Tilia europaea o. grandifolia
Vergleich. Tilia europaea + Tilia cordata
Die Linde - Der Baum der Liebe (11.03.-20.03. / 13.09.-22.09.)
Lindenbäume wurden seit jeher den Liebesgöttinnen Aphrodite und Freya geweiht.
Ihre herzförmigen Blätter laden förmlich dazu ein, Dichter und Poeten zu Liebesgedichten zu inspirieren.
Wenn Du im Zeichen der Linde geboren bist, gehörst Du zu den warmherzigen, liebevollen Mitmenschen.
Es scheint, als hätte man Dir ein Leben voller Liebe und Zufriedenheit mit in die Wiege gelegt - wären da nicht die großen Zweifel und das Sehnen nach einer besseren Welt und
mehr Wohlstand. Beruflich erreichst Du nicht immer den Höhepunkt der Karriere. Nicht weil es Dir an Intelligenz oder Talenten mangelt, es ist schlichtweg die Ausdauer die fehlt.
Einer liebevollen Zweisamkeit stehen nur die eigenen Zweifel im Wege.
Es ist eine weitverbreitete Weisheit, dass die Linde den Menschen äußerst wohl gesonnen ist. Sie ist der klassische Hausbaum und das Symbol für das menschliche Begegnungszentrum
Hat einen besänftigenden Einfluss auf alles, was sie berührt oder was mit ihr in Berührung kommt. Sie hilft uns zur Einheit zu finden, unabhängig ob wir mit uns selbst oder der Außenwelt
[Maartje de Kok]
Go to the pine if you want to learn about the pine or to the bamboo if you want to learn about the bamboo.
And in doing so, you must leave your subjective preoccupation with yourself. Otherwise you impose yourself on the object and do not learn.
Your poetry issues of its own accord when you and the object have become one--when you have plunged deep enough into the object to see something like a hidden glimmering there.
However well-phrased your poetry may be, if your feeling is not natural--if the object and yourself are separate--then your poetry is not true poetry but merely your subjective counterfeit.
Submerge yourself into the object until its intrinsic nature becomes apparent, stimulating poetic impulse.
Matsuo Bashõ (1644 – 1694)
Basho was a Zen Buddhist, who was innovative in writing his haikus in those days when poems had to be written in an elegant but limited vocabulary. Basho recommended not only everyday
experience as the subject matter of poetry, but everyday language as well. It was pungent, lively, direct, and put the poet closer in touch with the concrete reality of his material existence.
The three poems below are examples of his haiku writing, where you can feel the energy of the Cherry tree and the Plum tree become apparent in words:
Old pond Under the cherry blossoms The two plum trees
Frog jumps in None I love their blooming Splash! Are utter strangers. (Issa) One early, one later. (Buson)
His thought was that if the language was common to all the people in the society, then poetry was no longer the exclusive province of the aristocracy.
Common people could begin to appreciate the poetry written in their own idiom and could even begin to write it as well. In his efforts to raise poetry above class, Basho came to be known as the people's poet, and his haiku the poetry that was meant especially for them. Serving the community is typical something of the tree families, as we will see further on.
The practice of meditation is characteristic for trees; an immersion in quietness or in activity as they are standing there. According the Buddhist thought meditation will reduce the painful sense of self-separateness that‘s the source of our ignorant suffering and can produce oneness and freedom. For understanding the trees we as homeopaths will have to, alike the poet Basho, totally lose our discriminatory sense of me/other – for even a brief period of time – so we can grasp the essential nature of the tree. Sitting on the roots of a tree will be the best place to make contact, jus at the point where roots are changing into the trunk of the tree, according to Dusty Miller.2 There you can perceive with your awareness. When you are walking in the wood or in the park I advise you to sit down at the roots of some diverse trees. Then you will feel that trees are of a distinct character then minerals, jewels, plants, animals and bacteria. The trees also differ from each other; male or female, dark or light and in other ways.
Besides experiencing the tree in some meditative way you can also study the anatomy, the signature, the phytotherapeutic use and the blossom essences (Bach). In homeopathy we have another way to have access to the trees, by triturating or proving the substance. When triturating or proving the tree remedy we will have to immerse deep into the essence of the trees to understand the true nature, the intrinsic identity of the specific tree. Triturating the remedy you can resonate with the substance. Resonance in groups is working much stronger because less sensitive people can carry along with the more sensitive provers for this substance. Proving a remedy is like a meditation on the remedy, in some way a religious experience. Wanting to reach the sky with its branches is also a typical thing of the trees.
Tilia Eureopea is common in the Netherlands, standing in towns and along the roads. The trees are less seen in the woods. Because the tree is so common in the Netherlands and also in other parts of North-Western Europe it seems logic to me that a lot of Dutch and European people may be in need of Tilia Eureopea.
I will discuss some earlier provings of the Tilia eureopea and Tilia cordata and the blossom essence of Tilia platyphyllos. T. cordata and T. platyphyllos are of importance because the T. eureopea is a hybrid of both.
In chapter 4 I will show you the results of the trituration of the Lime-tree, done at the Hahnemann Institute in The Hague (The Netherlands). For the literally texts of the triturations in the original Dutch text can take a look in the appendix. After a short glance at a case of the Lime-tree in chapter 5 I will offer a summary of the themes of the Lime-tree and all the relevant homeopathic information for prescribing the Lime.
I would like to invite you to pour in a cup of tea of the Lime blossom. Feel the warmth and the calmness of this tree getting over you….
If you are a poet, you will see clearly that there is a cloud floating in this sheet of paper. Without a cloud, there will be no rain; without rain, the trees cannot grow, and without trees, we cannot make paper. The cloud is essential for the paper to exist. If the cloud is not here, the sheet of paper cannot be here either… If you look into this sheet of paper even more deeply, we can see the sunshine in it. If the sunshine is not there, the tree cannot grow. In fact, nothing can grow. Even we cannot grow without sunshine. And so we know that the sunshine is also in this sheet of paper. The paper and the sunshine inter-are. And if we continue to look, we can see the logger who cut the tree and brought it to the mill to be transformed into paper. And we see the wheat. We know that the logger cannot exist without his daily bread, and therefore the wheat that became his bread is also in this sheet of paper. And the logger‟s father and mother are in it too… You cannot point out one thing that is not here – time, space, the earth, the rain, the minerals in the soil, the sunshine, the cloud, the river, the heat. Everything co-exists with this sheet of paper…As thin as this sheet of paper is; it contains everything in the universe in it.
Thich Nhat Hanh, The Heart of Understanding.
Themes of the Lime-tree; anatomy and symbolism
The anatomy of the Lime-tree
The history of the Lime-tree: from wood tree to a village tree
Foundation “Kritisch Bosbeheer” reported in 1999 about the existence of 3 original Lime species in the Netherlands: Tilia cordata, Tilia eureopea and Tilia platyphyllos. After studying the pollen they concluded that the trees are living in the Netherlands since the Boreal (7500 BC), and largest in number at the Atlantic period (5500-3000 BC).
Change of climate with changes in the soil and the concurrence of other tree species and the cutting of the trees decimated the Lime-tree forests. The cutting of the Lime-trees started more than 2000 yrs ago and reoccurred during the Reformation period because of conflicts of religions between the Germans (seen as heathens) and the Christians. Another reason was that the Lime wasn‘t very productive in wood and fruit as the oak and the beech did. Since then the Lime-tree is mainly a village tree, especially the Dutch Lime or Tilia eureopea.
The anatomy of the Tilia eureopea shortly delineated:
- The largest deciduous tree in Europe with a dense heart-shaped canopy, heart-shaped leafs and offers a lot of shade.
- It offers soft, light and quickly decaying wood, which will not be damaged by worms. The wood is used for making objects and carving.
- Huge tolerance for life circumstances, but sensitive for the pollution of the environment. The foundation “Kritisch Bosbeheer‘ mentioned that Tilia eureopea prefers humus, rich and wet soil
and has an aversion for very dry or very wet soil. Tilia eureopea prefers standing in half shadow or in the sun. Because of the temporary pollution of the environment and the urbanization (in the Netherlands very actual) the Lime tree shows a lesser degree of activity of photosynthesis and lesser power to make wood. As if the tree cannot take a breath so easy anymore. The nourishing
qualities of the Lime-tree are obvious at stake.
- Can easily form hybrids with other Limes and amount up to at less 65 species of Tiliae all over the world. Tiliae have no defence against other pollen of the Tiliae family. The Tilia eureopea
is a bastard, a hybrid of the Tilia cordata and the Tilia platyphyllos.
- Also hermaphrodite, both male and female reproductive organs. The flowers are in clusters and contain a lot of nectar. The fruits are of small and felty globules.
- Offers a lot of food to Visc. a half parasite, gall-midges, butterflies like Xanthia citrago and Mimas Tiliae (Lindepijlstaartvlinder), Lime leaf wasp (Calirora annulipes),
bees (Apis Mellifica), lice, birds, mammals and bumblebees.
- Great regenerative power;
Easily to move, even when older than 60 years.
Easily to lop. in different forms.
Placing a young Lime upside down will make the crown or canopy develop some roots.
Strongly rejuvenation at old age. After 200 years they become hollow and forms secondary trunks and roots.
The symbolism of the Lime-tree
The Lime was seen as a soft, spring and joy tree for the people, like a tree of love and loyalty. There is no other tree so connected to the lives of the people, with feelings of love and sorrow,
exuberance and mourning, joy and seriousness. All this is sensible from the myths, legends, symbolism and poetry.
Mother of the earth, female, marital love, loyalty, protective, mortal
· The “Sweet Lime Spirit‘ was living in the tree.
· Tree of love and loyalty, symbolizing female grace, beauty and happiness.
· Protective; planting at your garden.
· German Sigfried-sage: Siegfried was invulnerable after a bath in the blood of the snake Fafnir. In the end he got killed by a wound between his scapulae where earlier a leaf of the
Lime had landed. He died because there was no contact with the invulnerable blood.
· The “Green Dryads‘ or tree spirits would marry in the Lime-trees.
· Roman mythology: a symbol of marital. love and loyalty.
· German mythology: dedicated to Freya (Venus), the goddess of sexuality, love and fertility, marriage and birth, justice and domesticity. Odur, her husband, was on war and she got lost
looking for him. She moved in her car with cats pulling it from one cloud to another. Freya took often some rest in the Lime-tree and whispered her secrets in the ears of people.
· German people got married beneath the Lime-tree. Even in 1930 this still took place in Lucheux in France under two Limes that were grown together at the top.
· Greek myth: Nymph Philyra was seduced by Kronos, the youngest of the titans. Hera caught him and turned him into a horse. He abandoned Philyra and she later gave birth to centaur Chiron.
She begged to be turned into a Lime-tree.
· The Lime-tree got offers from women who hoped for fertility and abundance. Men honoured the oak.
· Leafs of the Lime are heart-shaped. People looked for little Lime branches who they knotted them together as a symbol of love. They grew together and remembered them of their everlasting connection.
· In the old days Lime-trees were planted when babies were born to protect and guide them.
· In the old days the Lime tree was often be regarded and treated like a May pole: people were dancing, making love on behalf of the fertility on the first of May.
· The Lime-tree was seen as the Mother of the earth: female in her purest form and the cold lunar tree with a helpful and female character.
à Solar trees on the contrary are warm trees more selfish, like the oak.
· Dusty Miller sees the Lime-tree like a grandmother, where grandchildren are always welcome whatever they did. Unconditional love. The Lime-tree stimulates children and people in general: ´Exercise, see if you can get rid of your hang-ups; just practice.‘ The Lime-tree keeps it simple and doesn‘t want to be involved in complicated business, just one thing at a time.
The character is a bit similar to that of the Fagus, the beech, in a sensitive way. Her children are grown up and she has left the menopause behind. She has her own independent role, next to god.
She can organise behind the curtains. She can calm you down and strengthen your inner qualities so you can move on. The Lime is like the wise advisor for all your day-to-day problems. Olea eureopea also fits in this picture of the beech and the Lime in some way.
Tree as comforting
The Lime-tree was mentioned a lot as the great helper of the people. In the shadow of the Lime there was comfort, your grief would disappear and friends got there together. The nerves calmed down under the tree.
Doris Laudert wrote about the Lime:
…..[Die Linde] verbreitet innige Mütterlichkeit, und während der Blütezeit wirkt der Baum wie eine einzige Umarmung von Bienen und Blüten. Blühende Lindenbäume rufen Empfindungen wach, die schwer in Worte zu fassen sind und am ehesten noch mit Begriffen wie Heimat, Wärme und Geborgenheit umschrieben werden können.22
- There is a Lime-tree at the well; I dreamed many a sweet dream in its shadow; in its bark I inscribed many a tender word; I shared my sorrows and joys with it‖, wrote Franz Schubert, the romantic piano composer.
Protective of the family and the community
· The Romans said: “Tiliae sub tegmine tutus”, meaning sitting safe under a Lime-tree.
· The Celts planted the tree for protection of the family and the community. An old habit was the planting of the tree in the gardens or in front of the house or the home for protection.
· The tree were lopped as espaliers, so they could protect their homes from wind and any other forms of danger, called Stufenlinden in German or leilinden in Dutch language. The
three layers symbolize the three layers of the society: workers, citizens and the clergy men.
Vermeulen: “There was, however, a darker association of the village Lime. Many were „Gerichtslinde‟, beneath which the law court met – a function which is vividly recalled by an illustration in the Luzerner Chronic of 1513, showing red-robed lawyers beneath the tree, a prisoner kneeling and a guard bearing a fearsome club“. The female quality would symbolize mercy.
The tree was used as gallows-tree or pillory. Law courts were also located under the oak.
Under the Lime it was called - Judicum sub tilia. The truth would then always come out.
Melancholy and loneliness
Putting a biscuit in the tea of the Lime-tree Proust became melancholy about his childhood and started writing his masterpiece "Searching for the lost time".
Poem “Loneliness” from Hans Bouma on page 76, sketching the deeply loneliness of the Lime.
Connection between the oak and the Lime
The oak is a symbol of toughness and male characteristic, the Lime is lovely and female, as a symbol of friendship and calming qualities, longing, love and tenderness.
Symbol of power, courage and fame. Under both trees there were law courts and both were cut in mass amounts because of religion conflicts. Both trees are seldom mentioned in funeral symbolism.
The myth of Baucis and Philemon
On a certain hill in Phrygia stand a linden tree and an oak, enclosed by a low wall. Not far from the spot is a marsh, formerly good habitable land, but now indented with pools, the resort of fen-birds and cormorants.
Once on a time Jupiter (Zeus), in human shape, visited this country, and with him his son Mercury (Hermes) without his wings. They presented themselves, as weary travelers, at many a door, seeking rest and shelter, but found all closed, for it was late, and the inhospitable inhabitants would not rouse themselves to open for their reception. At last a humble mansion received them, a small thatched cottage, where Baucis, a pious old dame, and her husband Philemon, united when young, had grown old together. Not ashamed of their poverty, they made it endurable by moderate desires and kind dispositions. One need not look there for master or for servant; these two were the whole household, master and servant alike. When the two heavenly guests crossed the humble threshold, and bowed their heads to pass under the low door, the old man placed a seat, on which Baucis, bustling and attentive, spread a cloth, and begged them to sit down. Then she raked out the coals from the ashes, and kindled up a fire, fed it with leaves and dry bark, and with her scanty breath blew it into a flame.
She brought out of a corner split sticks and dry branches, broke them up, and placed them under the small kettle. Her husband collected some pot-herbs in the garden, and she shred them from the stalks, and prepared them for the pot. He reached down with a forked stick a flitch of bacon hanging in the chimney, cut a small piece, and put it in the pot to boil with the herbs, setting away the rest for another time. A beechen bowl was filled with warm water that their guests might wash. While all was doing, they beguiled the time with conversation.
On the bench designed for the guests was laid a cushion stuffed with sea-weed; and a cloth, only produced on great occasions, but ancient and coarse enough, was spread over that. The old lady, with her apron on, with trembling hand set the table. One leg was shorter than the rest, but a piece of slate put under restored the level. When fixed, she rubbed the table down with some sweet-smelling herbs.
Upon it she set some of chaste Minerva's olives, some cornel berries preserved in vinegar, and added radishes and cheese, with eggs lightly cooked in the ashes. All were served in earthen dishes, and an earthenware pitcher, with wooden cups, stood beside them. When all was ready, the stew, smoking hot, was set on the table. Some wine, not of the oldest, was added; and for dessert, apples and wild honey; and over and above all, friendly faces, and simple but hearty welcome.
Now while the repast proceeded, the old folks were astonished to see that the wine, as fast as it was poured out, renewed itself in the pitcher, of its own accord. Struck with terror, Baucis and Philemon recognized their heavenly guests, fell on their knees, and with clasped hands implored forgiveness for their poor entertainment. There was an old goose, which they kept as the guardian of their humble cottage; and they bethought them to make this a sacrifice in honour of their guests. But the goose, too nimble, with the aid of feet and wings, for the old folks, eluded their pursuit, and at last took shelter between the gods themselves. They forbade it to be slain; and spoke in these words: "We are gods. This inhospitable village shall pay the penalty of its impiety; you alone shall go free from the chastisement. Quit your house, and come with us to the top of yonder hill." They hastened to obey, and, staff in hand, laboured up the steep ascent.
They had reached to within an arrow's flight of the top, when, turning their eyes below, they beheld all the country sunk in a lake, only their own house left standing. While they gazed with wonder at the sight, and lamented the fate of their neighbours, that old house of theirs was changed into a temple. Columns took the place of the corner posts, the thatch grew yellow and appeared a gilded roof, the floors became marble, and the doors were enriched with carving and ornaments of old. Then spoke Jupiter in benignant accents: "Excellent old man, and woman worthy of such a husband, speak, tell us your wishes; what favour have you to ask of us?" Philemon took counsel with Baucis a few moments; then declared to the gods their united wish, "We ask to be priests and guardians of this your temple; and since here we have passed our lives in love and concord, we wish that one and the same hour may take us both from life, that I may not live to see her grave, nor be laid in my own by her."
Their prayer was granted. They were the keepers of the temple as long as they lived. When grown very old, as they stood one day before the steps of the sacred edifice, and were telling the story of the place, Baucis saw Philemon begin to put forth leaves, and old Philemon saw Baucis changing in like manner. And now a leafy crown had grown over their heads, while exchanging parting words, as long as they could speak. "Farewell, dear spouse," they said, together, and at the same moment the bark closed over their mouths. The Tyanean shepherd still shows the two trees, standing side by side, made out of the two good old people.
The phytotherapeutics of the Lime-tree
In literature there are a lot of common phytotherapeutic symptoms for the Lime species that are mixed up. This is quite understandable because of the easily forming of hybrids by the Tilia species.
I will discuss them because they will give an indication of the physical effects of the Tilia eureopea.
The theory of signature of the Lime-tree
The theory about the signature of the Lime-tree gives us leads about the medicinal qualities of the Lime-tree:
· The thick trunk and the enormous canopy look majestic.
· The leaf is heart-shaped and light green coloured; fitting nervous heart ailments
· Blossom in the canopy with flowers in clusters which is protected; meaning social, warmth, kind.
· Yellow-green leaves; meaning a regulating effect at the stomach, intestines and the spleen, especially with ailments of nervousness.
· The sweet smell of the blossoms; meaning a calming effect.
· Containing magnesium; meaning a decramping effect.
· The hairy steel and leaf; meaning an effect at the skin, hair and mucous membranes.
The Lime-tree is fitting the patient holding water, needing warmth, comfort and socializing. The combination of the heart-shaped form of the leaf and the healing powers of the Lime honey will strengthen the loving and female qualities.
History of phytotherapeutic use of the Lime-tree
The Lime-tree has a long history of phytotherapeutic use in Egypt, Greece, Rome and Europe. Greeks found bark, juice and the leaves healing leprosy, swellings and hair loss.
Romans used to cook meat with a piece of Lime-wood for a lesser salt taste. It would help prevent poisoning.
The Compendium of ritual plants in Europe mentioned the next therapeutic uses of the Lime-tree:
- Plinius the Elderly (77 AC.): worms, retracted urine, sores of the mouth, especially for babies, healing blood clots at menses. 29
- Hieronymus Bock (1498 – 1554): “Gebrant wasser” from Lime blossom: cramps in abdomen,
- Sleeping disease, clots of blood and spitting blood after falling, burns.
- Remco Dodoens (1554): as a mouth water with sores of the mouth, leafs for swollen feet and pustules, blossom against vertigo and headache from cold.
- Matthijs de Lobel (1581): bark for wounds, leafs in water for swellings, juice for hair loss, juice of blossoms at sleeping disease, stimulating labour pains.
- Kruidenboek (1696) of Abraham Munting citing Gesner (1516 – 1565): hair loss, difficulties
- with breathing, nose bleed
- Van Lis‘ pharmacopeia (18e century)): bark and leaf stimulating menses and passing urine.
- King‘s 1898 Dispensatory: relief of many nervous and catarrhal disorders. The infusion is preferred and may be given to allay irritation and restlessness, and to promote rest and sleep.
The hot infusion is employed to check diarrhoea from cold, and in the various forms of colds and catarrhal conditions, while, either hot or cold, it may be used in restlessness, nervous
headaches, painful and difficult digestion, and mild hysteria.´
Analysis of the medical parts of the Lime-tree
The Lime-tree is in the phytotherapeutics mainly a remedy for the nervous system with a calming and a sedative function. Plants with ethereal oils should influence the limbic system of the brains with a calming effect.
Lime-tree blossom has a diaphoretic effect what leads to a mild fever what strengthens the immune system. Lime-tree therefore increases the resistance of people. Perspiration would prevent the severe rising of the fever.
There are studies of the effects of Vlierbloesem (= Limeflowers) and the Lime-tree at conditions of influenza (child).
The German Commission E Monograph has approved in 1998 of the Lime blossom tea in treating colds and related cough.
Clinical studies proved that the tea is working as well as paracetamol, even better for children (Salix). Recent studies had shown that the tea prevents ear inflammations.
A study to the effect of Lime-tree tea. Dried lime blossom and antibiotics in treating infections of the upper respiration system pointed out that the tea was superior to antibiotics in decreasing the length and the severity of the illness. Therefore the Lime-tree will heal influenza, cold and fever, asthma bronchial, asthmatic and chronic inflammation of the bronchi. The blossom will also calm down the nerves, relaxing the muscles, rheumatic pains, restless and irritable children.
The Lime blossom contains flavonglycosids, slimy, ethereal oils, saponins, tannins and phenol acids, benzodiazepins, sugar, gum and chlorofyl.
Flavonglycosids (1%) contain especially quercetines (like in the oak) and kaempferol glycosids and in a lesser amount hesperidin, tilicin (glucoside), tiliadin and cyanogeenglycoside. Quercetines and kaempferol strengthen and stimulate the heart and > the blood circulation. Together with p-coumaric acid they are responsible for the profuse perspiration of the Lime-tree. Van der Schaaf calls in his Vademecum voor de fytotherapie the effects of the flavonglycosides. 37 : 1) cardiotonic (stimulating the heart without accumulation), diminishing the permeability of the capillaries (antihemorrhagic), diuretic, stimulating gall secretion and laxating, activating vitamin C, stimulating the deposit of calcium out of the blood into the tissues and roborating (strengthening and tonising).
Mucous parts (3 - 10 %); especially “arabinogalactans‘ and “uronic acids”. Van der Schaaf mentioned the protective function on the mucous membranes and the skin against inflammation.
The functions: 1) the emollience of the skin and mucous membranes
2) a protectivum,
3) an expectorant,
4) a regulant of the intestines
5) as a corrigentium for a better taste, smell
6) delay of resorption.
Ethereal oils (0,5 %); following Van der Schaaf:
1) stimulating the skin and mucous membranes,
2) stimulating secretions of stomach, gall bladder and intestines,
3) diminishing gasses,
6) a spasmolytic,
7) diuretic (contra-indication: nephritis),
9) an anthelminticum (anti-worm infections).
Tilia eureopea and Sambucus nigra are both containing Sambunigrin. Farnesol and terpenes have calming and narcotic effects for nervous and sleepless people. Farnesol has also a sedative and antispasmodic effect on the heart. This is studied on rats, citing the American Botanic Council:
- A substance occurring in linden flower volatile oil, farnesol, demonstrates some sedative and antispasmodic activity on rat duodenum in vitro. Although it is present only in small amounts in linden extracts, it may be therapeutically active. In initial, experimental tests, both hypotensive and vasodilative actions were noted in animals receiving linden flower extract intravenously. Their heart rate increased and cardiac muscle tone relaxed.
This effect on the heart has been a matter of some concern. In excess amounts, linden flower is known to be cardiotoxic“.
The Lime-tree would be very useful with children with sleeping disorders.
Saponins has a resorptive effect by forming colloid solutions in water, stimulates the permeability of the cell membrane and stimulates then the secretions of the intestines in an expectorant, a diuretic and a diaphoretic way.
Tannins have a contracting, staunching the blood, antiseptic and antidiarrhoetic effect.
Fenol acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and chlorogenic acids) have a diaphoretic effect.
The Lime-tree is known for the interaction with iron, mentioned in Herb-drug interaction handbook. Hurrell says that tea of Lime blossom (Tilia cordata) decreases the absorbation of the non-heme iron by 52% due to polyphenol content. (77 human subjects). The rest products of heme are gall secretions and that explains the effect on the gall bladder.
Traces of benzodiazepines are a minor tranquilizer with sedative, hypnotic, antiepileptic and detonating effects. The investigation of V. Wolfman and others in Journal of
Ethnopharmacology has shown an anxiolytic effect with Tilia tormentosa on mice (not on men); decreasing fear and restlessness and is in higher dosages a narcotic.
Bark, wood and tincture
The bark has a similar effect, but is mainly affecting the liver, the gall bladder with gall stones and the stomach. It is choleretic and useful with digestive migraine. Also some vasodilatory effects.
The ash of the Lime-tree contains traces of mangane and iodide.
Compresses: eye infections, ailments of the skin as haemorrhoids and furuncles. Lotions: the itching skin. Tincture: diaphoretic, narcotic and lowering blood pressure. Charcoal: distressed intestines and dyspepsia, wounds, burns, sore pains, abscesses and bleedings. Decoction of the bark: eye infections, cramping pains, gall bladder, diaphoretic and many other effects. In France it was used with infections in festering wounds with cancer.
Species of Tilia and the Acer (maple) attracts a lot of leeches. They secrete a sugar that is very sticky and spoils the ground and cars below the trees. The leeches remind me of the itch what has been seen a lot in the trituration of Tilia eureopea. There is a case of an elderly woman who had delusions of parasitizes while she had been sitting under an Acer and since then complained about a sticky and itching feeling.
The honey of the Lime-tree
The honey of the Lime-tree has a stronger antibiotic effect than other species of honey.
The effect is stronger because of the high concentration on sugar (dehydration of bacteria), the high PH (difficult multiplying of bacteria) and more the delayer of bacteria. The honey is diaphoretic, lowering fever, helping with colds and flues and has antispasmodic capacities with headaches, menses, colicky and cramping pains.
The toxic and allergic effect of the Lime-tree
The more poisonous a plant, an animal or another substance, the greater the medicinal effect of a homeopathic remedy will be.
Vermeulen: cases of poisoning or disease are useful to get to know the remedy. In literature I read some warnings about excessive use of the Lime-tree as a tea or aromatic oil. There is little evidence for negative effects with excessive use. The German commission E Monographe and the American Herbal Products Association‘s guide on herbal safety declare that the Lime-tree has no toxic effect.
There are just too little studies available to come to a conclusion about this subject.
- hypotension and heart problems because of the diaphoretic effect
- actions needing concentration like driving and surging because of the narcotic effect.
Warnings for side-effects have been reported:
- Cardiotoxic because of the strongly hypotensive and vasodilatory effect.
- Drowsiness and hallucinations because of the ethereal oils.
- Aborting effect because of the diaphoretic use.
- Irritation on the sensitive skin because of the ethereal oils.
Warning! When the blossoms are picked too old then there can be symptoms of narcotic intoxication with drowsiness and hallucinations. The yellow-white blossoms need to be gathered as soon after blossoming and in dry circumstances, within one to four days after blossoming of the tree.
Tiliae can cause allergic reactions with their pollens, like hay fever. The French site is citing some studies about the lesser capacities of the lime-tree to cause allergies or atopic reactions than other trees.
This was the result from a study on dermatitis which was caused by touching bee wax. Sources for the wax were Populus, Aesculus, Picea, Salix, Tilia, Platanus, fruit trees, Abies, Alnus and Betula.
Tilia must be less allergic because of the little concentrations of pollen in the air. Most people who were allergic to Tiliae were having a Tilia tree in their garden Also it was proved that the Lime-tree in general has anti allergic effects because of the decreasing of the release of histamine reactions, proven with a study of the Vietnamese Tilia Corchorus olitorius L.
Possible physical regions for homeopathic use of the Lime-tree
Concluding from the information about the theory of signature, the history of phytotherapeutic use, the more technical story about the phytotherapeutic use, the toxic and the allergenic effects I can say about the Lime-tree in general that the homeopathic remedy will mainly work at the following regions:
1) fever and infections (child);
2) nervous system with hysteria, drowsiness, hallucinations, concentration or sleeping disorders, headaches or migraines;
3) skin (itching, inflammations);
4) mucous membranes, sinusitis, bronchi, asthma and allergies;
5) cardiovascular system with antispasmodic and sedative effect, disorders of blood pressure with a lot of perspiration/Pain causing to sweat;
6) urogenital system with diaphoretic and diuretic effects,
7) digestive system with disorders of stomach, intestines and gall bladder, spasms, diarrhoea
8) extremities with rheumatic pains (causing to sweat), gout and ischias and
9) the female genitalia with abortion, menses (clods)
I consider a tree.
I can look on it as a picture:
stiff column in a shock of light,
or splash of green shot
with the delicate blue and silver of the background.
I can perceive it as movement:
flowing veins on clinging, pressing pith,
suck of the roots, breathing of the leaves,
ceaseless commerce with earth and air –
and the obscure growth itself.
I can classify it in a species
and study it as a type in its structure and mode of life.
I can subdue its actual presence and form so sternly
that I recognise it only as an expression of law –
of the laws in accordance with
which a constant opposition of forces is continually adjusted,
or of those in accordance with
which the component substances mingle and separate.
I can dissipate it
and perpetuate it in number, in pure numerical relation.
In all this the tree remains my object,
occupies space and time
and has its nature and constitution.
It can, however, also come about,
if I have both will and grace,
that in considering the tree
I become bound up in relation to it.
The tree is now no longer It.
I have been seized by the power of exclusiveness.
Martin Buber (1878 – 1965)
The Materia Medica and former provings of the Tilia family
Like Martin Büber said we would like to be more bound up in relation to the Lime-tree. After studying the signature and the symbolism of trees in general and the Lime-tree in specific we will now take a look at what has already been written in homeopathy about the Lime-tree. It is necessary to study the former conducted provings of the Tilia family in order to validate the information of the trituration of the Tilia eureopea at the Hahnemann Institute in The Hague. Müller and Frohlich from Austria did a proving with the same species, described in Allen‘s “A primer of Materia Medica”.
Robert Bannan conducted a proving with the closely related Tilia cordata.
In the diverse Materia Medica:
1st st proving by Müller and Frohlich is mostly used,
2nd the proving by Bannan.
3rd Lippe just mentioned two mind symptoms: melancholy and disposition to weep.
4th T. Allen “A primer of Materia Medica” there are pages of similar symptoms listed, where the category of the female organs had more symptoms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to show you the proving in his totality. Although I would like to mention some symptoms of the mind with some comments.
1st Proving Tilia eureopea by Müller and Frohlich
- Towards morning she was tormented by a rush of pleasant thoughts, which changed to a weeping mood; through the next day she was peculiarly irritable, and inclined to quarrel, with confusion
of the head, with a tense accelerated pulse and increased warmth of the body, especially of the cheeks. Here you can recognize the changes of emotions in a particular order for Tilia Eureopea
- Lovesick; all his thoughts centred upon an ideal woman; in this reverie he was possessed by a sweet melancholy, which it was impossible to describe; every earthly sense seemed far away.
The symbolism of the Lime-tree is also pointing to lovesickness.
- He cannot remain in the house on account of a sensation of into the open air, in the evening, when he feels better (first day).
- Dread of society (second day). Resignation is a typical theme of the trees in general.
- Irritable, critical mood, inclined to quarrel and get angry, even from the slightest difference of opinion (first day). The irritable mood and the contrariness are seen in the trituration.
- Disinclination to work (fourth day).
- An intoxicated and stupid condition, with mental oppression (second day). This is comparable with the drowsiness of the ethereal oils.
- Sleep full of dreams, and unrefreshing. Comparable with the drowsiness & sleepiness of the ethereal oils.
- Very vivid dreams, with excessive fear of personal danger; he woke from these dreams at 1 o'clock in slight perspiration, especially on the legs and along the tibia (first night).
Fear of personal danger, feelings of safety or unsafety are seen in the trituration.
- Vivid frightful dreams, from which he woke in great excitement; the skin of the legs, and especially over the tibiae, bathed in perspiration (first night).
- Many unremembered dreams, at night (second day). This is a confirmation of the many unremembered dreams.
- Woke suddenly at night from a poetic dream, after which he was wide awake for a long time (first night).
2nd Proving Tilia cordata from R. Bannan
In the Materia Medica the provings of T. eureopea are frequently confused with the proving of T. cordata from Bannan. Sometimes it is even difficult to understand which symptom is from which Tilia.
Vermeulen has made a summary of the proving van T. cordata from Bannan in the Synoptic and The Concordant. Robert Bannan conducted a proving in 1995 with 31 provers. Tilia Eureopea is a hybrid of the Tilia cordata and the T. Platyphyllos.
There will be a lot of similarities in the proving, what is understandable because of the remarkable easily forming of hybrids. It is a pity that this proving of T. cordata is mentioned under the shortcut Til. in the Synthesis 9.0, while this abbreviation is reserved for T. eureopea.
Bannan: in his book Die Linde Tilia cordata:
“….with her strong despair, helplessness and resignation. The Lime is feeling threatened and as if in an ominous situation where she has no influence nor knows what to do. The Lime will then be passive. The Lime stops watching dangerous situations and split off her situation and her feelings. The splitting off is leading to the sensation of isolation, the sensation of a barrier between others
and themselves. She felt forsaken and is isolating herself in a world which is dead. The other answer of the Lime to despair and resignation is finding everything pleasant: elated, euphoria and uncontrolled laughter about death, wounds and suffering”
I saw a lot of characteristics of the trees in general: the strong feelings of isolation, loneliness, forsakenness, difficulties in communication, emptiness, loss of identity and feelings of calmness and complacency.
Despair and resignation, barrier, pretending he is death, dark water, inundation, fire, cold fire, colours yellow, blue and green, indifference (strong), not knowing what to do, corpses, shots, military, black humour, elatedness, laughter.
Heat with cold skin and cold shivering. Shuddering with fever and cold sweat. Cold with sudden heat. Ailments of the head: sensation as if the vertex is lifted, the vision becomes weaker – darker,
an opening of the occiput relieving the headache, sensation of air/draft out of the occiput, emptiness of the head with dull feeling in occiput, headache < motion/jar. The skin of the heel cracked or damp.
- The elements Nat-s. Nat-c. Zinc-met.
- Plants: Gels. (fears), Hell. Lyc. Mez.
- Trees: Hura. Lyc. Anac. Chin. Ign. Rhus-t.: pattern of fever, cold, cold shivering, perspiration (cold perspiration, but not >).
Til-c.: very sycotic.
Physical symptoms of the earlier provings. A lot of sources repeat the information of Allen, Lippe, Clarke and Boericke. Generals, particulars and modalities noted below to get a brief overview of the literature about the Tilia Eureopea.
Particularly suitable for women after parturition, and for children during dentition.
Heavy dragging sensation in urethra, uterus and rectum. "As if everything would fall out of pelvis." "Pressure on rectum which seems to press out anus." "Constant painful pressure on bladder
and urethra." and Redness, soreness and burning of external genitals.
v Sensitive to cold. Draft. Head extremely sensitive to draught of air. ‖I have a feeling of being cold all day but my palms are hot and I have a cold sweat and I'm shaking as if I have the flu."
Interestingly enough, the increased heat of the palms of the hands is also to be found in the proving of Tilia eureopea.
<: Warmth [room/bed]; >: Walking in open air; "He cannot remain in the house on account of a sensation of apprehension and anxiety; the room seems too close, he is obliged to go into the
open air, in the evening, when he feels better." [Allen] "Orgasm and boiling of blood, so that the warmth of the room seemed intolerable." [Allen] "Orgasm of blood; rising of heat from the
chest to the face and head, with heat and redness of the face, esp. of the cheeks." [Allen] Chilliness, with sudden heat all over. [Bannan]
SWEAT; without relief. The MORE he SWEATS the GREATER THE PAIN or the mmore pain the more sweating. Profuse perspiration at night. Profuse perspiration during climax.
"The Tilia perspiration is WARM, differing from the perspiration of Mercurius, which is either cold [forehead] or clammy and oily, and failing to relieve pain." "When, in rare cases of rheumatic fever, a perspiration breaks out, hope is held out that this perspiration is a beneficial crisis; but instead of this hope being fulfilled, the sufferer complains of an increasing pain just in proportion as the perspiration increases; motion becomes more painful, so does the swelling of the extremities and joints, and the sore feeling of the whole body increases, there is more thirst and a decided decrease of the urinary secretion. After sleep, especially in the morning, the warm perspiration becomes very profuse." (In a recent protracted case of rheumatic fever in an old gentleman, one dose of Tilia CM (Fincke) removed the perspiration and pains at once, and had only to be repeated once in five days. The improvement continued till full health was restored.)
"Perspiration of the face, so much at night I had to wipe it." [Bannan]
Sleepy < during pain.
< at night [heat/pain/skin/sweat].
Sore, bruised feeling; bed feels too hard.
Head. Sensation as if the occiput were opening, which amel. headache. Sensation of air coming out of occiput. Sensation as if vertex were lifted up, and dimness of vision.
Dimness of vision, during headache or vertigo, was a prominent symptom in the proving of Tilia eureopea.
Epistaxis. Blood thin and pale, but coagulating quickly.
Facial neuralgia, first on the right, later on the left side. and veil before the eyes. and hot sweat [without relief].
Face pale or flushed; frequent alternations.
Sensation of something alive under skin of face.
Tension in anterior muscles of both thighs as if too short.
Sensation as if leg tightly bound while walking.
Skin symptoms < heat of bed.
Redness of skin, burning like fire after scratching.
Modalities, Concordant, Vermeulen:
<: SWEATING/drafts/talking/after sleep/walking/sneezing/afternoon and evening/warm room/heat of bed. >: Cool room/walking about in open air/motion.
>: closing eyes [head]/coffee. Pain in head > application of cold water; pain in jaw
<: application of cold water; heat of bed < skin symptoms. < Afternoon and evening/in warm room/during motion [rheumatic symptoms]. >: In cool room/from motion;
Other symptoms are mentioned frequently:
Muscular weakness of the eye
Disease of antrum [Chel./Kali-i.].
Urticaria = Nesselsucht. violent itching, and burning like fire after scratching. Eruption of small, red itching pimples. (Boericke).
Sankaran’s insight into plants:
Sankaran has mentioned very valuable information about Tilia in An Insight into Plants, volume II‟.
Tilia eureopea belongs to the Malvales Superorder with the following families: Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae. The homeopathic remedies in this Superorder would be very
much alike in sensation and function.
The sensation: together and then separated, joined and separated or attached and then unattached.
The passive reaction: estranged from his family / society, indifferent (to everything), aversion to the husband.
The active reaction: communicative, affectionate, dream of falling in love.
Compensation: independent, self-confident.
Malvales themes are:
- overprotection, then sudden isolation.
- Child like dependence
- Left alone to fend for herself.
- Someone nice suddenly showing their hard/malicious side.
- Rejection. Longing to be loved.
Onder de oude linde
Al heb ik op mijn levenspad, Veel lief en leed vergaard;
Toch blijft er een herinnering, Diep in mijn hart bewaard.
Vaak als ik mij mistroostig voel, Het lot mij parten speelt;
Verrijst er voor mijn geestesoog, Een onvergeet’lijk beeld.
Refrein: Onder die oude linde, Hebben wij samen gerust;
Trof ik mijn teerbeminde, Heb ik haar mondje gekust.
Onder de oude linde, Vlogen de uren voorbij;
Aan den voet van dien boom, scheen het leven een droom, Sloeg een liefhebbend hartje voor mij.
Die boom was onze schutspatroon, Een troost bij zorg en smart;
Wij kerfden in zijn stoeren stam, Twéé namen en een hart.
Daar zwoeren wij elkander trouw, Als een gelukkig paar;
Hij bracht ons na oneenigheid, Verzoenend tot elkaar.
Het stormden op een zeek’ren nacht, Met donderend geweld;
Des morgens lag de trotsche reus, Ontworteld neergeveld, Hoe staarden wij met droevig oog, Naar ’t drama op het gras;
Plots was ’t of in ons binnenste. Iets moois gestorven was
This poem “Under the old lime tree” was found in an old yellowed little book without a date. Publisher Rombouts, Roosendaal, The Netherlands.
Representative: P.J. W. Jongeneel Markt 41 Gouda. Written around 1910 - 1920
The trituration of Tilia eureopea
The choice for this specific tree
This poem is an old Dutch poem about a man who, full of melancholy, is looking back on those times when he was kissing his beloved girl friend under the Lime-tree.
The couple carved a heart with their names in the Lime-tree. The tree was protective and comforting to the couple. They always reconciliated under the tree.
One day during a storm the tree felt and they felt very sad about it. It was as if something inside them did die too.
The Tilia eureopea used for trituration did die too because of a storm. The tree was standing in front of the house of the Hahnemann Institute near the centre of The Hague.
Alize Timmerman decided to triturate this tree when the tree fell to the ground during a storm in the spring of 2003.
Typical considering the poem on the left and Lime‘s sensitivity for pollution and sea wind. From studies it appeared that the wood of the Lime-tree becomes softer because of the pollution and the
sufficient photosynthesis. The tree stands in the middle of the big city where there is a lot of traffic. The Lime-tree is now replaced by a much younger one.
During the trituration of the C2 one prover got a feeling of deep sadness. She saw an image of a fallen tree. The tree was very sad. “The tree mourned because she was forgotten,
because she wasn‘t honoured anymore. Help, I‘m suffocating by the vapours of the cars! The pollution of the environment is guilty of my fall onto the ground‘.
This experience during the trituration can be an affirmation of the sensitiveness of this specific tree.
The advantage of meditation with trituration
The advantage of triturations is however the four hours of focus or attention with the Lime-tree during the trituration. In Figure 14 Vessel and mortar is something like meditation on the remedy.
It is a good exercise for training your observation, to differ your own symptoms of the remedy symptoms. Experiencing the remedy will get you to know the remedy and sometimes with a strong
resonance will give healing. I can imagine that C4 information would become vague or unnoticed during all day activities when proving the remedy the standard way.
The message of the remedy at C4 can be more difficult to understand. It is possible that after months the message will be clear. Triturating the remedy with all provers together will easier give way
to the tuning in to the symptoms of the Lime-tree.
The number of proves was acceptable, according Jeremy Sherr in The dynamics and methodology of homoeopathic provings, a number of 5 to 20. 17 provers were female, 3 male.
Typical was that there were less female symptoms with this kind of proving than expected reading former provings and Materia Medica.
Making up the results I noticed some deviations in handling the triturations of the standard of doing a proving, especially the absence of supervisors and the discussions.
Lost information due to absence of a supervisor.
The big question is whether the information of Tilia eureopea is reliable or not? There were no supervisors who could control the precisization of noting the symptoms.
Were the symptoms of the prover himself or the tree? Did some old symptoms return or were there even healing symptoms?
There can be a lot of lost information. Like Jeremy Sherr says: “The prover becomes the proving and therefore they cannot actually perceive that they are changing…..Everyone has an internal
observer but in a proving the observer may be infected by the remedy and not be able to perceive change“. A few provers took some powder without supervisor. One sensitive prover had an awful
experience at night with heavy heart symptoms. She did antidote them with tiger balm. Symptoms rising after antidoting are not valuable anymore. The prover stopped with the triturations and did
not do the C4. Although the experience with trituration is that moving up to the C4 would be the best for healing the symptoms of the prover. This was true for the one prover who also did the C5
trituration. He experienced more peace to finish his Lime-tree story.
I noticed little modalities in the texts of the triturations of the students themselves. Just guessing I can imagine that triturating the substance at the same place can be one cause. Maybe supervisors could elicit modalities.
Group discussions would be necessary.
Discussions about the symptoms are an enriching part of the proving experience. Between the triturations people could share the gained information about the Lime-tree when triturating the Lime.
It was mere sharing the symptoms and not a discussion about them. I realize I should have organized such a discussion afterwards when all symptoms were shown to the provers but I didn´t because
of the time passed by.
In this proving people experienced the sharing of information as disturbing, because they did not want to leave their meditative state. This truly says something about the remedy. Their wish for
resignation is strong and is reflected in the symbolism of the Lime-tree.
Next time I would suggest sharing the information after all triturations. So there is a minimum of chance of interfering and after a while the information can be enriched and deepened. People will also
have the opportunity to value their symptoms as important or doubting. Discussions can be a moment to recognise their subconscious experiences in the stories of other people so we will have more information about the subconscious experiences. Observing themselves is not just enough.
Justification of choice and validation of the symptoms
Analysing the elicited symptoms of the provers I had to make choices in the validation of the symptoms. By translating the symptoms in repertory rubrics the information of the proving becomes alive.
This information can then be turned into functional tools. Some symptoms are difficult to repertorise and are to be sensed as themes of the Lime-tree. I had to make a choice to translate all the symptoms written down or not. As J. Sherr wrote the experience of homeopaths is that over the last centuries some dubious symptoms became keynotes of remedies and have lead to spectacular healings with
patients. In the literature there are several homeopaths like Lippe and Wells who experienced this.
As good as possible I tried to judge the symptoms on their value and validity. The criteria of J. Sherr were guidelines for including symptoms of the Lime-tree:
1) If in serious doubt, leave it out,
2) inclusion when new symptoms,
3) inclusion when symptoms are intensified as usual or current symptoms,
4) no inclusion when RS (recent symptom),
5) no inclusion when AS (altered symptom),
6) inclusion when OS (old symptom) when from more than 5 years ago or when there were symptoms of accidents,
7) inclusion when CS (cured symptom),
8) inclusion when the symptoms are marked or significant with several provers,
9) inclusion when symptoms are more frequent and intense,
10) the perceived meaning of the totality of the symptoms can in- or exclude symptoms
11) the inner knowledge and conviction of a prover that symptoms are belonging or are not belonging to the remedy.
The validity of heart and head symptoms of prover 3 became doubtful when it turned out recently that she developed a severe Lyme disease. I had to rejudge these symptoms at value because those
symptoms could belong to the prover himself. However taking rule 3) include symptoms when they are intensified as usual or current symptoms in to account I chose to include her symptoms as
symptoms of the Lime-tree. Keep in mind that the experience in prescribing will make clear if the trituration symptoms are valuable. Because of the same reason I did not dare to give the symptoms gradations of value. Only the symptoms “longing for repose and tranquillity‘, “meditative‘ and other symptoms of the tree family can be certainly diagnosed as belonging to the Lime but not immediately specific to the Lime.
Another example of difficulty in validating the symptoms was for example my instinct that the “irritability‘ is very strong in the Lime-tree. I could connect this to other symptoms, but provers wrote this irritability down as blank cartridges with no connections to thoughts, feelings or physical symptoms whatsoever. I observed that a lot of provers had written down their symptoms as blank cartridges
so I had to sense with my intuition what the meaning of the symptoms could be. Repeating the proving or building experience with prescribing can affirm the symptoms.
I have to admit that it took me two years due to personal circumstances to finish this paper about the Lime-tree so it seemed difficult to me to contact the provers about their symptoms and their validity.
My advice is start prescribing this remedy in practice when you feel familiar with this remedy, report the successful cases or prove this remedy at all C levels keeping the standards of proving of J. Sherr
The next paragraph is an integral text of the physical symptoms (C1) ordered following the chapters in the repertory of Synthesis. In appendix D I ordered the repertory rubrics fitting the Lime-tree in an alphabetical order. To understand the mind symptoms I have sorted the symptoms of the provers in groups with selections out of the literal texts.
The dreams will be discussed in the next paragraph where the literally texts of the provers about their dreams is noted in appendix B. In appendix C I noted the chosen repertory rubrics in alphabetical order for the mind. When noting a rubric I noted the number of remedies between brackets so you see quickly if the rubric is specific. When there are small rubrics I will mention other tree remedies in the rubric.
The essence of Lime helps us to anchor universal love in our hearts. Supporting us in overcoming feelings of separation from our spiritual self or others.
The essence of Lime can empower and encourage us to work for peace and spiritual harmony on earth.
Lime brings an awareness of our relations and interdependence with all life on Earth. When we open to and anchor universal love in our hearts, feelings of separateness are transformed and we create harmonious relationships in our lives.
Introspective or too focused on self, over identification with lower self/personality, feelings of powerlessness, over-dependency, fear of domination; intolerance, prejudice or nationalism,
lack of awareness of the whole, separateness.
Archetype = Hestia - the Goddess of the Hearth and the Temple
Helper archetype of Tilia platyphyllos would be The Home, meant for people who feel alienated and never feel welcome anywhere. The Home will be seen in this proving of Tilia eureopea;
with the home of childhood, safe being at home, cleaning the house. Home was experienced by one prover as a safe place, being protected from the outside.
Another archetype is that of Hestia, the Goddess of the Hearth and Temple. Hestia is another lead in the understanding of the Lime-tree as a homeopathic remedy with striking similarities when
I studied the book “Goddesses in Everywoman”. I found a lot of confirmations of the symptoms in the trituration of Tilia Eureopea, the earlier proving of Tilia cordata from Bannan. Understanding this archetype would deepen the knowledge about the Lime-tree on the collective level of the C5. This archetype is belonging to women and it brings a sensation of oneness.
Artemis exploring wilderness
Athena building a town.
Hestia stayed always at home.
Hestia was the oldest of the three Greek virgin goddesses.
At first sight the anonymous Hestia doesn‘t look like the other sisters, but they had some characteristics in common.
They didn‘t need anyone else and were themselves enough. They didn‘t become victims of the male gods or mortals. They could concentrate on what they found important themselves, without letting distracted by needs of other people or by needing other people. Hestia is introvert and is concentrating on her inner subjective experiences. When meditating she can totally be focused.
Hestia can experience a situation by looking inside herself and feeling intuitively what is going on. Hestia can help a woman to discover her own values, by concentrating on what is important for her.
She can feel the essence of a situation. It can help her realize the character of other people, the pattern of the meaning of their actions. This inner perspective creates clarity in the chaos of the details
where our five senses are confronted with. The inner Hestia can also be inattentive and emotional at a distance to other people, because she is concentrating on her own activities.
Hestia needs rest to be enough for her.
Hestia can be expressed as:
· The housekeeper. Keeping the house in a meditative way, with pleasure, giving an inner peace and calmness, like doing Zen. Keeping the house with the feeling as if she has all the time,
without a schedule or longing to the moment when she´s ready. When you visit this type the house is like a refuge, where the outer world cannot penetrate and where there is a timeless rest.
· The religious housekeeper. Supporting the community in contemplative catholic monastic order or Buddhism. Nuns and Vestal virgins are typical examples of this archetype.
Anonymous women who are taking part in the daily spiritual and household rituals of their religious communities.
Famous women in these communities combined Hestia with characteristics of other archetypal Greek goddesses.
· The wise old woman. Hestia didn‘t have a share in intrigues, fights within the family, and passions of love and emotions of the moment. She is not “depending‘ on people, possessing, results, prestige or power. She is feeling one with herself. Her ego is not at stake. Because her identity is not important the identity is not depending on outer circumstances. She will not be elated or sad when something happens. It is the older woman who had seen it all and is not discouraged by her life experiences but became stronger and purer.
Hestia is adaptive to other people and adapts her goals and longings, also when her husband is adulterous.
The goddess of the home and the fireplace has a connection to the mandala with a sacred fire in the middle, an image used with meditation and a symbol of oneness or totality.
Jung wrote in Symbolism of the mandala‟: „the basic motive is the supposition of a centre of the personality, a sort centre in the inner soul, where everything is connected to, whereby everything
will be ordered and in the meanwhile is a source of energy. The energy is manifest in the drive and compulsion to be what he or she is, like every organism has to be what he is´.
The self is where we have inner contact with when we are feeling one with the essence of all what is outside. Connection and distance are the same in a paradoxical way. When we feel connected
with an inner source of warmth and light (a spiritual fire) we warm the people we love and we keep in contact with people who are living at a distance. This fire of Hestia burnt in all houses and temples.
This fire was de goddess and connected all families and states. She is the spiritual bond that keeps a nation together.
Hermes (male) and Hestia (female) are an archetypal duality. The round fireplace symbolised Hestia and the pillar symbolised Hermes in the old Greece. A union between Hermes and Hestia was not possible, there was a duality, a splitting off or a differentiation between male and female, logos and Eros, active and susceptible. The archetype Hestia has lost admiration of the people, even almost
forgotten. Her sacred fires were not kept and she is not honoured anymore for her values. Forgetting the female values of Hestia a woman will lose her inner side as a refuge where she can find sense and peace and she will lose the family as a source of warmth and security. She is losing the fundamental connection to others, and also the need of an in common spiritual connection between all citizens of
a town, country or the whole world.
Hermes was the Mercurius, as the elementary fire, the source of the mystic knowledge, localized in the middle of the earth. Hestia is the archetypal representation of the soul and Mercurius of the spirit. Hermes is the spirit who set the soul into fire, like the wind blowing over the smouldering charcoal in the middle of the fireplace. Thoughts can elicit deep feelings and words can make aware of what was until then just vague.
Activating Hestia is possible when you focus your attention on just one thing while doing the household. A daily habit of this ritual will give you an inner sense of oneness and concentration, an inner source of peace and enlightenment. Some women will discover Hestia in periods of involuntary loneliness, starting with a loss, much grief and a longing to the company of other people. After some time some women make a virtue of necessity and are beginning to feel pleasant in their new discovered Hestia-life and find themselves.
As a child the young Hestia is easy, obeying and not stubborn. The child can do what other people say, but she can also play alone, totally satisfied. You will note a calm independency. When she is
hurt or anxious she can also find comfort in the loneliness instead of going to her mother. You maybe can feel an old wise woman in the little girl.
Hestia‘s father was Kronos and her mother was Rhea. Kronos devoured Hestia as first of her siblings and vomited out as the last one. She remained longer that her sisters in the darkness of her father‘s intestines and was therefore a long time on her own. Kronos was dominant and a tyrant. He had no warm feelings for his children. Rhea was helpless and depressive. She just fought for her children
after the last was born.
A woman with such a childhood often does withdraw herself during their childhood. She felt as alienated from her siblings as from her parents. She is different, tries not to be noticed, is passive and is convicted she is different than other people. She wants to be left alone and not be connected to any happening whatsoever. She does not develop a persona.
In a good family she will be stimulated by her parents to overcome her shyness and she will develop a social useful persona, a way to be nice and pleasant in contacts.
As an adolescent Hestia can choose to stay out of social contacts, love life and changing friendships. Study and work will not have her priority, she is not ambitious enough. She will have a typical job for women, as a secretary or a model.
Sexuality is not very important, although she can be in fire when starting making love.
As the only Olympic goddess she wasn‘t portrayed in a human person. She had no persona. She was never involved with romantic intrigues or conflicts, so she could not learn to survive conflicts or relationships.
Hestia can be overstressed when she thinks her efforts are useless and will have no results. She will show only indirectly, by caring for others, that she loves them. The pleasant feeling of being alone
can turn into loneliness. Her love is impersonal and at a distance because she never says or touches someone in a loving way. It seems to be that her love is not especially for the people she loves.
She has to learn to express her feelings.
The undervaluation can have negative consequences for her self-respect. She can have the feeling she is maladjusted and failing.
The difficulties arise when Hestia is finding her way into the world, out of her safe house or temple. When she doesn‘t develop other aspects in her personality she won't cope with the higher pace of
life and the competition.
Persona means in the Jungian psychology the mask of social adaptation to the world. When the persona is functioning well a man or woman can choose the role fitting the situation, the personality, the position and the age. How we behave, what we say, the way we connect with others and our identification is our persona. Hestia will need to develop a persona and being more assertively. The male characteristics, the animus, can help her in handling the world. Hermes or Mercurius can help her.
When Hestia can´t be herself with her intuition she experiences threatening situations (Apollo and his science), that will damage her spiritual experience, her sense of oneness. When threatened by oceanic emotions or thoughts out of the unconsciousness (Poseidon) she can become depressed. The fire is extinct by the water of Poseidon. Dreams about an inundation flooding over her can be a symptom, seen in the proving of T. cordata. She will retreat to search her oneness with intuitive concentration on her spiritual centre.
Slowly walking with them
the Lime is attending
until she suddenly
holding her gait
she has to know
lonely as she ís
lonesome they went on
that man that woman
Hans Bouma, Standing well with trees
Antagonisms of Til. eureopea
Child-like dependency ↔ adult; independent, self-confidence
Feeling as if in ominous danger ↔ feeling at home
Harmonious relationships ↔ longing to be loved; lovesick; disappointed in love
Nurturing ↔ overprotective, overstraining.
Protective ↔ controlling, fundamentalism
Identification with lower self ↔ identification with higher self
Self-preservation ↔ detached world service
Resignation & isolation ↔ awareness of our interdependency, our universality
Several important symptoms of the mind:
Ailments from dominance, indifferent loved ones, arguments
Disappointed in love. Mourning.
Brooding. Melancholy. Contrary, strong irritability. Emptiness
Fear of failure. Fear of anticipation. Fear of death.
Out of the body sensations, delusions of the body
- Respiratory system
- Cardiovascular system
- Mucous membranes and skin
- Digestive system
- Female genitalia (not seen much in this proving)
Miasmas: mainly sycotic and carcinosin
Fever and infections, influenza
Atopic diseases: conjunctivitis (itching, redness, tears, sand, light), rhinitis (itching, sneezing, copious discharge), asthmatic (difficult respiration / arrested), possibly urticaria and eczema.
Heart ailments & difficult respiration. Blood pressure; high.
Itching a lot.
Pain: stitching, pressing, burning, burning as from needles.
Emptiness; “As if hollow”.
< hot [weather (respiration)]/draft;
Eye: irritation, burning pain, itching,
Ear: stitching, itching, buzzing, stopped sensation
Nose: itching, copious discharge, smell illusionary.
Face: burning pain, flushes, itching
Mouth: heat, dry à hot breath.
Throat: constriction, pressing pain
Abdomen: distension, stitching.
Respiration: hot breath, difficult, desire to breathe deep, sighing.
Chest: heart & difficult respiration, congestion of the heart and / or the lungs, stitching heart pains, palpitations, waking in the middle of the night with pain of the heart, bronchitis.
Extremities: stitching pain, itching, heaviness, heat or coldness hands / feet, shuddering.
Perspiration: A lot of heat, just one mentions the sweating. Cold shuddering.
Skin: itching, scratches until it bleed, burning
Sleep: sleepiness with a lot of yawning, deep sleep, unrefreshing sleep.
Generals: sensation of draft
Sankaran has mentioned very valuable information about Tilia in “An Insight into Plants, volume II‟. Tilia eureopea is belonging to the Malvales Superorder with the following families:
Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae.
The homeopathic remedies in this Superorder would be very much alike in sensation and function.
Chocolate: Sankaran: “The Soul of Remedies‘ about Chocolate: „It is the feeling of a child who was separated from her mother too early, while the need to suck at her mother‟s breast was still strong.
As a result the person feels forsaken, isolated and estranged from her family. Being separated from her mother makes her feel as if she is separated from her world.´ Chocolate knows the social alienation, cannot connect, not even with her children. Dreams of losing his own family. Dreams of childbirth. Detached.
Chocolate knows the image of the mother who is turning her back on her child and shows her thorny side, like a hedgehog. One prover with Tilia eureopea was overstrained, shouting at her husband.
Here you see similarity (Sep.). Chocolate has a more animal instinctual side. The dilemma revolves around love, on the one hand, the ability to give and receive it, and the dichotomy between our social skills and our animal instincts, on the other hand. The feelings of Chocolate addicts were often associated with nourishment, breast feeding and motherly love. These aspects (of nurturing love) seemed to revolve around family issues, often in connection with nourishing and raising children.
Chocolate mainly acute: Sankaran, Tilia is more sycotic. Chocolate has sudden manifestations or symptoms, tries to escape or hide and is more impulsive. Both have the fear of impending danger.
Theme: panic when detached.
Abel.: more a typhoid miasm. Proposed theme: demands to be attached.
Goss.: ringworm miasm. A lot of itching, round little spots around the left ankle itching intensely, itching eruption on the skin: itching turns to burning on scratching.
In the trituration of Tilia eureopea there was a lot of itching. Brooding and discontentedness also seen in the trituration of T. eureopea. Sankaran‘s proposed theme was the feeling of trying to
Abrom-a.: more malarial miasm.
Tilia eureopea had in the proving no ailments of intermittent nature, but Tilia can be very hot or less often chilly.
Sankaran is citing D. Ray: irritability of temper, ill-humour, depression, mind fretful and morose, easily excitable angry mood; dislike for active work, moody, weakness of brain.
General uneasiness, languidity; feeling of extreme exhaustion, inability to do any active work, disinclination to work, irritability of tempers; great loss of flesh. In another proving:
colicky pain of intermittent nature and “As if a small ball pushing from insid”e, felt intermittently in the umbilical and right hypochondriac region.
The symptoms of Tilia are also of cramping or motion in the abdomen, but not intermittent of nature. Here the feeling would be hindered and troubled by the one he is attached to.
Two provers of Tilia eureopea experienced hindrance and trouble when trying to save children. The feeling of accepting and resigned to detachment, Sankaran describes, is present
but not quite in his totality I suppose.
Tilia cordata (Tiliaceae):
Bannan wrote about the lime-tree in his book Die Linde Tilia cordata:
“….with her strong despair, helplessness and resignation. The Lime is feeling threatened and as if in an ominous situation where she has no influence nor knows what to do. The Lime will then be passive. The Lime stops watching dangerous situations and split off her situation and her feelings. The splitting off is leading to the sensation of isolation, the sensation of a barrier between others and themselves. She felt forsaken and is isolating herself in a world which is dead.
The other answer of the Lime to despair and resignation is finding everything pleasant: elated, euphoria and uncontrolled laughter about death, wounds and suffering”
Bannan stressed the splitting off from other people. One prover felt split off her husband, but not like the sensation of behind the glass from Natrium carbon. She had the feeling that he doesn‘t like her,
“As if she smells awful” and felt guilty about it. Another prover felt a barrier between her, her husband and others. She felt like a stranger. Another prover felt himself behind the glass window, and that he could not communicate.
When I will die, nobody will notice. One prover had this thought about her husband: What is that man doing here? Another prover withdraws herself after seeing dead railway and wagons. She didn‘t want to talk with anyone, being touched or being loved.
Sankaran: Malvales superorder. Other typical proving symptoms in the proving from Bannan were the next ones. I feel separated from my family as if my husband doesn‘t want me. I‘ve felt like a stranger here like I don‘t belong. There‘s a barrier between myself and my husband. I felt total loneliness and hopelessness, as if I were on my own. I felt alienated and I was watching the people with me as if they were not there. I felt my closest people were strangers and they had no interest in me.
I found a lot of similarities in our trituration and the proving of Bannan. A remarkable difference is that Bannan underlines the sensation of a dangerous situation and that the reactions would be helpless
or being passive. In the proving of T. Eureopea I cannot recognize this theme so clearly. The caring side of T. Eureopea forces T. eureopea to act even in contradiction with people around them, seen in the dreams of saving a child. The T. Eureopea seems to have more contrary behaviour and sometimes giving up.
It seems to me that the C4 trituration of the Tilia Eureopea gives an answer on the question why the Lime-tree would withdraw and is feeling isolated. Provers experienced a strong connection with the partner, family, friends, other people, the world and even the universe. In the elated or almost orgasmic connection she can be very disappointed in people and therefore is withdrawing from others and feeling isolated. In the proving from Bannan there are images of a bridal gown and meanwhile a strong feeling of sadness, thoughts of death. The gown was red and there was a party with much gaiety. Then an experience of unification with red / pink flowers (Hibiscus) and felt an indescribable happiness.
The despair in the proving of T. cordata is stronger than in T. eureopea. Except the euphoria both have much laughter, out bursting laughter. Laughing about awful things (accidents/suffering) with T. cordata. The sadder the story, the more there was laughter.
Other similarities are:
· Indifference / no more feelings. One prover felt nothing when her daughter was sitting in her lap. One had no feeling to her family in a dream. Another didn‘t want to reconciliate after a fight.
· No identity in one dream of a prover. A sensation of emptiness, no thoughts, nothing to laugh about. Night, no wind, no motion, no forms.
· Darkness: a lot of dreams and thoughts about dark water or darkness.
· Fights, contrariness. One prover argued for 15 minutes with an employee, another in her dream with her mother.
· Reacting passively, not fast enough; in the car. T. Eureopea has this difficulty driving a car too. She can do one thing at a time. There is the wish to do things slowly, talking, and acting, in everything.
· Perceiving with the senses is more acute: hearing, seeing and smelling. Illusions of smells.
· An image of a tree full of bees.
· Colourful dreams: T. cordata yellow, green and blue, T. Eureopea no specific colours.
· Dreams about people, a crowd of people.
· Dreams about strange things, not fitting in. One prover of T. cordata was suspected to be a lesbian while she knew she was not. The feeling that something doesn´t make sense. A plane is crashing in a crowd and nobody is hurt.
· Physically both Tilias have the stitching pains, the slowly motions, hot dry mouth, difficulties with breathing, a lot of perspiration, sleep or sleeplessness, itching.
There is not enough evidence for differentiating Tilia eureopea from the species of T. cordata (Til-c.) and T. platyphyllos (Til-p.). The characteristic of being a hybrid of these two species doesn‘t make this easier.
Kola-nut (Sterculaceae): more a leprous miasm with a noticeable dislike of loved ones getting close to him, feeling neglected, an outcast, no desire for company. Kola would have much more
characteristics like taking what he needs and then withdrawing again, wanting to forget the need for harmony, desire to get angry face to face. Similar with Tilia eureopea is some doubt and
despair about not being “good enough‘. Also Tilia eureopea has a little bit feeling of superiority, shown by one prover. Kola can be aggressive towards the children who have irritated Kola in
extreme. Kola will feel good about it. Tilia eureopea can be very irritated but would probably not be aggressive soon. Tilia eureopea can feel more indifference, pointing at the dreams of drowning a
cat or losing a dog out of sight with indifference or the diverse symptoms of being different in the trituration.
The imagination that the fingers were grown together (Complete) are similar to the imagination of prover 5/C3 that her legs were grown together. Kola would have a lot more rush, where Til.
is much more in rest. Both have physical sensations of emptiness. Kola has the essential feeling of being abused, persecuted and poisoned by person from whom she seeks affection and attachment.
T. eureopea has more the feeling of being dominated by the partner, has an indifferent partner or the partner is out of reach. T. eureopea is sensitive to arguments in the family. Her ideas of oneness and loving each other would then be disrupted.
Mind: Ailments from disappointed love (51: Com. Ham. Ign. Nux-m. Nux-v. Rhus-g. Sal-fr. Seq-s. Til.)
Anger at absent persons while thinking of them; (5: Aur. Kali-c. Kali-cy. Ly. Sal-fr. (boom)
Anticipation (67: Aesc. Anac. Camph. Chin. Ign. Rhus-t. Tax. Thuj.)
Anxiety with fear; (124: ANAC. Chin. IGN. Nux-m. Nux-v. Rhus-t. Sabin. Samb. Thuj. Til.)
Anxiety from anticipation; (62: Sal-fr. Tax. Ulm-c.)
Brooding (Bamb-a. Camph. IGN. Ip. Kola Nux-v. Olnd. Sal-fr. Thuj. Ulm-c.)
Clairvoyance (Anac. Dat-a. Kola Pyrus. Sal-fr.)
Company - aversion to (232)
Concentration difficult (356; o.m. Til.)
Confusion on attempting to concentrate the mind (23: boom Olnd.)
Confusion - loses his way in well-known streets (22: bomen Kola, Nux-m. Nux-v. Sal-fr. Thuj.)
Conscentious about trifles (92: Bamb-a., Chin. Ham. Hura. Ign. Ip. Olib-sac. Sal-fr. Tax-br. Thuj.)
Content (54: Com. Kola, Laur. Olib-sac. Rhus-g. Sal-fr.)
Contrary (86: ANAC. Camph. Chin. Ip. Jugl-r. Kola. Laur. Nux-v. Olnd. Samb. Thuj. Ulm-c.)
Delusions - hears bells ringing (8: Ars. Cann-i. Kres. Med. Ph-ac. Thea. Valer. Verat.)
? “As if body is round”/”As if body is square” (face)/”As if body is threefold” (2: Ars. Petr.)
Being double (37: Anac. Com-f. Nux-m. Rhus-t. Thuj. Xan.)
“As if elevated in the air” (7: falco-pe. Irid-met. Nit-ac. Nitro-o. Phos. Rhus-t. Sil.)
Body is enlarged (18: Caj. Kola. Xan.)
Parts of body (lower body) (17: Nux-m.)
Distances are enlarged (17: Camph. Nux-m.)
Of emptiness (23: Ign. Kola Olnd.)
Is floating in air (85: Agath-a. Hura, Manc. Olib-sac. Pin-con. Rhus-g. Ter.)
Hears train; (new)
Is trapped (9: Sal-fr.)
Despair (185: Agath-a. Anac. Bamb-a. Castn-v. Chin. Crat. Hura. Ign. Kola. Lar-d. Laur. Olib-sac. Pin-con. Prun-cf. Rhus-t. Sal-fr. Thuj. Til.)
Discouraged (164: Agath-a. Anac. Caj. Camph. Chin. Coff. Cop. Gran. Ign. Ip. Kola. Laur. Myric. Myrt-c. Nux-v. Olnd. Pyrus. Rhus-g. Rhus-t. Sabin. Tax. Thuj.)
Fear – of losing control (13: Olib-sac. Thuj., anderen: Aeth. ARS. Cann-i. Carc. Cupr. Cupr-act. Cupr-f. Cupr-m. Lac-e. Thea.)
Of impending danger (40: Camph. Olib-sac. Samb. Samb-c.)
Of death (232: relatively little trees in this rubric: Anac. Camph. Chin. Coff. Ign. Ip. Rob.)
Of failure (110: Bamb-a. Chin. Kola Olib-sac. Sal-fr. Tax-br.)
Pain about heart; (1: Daph.)
Forsaken feeling (119: Abies-c. Agath-a. Bamb-a. Camph. Chin. Chin-b. Coff. Gink-b. Ham. Hura. Kola. Pin-con. Pseuts-m. Rhus-t. Sabin. Sal-fr. Samb. Tax. Thuj.)
Harmony - desire for (8: Olib-sac.)
Desires to be held (22: Coff. Kola. Nux-m. Nux-v. Rhus-t.)
Indifferent, apathy (357)
Laughing (142: Agath-a. Anac. Coff. Hura. IGN. Kola. Olib-sac. Pop. Rob. Sal-fr. Til.)
Immoderately (35: Anac. Coff. Ign. Kola Nux-m. Nux-v. Olib-sac.)
Longing for repose and tranquillity (3: Nux-v. Sacch. Sulph.)
Peace - sensation of heavenly (8: Olib-sac. Rhus-g.)
Peaceful fwwling (1: Sal-fr.)
Protected feeling (3: Olib-sac. Rhus-g.)
Resignation (28: Agath-a. Chin-b. Til.)
Sadness (656: e.g. Til. )
“As if isolated” (56: Abies-c. Anac. Camph. Ham. Hura. Kola. Sal-al. Sal-fr. Thuj.)
Serious, earnest (113: Anac. Bamb-a. Chin. Ham. Ign. Ip. Nux-m. Nux-v. Olnd. Rhus-g. Rhus-t. Taz. Thuj. Til. Ulm-c.)
Sighing (125: Agath-a. Anac. CAMPH. Cedr. Chin. Corn. Gran. Hura. IGN. IP. Nux-m. NUX-V. Olib-sac. Rhus-t. Tax. Til.)
Speech slow (66: Aesc-g., Ign., Laur. Nux-m. Olnd. Rhus-t. Thuj.)
Quiet; wants to be – desires repose and tranquillity (8: Crat. Ham. Kola Nux-v.)
Theorizing (34: Ang. Chin. Coff. Olib-sac.)
Thoughts – profound (12: Bamb-a. Olib-sac. Ulm-c.)
Thoughtful (67: Bamb-a. Chin. Guaj. Ham. Ign. Ip. Kola Manc. Nux-v. Olib-sac. Rhus-t. Tax. Thuj. Til.)
Wandering (88: Anac. Ang. Bamb-a. Corn. Ign. Kola, Manc. Nux-m. Olnd. Tax. Thuj.)
Tranquility, serenity, calmness (169: Agath-a., Bamb-a., Chin., Eucal., Gran. Ham. Ign. Ip. Kola. Laur. Manc. Olib-sac. Querc-r. Rhus-g. Sal-fr. Tax. Ter. Ulm-c.)
With seriousness (1: Aids)
Trifles seem important (29: Ign. Ip. Nux-v. Thuj. Ulm-c.)
Unification sensation of unification (2: Olib-sac.)
To the earth
To the universe (2: Olib-sac.)
Dreams: Bicycle riding (3: kola)/caring about another person (2:, Tax.)/coloured (26: Bamb-a. Gink-b. Taz.)/own family (27: Tax.)/indifference/crowds of people (15)/strange
Vertigo: Accompanied by staggering
Tends to fall to the left
Head: Constriction of forehead “As if too narrow”
Hot (+ red face)
Heat - flushes of (in occiput)
Itching of scalp – must scratch/occiput/temples/vertex
Pain – “As from a nail”/occiput r. side/> rubbing/r. side ext. vertex/stitching l. temple/pressing [above r. eyebrow (ext. to eye)/pressing (“As from a tight hat”/on temples)
Vertex – prickling/pulsating
Itching – in canthi/< rubbing
Pain – l./”As from sand”/burning (in canthi/must rub)
Warmth - sensation of
Vision: red before the eyes
Ear: Heat – [l. (ext. l. side of face/+ stitching in l. concha)]
Itching in meatus
Noises - buzzing
Pain - stitching – l./behind the ear – r.
“As if stopped”
Hearing:Acute/impaired - confusion of sounds
Nose: Discharge – l./copious – dripping
Itching (must scratch until raw)
Odors - imaginary and real – lemon/vanilla
Pain - burning, smarting
Face: Upper lip cracked
Numb (l.) cheek
Pain - burning [l./like needles (ext. around l. eye/l.)/stitching lower jaws
Heat (+ hot breath)
Stitching Inside upper lip
Prickling in palate
Throat: “As if a lump”/“As if thick”
Pain – pressing/raw
External throat: Constricted “As if grasped by a hand”
Itching - thyroid gland
Pain - pressing - thyroid gland/throat pit
Stomach: Appetite – diminished/increased
Nausea (from odors)
Abdomen: Pain – burning in region of umbilicus
Sensitive to clothing
Distended (> eructations/> lying/> sleep)
Heat in sides
Lightness, sensation of
Pain - Hypochondria (l./r.)/hypogastrium (l.)/in inguinal region l.
Kidneys: Pain l.
Female genitalia: Pain - stitching in pubic bone
Deep (desire to breathe)
Difficult – with gasping/during palpitation/> tiger balm/warm weather
Cough: Hacking/tickling in hroat (r.)
Expectoration: Greenish/(white) flakes
Chest: Congested – Heart (night)
Heat - in region of heart/in nipples
Complaints of the heart + difficult respiration
Inflamed bronchial tubes
Pain – ext. back/in heart (+ difficult respiration/ext. to r. hand/< lying r. side)/stitching (in heart ext. back/ext. downward/ext. kidneys/between l. ribs/in sternum r.)/pulsating ext. l. nipple
Palpitation of heart + difficult respiration
Back: Cracking in l
Itching (in cervical region)
Pain - stiching (in cervical region/”As from needles” deep above and between scapulae
Extremities: Awkward hands
Burning in calf
Foot (icy) cold
Heat in hand/foot
Heaviness (lower limbs)
Itching (ankle/elbow/foot/hand/lower limbs
Pain - burning in outer side of forearm/stitching (in 2nd fingers/l. foot/hand/knee/thigh/upper limbs/r. wrist)
Restless – foot/leg
Shuddering – (behind) lower limbs/nates
Ø Short sleep
Yawning ( constant)
Waking -after midnight- 2 h./with heart symptoms
Skin: Burning after scratching
Itching – eruptions/must scratch (until it bleeds)/
Generals: l. side
“As if draft of air”/”As if whole body is hollow”
Flushes of heat
Pain - burning externally/stitching
< hot weather
Appendix E Case „A tree with a heart‟
A case „A tree with a heart‟ of Vondràskovà.
Tilia Eureopea - A tree with a heart, L vondràskovà, czech republic
Homeopathic Links, 1999 / 03.
A special case of a girl with atopic eczema, impetigo, fever and weakness. I have stressed some important words and sentences where the dynamis of the Lime is shown. Remember the old habit in Europe of planting a Lime-tree for new borns. And wonder what trees can mean to this family: the father had heavy losses and had a heart attack, the mother reacted with despair and an abortion and the daughter with ailments of the skin and itching and sadness because children and her teacher refused her.
“I like to put my arms around trees. I like fairy tales and old stories - especially the ones about trees. I never dreamt that one story would come true right before my eyes.
When I was thirty I finished the University. I had two children and I was pregnant again. It was the time of Advent. My husband was going through a period of heavy losses. No wonder he had a heart-attack with inauspicious prognosis. I fell into despair and I had an abortion. The loss of a child was terrible for me. But my husband was restored to health, step by step, and in the beginning of May he went to the health resort, Podebrady. When we heard the name Podebrady, we thought of the words: Podebrady, heart-Lime. He returned home at the end of May with a Lime-tree that he bought as a reminder. We planted it in our garden, where it had room and sunshine and a view of a countryside. We tended the tree with love. In June, I felt very tired. I was sick to my stomach while travelling, and a doctor diagnosed pregnancy. Our daughter Johana was born on 20th March, 1984, and as a, 'dowry', she brought atopic eczema all over her body. When she was three, she had a general infection. Her skin was covered by ulcerous blisters, she had a fever and a total breakdown. Doctors treated her with antibiotics, corticoids, etc. Our daughter was failing in health. Her disease was returning cyclically and increasing. Psychical problems came on also, because she could not sleep because of the terrible itching. She was totally breaking down and she was sad because the children and a teacher in her kindergarten refused her. We were overcome by fear. And the Lime-tree was growing up. When Johana was five we decided to try alternative treatment. A herbalist from Semily taught us how to change her regimen, and a therapist from Prague convinced us to stop giving Johana all medicines, but there was no amelioration. Our neighbour was sorry for Johana and gave us an address of a homeopath, Bedrich Burkon, from Ceské Budejovice. I wrote to him and he invited us to his health centre. That day began long effort that finally rid us of anxiety about our daughter. The first signs of recovery started to be seen. A young dermatologist and homeopath from Prague, who collaborated with B. Burkon for a long time, was also a great support for us. Johana's skin became cleaner and cleaner. Eczema receded from the head to the bottom. During each infection, the impetigo occurred lower and lower. Our Lime-tree was growing. and one year we were pleased to see it flowering - but only on one branch. Next year it was in bloom on the one branch only, again. During one visit to Burkon, we went in detail through everything that happened to our daughter and he gave her a remedy, Tilia cordata. I did not know what it was and so I asked him. 'It is a Lime-tree,' was his answer. I do not know why but I remembered our Lime-tree and told him about it and about its strange flowering pattern (on only one branch). He smiled and answered: 'You will see, this year your tree will come into blossom on all branches.' Johana began to flourish and the Lime-tree came into blossom - the whole tree. A Lime-tree that without suspecting, my husband brought not for himself, but for his future daughter. And years are passing. Johana will be fourteen this year, and the Lime-tree one year older. Both are well and are growing into beauties. Recently I read a book about the medicinal power of trees. There was a Celtic tree-circle in the picture and I was not surprised that in this tree-circle, my daughter's tree, the Lime-tree was represented. I believe in fairy tales and old stories. I believe that trees are both our protectors and our hope. We belong to each other. They give us oxygen unselfishly. They exhale oxygen and inhale a death that we exhale. And so we have a task, as the old story tells, to save trees.
By far the best garden scent in July, apart from the smell of an early evening barbecue, comes from the blossom of a huge lime tree. The commonly cultivated lime, Tilia x europaea has one main drawback. By mid-summer the leaves are alive with aphids that produce sticky honeydew. This is disastrous for cars or garden furniture. Nevertheless, the lime is still a tree that looks stunning and smells great. The limes in city streets and parks are one reason why urban beekeepers are so successful. Pollinating insects love them. In eastern Europe people harvest the blossoms each July to make lime flower drinks or jellies
The seedlings of lime trees are rather a surprise. The seeds that the mice fail to find all seem to germinate. The first two leaves on each seedling are deeply cut, very pretty, and quite unlike those of the mature parent.
Legends, Myths and Stories
In Europe, many legends and superstitions are centered around these trees. Linden wood was used for carving sacred works of art, and the linden tree, which was the village tree, played an important role in the life of early Europeans. Thus it was only natural that special curative power was ascribed to these medicinal trees.
Among the Germanic peoples the linden was a "sacred" tree for people in love, the tree that brought fertility and prosperity. In the Middle Ages, people carved images of the Virgin Mary and figures of the saints from linden wood, calling the wood lignum sacrum, sacred wood.
Lime tree or Linden (tilia)
Native to Europe, linden is found in the wild, but is often planted in gardens and along roadsides. The fruits are small, round, hard, green berries. Propagate from seed in autumn or from cuttings or by layering. The flowers are collected in summer and have medicinal properties. Linden flowers are commonly taken to lower high blood pressure, especially when emotional factors are involved.
One myth associated with the linden is the transformation of Philyra, a nymph, into a linden tree. After she was raped by the god Saturn in the guise of a horse, and gave birth to the famed centaur,
Xxxx Cheiron, she was so devastated that she begged
the gods not to leave her among mortals. Her wish was granted and she was
transformed into a linden tree.
“When Saturn [Kronos] was hunting Jove [Zeus] throughout the earth, assuming the form of a steed he lay with Philyra, daughter of Oceanus. By him she bore Chiron the Centaur, who is said to have been the first to invent the art of healing. After Philyra saw that she had borne a strange species, she asked Jove to changer her into another form, and she was transformed into the tree which is called the linden.” –Hyginus Fabulae 138
Philyra (‘Linden Tree’) Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, and mother of the centaur Cheiron by the Titan Cronus who mated with her in the form of a horse so deceived his jealous wife Rhea.
This is why their son was born part man, part
horse. Some say that Philyra so loathed the monster born of her that she prayed
to the gods to change her into something other than what she was, and they
transformed her into a linden tree. But a happier version has her dwelling with
Cheiron in his cave on Mount Pelion, and thus able to see her son become one of
the wisest and most respected of living beings.
[Pindar, Pythian 4. 102-3; Apollonius, Argonautica 2. 1231-41; Apollodorus 1.2.4]
Legends About the Linden Tree
Sometime during the Middle Ages, a Prussian tribal leader was pardoned by the ruling Teutonic Knights and thanked God by placing Mary's likeness in a local linden tree. Rumors of miraculous healing and epiphany soon attached local pilgrims to the Holy Linden (Swieta Lipka in German). Soon so many came to this tree, that the Teutonic Knights built a shrine to the arbor in 1320. Two hundred years later, the knights razed the Catholic chapel due to a religious reversal and slowed the believers down, by installing threatening gallows, complete with bodies, around these trees. However, the gallows eventually rotted and flocks of Germans and Poles still visited the Santuary of Our Lady. This Santuary is located near Mragowo in the Mazury region of Poland.
Lipa is the Polish name for the linden tree, and Lipiec is the Polish name for the month of July. This is most likely because lindens blossom in July, and the linden tree has always held a place in the hearts of the Polish people. Old lindens were considered sacred trees in Poland's past. They were symbols of exalted, divine power, valour, and victory. The ancient Greeks and the Slavs regarded the Linden as the habitation of their goddess of love.
Later, as Christianity came to the area, this legend was incorporated into Christianity as the tree of the Blessed Mother. In folktales, the Blessed Mother hid among the linden's branches, and revealed herself to children. Many wayside shrines were placed under linden trees for this reason. Lightning was thought never to strike a linden tree, and thus it was a "lucky" tree.
Lindens bloom in July and have fragrant creamy white to light yellow flowers. Beekeepers loved the lindens as bees gathered profusely in their blossoms. Country people and the nobilty enjoyed the product of the bees. They used honey as sweeteners, the making of mead, and beeswax for candles. Old lindens often hosted beehives in their hollowed out trunks. Bees were important and in 1401, it is said that people, in Mazowsze, passed laws to protect bees and beekeeping. People were severely punished for cutting down linden trees and thus cutting linden trees was associated with bad luck and even death of a member of the family. This is a result of the fact, that often times, a painful death was the punishment for cutting down lindens.
Rings of lindens often were the tree of choice in courtyards, markets, cemetaries, and pilgrimage chapels devoted to the Virgin Mary, and the bees, the Linden blossoms attracted, provided beeswax candles to illuminate the church.
Blooms from the linden tree were used for a therapeutic tea (with honey, of course). This drink helped colds and induced sweating that broke fevers (Knab, Sophie Hodorowicz, Polish Customs, Traditions, And Folklore. New York: Hippocrene Books, Inc., 1998, 139-142.).
The linden tree was loved by all Polish people and it stands for family, faith, and the good life. Read "Ode to a Linden Tree."
[Original contribution by W. Howard]
Tracing the connection between the central European peoples and the lime tree further back in time to the pre-Christian era, a picture begins to emerge.
Amongst the Celtic or Gallic races which populated most of Europe before Caesar’s incursions in the century prior to the birth of Christ, were two tribal groups with connections to the lime tree.
These were the Veneti, a seafaring tribe from Brittany who rose against Caesar in 56BC, and the Treveri, who inhabited the lower Moselle valley and mounted an unsuccessful uprising against Roman invasion in 53BC – accounts of which can be found in Caesar’s Gallic Wars.
From research conducted in the 1980s by Dr. Jozko _avli, professor of economics in Gorizia, it has been postulated that the Veneti were of Western Slavic origin and that the present-day relationship of various European peoples to the lime tree coincides with the migrations of the Veneti people, traceable through Veneti toponyms as far as Brittany.
Scholars are not in full agreement as to the exact date of the Veneti's advent in Armorica (Brittany). Some advance arguments for as early as the eighth century, B.C.; others for as late as mid-fifth century, B.C. In any event, we find them fully entrenched by the mid-first century B.C. According to Julius Caesar's " Gallic Wars," they have a large fleet, control the harbors on the Armorican coast, collect tolls, and traffic even with Britain.
The toponyms they leave behind speak of their keen love and knowledge of the earth, the sky, the trees, the waters. Above all, they know no master, nor will submit to one.
See the following article for a further description of the Veneti. Note the elaborate relationship with death present in their culture and how this ties in with the two songs featuring the linden tree which follow this section.
The Treveri’s link to the lime tree is through their deity Lenus Mars (Mars being a subsequent Roman grafting to an earlier Celtic deity) who appears web-footed as a goose or swan (4) and who represented Mars in healing aspect.
We moderns have this idea of Mars as exclusively a brutal war god. To the Celts he was more often a peaceful protector, a healer or a tribal god. This is much in keeping with the original Italian Mars who was a guardian of fields and boundaries and sometimes a storm god. It was only his late-classical/Imperial conflation with the Greek Ares that gave him the combative, warrior-for-gain aspects. Mars was venerated as Mars Albiorix by the Albici in southern Gaul who considered him a protective mountain spirit. Albiorix means "king of the world". Mars Camulos was widespread, found in both Britain and on the Continent.
Lenus Mars is a great healer god who presided over a large temple complex at Trier and a sanctuary at Pommern. He also was known in Britain. He uses his warrior strength as a protector against illness and death. His epithet Iovantucarus shows his special role as a protector of the young. Lenus Mars also has a Celtic consort, the mother Goddess, Ancamna. (She is also paired with Mars Smertius by the Treveri.)
Mars Loucetius ("bright" or "shining") gives us another insight into Mars. Loucetius in the Roman world is usually an epithet of Jupiter. Mars Loucetius is paired at Bath with Nematona (Goddess of the Grove) and on the continent with the war Goddess Bellona. (Note: the lime tree has been attributed to Jupiter as well as Venus and the Moon.)
Mars Mullo (Latin for mule) was very popular in northern Gaul. He was associated with a shrine at Allonnes where pilgrims came to have their eyes cured. Many votive sculptures of the ailing part have been found there.
The character of the Treveri:
Caesar wrote that the Treveri were war-like and known for their horsemanship. He said they had the best calvary in all of Gaul. Their origin is unknown but they were said to be more Celtic than Gaulish or Teutonic. The Teutons were in areas north and east of the Celts. Although modern people might think of Ireland or Scotland when Celts are mentioned, the Celts actually had been in Central Europe during the Iron Age or at least by the 6th century BC. The Treveri were known as Celts by their language. In the 4th century Saint Jerome noticed the similarity of the language of the Treveri to that of the Galatians, who resided in what would become modern day Turkey. Celts are generally believed to have been seafaring people who made their way to Western Europe from the Middle East.
The Treveri tribe lived in the middle and lower Mosel River valley between the Rhine and Meuse Rivers. Aptly, one possible meaning of Trevari is "water-crossers." Their camps extended from the Ardennes to the densely pine-covered Hunsruck and Eifel Mountain ranges. The area is very hilly and their life was based much more on hunting than agriculture. Their world was one of hill forts, druids and rival chieftains.
Archaeologists and specialists in Celtic art and coinage have noted an unexplained and striking similarity in the styles and motifs between artefacts of Amorican Veneti and Treveri origin. They postulate migration between Brittany and the Moselle region as a possible explanation, despite no evidence of any continuity of style in the lands between the two places. But it is equally possible that both tribes share a common origin. The Veneti have been traced to the Baltic region and the Treveri had noted linguistic concordences with the Galatians (Turkey), a region where the Veneti have also been traced. The existence of large tracts of lime forest in the Baltic region – still extant in places in Rumania (see above) – might hint at a common Baltic origin as well as explain the association with the lime that the tribes carried with them throughout their migrations.
Both tribes also placed the horse in high esteem within their cultures – interesting, given the myth of Philyra (above).
In many modern sources, the lime is associated primarily with love in a rather sugary sweet superficial manner and given attribution to Venus and the Moon (8), but the connection with death and with the god Mars in healing aspect revealed in the cultures of the Veneti and Treveri hint at a much deeper, substantial level of relationship.
A synthesis of all the various references in folk custom and mythology, together with a reading of the two Linden Tree songs (see below) as an allegory for the soul’s journey, support the ideas contained in the description of the Findhorn flower essence:
LIME Tilia platyphyllos ~ Keynotes: ONENESS & UNIVERSALITY
Essence of Lime helps us open our hearts to the light and love of our universal being. From this awareness we experience our inter relatedness on earth and create harmonious relationships in our lives: universality
Attributes: Knowing and experiencing the self as universe, transfer from identification with lower to Higher Self, unification of individual consciousness with collective consciousness and environment, transmuting self-preservation into detached world service, humanitarian activity through recognition of need, service, relationship and sense of responsibility; group consciousness.
Essence of Lime helps us to anchor universal love in our hearts. Supporting us in overcoming feelings of separation from our spiritual self or others, essence of Lime can empower and encourage us to work for peace and spiritual harmony on earth.
Indications: Introspective or too focused on self, over identification with lower self/personality, feelings of powerlessness, over-dependency, fear of domination; intolerance, prejudice or nationalism, lack of awareness of the whole, separateness.
THE LUCK OF THE LINDEN-TREE
Of two true-lovers this tale I tell,
That loved each other long and well.
(We tread the dance so featly.)
Their love it flourished as fair and free
As the branch grows green on the linden-tree.
The knight to other lands must roam---
The lady, she must bide at home.
"I'll plant a linden by thy bower,
Leaves that beareth, and many a flower.
"And when the linden sheds its leaves,
Then shalt thou know thy true-love grieves.
"And when the tree its flowers hath shed,
Then shalt thou know thy love is dead."
When night was done and dawn was grey
The lady looked upon the brae.
"God bless the tree, so green it grows!
Well fares my love, where'er he goes!"
That heard the wily serving-maid;
Those lovers true hath she betrayed.
The serving-made, she up and spake:
"I'll spill your loves ere dawn shall break!"
The serving-maid, so false was she,
She tore the leaves from the linden-tree.
When night was done and dawn was grey
The lady looked upon the brae.
"The linden-tree hath shed its leaves---
"Full well I wot my true-love grieves.
"The linden-tree its flowers hath shed---
I wot full well my love is dead.
"And is he dead, my heart's desire,
My bower and all I'll burn with fire."
She's laid a brand her bower unto---
She's choked herself with the bolster blue.
When all the bower in a bale did stand
Her love came a-sailing back to land.
When all the bower was ashes and dust
Her love put in to the selfsame coast.
Unto his page he spake, the knight---
"Whose bower is this that burns so bright?
"If my true-love is dead, I say,
God wot, I'll die the self-same day."
Against a stone he set his hilt,
And there his heart's blood hath he spilt.
(We tread the dance so featly.)
From The Norse King’s Bridal, Scandinavian lore.
THE LINDEN TREE
(By the well before the gate there
stands a linden tree; I dreamed in its
shadow some sweet dreams. I carved
in its bark some words of love; in joy
and sorrow I was ever drawn to it.)
We understand Heine's envy: these are beautifully simple lines, emotional but not sentimental, using no metaphors but moving and impressive images.
Someone (we know it is our wanderer, the poor heartbroken chap) remembers a linden tree. The whole stanza is full of beauty but it is a beauty remembered. We think we can see the very place in our minds: the big, large, sheltering linden tree, the well, ah, we hear the water. What a nice sound! It is a quiet place now but it is not always since it is a popular place, too. The city gate is near, now and then (maybe it is afternoon) people come to fetch some water, to have a little conversation. But we just sit and relax. Now look, there is a young chap, ah, it is the guy who is so in love with whatshername. He carves her name into the linden tree's bark as so many guys have done before him. There are numerous hearts, slowly moving upwards as the giant tree still grows. And now our friend takes a nap in the tree's shadow. We can see that he is dreaming a jolly good dream, he is smiling. It is May, life is wonderful. And this young man not only has a sweetheart but also a place where he can go and a soul friend. Who is his soul friend, his confidant? It is the linden tree. Yes, nature is his friend. This place, full of memories, full of dreams, full of peace draws him to it. "It" draws him as the text literally says. - Cut. Winter. A broken heart. A lost hope. And the linden tree, the soul friend: memory. Now a leafless guardian before the city gate where she lives, the faithless one. We have to pass this guardian in the middle of the night.
(Today, too, I had to wander past in
the dead of night; then I closed my eyes
even in the darkness. And its branches
rustled as if they were calling to me: Come
over to me, chap, here you will find your rest!)
It was Thomas Mann in his magnificent novel The Magic Mountain who explained in a wonderful passage of the wonderful chapter Fülle des Wohllauts (Richness of melodious sound - read it, read it, read it) that the topic of Der Lindenbaum is death, nothing else. And right he is. What kind of rest is the linden tree talking about, now in the dead of winter and the dead of night? It is definitely not the sweetheart, this would be too cynical (and have you ever met a cynical tree?) and far-fetched.
The wanderer closes his eyes as he wanders past the tree, a forced rambler not a voluntary one ("Ich mußt auch heute wandern" - I had to...). The wanderer shuts himself to the place where he was so happy, to the tree he saw as a soul friend. But still nature is sympathetic but now it is a sinister and ghastly sympathy: it is a call to eternal rest, to rest forever. The depressed soul of the wanderer is mirrored in nature. It is striking that the wanderer does not yield to this call. He is not like the miller in Die schöne Müllerin who obviously commits suicide or gives in to death by broken heart. The wanderer wants to live on, he wants to suffer. (Well, this is now - Das Wirtshaus is yet to come.)
(The cold winds blew straight into my
face, the hat flew from my head, I did
not turn. Now I am some hours away
from that place and still I hear the
rustling: You would find rest there!)
Nature does everything to literally turn the wanderer: cold winds straight in the face, the hat blown away. But no, he is on his way. It is highly symbolic that the hat, the shelter, is blown away. The wanderer now is without protection, given over to the elements (and is so since Lied No. 3, since Der Lindenbaum is memory and the wanderer has already gone out of the city gates, past the linden tree).
But even some hours away from the place of his happiness (by the way, "manch eine Stunde" is not "many an hour" as many a translator says, it is "some hour" and nothing else) the wanderer still hears the tree's call. Now, is the promised rest really death? I think so, others do not. In any case there is no return possible. The bride is given to someone else, the words in the bark are only memory now, the dream gone. But maybe the tree (like the brook in Die schöne Müllerin) wants to call the wanderer back into life, to a second (and third and fourth...) possible happiness? Maybe; this is a wonderful thought. But our stubborn friend does not turn. This could be the motto of the whole cycle, of the whole depression-loving attitude of the guy: "Ich wendete mich nicht."