moving head/> warmth)/spasmodic drawing/stiffness/tension ext. to shoulder
Itching > scratching (between scapulae)
Pain in dorsal region l./in lumbar region (standing/walking)/sacroiliac
Extremities: Constriction, knee. 1. S. 1313.
Sole of foot red
“As if electrical current” in arms
Eruptions [on hand desquamating/lower limbs (rash/itching)/thigh rash/on sole of foot (blisters)/on foot (burning/itching)]
Heat - hand l./shoulder/in upper limbs prickly/in knee
Heaviness in lower limbs
Itching - in upper limbs (< scratching/in spots)/on lower limbs < scratching
Lameness – of upper limbs/of lower limbs
“As if lead” in leg
Pain – rheumatic with stiffness/wandering/shoulder (r./rheumatic)/forearm like “Electric shocks”/hand (on motion/> pressure/rheumatic)/fingers ext. elbow/lower limbs < pressure/r. hip/thigh ext. upwards/knee (r. < motion/> lying/> warmth)/in leg < elevation of feet/foot (> warm bathing/< pressure/> rubbing/sole)/aching (back of foot/outer hip)/drawing (in hip sitting/in hip > standing)/shooting [in upper limbs/in thigh (ext. inguinal/walking)/”As if foot sprained”]
Perspiration upper limbs
Restlessness (> motion/leg at night in bed)
Shocks in upper limbs
Swollen foot painful
Tension in r. shoulder
Tingling (upper limbs/lower limbs)
Weakness in leg
Sleep: Deep unrefreshing
Restless. 2. S. 1574.
Sleepiness (morning/in afternoon after eating/overpowering/reading/sitting/on waking)
Sleepless- at midnight from activity of thoughts/+ sleepiness/# sleepiness)
Unrefreshing in morning
Waking - after midnight (4h./5 h.)/difficult in morning/”As from fright”/frequent.
Yawning – frequent/during sleepiness
Dreams: Amorous/animals (injured/wild)/anger/Ants (crawling inside her body/eating her flesh)/bicycle riding/blood/ buildings (neglected)/being caught/coition/dancing/danger (impending)/dead/difficulties on journeys/dogs/drowning/embarrassment/fire/(old) friends/helping friends/horse (theft of a/wounded/is invisible/journeys/killing a mad dog/laughing/nakedness/nightmares/people, parties/picnics/religious/robbers/smoking/snakes/swimming/unpleasant/unremembered/vivid/being watched/swimming in water/work
Skin: Eruptions – desquamating/pimples/rash itching
Itchiness > scratching
Prickling (from cold drinks/”As from pins”)
Sensitive – to cold (water)
Generals: l. sided
Energy excess of (morning/on waking)
Food and drinks: Desires: apples/biscuits/carbonated drinks/chocolate/coffee/cold drinks/fruit/licorice/meat (without being able to eat it)/(ice cold) milk/rich food/salt/sweets/warm drinks;
<: smell of cooking meat/salt; Aversion to: meat;
Heat flushes (# coldness)/sensation of internal heat/sensation of heat in blood vessels/sensation of heat on waking)
Lassitude in morning
Numbness in whole body
Tingling (in body during urination)
Weakness (morning on waking/> eating/with vertigo)
Mind: heightened emotional sensitivity. overly emotional (causeless) weeping. Very sad, often without reason, sense of despondency felt. Absentminded, careless and clumsy. Feelings of indifference and aversion to company with a desire for solitude. Large element of irritability and a resultant disproportional anger.
Delusions: of hearing noises/thieves in the home.
Head: noises experienced within the head.
Ears: Itching in the eustachian tubes/stopped sensation of the ears.
Nose: Post nasal drip. Itching in the nose/a clear nasal discharge.
„Flu-like’: discharge and congestion, itching, sneezing and catarrh.
Face: Contact produced: Within 24 - 48 hours after contact with the plant and subsequent exposure to sunlight a reaction on skin involving blistering, red-purple pigmentation and irritatION
Interesting how the skin of the provers taking this plant in homoeopathic form was affected during the proving.
Mouth: 20 different mouth symptoms were noted by the proving participants. The most common symptom being mouth ulcers (inner sides of the cheeks)/some of these ulcers resulted in pain. Excoriation of the mucous membranes of the mouth was noted and vesicular eruptions within the mouth also occurred.
Throat: Sensation of constriction of the throat (made swallowing very difficult). Different pain.
Painful dryness. “As if a foreign body or lump” in the throat made swallowing difficult.
Stomach: Appetite changed (constant ravenous hunger but easy satiety)/fullness of the stomach
Female organs: Early onset of their menses: Ovarian and uterine pain was commonly experienced during menstruation and seemed to occur more frequently on the left side.
Cough: The most common cough symptom was that of a „loose cough’.
Chest: The chest area produced a total of 15 different symptoms throughout the proving, with the most commonly experienced one being an oppression of the chest. Many proving participants
noted a pain or tenderness of the mammae, whilst others experienced an aching pain in the sternum. Chest pain l. < motion was also a common theme running through the proving, and a few participants were aware of heart palpitations.
Back: Cervical area (heat, pain, stiffness, and tension). Back pain isolated to the lumbar region.
Extremities: Tingling in the upper and lower limbs, and a lameness or weakness of the lower limbs (shooting/sensation of heat and prickling in the upper limbs). „Shocks’ in the arms and
“As if an electric current”, as well as rheumatic pain in the shoulders. Wandering pain upper or lower limbs, or both.
Sleep: Sleepiness („overpowering sleepiness’)
Skin: Prickling sensation of the skin. Some described this sensation as being like the prickling of pins. Itchiness. Sensitivity to cold, and some noted a sensitivity to cold water in particular.
Generals: Excess of energy (in morning)/sensitivity (<) to cold weather.
Weakness of the body (morning on waking)/feeling of lassitude in the morning. Heaviness of the body, numbness and a general lame feeling. General tingling.
Umbelliferae. The shrub is confined to the mid - upper mountain slopes
Grows up to 2.5 meters in height, and is covered in compound leaves about 20 cm in length (Campbell, 1993:586-587).
Due to the cold, windy climate of the
gives us even further reason to believe that it enjoys the cold weather.
Peucedanum galbanum grows only on the slopes of
For eight months of each year (July to February = wintertime) Peucedanum galbanum produces very small flowers that are yellow in colour (Campbell, 1993:586-587). I feel that due to the fact that this plant does not produce large, bold, noticeable flowers this demonstrates its preference for solitude by not attracting attention to itself.
On closer observation it is evident that the plant has many long stems and these can be compared to extremities. It can also be noted that the size of the leaves are quite large in relation to the diameter of the stems and it would appear as if there were an element of disproportion. The plant seems to be a bit „top heavy”! It has a thin stem and thin branches with clumps of flowers that are quite large in relation to the diameter of the stem, and long leaves that grow to a length of 20cm.
As mentioned before the doctrine of signatures states that by observation one can determine from the colour of the flowers or leaves, the place of growth, or other signatures just what the plant’s purpose was intended to be (Pujol, 1990:24).
According to colour therapy and the use of colour in assisting with the treatment of different ailments, yellow is the colour of detachment and if used or exposed to in excess a person may experience detachment from others and the environment (Wills, 1998: 101). The main mental themes identified in this proving were an aversion to company, a desire for solitude, sadness and irritability. The provers were better for being alone. This could be related to the yellow colour of the flowers found on the Peucedanum galbanum plant.
Provers experienced flushes of heat to the head whilst proving on the remedy. This may somehow be related to the fact that the symptoms produced by Peucedanum galbanum in nature are only initiated and further < sun and heat. Therefore heat appears to be an integral part of the manifestation of symptoms.
With regards to mouth symptoms produced, some provers experienced strange tastes in their mouths. This could possibly correlate with the taste of the plant.
Two provers developed ulcers and blisters of the mucous membranes within the mouth. Interesting because Peucedanum galbanum produces blisters which can become ulcers in areas of skin that are touched by the plant and then exposed to sunlight, however the inside of the mouths of these two provers were not exposed to sunlight!
The stomach symptoms produced during this proving were analysed in relation to the yellow colour of the flowers produced by this plant. Once again in terms of colour therapy and the use of colour to aid healing, yellow is often associated with complaints of the liver, gall bladder and stomach (Wills, 1998:120). Provers participating in this study experienced symptoms relating to these areas, such as increased appetite with easy satiety, fullness, bloating, nausea after eating, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In comparison to other anatomical areas influenced by this remedy the gastrointestinal tract was an area that was greatly affected.
A few of the female participants of this study noticed that their menses were earlier than usual. There seemed to be a few other mild changes to normal menstrual symptoms but a disruption of usual timing was most commonly noted. With regards to anthroposophy this may be due to a disruption of the rhythmic system in response to the proving remedy. According to anthroposophical philosophy a remedy produced from a plant with large leaves will affect mainly the rhythmic system of the person (Steiner, 1861 – 1925). The rhythmic system encompasses both the male and female reproductive organs.
Again with regards to colour therapy yellow is a colour which activates motor nerves and therefore generates energy within the muscles. If any part of our physical body lacks the energy of this vibrant colour, partial or complete paralysis may manifest. Yellow is therefore a colour used in the treatment of paralytic conditions (Wills, 1998:101). A connection between the colour of this plant’s flowers and the paralytic-like symptoms experienced by the provers is that many of them complained of a feeling of lameness and weakness of the limbs during the proving period. Yellow is also the colour used in the treatment of rheumatic conditions (Wills, 1998:101), and some provers experienced rheumatic like pains during this time.
Provers experienced a number of different symptoms relating to the whether it was upper extremities or lower and this was one of the sections that produced the greatest number of symptoms.
As mentioned before the Peucedanum galbanum plant in its indigenous habitat is one that has a long thin stem and relatively long branches.
It appears as if it has long extremities! This could possibly indicate that the remedy produced from this plant may have a disposition to affect the extremities of the person taking the remedy. During the proving period many of the individuals taking this remedy also made note of lightning like pains in the arms and legs.
A large number of provers experienced skin symptoms whilst being on the remedy, namely itching and tingling. In nature, once contact between the skin and the plant has occurred followed by exposure to sunlight, the first symptoms of reaction would be itching and tingling (Campbell, 1993:586-587). Other symptoms of the skin were eruptions, ulcers and small vesicles. Taking into consideration the name of the plant from which the remedy was prepared (blister bush); it seems likely that these may be symptoms experienced by healthy individuals taking a homoeopathic remedy prepared from this substance. Apart from that however, the rash caused by contact with the plant in its natural habitat will be followed by eruptions and vesicles of the skin in the exposed area.
In general many provers complained of feeling very hot throughout the proving period, and I think that this ties into the fact that sun and heat are the aggravating factors that produce the characteristic symptoms of Peucedanum galbanum in nature.
People who make contact with the plant only produce symptoms if that area of contact is exposed to light, so the sun plays a vital role in the manifestation of symptoms.
In nature the plant produces flowers which grow together in clumps that produce a fairly large surface. This surface area will give rise to a shaded area beneath it giving shelter from the sun and heat. Interestingly, many provers mentioned that they experienced a decreased tolerance to the heat during the proving.
With regards to disproportion of the plant parts it was interesting to hear how some provers felt a heaviness of their bodies. Some described being unusually clumsy, and a few provers even experienced episodes of losing their balance and falling over to the side.
So in light of everything just mentioned it would appear that there is definitely a correlation between the symptoms produced by Peucedanum galbanum 30CH and the doctrine of signatures of the plant in nature.
A homoeopathic drug proving of the plant Peucedanum galbanum with a subsequent comparison to those remedies yielding the highest numerical values and total number of rubrics on repertorisation of the proving symptoms. Lauren Wayland Mini-dissertation submitted in partial compliance with the requirements for the Master’s Degree
in Technology: Homoeopathy in the Department of Homoeopathy at the Durban University of Technology.
ABSTRACT This research study was conducted to elucidate the total symptomatology that the plant Peucedanum galbanum in the thirtieth centesimal potency would produce on healthy individuals so that it may be prescribed according to the Law of Similiars. A further aim of the investigation was to compare this remedy to other remedies yielding the highest numerical values and total number of rubrics on repertorisation of the proving symptoms. Wagner (2007), in a concurrent study, analysed the proving results of Peucedanum galbanum in relation to the doctrine of signatures. It was hypothesised that Peucedanum galbanum 30CH would produce recognizable signs and symptoms in healthy provers, and that the comparative study of this remedy would highlight the differences and similarities between remedy symptoms and thus confusion as to indication is eliminated, plus a fuller understanding of the remedy and its relationship to other remedies is gained. Research Design The proving was a double blind, placebo controlled investigation carried out on 30 healthy participants.
The plant Peucedanum galbanum is indigenous to South Africa making this investigation a valuable contribution to the materia medica. Used in the treatment of rheumatism, colds, gout, glandular swelling, high blood pressure, water retention and obesity in men.
Its main use is in the form of a leaf decoction which is used as a diuretic in the treatment of oedema, bladder ailments and kidney stones (van Wyk, van Oudtshoorn and Gericke, 1997).
The Proving Substance The plant Peucedanum galbanum was sourced from the slopes of Table Mountain in the Western Cape. This is where the plants grow naturally. The plant was then taken to the Kirstenbosh Research Centre where it was identified by Dr J C Manning a Specialist Scientist at The Compton Herbarium, Newlands, Cape Town. The whole plant was then transported to the DUT Homoeopathic Day Clinic by Mr J Wayland where it was prepared according to Methods 6 and 8a of the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (GHP), Fifth supplement (1991) to the First Edition (1978). The sample was triturated with inert lactose powder in a ratio of 1:99 to the potency of a 3CH triturate. This was carried out in accordance with Method 6 of the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia. As per Method 8a of the GHP the 3CH triturate was then converted to a liquid potency and further potentised to a 30CH potency. This liquid potency was used to impregnate lactose granules at 1% volume:volume. Ten of these granules were added to each inert lactose powder set aside for the verum group and administered to the provers in the experimental group. The placebo was dispensed in the form of lactose granules triple impregnated at 1% volume/volume with 73% ethanol only to provers in the placebo group.
The verum and placebo were prepared in a similar manner so as to make them indistinguishable from each other. Theses preparations were then dispensed by the Homoeopathic Day Clinic’s Laboratory Assistant according to a randomisation schedule, so that the researchers remained unaware of who received which preparation. Placebo was assigned to 20% of the group (6 individuals) and the proving substance to 80% of the group (24 individuals). 3.4 The Potency A 30CH potency was used in this research study as Hahnemann insisted in Organon of Medicine that the 30CH be used for provings and Kent (1990) endorses the use of this potency in all his provings. 3.5 Dosage and Posology As suggested by Sherr (1994), one powder was dissolved sublingually, three times a day for two consecutive days, or until symptoms arose, but for no longer then two consecutive days. After the onset of symptoms, no further doses of the proving substance were taken. Each dose was taken on an empty stomach and nothing was ingested per mouth for half an hour before or after each dose.
The Duration of the Proving Prior to the start of the proving a one week self-observation period took place. This established a baseline for the provers. Six doses were prescribed to each prover to take three powders a day for two days or until the symptoms first appeared. Provers recorded all their symptoms until they abated and a two week observation period followed. 3.7 Prover Population and Percentage Placebo Thirty provers took part in this proving. Twenty percent of the proving populations i.e. six of the thirty provers received placebo while the remaining twenty-four received the verum.
A randomisation process determined the provers who received the verum and those that received the placebos. Of the 24 provers receiving the verum, 16 were female and 8 were male. Hahnemann (1997:154) stated that by testing on both males and females, gender related alterations can be observed. The following graphs below depict the sex and age distribution of the provers.
In this study it was hypothesised that Peucedanum galbanum 30CH would produce evident signs and symptoms in the healthy provers who took part in the proving. It was further hypothesised that
a comparative study, between Peucedanum galbanum and the other remedies which produced the highest numerical value and total number of rubrics on repertorisation of the proving symptoms, would highlight similarities and differences of the remedy pictures so that confusion as to indication is eliminated. The symptoms that arose in this proving extended through almost all of the systems represented in the materia medica and repertory. The systems that were primarily affected by the 716 symptoms produced in this proving are the Mind, with 117 symptoms: Head, with 86 symptoms: Throat, with 47 symptoms: Stomach, with 44 symptoms: Extremities, with 69 symptoms: Dreams, with 46 symptoms and the Generals with 44 symptoms. From this accumulation of symptoms it is evident that the first hypothesis has been supported.
Comparative Study The symptoms produced, by Peucedanum galbanum 30CH, in this proving were precisely analysed and translated into repertory language. A total of 28 rubrics were then selected and were used in the repertorisation process. These rubrics were essential to the dynamic of the remedy and formed the „minimum characteristic syndrome’ and therefore the essence of the remedy, as suggested by Candagabe (1997).
DD.: Covering most of the symptoms (at least 50%) were: Sepia, Sulphur and Nat-m..
Chapter Six: Conclusion and Recommendations 6.1 Conclusion: Since, Peucedanum galbanum produced many symptoms throughout a wide range of systems, it is evident that it will be a beneficial remedy in the treatment of numerous ailments. The comparative study helps differentiate this remedy from other similar remedies by highlighting the characteristic symptoms of each remedy and thus eliminating any doubt when prescribing. It further highlighted the significant themes of the plant family which in turn is beneficial when comparing other remedies from this family. 6.2 Recommendations 6.2.1 Further Provings Using Different Potencies All the symptoms that were produced in this proving were derived from Peucedanum galbanum 30CH. By using other potencies one would be able to elicit a fuller picture of the remedy and therefore a greater understanding of this remedy would emerge. Another advantage of using multiple potencies would be to note the relative sensitivities of individuals to certain potencies. 6.2.2 Further Provings of Indigenous Substances I would like to reiterate Wright’s (1999) recommendation to conduct more provings using indigenous substances. According to Sherr (1994), we could target many of our local ailments with indigenous substances as he says that nature will always provide an accessible cure.
Prover Population The provers taking part in this proving were Homoeopathic students or had a good knowledge of homoeopathy. I would like to convey the importance of conducting a proving using provers with a similar background. This ensures clear and precise information with regards to the recording of symptomatology. Another important factor would be to include equal numbers of male and female provers to ensure a fuller remedy picture. The symptoms in the male system were rare, as not enough male subjects participated in this study. 6.2.4 Clinical Verification Use of Peucedanum galbanum in a clinical environment with an added hands-on application would further substantiate the proving symptomatolgy produced in this study. Information gathered from case studies, where Peucedanum galbanum was the remedy of choice for treatment, would greatly benefit our knowledge of this remedy and further encourage its use in the future.