Niobium spp.

 

Niobium metallicum (Columbium) (Niob-met)

 

= Lycpr.-ähnlich;

Thema: Vorbereitung; Lösung: Zögern/zweifeln an eigenem Können;

Negativ: A. Stottern;

 

Empfindet sich wertlos. Stolz. zweifELT an sich + hasst Durchschnitt. fällt auf (Benehmen/Kleidung). Stimme/Lungen/Stottern + gutes Sprachempfinden;

Vorbereiten und Zögern etwas Neues durchzuführen

Zögernd kreatives Projekt beginnen wollen (beginnen und stoppen/beginnen), fühlen sich noch nicht genug vorbereitet; will Kreativität und eigene Projekte präsentieren, zum Erfolg bringen,

haben aber Zweifel über ihr Vermögen; mangelnde Selbsteinschätzung und zu idealistische Vorstellungen (Welt verbessern/Perfektes schaffen), führen zu langen + gründlichen Vorbereitungen

und Wissenssammlung; würde gerne im Mittelpunkt stehen/traut sich aber nicht/können nur schwer Komplimente annehmen, obwohl sie bei großem Ehrgeiz eigentlich Ehrungen suchen/zu hohe Anforderungen an eigenes kreatives Potential + der Zwang Perfektes liefern zu wollen führt zur Überforderung (unbezwingbarer Berg), zur Erschöpfung des kreativen Potentials, und zur

Verwandlung der Schaffensfreude in eine Muss-Aufgabe mit Steckenbleiben in der Vorbereitungsphase; Verschieben der Veröffentlichung, der Eröffnung, des Auftrittes; in späten Stadien

Davonlaufen vor eigener Kreativität, da ermüdet durch die immer währenden Zweifel (dann Flucht in Tagträume); das Nichtvorführen der Talente (Angst vor Kritik/Angst vor Überheblichkeit

bei Erfolg) quält und lässt erkranken; Haben wechselhafte Gefühle und Zweifel daran, Neuland zu betreten; sie gehen los und kehren um;

Repertorium:

Gemüt: Furcht [in engen Räumen/vor hochgelegenen Orten/vor Spinnen/vor dem Versagen, Misserfolg (bei Prüfungen)]

Geschäftig/Hast, Eile

Hochmütig, arrogant

Ruhelos

Schreien

Stumpf

Traurig

Mund: stottert

Bauch: Schmerz

Weibliche Genitalien: Menses reichlich

Glieder: Kalte Füße

Schlaf: Einschlafen mit Schocks, Erschütterungen

Schläfrig

Träume: Baden/zu fallen, zu stürzen/Fehler zu machen/hochgelegene Orte/verfolgt zu werden/Wasser

Allgemeines: l.

> im Freien/> Wind/< Kälte/< kalte Luft/< Zugluft, Luftzug/< nasses Wetter

Speisen und Getränke: Abgeneigt: Milch; Verlangt: bittere Speisen/Gewürze, Würzmittel/grüner Paprika/Pfeffer/Rettiche;

Repertory:

Mind: DULLNESS; Veil, heavy, buffering the outside world (1 prover)

EXCITEMENT: in General (easely)/desires excitement (2 provers)

FORSAKEN feeling (2 provers)

HANDLE things anymore, cannot, overwhelmed by stress (5 provers)

HAUGHTY (1 prover)

HEAVENLY Sensation (1 prover)

IMPATIENCE (1 prover)

IRRESOLUTION, indecision (1 prover)

IRRITABILITY with strangers (2 provers)

JEALOUSY; Love; disappointment, after (1 prover)

LAUGHING in general over serious matters (1 prover)

LIGHTS; fluorescent, under (1 prover)

LOVE for children/for family

MEMORY; Active; recollection, involuntary (1 prover)

MISTAKES, making – calculating/writing/actions/talking using wrong words/in time

MOOD Changeable, variable (2 provers)

MUSIC; Desires; playing it (1 prover)

MOTHER, Aversion to (1 prover)

NEWS <; Bad (1 prover)

OFFENDED easily (2 provers)

POSITIVENESS (3 provers)

POSTPONING everything to next day (1 prover)

PROSTRATION of mind, thoughts, scattered (1 prover)

SADNESS - from love disappointment/weeping (>/impossible) (1 prover)

SOCIABILITY (2 provers)

STARTING, startled from noise (1 prover)

SYMPATHETIC, compassionate; Animals, cats, felines (1 prover)

SYNCHRONICITY, awareness of (2 provers)

TALK, talks; General; strength and conviction, with (1 prover)

THOUGHTS; Distracted (3 provers)

WEEPING, tearful mood in general (from music/without emotion) (1 prover)

Head: “As of cotton” (1 prover)

PAIN – r./l./Dull; forehead eyes; above; extending to vertex (1 prover)/migraine; menses, before or after (1 prover)/Pain in other parts, with; back (1 prover)/Pressing in vertex ext. downward (1 prover)/

Pulsating, throbbing (in l. temple/above eyes, above (1 prover)/> Pressing; pressure (2 provers)/in vertex < motion (2 provers)

TINGLING, prickling (1 prover)

WILD feeling (1 prover)

Vertigo: TURNING; Agg.; motion of head, or (1 prover)

Eyes: ITCHING in inner/outer Canthi (1 prover)

LACHRYMATION < in open air (1 prover)

LIGHT; Agg.; daylight (2 provers)

PAIN; Burning, smarting, biting (2 provers)

PAIN; Pulled; upward, as if (1 prover)

PAIN; Sand, as from (2 provers)

SWELLING; Sensation of (1 prover)

TIRED; Sensation (2 provers)

Vision: Objects; moving quickly out of the corner (1 prover)

Light; balls out of the corners, moving along the floor, darting, disappearing (1 prover)

Mouth: ERUPTIONS; General; pimples; gums (1 prover)

ERUPTIONS; General; vesicles; gums (1 prover)

DISCOLORATION; Yellow; tongue (1 prover)

DRYNESS; General; waking, on (1 prover)

CRACKED, fissured; General (2 provers)

ERUPTIONS; General; herpes (2 provers)

Teeth: PAIN; Lower; left (1 prover)

Face: PAIN; Jaws (1 prover)

TINGLING, prickling; Lips (1 prover)

DISCOLORATION; Red; cheeks (1 prover)

ERUPTIONS – Acne (chin) (1 prover)/Eczema (cheeks/about eyes (1 prover)

Mouth: APHTHAE on inner side lips

Ppimples on tip of tongue (1 prover)

Ears: PAIN; Right then left (1 prover)

PAIN; Sharp, ringing sound, accompanied by (1 prover)

Hearing: ACUTE (1 prover)

NOISES; Ringing; hearing sharp, followed by (1 prover)

Nose: CONGESTION (1 prover)

DISCHARGE; Green (1 prover)

HEAVINESS; Sinuses (1 prover)

PAIN; Boring; root (1 prover)

TINGLING, prickling (1 prover)

External bridge, tingling (1 prover)

Throat: COLDNESS; Icy (1 prover)

EXCORIATION (2 provers)

ITCHING (1 prover)

SWALLOWING; Aversion to (1 prover)

Stomach: APPETITE - diminished (4 provers)/insatiable (1 prover)

FULLNESS (1 prover)

PAIN; Cramping, griping, constricting; noon (1 prover)

VOMITING; General during nausea; (2 provers)

THIRST constant unquenchable (1 prover)

ALTERNATING states (1 prover)

Abdomen: FULLNESS (1 prover)

PAIN - Burning, smarting (1 prover)/dragging, bearing down (1 prover)/drawing; sides (1 prover)/dull in liver region (1 prover)/r. (1 prover)/in spots (1 prover)/stabbing (1 prover)/

stinging (1 prover)/wandering (1 prover)

Bladder: URINATION; Unsatisfactory (1 prover)

Urine: SEDIMENT; Red (1 prover)

Rectum: CONSTIPATION (3 provers)

DIARRHEA (2 provers)

ITCHING (1 prover)

HEMORRHAGE; Anus, from; menses; during (1 prover)

HEMORRHOIDS; Menses; during (1 prover)

PAIN during stool (1 prover)

URGING, desire after stool (1 prover)

Abdomen: FLATULENCE (2 provers)

NOISES; Rumbling; loud (1 prover)

Stool: BALL

Small (1 prover)

HARD (1 prover)/first soft, then hard (1 prover)

LIENTERIC (1 prover)

PROFUSE (1 prover)

WATERY (1 prover)

Female Organs: LEUCORRHEA Milky (1 prover)

MENSES - Frequent, too early, too soon; two days too early (1 prover)/too late, (2 days) (1 prover)/painful, dysmenorrhea(1 prover)

PAIN - in vagina during menses (1 prover)/bearing down; as if everything would come out - uterus (1 prover)/boring in r. ovary (1 prover)/bearing down during menses (1 prover)/ext. vagina

SEXUAL Desire increased (2 provers)

Respiration: ASTHMATIC (2 provers)

DIFFICULT on inspiration (1 prover)

Couhg: CONVULSIVE, spasmodic (1 prover)

DRY (1 prover)

MUCUS, from (2 provers)

SUFFOCATIVE (2 provers)

Expectoration: COLOR; Greenish (1 prover)/yellow (1 prover)

PIECES, in (1 prover)

Speech & Voice: VOICE; Squeaking (1 prover)/whispering (1 prover)

Larynx & Trachea: INFLAMMATION; Larynx (2 provers)

Throat:PAIN; Burning; throatpit (1 prover)

Chest: ERUPTIONS; Red; axillae (1 prover)

ITCHING; Mammae (1 prover)

PAIN - Burning (1 prover)/in axillae (1 prover)/in evening/r. mamma/stitching in axillae (1 prover)

Heart & Circulation: HEAT in heart region (2 provers)/irregular palpitation

Back: COLDNESS, chilliness in scapulae region (1 prover)

ITCHING between scapulae (1 prover)

PAIN - in r. scapula (2 provers)/lumbago in lumbar region (1 prover)/[l. (1 prover)/< standing]

STIFFNESS - < Motion (1 prover)/in lumbar region (1 prover)

Limbs: COLDNESS in general in hands and feet (1 prover)

CRAMPS - in hands (1 prover)/in r. thigh (1 prover)

DRYNESS of palms (1 prover)

HEAVINESS, tired limbs; Upper limbs; shoulders (1 prover)

ITCHING; Upper limbs; forearms; left (1 prover)

PAIN; Burning, smarting (1 prover)

PAIN; In r. buttock, nates (1 prover)

Lower limbs; feet; ball; right (1 prover)

PAIN; Lower limbs; feet; left (1 prover)

PAIN; Lower limbs; nerves; sciatic (l.) (1 prover)

PAIN; Stitching; upper limbs; shoulders; left (1 prover)

PARALYSIS; Sensation of; lower limbs; legs (1 prover)

STIFFNESS; General; lower limbs; 1st toe (1 prover)

TINGLING, prickling; Upper limbs; forearms (hands) (1 prover)

Sleep: DISTURBED; Thoughts, from activity of (1 prover)

HEAVY (1 prover)

INTERRUPTED (1 prover)

LIGHT (1 prover)

RESTLESS (1 prover) (turning left to right all night) (1 prover)

SLEEPy - < afternoon 17 h./5 h.

SLEEPLESS - from thoughts (1 prover)

UNREFRESHING in morning (1 prover)

WAKING – too early (1 prover)/frequent (1 prover)/late/4 h. (1 prover)

Skin: DRYNESS (2 provers)

SOFT feeling (1 prover)

Dreams: Ancient times, biblical (1 prover)

Amorous (3 provers)

Animals - whales (2 provers)/snakes (3 provers)/rabbits (1 prover)/cats, felines, of possessed by the devil (1 prover)/deer (1 prover)/dead fishes/pigs/cows (1 prover)/

Dogs (mad attacking) (3 provers)/injured cats/birds/animals selling things (1 prover)

Betrayed, being (2 provers)

Blood (1 prover)

Body, body parts, eyes, of being tested (1 prover)

Carefree (1 prover)

Caretaking (2 provers)

Cars, automobiles, of; trucks; old, driving too fast (4 provers)

Child, children - looking after (1 prover)/injured/fondness for (1 prover)/(nursing) babies (2 provers)/in danger

Child, children, about, neglecting her (3 provers)

Cleaning (2 provers)

Country; foreign (4 provers)

Dead, Bodies (1 prover)

Disease; sick people (2 provers)

Divorced, of getting (5 provers)

Embrace; bodies merge, in (1 prover)

Escape (3 provers) (Buddhist monastery) (1 prover)

Evil (1 prover)

Family, own (12 provers)

Fights (2 provers)

Fire, of (4 provers

Food (5 provers)

Friends; old (boyfriend) (1 prover)

Furniture (1 prover)

Geometrical figures (1 prover)

Glass, of; broken (2 provers)

Gold (1 prover)

Graves; falling into a grave, waking her (1 prover)

Grotesque (1 prover)

Hair colored, nails pointed (1 prover)

House, houses; big (5 provers)

Hurried (1 prover)

*Identity, of, false (1 prover)

Injustice, about (2 provers)

Intruder, intruders; sees (1 prover)

Journey, difficulties, with (3 provers)

Journey, country in, foreign (2 provers)

Kindness, of (1 prover)

Late, being (1 prover)

Laundry (2 provers)

Leprechauns (1 prover)

Lost, being (1 prover)

Metal (1 prover)

money (3 provers)

Money, unlimited (1 prover)

Monks, Tibetan (2 provers)

Movie, shooting a (2 provers)

Old; growing, aging (1 prover)

People, of crowd (7 provers)

Persecution, of (3 provers)

Piano, playing, of (1 prover)

Poverty (3 provers)

Powerful (2 provers)

Prostitution (2 provers)

Proving remedy (2 provers)

Road, broken, crumbling (2 provers)

[See prover number six in pre-proving dream.]

Robbers (2 provers)

*School (7 provers)/(corrupted) (1 prover)

Shopping (3 provers)

Singing, of (1 prover)

Sleep, slide, on top of (1 prover)

Smoking (1 prover)

Snow (1 prover)

Spiritual (8 provers)

Spiritual man, invaded by, in dreams, sexual (1 prover)

Stool (1 prover)

Teacher, former (3 provers)

Trucks, big, old, to the brim, filled (1 prover)

Tunnels (1 prover)

Unremembered (4 provers)

Unsuccessful efforts to (1 prover)

Warts (1 prover)

Water - crossing a stream in a truck (1 prover)/flood (1 prover)/pipes bursting (1 prover)/swimming (1 prover)

Generalities: AIR; Open; desires (1 prover)

ENERGY, lots of (3 provers)

FOOD and DRINKS: <: Alcohol, alcoholic drinks; (1 prover)

Aversion: Fat and rich food/sweets;

Desires: Fruit (grapefruit)/soup;

FRAIL, as if body were (1 prover)

HEAT; Sensation of – at night (with restlessness) (1 prover)

HEAVINESS external (1 prover)/HEAVINESS internal (1 prover)

INJURIES, blows, falls and bruises; Dislocation, subluxation (1 prover)

PAIN; Bones (1 prover)

RESTLESS physical (1 prover)

SLUGGISH body (1 prover)

SWELLING; Sensation of; internal (1 prover)

SLOW manifestation (1 prover)

TENSION, tightness; Internal (1 prover)

VIBRATING sensation (4 provers) (energy throughout his body) (4 provers)

TINGLING, prickling; Internal (1 prover)

WEARINESS (5 provers)

WOUNDS; Cuts (1 prover)

 

Vergleich: Comparison. Palladium + Niobium

Siehe: Stadium 5 + Periode 5

 

Allerlei: Niobe [Tocher des = Tantalus (= Todesgott)] wird vor Hochmut bestraft/ in eine heulendem Stein verwandelt

 

Proving:

http://homeopathyvancouver.com/wp-content/uploads/files/niobium.pdf

[Viele Mitarbeitenden]

Connections lit up my mind following the proving exit meeting as Laurie Dack described the diffuse boundaries theme of Phosphorus to our first year class. Niobium also had boundary themes though more intense and destructive than Phosphorus. Searching for more patterns, I located these two elements on the periodic table. Though in different columns and rows, I noticed a relationship between their atomic weights: the atomic weight of Niobium is 92.906. This is almost exactly 3x the atomic weight of Phosphorus at 30.973. Delight in pattern thinking, blended with my newly acquired vision of homeopathy from inside a proving, sealed my commitment to this healing art.

Niobium is found in Group Five, Period Five of the periodic table. As a transition metal, it is in the subseries Lanthanides, according to Dr. Ramesh Jain and Dr. Smita Tridevi. Though the Lanthanides are known as part of the gold series by homeopaths, it is interesting that both silver and gold series are transition metals in the subseries Lanthanides. Perhaps we can consider some common themes in this broader grouping as well as themes of the silver and gold series individually.

Niobium physically facilitates electrical connections. Blue-green in colour, it is used in cathodes and capacitors (electronics), camera lenses, computer screens, and chemical processing equipment.

Niobium in the “silver series” of the periodic table has an affinity for artists, according to Dr. Jan Scholten. In society the artist historically challenges moral, social and aesthetic boundaries while reflecting our consciousness back to us in their work. Prover number six, a classical singer, encountered the proving as she was coming to terms with a failed career. Niobium reached deeply into all aspects of her creativity, including her children.

Niobe, Queen of Thebes, for whom the element is named, lost all 14 of her children upon challenging her people’s worship of Latona, mother of Apollo and Diana. Appearing amongst the crowd, resplendent with gold and gems, she asked her subjects why they would worship an unseen goddess when her splendor was clearly visible and as worthy. The vengeful goddess killed her 7 sons and

7 daughters and turned her to stone. Niobe’s breach of boundary resulted in complete destruction for herself and her descendants.

There appears to be a correlation between the rise of AIDS and the rise of anonymous, boundaryless, global communication created by the Internet. Destruction of the immune system, the body’s life

- maintaining boundary, is the action of the HIV virus. Dr. Peter Fraser, lecturing in Calgary, Alberta, Canada in April of 2007, spoke of the Lanthanides as belonging the AIDS miasm, drawing parallels to electronic man.

Dr. Jan Scholten’s recent work on the Lanthanides has found treatment for AIDS in these new remedies. The beginnings of the Internet were operational by June of 1983 when the U.S. National Science Foundation built a university network. It was around this time when the ravaging of the gay population by AIDS gained media attention.

Marshall McLuhan. canadian philosopher chose the insightful phrase "global village" to highlight his observation that an electronic nervous system (the media) was rapidly integrating the planet.

Events in one part of the world could be experienced from other parts in real time. He writes, in 1964 in “Understanding Media”, “Today, after more than a century of electric technology, we have extended our central nervous system itself in a global embrace, abolishing both space and time as far as our planet is concerned.

Jet and space travel, satellite communication, cell phones, international trade and telepathic communication further alter boundaries of time and space as human endeavour, folly and disease evolve with and beyond technology.

Echoes of Niobe’s loss are found in this proving in dreams of saving children in danger, abuse of children, and detached witnessing of children being harmed. Other themes include fast-paced journeys and dwellings with endless rooms and portholes to foreign places. Past and future fold into the present in resolution of old hurts. Connection is desired with others, even to dissolve into one another

 in embrace. Sexual dreams involve prostitution, voyeurism, infidelity, violence, and psychic invasion. Drugs and crime accompany violation of person. Provers experienced floods from bursting water pipes and dreamt of rivers breaching their banks. Expanding and bursting sensations caused one prover to fear stroke for months after the proving. Time and space appear altered. Mysticism, creativity and synchronicity are harbingers of expanded consciousness.

During the process of compiling this proving I have observed patterns between AIDS and the boundary-dissolving electronic age on a miasmatic scale. Niobium is a remedy for these modern times as boundaries of outer and inner world become increasingly indistinct. It is my hope that this proving will serve to increase our understanding of these global connections.

THE SETTING FOR THE PROVING

The initial meeting for the proving was held following class at the Vancouver Homeopathy Academy on the University of British Columbia campus on Sunday, March 14, 2004. The school was temporarily housed in a portable at that time, as extensive renovations to the main building housing the School of Theology were incomplete. The concept of unfinished projects comes up prominently throughout the proving. The writing up of the proving began in July of 2006, ending over two years of waiting as an unfinished project in the busy office of the proving coordinator. Reports from one prover and some of the supervisors went missing. In spite of this, journals from twelve provers provide us with a wealth of information on Niobium metallicum.

THE PROVING

Helios Pharmacy, Tunbridge Wells, England, prepared the remedy. The potency given to all provers was 30C; none were given placebo.

Thirteen women participated in the proving.

The proving was triple blind, the remedy having been chosen by the Director of the Vancouver Homeopathy Academy, Murray Feldman. Dr. Lianne South coordinated the proving. All the provers were supervised. Supervisors reported to Supervisor Directors, Allyson Burden and Tamara Pearl.

Provers were instructed to take one dose of the remedy on the evening of Sunday, March 28, 2004, two to three pellets dissolved under the tongue. If no symptoms since the start of the proving, they were advised by their supervisors to take a second dose of the remedy at bedtime on the following evening, Monday, March 29, 2004. A third and final dose was to be taken on the evening of Tuesday, March 30, 2004 if no new symptoms had developed.

No more remedy was to be taken after the third dose. Journaling continued through the proving exit meeting on Saturday, April 17, 2004.

NATURAL HISTORY: NIOBIUM, THE ELEMENT

Columbium and niobium are synonymous names for the chemical element with atomic number 41. It is in Group 5, period 5 in the transition metals.

The transition metals include all elements in the subseries Lanthanides and Actinides of the innertransition elements and at least part of the subseries Transactinides, which are the elements following the Actinides series. In general these elements are known for their hardness, high density, high melting point and boiling point and heat conduction although there are exceptions. These elements all have a d electron as the differentiating electron in their electron configuration. In other words, their outer most electrons are always in the d orbital.

Columbium was the name given to this element in 1801 by its English discoverer, Charles Hatchet. Niobium (Nb) was the name officially designated by the International Union of Pure and

Applied Chemistry in 1950. Niobium, in the form of ferroniobium is used worldwide, mostly as an alloying element in steels and in superalloys. Appreciable amounts of columbium in the form

of high-purity ferroniobium and nickel niobium are used in nickel, cobalt, and iron-base superalloys for such applications as jet engine components, rocket subassemblies, and heat resisting and

combustion equipment.

EXTRACTION AND REFINING

Two separate processing schemes are utilized for niobium production. Those companies that mine pyrochlore convert the niobium oxide units into HSLA ferro-niobium through the aluminothermic reduction process or by reduction in an electric arc furnace. CBMM has installed capacity for the production of a high purity oxide that can be used to produce vacuum grade ferro- and nickel-

niobium as well as niobium metal ingots via electron beam refining.

The use of columbite and tantalum-bearing ores, such as tantalite, as feedstock results in the necessity to process these materials chemically. The purified niobium-containing process stream is

generally converted to niobium hydroxide by the introduction of ammonia, followed by washing, filtration, and calcining to the oxide. Purities exceeding 99.99% can be achieved. Niobium oxide

(Nb2O5) is generally the starting chemical for the production of other compounds, such as niobium chloride (NbCl5), niobium carbide (NbC), or lithium niobate (LiNbO3). Niobium metal is

produced by the aluminothermic reduction of the oxide followed by electron beam refining.

Niobium powders can be produced by the reduction of potassium niobium heptafluoride (K2NbF7) with sodium, or by the reduction of niobium oxide with magnesium.

Niobium additive to ‘high strength low alloy’ steel and stainless steel for oil and gas pipelines, car and truck bodies, architectural requirements, tool steels, ships’ hulls, railroad tracks.

Imparts a doubling of strength and toughness due to grain refining.

Weight reduction.

Niobium oxide

- Manufacture lithium niobate for surface acoustic wave filters.

- Camera lenses.

- Coating on glass for computer screens.

- Ceramic capacitors.

- High index of refraction.

- High dielectric constant.

- Increase light transmittance.

Niobium carbide

Cutting tool compositions.

High temperature deformation, controls grain growth.

Niobium powder

Niobium capacitors for electronic circuits.

High dielectric constant, stability of oxide dielectric.

Niobium metal plates, sheets, wire, rod, tubing-sputtering targets.

- Cathode protection systems for large steel structures.

- Chemical processing equipment.

Corrosion resistance, formation of oxide and nitride films. Increase in high temperature resistance and corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance, improved creep resistance, reduced erosion at high temperatures.

Niobium-titanium alloy

Niobium-tin alloy

Superconducting magnetic coils in magnetic resonance imagery (MRI), magnetoencephalography, magnetic levitation transport systems, particle physics experiments.

Electrical resistance of alloy wire drops to virtually zero at or below temperature of liquid helium (-268.8°C).

Niobium-1%zirconium alloy

- Sodium vapor lamps

- Chemical processing equipment

Corrosion resistance, fixation of oxygen, resistance to embrittlement.

Vacuum-grade ferro-niobium and nickel-niobium

Super alloy additions for turbine blade applications in jet engines and land-based turbines. Inconel family of alloys, super alloys.

Increase in high temperature resistance and corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance, improved creep resistance, reduced erosion at high temperatures.

[Jan Scholten]

To begin a discussion of Niobium metallicum as a homeopathic remedy, we must first look to element theory of Dr. Jan Scholten.

Niobium occurs at stage five. or column five, in the Silver series in between Zirconium and Molybdenum. In this stage, the individual prepares but doubts how they will achieve their goals.

There is a tentativeness that causes them to remain in the proposing or temporary phase. Other caveats on their success include provisory, conditional, unrealistic, postponing, avoiding,

alternating and tantalizing.

[Dr. Rajan Sankaran]

Sankaran’s “Schema 2005”, “Do I have the ability or not?” “Should I go ahead or not?” Along the 5th row, known as the Silver series, we see the artist, the need to explore the new, to be creative

and inspired, to perform and to be appreciated for their talents and efforts.

 

Scholten’s Picture of Niobium:

 Essence: Hesitation and doubt whether to show their creativity

-- Doubt about their creativity

- They have a great desire to show their creative talents but they haven't got the courage. Sometimes they make a tentative start but they are soon overcome by doubts again: 'Can I really create

something beautiful?' They keep hesitating. They are afraid to open an exhibition, to hold a speech, to show their acting abilities. Anything that needs an audience is put off, they don't even know

which of their works to exhibit.

At the same time they like to be special and different and they may resort to other, easier ways to stand out in a crowd, for instance by arriving much too late for a party or by wearing extraordinary

clothes. Anything as long as it isn't what everybody else is doing.

-- Unrealistic ideas about what they have to offer

- They are not very realistic about their artistic or scientific talents. They are not very good at judging their own capacities and the possibilities that are available in the outside world. Their ideals

to make the world a better place can sound very naive.

-- Art is an impossible task

- They are inclined to set their goals too high, to aim for something that is impossible to achieve, to create something that is absolutely perfect. But this also means that the task soon becomes a

burden, and the mere thought of their plans makes them feel tired. Everything becomes a must and what used to be an enjoyable pastime now becomes a strain.

Another variation is that their ideas are by no means impossible but they don't realize this themselves. They underestimate their talents and because they are unsure about what they can achieve they

also don't know whether to carry on or not. Nobody, themselves included, is quite sure if and how they should proceed.

-- Preparing the show

– Because they are so hesitant about their performance they tend to make a big deal out of the preparations. They spend hours thinking things over and making a big fuss over trivialities.

They are very likely to get stuck at this stage and never get any further than the preparations. The type of person who has to have their desk cleared, the studio tidied, everything perfectly arranged,

but he stops short of the actual task in hand.

-- Postponing creations

- They postpone their performance because they don't know their lines perfectly yet. They postpone the exhibition because they haven't got a large enough collection yet. They can't publish the

result of their research because there are a few details they haven't looked at yet. Everything has to be so perfect that they never get round to a realistic performance or product.

-- Evading their talents

- They start something and soon give up again. Small obstacles on the way are seen as proof of their lack of talent. Later on we'll see that they start to evade their talent, they would rather not talk

about it. They are tired of all that time they spent hesitating and trying this, trying that, and what have they achieved? Hardly a thing. They don't see the point anymore and become quite apathetic. Daydreaming is a nice escape, lots of ideas about how successful they could have been. Partying is another way of diverting the mind, they want to laugh and talk and have a good time, as if they are celebrating their success after a fantastic performance.

-- Avoiding admiration

- They would really like to be the centre of attention, but they don't really dare. And at the same time they feel hurt if they aren't. They have difficulty accepting a compliment because they feel

they haven't done anything to deserve it. When they do get a compliment they tend to say something like: 'Oh, it's nothing', or 'He doesn't know what real art looks like' etc.

-- Alternating admiration

- Their moods can be quite changeable, one moment full of energy to start something creative, the next moment they don't want to do anything. They

Tormented by ambition.

Tormented by not showing their talents.

 Alternating use of voice: stammering.

Scholten’s Picture of Niobium:

 Essence: Hesitation and doubt whether to show their creativity

-- Doubt about their creativity

- They have a great desire to show their creative talents but they haven't got the courage. Sometimes they make a tentative start but they are soon overcome by doubts again: 'Can I really create something beautiful?' They keep hesitating. They are afraid to open an exhibition, to hold a speech, to show their acting abilities. Anything that needs an audience is put off, they don't even know

which of their works to exhibit. At the same time they like to be special and different and they may resort to other, easier ways to stand out in a crowd, for instance by arriving much too late for

a party or by wearing extraordinary clothes. Anything as long as it isn't what everybody else is doing.

-- Unrealistic ideas about what they have to offer

- They are not very realistic about their artistic or scientific talents. They are not very good at judging their own capacities and the possibilities that are available in the outside world. Their ideals

to make the world a better place can sound very naive.

-- Art is an impossible task

- They are inclined to set their goals too high, to aim for something that is impossible to achieve, to create something that is absolutely perfect. But this also means that the task soon becomes a

burden, and the mere thought of their plans makes them feel tired. Everything becomes a must and what used to be an enjoyable pastime now becomes a strain. Another variation is that their ideas

are by no means impossible but they don't realize this themselves. They underestimate their talents and because they are unsure about what they can achieve they also don't know whether to carry

on or not. Nobody, themselves included, is quite sure if and how they should proceed.

-- Preparing the show

– Because they are so hesitant about their performance they tend to make a big deal out of the preparations. They spend hours thinking things over and making a big fuss over trivialities.

They are very likely to get stuck at this stage and never get any further than the preparations. The type of person who has to have their desk cleared, the studio tidied, everything perfectly

arranged, but he stops short of the actual task in hand.

-- Postponing creations

- They postpone their performance because they don't know their lines perfectly yet. They postpone the exhibition because they haven't got a large enough collection yet. They can't publish

the result of their research because there are a few details they haven't looked at yet. Everything has to be so perfect that they never get round to a realistic performance or product.

-- Evading their talents

- They start something and soon give up again. Small obstacles on the way are seen as proof of their lack of talent. Later on we'll see that they start to evade their talent, they would rather

not talk about it. They are tired of all that time they spent hesitating and trying this, trying that, and what have they achieved? Hardly a thing. They don't see the point anymore and become

quite apathetic. Daydreaming is a nice escape, lots of ideas about how successful they could have been. Partying is another way of diverting the mind, they want to laugh and talk and have a good

time, as if they are celebrating their success after a fantastic performance.

-- Avoiding admiration

- They would really like to be the centre of attention, but they don't really dare. And at the same time they feel hurt if they aren't. They have difficulty accepting a compliment because they feel

they haven't done anything to deserve it. When they do get a compliment they tend to say something like: 'Oh, it's nothing', or 'He doesn't know what real art looks like' etc.

-- Alternating admiration

- Their moods can be quite changeable, one moment full of energy to start something creative, the next moment they don't want to do anything. They are easily enthused about an artistic project,

but at the first obstacle they tend to lose their spirit. They want to be good at something but they lack the perseverance to make a go of it.

-- Hurt ambitions

- One of their characteristics is that they feel special, a little bit above the ordinary man. They have difficulty accepting authority or having to answer to a superior. They prefer to be their own boss, nobody who stands above them. They may refuse to do their military service to show that their ideas are stronger than the powers that be. They feel that they'll risk losing their integrity when others

have power over them. They are also easily hurt and innocent remarks are likely to upset them very much. They get touchy and irritable especially when others don't pay due respect to them.

Criticism or failure is likely to leave its mark on them.

They might never forget a trauma even if it happened years ago, for instance when they move up to a higher grade school and their results are suddenly mediocre instead of excellent, so they don't

get the admiration they used to receive. In order to reduce their vulnerability they build up a shield of hardness or arrogance, pretending that nothing can touch them. But most of all they'll try

to remain one step ahead of any possible criticism. If their work is absolutely perfect nobody will be able to comment on it. They might also get jealous of the success of others. The whole issue of

success is very difficult for them. Through their lack of experience they are bound to make mistakes now and then and this immediately confirms their belief that they are incapable of success.

Their delusion could be described as the feeling that a nasty brute is waiting out there, ready to flatten them as soon as they choose to realize their ideals, because that sort of thing is not meant to be.

-- Tormented by ambition

- They have great ambitions to be the best, to be special and different. Their desire for praise and compliments is also very big. In this respect they are very like Palladium. But Palladium will

openly ask for it and gracefully receives the compliments that are bestowed on him or her. Niobium find it hard to receive compliments. Deep inside they feel that they deserve it, but they have

nothing to show for it yet. Or they may feel that they don't deserve any praise because they really feel worthless. In both cases they'll brush off a compliment with a nervous little laugh. In spite of

this they still feel rather special and are keen to keep up a certain status. They often look down on the sort life that ordinary people tend to live, it is all a bit too vulgar to their taste. They are likely

to come from a well to do family where they got the message to behave in an honourable fashion. They have to be dignified, as a woman, as an artist etc. But on the other hand they also got the

message not to have any pretences. So they are torn between having to be honourable and dignified, and on the other hand not to have any pretences about what they can do and what they might

achieve. If we look at mythology we see that the chief complaint of the gods was that Niobe ascribed her luck to her own efforts -to her own ego- instead of thanking and honouring the gods.

The gods punish her for her pride by killing all her sons. When she still carries on singing her own praises they also kill all her daughters. Back to present day life: these people might also enjoy

watching others who are not afraid to be the centre of attention.

-- Tormented because they don't show their talents

- They daren't show their talents, partly because they are afraid of getting hurt if nobody recognizes their excellence, and partly because if they are afraid of getting too proud if they do receive

a lot of praise. These fears are the reason that they hide their wisdom, their creativity, their beauty, or their talents until they have forgotten how lucky they really are, until they believe that they

have nothing to offer at all.

-- Alternating use of voice: stammering

- The following voice problems may be part of their symptoms: hoarseness, stammering (3), <: tension/after interviews/discussions/talking things over; >: rest/singing and shouting/during interview;

Difficulties talking < thick tongue. They have a feeling for languages.

-- Niobe, the story

- In the story of Niobe, the queen of Thebe we can see several of the themes of Niobium. Niobe is haughty, wants to compete with the goddesses, which is in itself an impossible task. She is totally unrealistic about her talents. She prides herself on her wisdom and spiritual insights, qualities that belong to the Silver series. She is particularly proud of her seven sons and seven daughters,

the theme of sexuality and creativity, also part of the Silver series, children being a special sort of creation. But Niobe is proud of having produced children all by herself, forgetting that nature

plays an equally important part in this creation. An artist should be aware of a similar theme: where does his inspiration come from? Another theme we find in Niobe's story is that she doesn't realize

how happy she really was until everything was taken away from her. The result is that Niobe turns into a weeping stone, crying to the end of her days. The sadness is about the children who have

died, the talents that never had a chance to be developed, or the pride that was too big. The top sportsman who keeps hesitating; the sportsman keeps hesitating, should he concentrate on the 100

metres or the 400 metres? He never makes a choice; he never gets down to one particular specialty.

-- Expressions

- Fears: heights, narrow spaces, shows, performances, speeches, failure, ambition, pride, spiders, exams.

Dreams: heights, falling, musicals, competitions, exams, mistakes, not reaching what he wants, feeling nothing, having to achieve a lot, washing, laundry, pursued, water.

 Irritability: < hurt and humiliation.

 Mood: haughty, restless, hurried, busy, nervous, sadness, flat, dull, 'frozen', crying.

 Mental: repetitive thoughts; cannot rid themselves of certain thoughts.

 Sexual: quick orgasm.

 Hobbies: all forms of art and science: music, guitar, dance, theatre, painting, weaving, literature, and hypnosis.

 Professions: artist, painter, writer, singer, musician, teacher, scientist, doctor, priest, bishop, shaman, vicar, governor, secretary, representative, advertising agent, public relations officer, top

 sports man/-woman.

 Causes: disasters, hurt, humiliation.

 Characteristics.

 Locality: left.

 Weather: < cold (feet)/damp/wind; desire > outside,

 Desires: spices, pepper, bitter, green peppers, radish;

 Aversion: milk, chestnuts;

 Menses: profuse.

 Sleep: sleepy, shocks on falling asleep.

TRANSITION ELEMENTS AND LANTHANIDES

As previously discussed, Niobium is the chemical element with atomic number 41 in Group 5, period 5 in the transition metals. The transition metals include all elements in the subseries

Lanthanides and Actinides of the inner-transition elements and at least part of the sub-series Transactinides, which are the elements following the Actinides series. They are known as transition

elements because their position in the periodic table is between s-block and p-block elements. The transitional elements have incompletely filled d-orbital in their atoms or ions in their common

oxidation states.

[Dr. Ramesh Jain and Dr. Smita Trivedi]

In their book,“Universal Mineral Materia Medica,” give the following properties of the transition elements:

1) They have increasing properties in the same group like density, colouring, electro-positivity, reactivity, stable compound formation, magnetic properties, radioactivity, etc.

2) They have horizontal gradation in properties, and similar actions, which is absent in s-block (Group IA and IIA) and p-block (Group IIIA to VIIA) elements.

3) They are inert and passive but act better when finely powdered. Stability of compounds increases with increase in valency in an element.

4) They form complexes and coloured salts. Their lower valency compounds are coloured.

5) They show magnetic and paramagnetic properties.

6) Their melting point, boiling point and densities are high.

7) Their density goes on increasing in horizontal level as well as in vertical group.

8) Their ionic radius and volume increase in the group while in series decrease with increase in atomic number.

9) They are very good conductors of heat and electricity. They are resistant to heat and can tolerate heat better.

10) They have tendency to form covalent bond in the series while they form ionic bond in the group with increase in atomic number 62

Alkalinity decreases (= acidity increases) in series whereas increases in the group with increase in atomic numbers.

[Dr. Jain/Dr. Trivedi]

Go on to give the common indications of Group IIIB to VIIB and VIII: NOTE: Where the authors specify for the individual elements, only the information on Niobium is reprinted here.

General indications and sphere of action of all the elements are almost same as they have slight gradation in their physical and chemical properties: only depth of action is different.

As atomic number increases in the series (horizontal) depth decreases. In the group from above downward depth increases as atomic number increases.

Ailments from: Mortification, vexation, injustice, contradiction, mental and physical exertion, masturbation, sexual excess, sunstroke, working in hot climates like near hot furnaces, engines, etc;

working in nuclear or atomic plants, in industries like dye, ceramics, steel, handling of chemical and inhaling fumes (occupational hazards), etc.

1. Direction of action: Centripetal action. The cause of the disease lies within the body and expressions starts from periphery i.e. centre to periphery.

2. Miasm:

Sycotic: All the elements in these groups and their salts are sycotic.

Tubercular: All the elements in these groups and their salts are tubercular.

Syphilitic: Elements and salts of Lanthanides, Actinides series Hf+3, Ta+1, W+3, Re+3 are syphilitic.

3. Constitution:

Ionic radius decreases in the series with increase in atomic numbers. Volume does not alter much in the series or in the group as compared to increase in weight. Niobium is average in build.

They form complexes and coloured salts. They form pigmentation on the skin and mucous membrane. Secretions and discharges are coloured (in the reduced form) or they are colourless

(in the oxidized form).

4. Inflammation and pain: Group VB: V<Nb<Ta

5. Sphere of action: Disturbance of protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism.

a. Skin and mucous membrane: Inflammation, irritation, ulceration; and pigmentation. Skin diseases like eczema, psoriasis, vitiligo, etc.

b. Eye: Irritation and inflammation; photophobia; visual disturbances.

c. Ear: Hearing decreased; tinnitus; degeneration at bony level and deafness or hearing loss due to conduction defect.

d. GIT: Acidity, ulcer, liver - fatty degeneration; spleen - enlargement, pancreas - diabetes.

e. RS: Irritation, inflammation, degeneration and cancerous condition of lings, nasal cavity, bronchus.

f. CVS: Fatty degeneration, cardiomyopathy, hypertension.

g. GUT: Kidney – inflammation, degeneration; nephritis, nephritic syndrome, renal failure.

h. Male: Impotence; organs relaxed.

i. Uterus and ovary: Irregularity in menstruation; ovarian cyst; cervical erosion; uterine tumour, cancer

j. Skeleton: Bone, blood - osteoporosis, immature blood cells, anemia, and hemoglobinopathies.

d-block elements and their salts convert simple basic organic molecules into complex organic complexes like vitamins, hormones, colouring pigments, nucleic acids, RNA, DNA, genes and maturing factors,

6. Tongue, taste and discharges: Tongue pale, loss of papillae; glossitis, aphthous mouth, pigmented.

a. Discharges soapy, stringy, yellowish, greenish, thin and lumpy

7. Depth of action: The depth of action increases in the group as the atomic number increases. Gradation of properties and similarities in action at the tissue level. All are used in alteration in function,

structural and pathological changes. They form covalent bond in series i.e. they are easily replaced by the elements during their oxidation and reduction. They form ionic bond with elements in same

group i.e. their bonds are strong with group elements.

8. pH reaction: Alkalinity decreases in series while acidity increases in the group with increase in atomic number. In the series alkalinity and electro-positivity decreases (alkaline organs function and structure are impaired), while in the group alkalinity and electro-positivity increases (alkaline organs’ function and structure increases).

9. Thermal modality: Group VB – chilly

10. Sensitivity and susceptibility (reactivity): They act as messengers or catalysts in the reaction. Metals are inert at room temperature; they are active in their ionic form. As the valency increases they

are more active and form stable compounds. They require high energy for their activation. Energy required for activation of metals into ions:

Ta<Nb=V

11. Reversible or irreversible changes: Stability of the compounds increases with increase in valency. The compounds become stable on losing electron i.e. on oxidation. Coloured compounds are

formed by lower valency ions or reduced ions of d-block elements.

12. Electro-magnetic forces: They show magnetic and paramagnetic properties. They are influenced by magnetic forces and can induce the attractive force temporarily. They do not show diamagnetic (repelling) properties.

13. Guiding indications:

a. All are required for growth, strength, weight and vitality in general. They are nutritional trace elements. They increase resistant power in the body and prevent damage and wear and tea of the cells, tissues and muscles of the body.

b. All can be used for congenital abnormalities and hormonal imbalance.

c. Prevents degeneration of cells and enhances repair and healthy growth of cells.

d. Useful for sensory organ affection viz. ear, eye, skin, tongue, etc.

i. There is loss of function of the organ or they become hypersensitive to touch, noise, light, pain, etc.

e. Numbness, tingling and crawling sensations all over the body [limbs and face].

f. Leukemia and anemia and other blood disorders like hemophilia, thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, etc.

g. As all are resistant to heat they are used for bad effect caused by sunstroke, heat, working in hot climates, near hot furnaces, engines, at climacteric period, etc.

14. Mind: Persons belonging to Group IIIB to VIIB has symptoms of emotion and intellect. They have control on action and behaviour.

a. During health the person is extrovert and social. This person is a growing person. He is immature, childish and inexperienced. He has unbounded energy and capacity. His activities are

premature, incomplete and multi-directional. He wants to do everything rapidly. His speed is difficult to control. He has no definite way or systematic plan of working. He can be directed

easily. He cannot contradict or oppose others. His capacity is hidden in a dormant state. He underestimates his own potential. He compares different possibilities and adopts what suits him

best. He tries all sorts of things. Ideas and concepts differ from time to time. He easily gets convinced by others and cannot judge properly.

b. During the disease state there is abnormal growth. He is immature, childish, and inexperienced. He has unbounded energy. His activities are premature, incomplete and multi-directional.

(No ideas – amateur - maturity or perfectionism travel from left to right in the series.)

The persons belonging to this group are gradually differentiated and maturity evolves at all levels, mental, intellectual, physical and social, as the atomic number increases. Concentration is

difficult for them. They have a lack of selfconfidence and are averse to touch.

Multidirectional activities are gradually confined to unidirectional activities to achieve the goal. Once they have started, difficult to withdraw. They have creative ideas, which are original.

They become insensitive to the surroundings, nothing can stop them. They are determinate to reach the goal. They are precautious and look as if they are cowards. They have high bearing

capacity, are sensitive, but do no get irritable easily on provocation or contradiction. They cannot be controlled easily. They do not require sympathy. They always want company; always

remain in a group or act in a group. The intellectual faculty i.e. memory, perception, will, understanding, discrimination, perception, speech, various action and behaviour, etc. get deteriorated

in the disease state.

Higher centres of brain lose control over the body. There is increase in mistakes in speaking, words misplacing and using wrong words. Moods are changeable and alternating. Psoric phases

change to sycotic and to syphilitic and he loses control over the brain and body. He is loquacious. He wants to run away and attempts to escape. He wants to be naked. The person becomes

mortified and complaints develop after vexation.

15. Modalities: <: before menses/touch/noise/new moon/full moon;

>: pressure/in open air/after menses/rest/rubbing;

16. Remedy relationship: Group IIIB to VIIB elements are used in cationic form with anions of Group IIIA to VIIA elements during generalized infection and during toxicity in dynamic

potency or Group IIIB to VIIB cations in physiological ionic doses with dynamic doses of Group IIIA to VIIA. Antidotes to and follows well: IIIB to VA; IVB to IVA; VB to IIIA; VIB

to IIB; VIIB to IB.

All the groups from IIIB to VIIB have similarity in properties wit its ‘A’ group partner i.e. IIIA to VIIA respectively; they are complementary to each other. They share the electrons and form

covalent bond with horizontal elements. They get precipitated or replaced by higher atomic number elements in the same group.

NIOBIUM: (Niobium oxide Nb2O5)

Niobium has put Titanium plans into creative action. He is afraid or hesitates to show his talent, as he does not have that much courage. He underestimates his talent. His aim or goal is too high.

He does not publish his research work as he finds new faults in it. He postpones or avoids his publicity. He rather feels awkward in accepting compliments, as he thinks he has not done anything

to deserve it. He cannot make a final decision so he as piled up unfinished files. He is clearhearted. He feels a little superior to his colleagues, so will suffer from diarrhea, stammering < nervousness,

anxiety, fear, etc.

PRE-PROVING

Prover number six, a forty-five year old female proved the mental and emotional aspects of Niobium to the extent that her homeopath subsequently treated her with various potencies of Niobium

for over a year. She was a first year student at the school in the midst of leaving a career in classical singing.

Niobium assisted her in this process of disengaging in the singing career fraught with disappointment and finding a new, more satisfying path in homeopathy. The following is an excerpt from her introduction to her report on the period following the proving entrance meeting, prior to the taking of the remedy.

“Walking around the neighborhood with two classmates during our lunch break, I tripped and fell on my face as I recalled an important dream that I had about 12 years ago. I was not hurt, but

definitely shaken.

In this dream, I had enough money to buy two houses. The first was shining emerald green, connected to the earth by being part of a living tree. In the house was my dad and a pipe organ.

The second house is up the hill. It’s white with pillars. As I approach it, the road crumbles beneath my feet. I understand that the road is not completed, and I accept the green, shining house instead.

This is the moment in recalling the dream that I fell on my face. I went back to class feeling spacey and like my defenses were definitely down, seeking Arnica.”

We drove by a house in Vancouver that resembled the white house in the dream from different directions twice before the proving was finished, the second time on the way to the proving exit meeting.”

IN CLASS FOLLOWING THE PROVING EXIT MEETING

At the beginning of class, the day following the exit meeting for the proving, Laurie Dack asked prover number six if she would come to the front of the class to tell about the proving. After a moment

of hesitation, Laurie asked if she was shy. A classmate said that if Laurie knew what she did for a living, she wouldn’t ask that question, and told her of her work as an opera singer.

As soon as she knew this, Laurie asked if she would sing for the class. She sang an original setting of the Aramaic Lord’s Prayer, translation by Neil Douglas-Klotz, as follows:

Oh, Birther, Father, Mother of the Cosmos,

You who create all that move in Light.

Focus your Light within us; Make it useful.

Create your reign of unity now

Through our fiery hearts and willing hands.

Your one desire then acts with ours,

As in all Light so in all forms.

Grant what we need each day in bread and insight.

Loose the cords of mistakes binding us

As we release the strands we hold of others guilt.

Don’t let surface things delude us,

But free us from what holds us back.

From You is born all ruling will, the power and life to do,

The song that beautifies all

From age to age it renews.

Truly power to these statements!

May they be the ground from which all my actions grow.

Sealed in trust and faith. Amen.

 

APPLICATIONS FOR NIOBIUM

Niobium additive to ‘high strength low alloy’ steel and stainless steel for oil and gas pipelines, car and truck bodies, architectural requirements, tool steels, ships’ hulls, railroad tracks.

Imparts a doubling of strength and toughness due to grain refining.

Weight reduction.

Niobium oxide

- Manufacture lithium niobate for surface acoustic wave filters.

- Camera lenses.

- Coating on glass for computer screens.

- Ceramic capacitors.

- High index of refraction.

- High dielectric constant.

- Increase light transmittance.

Niobium carbide

Cutting tool compositions.

High temperature deformation, controls grain growth.

Niobium powder

Niobium capacitors for electronic circuits.

High dielectric constant, stability of oxide dielectric.

Niobium metal plates, sheets, wire, rod, tubing

- Sputtering targets.

- Cathode protection systems for large steel structures.

- Chemical processing equipment.

Corrosion resistance, formation of oxide and nitride films. Increase in high temperature resistance and corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance, improved creep resistance, reduced erosion

at high temperatures.

Niobium-titanium alloy

Niobium-tin alloy

Superconducting magnetic coils in magnetic resonance imagery (MRI), magnetoencephalography, magnetic levitation transport systems, particle physics experiments.

Electrical resistance of alloy wire drops to virtually zero at or below temperature of liquid helium (-268.8°C).

Niobium-1%zirconium alloy

- Sodium vapor lamps

- Chemical processing equipment

Corrosion resistance, fixation of oxygen, resistance to embrittlement.

Vacuum-grade ferro-niobium and nickel-niobium

Super alloy additions for turbine blade applications in jet engines and land-based turbines. Inconel family of alloys, super alloys.

Increase in high temperature

resistance and corrosion resistance,

oxidation resistance, improved creep

resistance, reduced erosion at high temperatures.

[Jan Scholten]

To begin a discussion of Niobium metallicum as a homeopathic remedy, we must first look to element theory, the invaluable work of Dr. Jan Scholten.

Niobium occurs at stage five, or column five, in the Silver series in between Zirconium and Molybdenum. In this stage, the individual prepares but doubts how they will achieve their goals.

There is a tentativeness that causes them to remain in the proposing or temporary phase. Other caveats on their success include provisory, conditional, unrealistic, postponing, avoiding,

alternating and tantalizing.

[Dr. Rajan Sankaran] Sankaran’s

Schema 2005, “ “Do I have the ability or not?” “Should I go ahead or not?”

Along the 5th row, known as the Silver series, we see the artist, the need to explore the new, to be creative and inspired, to perform and to be appreciated for their talents and efforts.

The following material is reprinted from Jan Scholten’s “Homeopathy and the Elements” with permission from the author.

Scholten proposes the following concepts of Stage Five:

Preparing, Advance guard, Scouts, Proposal, Doubt, Postponing, Evading,

Preposterous, Unrealistic, Alternating, Torture, Tantalizing

Niobium is found in the Silver series, which has the following themes:

Creation, Inspiration, Ideas, Culture, Unique, Admiration, Aesthetics, Beautiful,

Ugly, Show, Performance, Queen, Ambition, Hurt, Humiliation, Sexuality,

Middle age, Town, Province, Science, Mysticism, Voice, Hearing

Scholten’s Group Analysis:

 Doubt whether they will be able to develop their creative talent.

 Doubt whether they are very special.

 Hesitation in the development of ideas.

 Indecisive whether they will exert their influence or not.

 Art is an impossible task.

 Unrealistic ideas about their creations.

Rajan Sankaran, Schema 2005

 Preparing their performance.

 Evading their talents.

 Preliminary creations: nothing gets finished.

 Avoiding admiration.

 Alternating admiration.

 Tormented by ambition.

 Tormented by not showing their talents.

 Alternating use of voice: stammering.

Scholten’s Picture of Niobium:

 Essence: Hesitation and doubt whether to show their creativity

-- Doubt about their creativity

- They have a great desire to show their creative talents but they haven't got the courage. Sometimes they make a tentative start but they are soon overcome by doubts again: 'Can I really create something beautiful?' They keep hesitating. They are afraid to open an exhibition, to hold a speech, to show their acting abilities. Anything that needs an audience is put off, they don't even know

which of their works to exhibit. At the same time they like to be special and different and they may resort to other, easier ways to stand out in a crowd, for instance by arriving much too late for

a party or by wearing extraordinary clothes. Anything as long as it isn't what everybody else is doing.

-- Unrealistic ideas about what they have to offer

- They are not very realistic about their artistic or scientific talents. They are not very good at judging their own capacities and the possibilities that are available in the outside world. Their ideals

to make the world a better place can sound very naive.

-- Art is an impossible task

- They are inclined to set their goals too high, to aim for something that is impossible to achieve, to create something that is absolutely perfect. But this also means that the task soon becomes a

burden, and the mere thought of their plans makes them feel tired. Everything becomes a must and what used to be an enjoyable pastime now becomes a strain.

Another variation is that their ideas are by no means impossible but they don't realize this themselves. They underestimate their talents and because they are unsure about what they can achieve

they also don't know whether to carry on or not. Nobody, themselves included, is quite sure if and how they should proceed.

-- Preparing the show

– Because they are so hesitant about their performance they tend to make a big deal out of the preparations. They spend hours thinking things over and making a big fuss over trivialities. They are

very likely to get stuck at this stage and never get any further than the preparations. The type of person who has to have their desk cleared, the studio tidied, everything perfectly arranged, but he stops short of the actual task in hand.

-- Postponing creations

- They postpone their performance because they don't know their lines perfectly yet. They postpone the exhibition because they haven't got a large enough collection yet. They can't publish the

result of their research because there are a few details they haven't looked at yet. Everything has to be so perfect that they never get round to a realistic performance or product.

-- Evading their talents

- They start something and soon give up again. Small obstacles on the way are seen as proof of their lack of talent. Later on we'll see that they start to evade their talent, they would rather

            not talk about it. They are tired of all that time they spent hesitating and trying this, trying that, and what have they achieved? Hardly a thing. They don't see the point anymore and become

            quite apathetic. Daydreaming is a nice escape, lots of ideas about how successful they could have been. Partying is another way of diverting the mind, they want to laugh and talk and have

a good time, as if they are celebrating their success after a fantastic performance.

-- Avoiding admiration

- They would really like to be the centre of attention, but they don't really dare. And at the same time they feel hurt if they aren't. They have difficulty accepting a compliment because they feel they

            haven't done anything to deserve it. When they do get a compliment they tend to say something like: 'Oh, it's nothing', or 'He doesn't know what real art looks like' etc.

-- Alternating admiration

- Their moods can be quite changeable, one moment full of energy to start something creative, the next moment they don't want to do anything. They are easily enthused about an artistic project, but

at the first obstacle they tend to lose their spirit. They want to be good at something but they lack the perseverance to make a go of it.

-- Hurt ambitions

- One of their characteristics is that they feel special, a little bit above the ordinary man. They have difficulty accepting authority or having to answer to a superior. They prefer to be their own boss,

            nobody who stands above them. They may refuse to do their military service to show that their ideas are stronger than the powers that be. They feel that they'll risk losing their integrity when

others have power over them. Easily hurt and innocent remarks are likely to upset them very much. They get touchy and irritable especially when others don't pay due respect to them.

            Criticism or failure is likely to leave its mark on them. They might never forget a trauma even if it happened years ago, for instance when they move up to a higher grade school and their results

            are suddenly mediocre instead of excellent, so they don't get the admiration they used to receive. In order to reduce their vulnerability they build up a shield of hardness or arrogance,

            pretending that nothing can touch them. But most of all they'll try to remain one step ahead of any possible criticism. If their work is absolutely perfect nobody will be able to comment on it.

            They might also get jealous of the success of others. The whole issue of success is very difficult for them. Through their lack of experience they are bound to make mistakes now and then and

            this immediately confirms their belief that they are incapable of success. Their delusion could be described as the feeling that a nasty brute is waiting out there, ready to flatten them as soon as

            they choose to realize their ideals, because that sort of thing is not meant to be.

-- Tormented by ambition

- They have great ambitions to be the best, to be special and different. Their desire for praise and compliments is also very big. In this respect they are very like Palladium. But Palladium will openly

            ask for it and gracefully receives the compliments that are bestowed on him or her. Niobium find it hard to receive compliments. Deep inside they feel that they deserve it, but they have nothing

            to show for it yet. Or they may feel that they don't deserve any praise because they really feel worthless. In both cases they'll brush off a compliment with a nervous little laugh. In spite of this

            they still feel rather special and are keen to keep up a certain status. They often look down on the sort life that ordinary people tend to live, it is all a bit too vulgar to their taste. They are likely

            to come from a well to do family where they got the message to behave in an honourable fashion. They have to be dignified, as a woman, as an artist etc. But on the other hand they also got the

            message not to have any pretences. So they are torn between having to be honourable and dignified, and on the other hand not to have any pretences about what they can do and what they

            might achieve. If we look at mythology we see that the chief complaint of the gods was that Niobe ascribed her luck to her own efforts

- to her own ego

- instead of thanking and honouring the gods. The gods punish her for her pride by killing all her sons. When she still carries on singing her own praises they also kill all her daughters. Back to present

            day life: these people might also enjoy watching others who are not afraid to be the centre of attention.

-- Tormented because they don't show their talents

- They daren't show their talents, partly because they are afraid of getting hurt if nobody recognizes their excellence, and partly because if they are afraid of getting too proud if they do receive a lot

            of praise. These fears are the reason that they hide their wisdom, their creativity, their beauty, or their talents until they have forgotten how lucky they really are, until they believe that they have

nothing to offer at all.

-- Alternating use of voice: stammering

- The following voice problems may be part of their symptoms: hoarseness, stammering (3)/difficulties talking < thick tongue, <: tension/during interview/after interviews/discussions/talking things

            over; >: rest/singing/shouting; They have a feeling for languages.

-- Niobe, the story

- In the story of Niobe, the queen of Thebe we can see several of the themes of Niobium. Niobe is haughty, wants to compete with the goddesses, which is in itself an impossible task. She is totally

            unrealistic about her talents. She prides herself on her wisdom and spiritual insights, qualities that belong to the Silver series. She is particularly proud of her seven sons and seven daughters,

the theme of sexuality and creativity, also part of the Silver series, children being a special sort of creation. But Niobe is proud of having produced children all by herself, forgetting that nature

plays an equally important part in this creation. An artist should be aware of a similar theme: where does his inspiration come from?

Another theme we find in Niobe's story is that she doesn't realize how happy she really was until everything was taken away from her. The result is that Niobe turns into a weeping stone, crying

to the end of her days. The sadness is about the children who have died, the talents that never had a chance to be developed, or the pride that was too big.

The top sportsman who keeps hesitating; the sportsman keeps hesitating, should he concentrate on the 100 metres or the 400 metres? He never makes a choice; he never gets down to one

particular specialty.

-- Expressions

- Fears: heights, narrow spaces, shows, performances, speeches, failure, ambition, pride, spiders, exams.

 Dreams: heights, falling, musicals, competitions, exams, mistakes, not reaching what he wants, feeling nothing, having to achieve a lot, washing, laundry, pursued, water.

 Irritability: < hurt and humiliation.

 Mood: haughty, restless, hurried, busy, nervous, sadness, flat, dull, 'frozen', crying.

 Mental: repetitive thoughts; cannot rid themselves of certain thoughts.

 Sexual: quick orgasm.

 Hobbies: all forms of art and science: music, guitar, dance, theatre, painting, weaving, literature, and hypnosis.

 Professions: artist, painter, writer, singer, musician, teacher, scientist, doctor, priest, bishop, shaman, vicar, governor, secretary, representative, advertising agent, public relations officer, top sports

 Man/- woman.

 Causes: disasters, hurt, humiliation.

 Characteristics.

 Locality: left.

 Weather: <: cold (feet)/damp/Wind; desires + > outside;

 Desires: spices/pepper/bitter/green peppers/radish;

 Aversion: milk/chestnuts;

 Menses: profuse.

 Sleep: sleepy, shocks on falling asleep.

Jan Scholten, Homeopathy and the Elements (Netherlands: Stichting Alonnissos, 2002), p. 557-562

 

TRANSITION ELEMENTS AND LANTHANIDES

As previously discussed, Niobium is the chemical element with atomic number 41 in Group 5, period 5 in the transition metals. The transition metals include all elements in the sub-series Lanthanides

and Actinides of the inner-transition elements and at least part of the sub-series Transactinides, which are the elements following the Actinides series. They are known as transition elements because their position in the periodic table is between s-block and p-block elements. The transitional elements have incompletely filled d-orbital in their atoms or ions in their common oxidation states.

In their book “Universal Mineral Materia Medica,” Dr. Ramesh Jain and Dr. Smita Trivedi give the following properties of the transition elements:

1) They have increasing properties in the same group like density, colouring, electro-positivity, reactivity, stable compound formation, magnetic properties, radioactivity, etc.

2) They have horizontal gradation in properties, and similar actions, which is absent in s-block (Group IA and IIA) and p-block (Group IIIA to VIIA) elements.

3) They are inert and passive but act better when finely powdered. Stability of compounds increases with increase in valency in an element.

4) They form complexes and coloured salts. Their lower valency compounds are coloured.

5) They show magnetic and para-magnetic properties.

6) Their melting point, boiling point and densities are high.

7) Their density goes on increasing in horizontal level as well as in vertical group.

8) Their ionic radius and volume increase in the group while in series decrease with increase in atomic number.

9) They are very good conductors of heat and electricity. They are resistant to heat and can tolerate heat better.

10) They have tendency to form covalent bond in the series while they form ionic bond in the group with increase in atomic number.

Dr. Jain and Dr. Trivedi go on to give the common indications of Group IIIB to VIIB and VIII:

NOTE: Where the authors specify for the individual elements, only the information on Niobium is reprinted here.

General indications and sphere of action of all the elements are almost same as they have slight gradation in their physical and chemical properties:

only depth of action is different. As atomic number increases in the series (horizontal) depth decreases. In the group from above downward depth increases as atomic number increases.

Ailments from: Mortification, vexation, injustice, contradiction, mental and physical exertion, masturbation, sexual excess, sunstroke, working in hot climates like near hot furnaces,

engines, etc; working in nuclear or atomic plants, in industries like dye, ceramics, steel, handling of chemical and inhaling fumes (occupational hazards), etc.

1. Direction of action: Centripetal action. The cause of the disease lies within the body and expressions starts from periphery i.e. centre to periphery.

2. Miasm: Sycotic: All the elements in these groups and their salts are sycotic.

Tubercular: All the elements in these groups and their salts are tubercular.

Syphilitic: Elements and salts of Lanthanides, Actinides series Hf+3, Ta+1, W+3, Re+3 are syphilitic.

3. Constitution:

Ionic radius decreases in the series with increase in atomic numbers. Volume does not alter much in the series or in the group as compared to increase in weight. Niobium is average in build.

They form complexes and coloured salts, pigmentation on the skin and mucous membrane. Secretions and discharges are coloured (in the reduced form) or they are colourless (in the oxidized form).

4. Inflammation and pain: Group VB: V<Nb<Ta

5. Sphere of action: Disturbance of protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism.

a. Skin and mucous membrane: Inflammation, irritation, ulceration; and pigmentation. Skin diseases like eczema, psoriasis, vitiligo, etc.

b. Eye: Irritation and inflammation; photophobia; visual disturbances.

c. Ear: Hearing decreased; tinnitus; degeneration at bony level and deafness or hearing loss due to conduction defect.

d. GIT: Acidity, ulcer, liver - fatty degeneration; spleen -enlargement, pancreas- diabetes.

e. RS: Irritation, inflammation, degeneration and cancerous condition of lings, nasal cavity, bronchus.

f. CVS: Fatty degeneration, cardiomyopathy, hypertension.

g. GUT: Kidney – inflammation, degeneration; nephritis, nephritic syndrome, renal failure.

h. Male: Impotence; organs relaxed.

i. Uterus and ovary: Irregularity in menstruation; ovarian cyst; cervical erosion; uterine tumour, cancer

j. Skeleton: Bone, blood – osteoporosis, immature blood cells, anemia, and hemoglobinopathies. d-block elements and their salts convert simple basic organic molecules into complex organic

complexes like vitamins, hormones, colouring pigments, nucleic acids, RNA, DNA, genes and maturing factors, etc.

6. Tongue, taste and discharges: Tongue pale, loss of papillae; glossitis, aphthous mouth, pigmented.

a. Discharges are soapy, stringy, yellowish, greenish, thin and lumpy

7. Depth of action: The depth of action increases in the group as the atomic number increases. Gradation of properties and similarities in action at the tissue level. All are used in alteration in function,

structural and pathological changes. They form covalent bond in series i.e. they are easily replaced by the elements during their oxidation and reduction. They form ionic bond with elements in same group i.e. their bonds are strong with group elements.

8. pH reaction: Alkalinity decreases in series while acidity increases in the group with increase in atomic number. In the series alkalinity and electro-positivity decreases (alkaline organs function and structure are impaired), while in the group alkalinity and electro-positivity increases (alkaline organs’ function and structure increases).

9. Thermal modality: Group VB – chilly

10. Sensitivity and susceptibility (reactivity): They act as messengers or catalysts in the reaction. Metals are inert at room temperature; they are active in their ionic form. As the valency increases they are more active and form stable compounds. They require high energy for their activation. Energy required for activation of metals into ions: Ta<Nb=V

11. Reversible or irreversible changes: Stability of the compounds increases with increase in valency. The compounds become stable on losing electron i.e. on oxidation. Coloured compounds are formed by lower valency ions or reduced ions of d-block elements.

12. Electro-magnetic forces: They show magnetic and paramagnetic properties. They are influenced by magnetic forces and can induce the attractive force temporarily. They do not show diamagnetic (repelling) properties.

13. Guiding indications:

            a. All are required for growth, strength, weight and vitality in general. They are nutritional trace elements. They increase resistant power in the body and prevent damage and wear and tea of the

            cells, tissues and muscles of the body.

b. All can be used for congenital abnormalities and hormonal imbalance.

c. Prevents degeneration of cells and enhances repair and healthy growth of cells.

d. Useful for sensory organ affection viz. ear, eye, skin, tongue, etc.

i. There is loss of function of the organ or they become hypersensitive to touch, noise, light, pain, etc.

e. Numbness, tingling and crawling sensations all over the body (limbs) and face.

f. Leukemia and anemia and other blood disorders like hemophilia, thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, etc.

g. As all are resistant to heat they are used for bad effect caused by sunstroke, heat, working in hot climates, near hot furnaces, engines, at climacteric period, etc.

 

Mind: Persons belonging to Group IIIB to VIIB has symptoms of emotion and intellect. They have control on action and behaviour.

a. During health the person is extrovert and social. This person is a growing person. He is immature, childish and inexperienced. He has unbounded energy and capacity. His activities are

premature, incomplete and multi-directional. He wants to do everything rapidly. His speed is difficult to control. He has no definite way or systematic plan of working. He can be directed

easily. He cannot contradict or oppose others. His capacity is hidden in a dormant state. He underestimates his own potential.

He compares different possibilities and adopts what suits him best. He tries all sorts of things. Ideas and concepts differ from time to time. He easily gets convinced by others and cannot

judge properly.

b. During the disease state there is abnormal growth. He is immature, childish, and inexperienced. He has unbounded energy. His activities are premature, incomplete and multi-directional.

(No ideas –amateur- maturity or perfectionism travel from left to right in the series.)

The persons belonging to this group are gradually differentiated and maturity evolves at all levels, mental, intellectual, physical and social, as the atomic number increases. Concentration is

difficult for them. They have a lack of self-confidence and are averse to touch.

Multidirectional activities are gradually confined to unidirectional activities to achieve the goal. Once they have started, difficult to withdraw. They have creative ideas, which are original.

They become insensitive to the surroundings, nothing can stop them. They are determinate to reach the goal. They are precautious and look as if they are cowards. They have high bearing

capacity, are sensitive, but do no get irritable easily on provocation or contradiction. They cannot be controlled easily. They do not require sympathy. They always want company; always remain

in a group or act in a group.

The intellectual faculty i.e. memory, perception, will, understanding, discrimination, perception, speech, various action and behaviour, etc. get deteriorated in the disease state.

Higher centres of brain lose control over the body. There is increase in mistakes in speaking, words misplacing and using wrong words. Moods are changeable and alternating. Psoric phases change to sycotic and to syphilitic and he loses control over the brain and body. He is loquacious. He wants to run away and attempts to escape. He wants to be naked. The person becomes mortified and complaints develop after vexation.

Modalities:

<: before menses/touch/noise/new moon/full moon;

>: pressure/in open air/after menses/rest/rubbing;

Remedy relationship: Group IIIB to VIIB elements are used in cationic form with anions of Group IIIA to VIIA elements during generalized infection and during toxicity in dynamic potency or Group IIIB to VIIB cations in physiological ionic doses with dynamic doses of Group IIIA to VIIA. Antidotes to and follows well: IIIB to VA; IVB to IVA; VB to IIIA; VIB to IIB; VIIB to IB.

All the groups from IIIB to VIIB have similarity in properties wit its ‘A’ group partner i.e. IIIA to VIIA respectively; they are complementary to each other. They share the electrons and form covalent bond with horizontal elements. They get precipitated or replaced by higher atomic number elements in the same group.

NIOBIUM: (Niobium oxide Nb2O5)

Mind: Niobium has put Titanium plans into creative action. He is afraid or hesitates to show his talent, as he does not have that much courage. He underestimates his talent. His aim or goal is too high. He does not publish his research work as he finds new faults in it. He postpones or avoids his publicity. He rather feels awkward in accepting compliments, as he thinks he has not done anything to

deserve it. He cannot make a final decision so he as piled up unfinished files. He is clear-hearted. He feels a little superior to his colleagues, so will suffer from diarrhea, stammering<nervousness,

anxiety, fear, etc.

 

Dr. Ramesh D. Jain and Dr. Smita Trivedi, Universal Mineral Materia Medica (Mumbai: Jain Homoeopathic Pharmacy, 2000) pp. 184-188

 

PRE-PROVING

Prover number six, a 45 year old female proved the mental and emotional aspects of Niobium to the extent that her homeopath subsequently treated her with various potencies of Niobium for over a

year. She was a first year student at the school in the midst of leaving a career in classical singing.

Niobium assisted her in this process of disengaging in the singing career fraught with disappointment and finding a new, more satisfying path in homeopathy. The following is an excerpt from

her introduction to her report on the period following the proving entrance meeting, prior to the taking of the remedy.

“Walking around the neighborhood with two classmates during our lunch break, I tripped and fell on my face as I recalled an important dream that I had about 12 years ago. I was not hurt, but definitely shaken.

In this dream, I had enough money to buy two houses. The first was shining emerald green, connected to the earth by being part of a living tree. In the house was my dad and a pipe organ.

The second house is up the hill. It’s white with pillars. As I approach it, the road crumbles beneath my feet. I understand that the road is not completed, and I accept the green, shining house instead.

This is the moment in recalling the dream that I fell on my face. I went back to class feeling spacey and like my defenses were definitely down, seeking Arnica.”

We drove by a house in Vancouver that resembled the white house in the dream from different directions twice before the proving was finished, the

second time on the way to the proving exit meeting.”

 

 

Niobium muriaticum (Niob-m)

 

Repertorium:

Gemüt: Verlangt Aktivität (kreativer Aktivität, kreativer Schaffensdrang)

 

 

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