Panthera leo = Löwe/Substanz: nails
A homoeopathic proving of the African lioness (= Panthera leo) with a subsequent comparison with lion ethology
Proving substance were nail shavings obtained from an African lioness (Panthera leo)
The proving of Panthera leo 30CH produced a total of 1234 rubrics, which represent a wide variety of mental, emotional and physical symptoms. The main themes that emerged from the mental and
emotional symptoms included anger, aggression, irritability, poor concentration and fear. Physical symptoms included catarrh, constipation, diarrhoea, diminished appetite, fatigue, insomnia, thirstiness
A comparison was made between the symptomatology of Panthera leo and the ethology of the lion. Some of the themes of symptoms which corresponded with the ethology of the lion included ‘anger’,
‘audacity’, ‘ennui’, ‘increased appetite and thirst’, ‘responsibilities’ and ‘children’.
According to Sherr (1994:49), the most significant and appropriate medicine will be found within our surrounding environment. The lion plays an important role in the wildlife of South Africa, and forms
part of the so called “big five” wild mammals, which attracts many tourists to the rainbow nation. In fact, globally South Africa is one of the few places in which lions still exist in the wild.
These wild mammals are associated with power, bravery, courage, majesty and royalty. These animals have been depicted in various cultures throughout history and are often described as an animal which
demands respect. The male lion, otherwise known as the ‘king of the beasts’, is the dominating protector while the ‘queen of the beasts’, the lioness, is the nurturer and hunter.
Animal remedies are used extensively in Homoeopathy, with great success in treating individuals who are in a state of disease. Based on Sherr’s recommendation, it would seem logical to acquire
homoeopathic remedy pictures of South Africa’s treasured wildlife (Sherr, 1994).
To date we do not have a complete remedy picture of the African lion. Herrick (1998) proved the milk of an African lioness (Lac leoninum), and provides common themes and symptoms in her book,
Animal mind, Human voices (1998), which she elicited from eight provers. However, the lioness from which she obtained the milk lived in captivity in a wildlife Park in India at which she was locked in
a cage nightly. Even though the lioness was in good health, the milk was obtained by capturing her in a cage and injecting her with hormones which increased milk production (Herrick, 1998).
Naude (2011) compared Herrick’s proving of Lac loxodonta Africana (milk of an African elephant in captivity) with a proving of Loxodonta Africana (ivory of a wild African elephant). He investigated
the role of the source of the crude substance on the proving symptoms produced and found that the circumstances surrounding the collection of the crude substance and the individual circumstances of
the animal from whom it was sourced influenced the proving symptoms.
As part of the “big five” in South Africa, the fifty Rand note features a picture of a lion. These animals are known and regarded as symbols of courage, majesty and royalty.
According to Herrick (1998), the Kalahari Bushmen believe that the lion is able to cause a lunar eclipse by stretching his paw toward the moon and obscuring it. She also writes that African tribesmen
believe that they can derive courage by eating the heart of a lion (Herrick, 1998).
According to Kalimuthu (2010), no other animal has been given as much attention as the lion in art and literature. The lion appears is a recurring symbol used in the coat of arms of bravery and chivalry.
The lion can also be seen in ancient stoneage cave paintings (Kalimuthu, 2010).
The name “Singh” which means lion in Hinduism is associated with the upper class and royalty and Sikhism as a religion. The Sanskrit word for the throne of a Hindu king is “Singhasana”, which
means seat of a lion. In ancient China lion sculptures were placed in front of palaces for protection. These lionsculptures were referred to as guardian lions (Shukla, 2015).
MIND: AILMENTS FROM - quarrelling/reprimands/reproaches
ALERT (of every movement)
ANGER [morning (on waking)/evening/at night/# contentment/when obliged to answer/being beside oneself/causeless/easily/at one friend/towards husband/with indignation/from being neglected/
at noise/about pains/about past events/during sleep/sudden (and ceasing suddenly)/at trifles/violent/if things do not go after his will/about work]
ANSWERING – aversion to answer
ANTICIPATION (with stage fright)
ANXIETY [morning (on waking)/evening/with absentmindedness/during anger/attempting things/being beside oneself from anxiety/about business/of conscience/about future/about (own) health/about
money matter/for others/during perspiration/from pressure/> riding/studying/thinking about it/from thoughts/when time is set/with weariness]
AVERSION – to husband
BED – desires to remain in bed
BENEVOLENCE (to others less fortunate)
BROODING (over disappointment/over trifles)
BUSY (must keep busy)
CARES [full of cares [about domestic affairs/about his business/about money/affected by daily cares/about others]
CHANGE [desire for (in life)]
CHEERFUL [morning (on wking)/evening/# with sadness/in company]
CHILDREN – desire to nurture
CLOUDS – attracted by them
COLOURS – black desire it/> blue sky blue
COMPANY - aversion to (cannot bear anybody)/desire (company/for solitude/< alone/> in company/desires [certain company/of his family/of a (close) friend]/desire to keep group together/
desire for children/yearning for
COMPLAINING (of relations and surroundings)
CONCENTRATION – difficult (afternoon/driving/studying/< thinking/working/< lack)
CONFIDENCE – want of self confidence (support)
CONFUSION (as to time)
CONSOLATION – >/</from kind words
CONTENT (# sadness)
CONVERSATION – aversion to/desire for
CRUELTY (like to do something cruel)
DEATH – sensation of/thoughts of death of his father
DELUSIONS [being alone/is not appreciated/is forsaken/is friendless/everyone is insane/is invisible/is separated from the world/is separated/is in a different world/has her own little world/
DESIRES – full of desires (for husband/for marriage/for unattainable things)
DESPAIR (of own condition/over his work)
DETACHED (“As if detached”)
DIRTY – aversion to dirtiness
DISCONTENTED (morning/causeless/with others)
DREAM – “As if in a dream”
DREAMING – “As if in a beautiful dream”
DUTY – too much sense of duty
DWELLS on past disagreeable occurrences
EASE – feeling of
EATING - > after
EMOTIONS – carefree/loss of/suppressed
ENNUI (afternoon/> entertainment ameliorates)
EXCITEMENT (desire for)
EXPRESSING oneself – desire to express oneself
FEAR [of impending disease (being incurable)/constant of everything/of failure (in examinations)/sudden/on waking (from a dream)]
FEARLESS (wants to set things on fire)
FORSAKEN feeling (feeling of not being beloved by his parents, wife, friends)/”As if isolated”/
HATRED – of husband/and revengeful
HEAVINESS; sensation of
HEEDLESS (all around/of what others think)
HELD – desire to be held
HELPLESSNESS – on emotional level/on mental level/feeling of
HOME – desires to go
HORRIBLE things, sad stories affect her profoundly
IMPATIENCE (with others)
INDEPENDENT – desire for independence/lack of independence
INDIFFERENCE (with ennui/toward others/with aversion to work)
INJUSTICE – cannot support
IRRITABILITY – when aroused by noise during sleep/sudden/on waking/with weakness/working
KILL – desire to (impulse to kill her beloved husband)
LAMENTING (because he is not appreciated)
LAZINESS (afternoon/physical/with sleepiness)
LONGING – sense of
LOQUACITY – heedless
LOVE – exalted love/love sick)
MALICIOUS (desires to injure someone)
MARRIAGE – > thoughts of
MATHEMATICS – inability for (calculating)
MEMORY – active/weakness of memory (for what he has just read)
MENTAL EXERTION – aversion to
MENTAL POWER – increased (sharp and alert)
MERGING OF SELF with one’s environment
MISTAKES; making [in speaking (using wrong words)/in time/in writing]
MOOD – agreeable/alternating/changeable evening/contradictory/repulsive
MORTIFICATION (talk about disease)
MUSIC – >/desire for
NOISE – aversion to
OFFENDED, easily (from past offenses)
PEACE – yearning for
PLANS – making many plans (for the future)
PLEASING – desire to please others
POSTPONING everything to next day
PROSTRATION of mind (night/after anxiety/from cares/from slight mental exertion/with sleepiness/prolonged study)
QUARRELLING – aversion to
QUIET; wants to be
RELIGIOUS AFFECTIONS [talking on religious subjects/too occupied with religion (melancholia)/want of religious feeling
REPROACHING – oneself/others
RESENTMENT to husband
RESPECTED – desires to be
RESPONSIBILITY – taking responsibility early/taking responsibility too seriously
SADNESS (morning/afternoon/when alone/with brooding/causeless/after cheerfulness/with despair/from dream/extreme/from failure to accomplish/gloomy/after mental exertion/
about past events/after quarrel with husband/being single/about trifles/when waking/with weakness
SENSITIVE (to emotions/to noise)
< SPOKEN TO; being
STRIKING – from anger/desires to strike/with rage/
SUSPICIOUS (of his best friends)
SYMPATHY from others – desire for
TALKING – desire to talk to someone (in conflicts; in order to solve/about future)
THOUGHTS – dead of loved ones/disagreeable/of father/of the future/of the past/persistent (of person who offended him)/rush (in afternoon/at night/from sleeplessness)/
THREATENING – to kill
TIME – passes too slowly, appears longer
TIMIDITY – public about speaking in public
TRANQUILLITY [morning (on waking)]
VIOLENT (when hearing another reproached)
WEARISOME (from cares)
WEARY OF LIFE (from solicitude about future)
WEEPING (>/“As if she had been abandoned/causeless/desire to weep/dreaming/about everything/violent)
WILL – loss of will (walking)
WILL – weakness of
WORK – desire to work
WRITING – aversion
VERTIGO: afternoon/+ noises in ear/+ heaviness in /pain in the /+ nausea
< after (over) EATING
ERUPTIONS – scales/scurfy
HEAVINESS (afternoon/+ heat of/+ nausea/painful)
LIGHTNESS; sensation of
PAIN [in daytime/morning (on waking)/afternoon (13 h./15 h./16 h. till 20 h.)/evening (18 h.)/at night (preventing sleep/+ pain in eye (sore)/+ nausea/+ pain in (nape of) neck/aching/# pain in occiput (ext. forehead/frontal
eminence/nape of neck/sharp)/> cold water/ “As from congestion”/constant, continued (2 or 3 days)/< during cough/> drinking water/dull/> after eating/< motion(< noise (dull)/pressing (“As from weight”/> pressure/
like pulling/pulsating/sharp/short lasting/Sides (r.)/aching/ext. r. eye/> sleep/preventing sleep/sore/temples (one sided)/vertex/violent/of scalp/> sleep]
EYE: CLOSING THE EYES desire to
DRYNESS (at night/< reading/”As if dry”)
HEAVINESS (+ pain in hand”)
LIDS; complaints of (lower)
PAIN [burning (afternoon/> cold applications)/sore
SWELLING – (lower/l.) lids
VISION: BLURRED during ache
LOSS OF VISION during ache
EAR: DISCHARGE (yellow)
“As if full”
NOISES in (buzzing/ringing)
PAIN [l./in lobes/”As if stopped” (> yawning)
HEARING: IMPAIRED (l./with pain in ear)
NOSE: CATARRH [morning/+ obstruction/CONGESTION/CORYZA (morning)]
OBSTRUCTION – morning (on waking)/r./# with discharge/must breath through mouth/”As of obstructed”
PAIN – at root of nose during ache
SNEEZING [morning (on waking)/constant/from odors/violent]
FACE: DRYNESS (of cheeks)
ERUPTIONS [acne/of cheeks/on nose (r./inside)/pimples (red)/red]
PAIN in frontal sinuses
SHINY “As if oily”
MOUTH: BLEEDING GUMS
NUMBNESS of tongue
TASTE – bad/bitter (< after eating)/metallic
TONGUE; complaints of
THROAT: COMPLAINTS of throat
DRYNESS (with thirst for cold water)
“As if a FOREIGN BODY”
ITCHING (< cough)
PAIN (morning/+ scratching/”As if sharp from something”/sore/”As from a splinter”/stitching)
EXTERNAL THROAT: SWELLING (of cervical Glands)/”As if swollen”
THYROID GLAND – complaints of
NECK: COMPLAINTS of neck
PAIN (l./”As from wrong position”/sore)
STOMACH: “As if full with air”
APPETITE – constant/diminished [morning/at noon/evening/at eating time/with thirst/easy satiety/increased (daytime/afternoon/17 h.)/insatiable/ravenous (noon)/with thirst
COMPLAINTS of the stomach
DISTENTION (“As if full of air”/< after eating)
HEAT – sensation of
NAUSEA (daytime/afternoon – 13 h./14 h.)/< drinking/smell of food)
PAIN [night/> bending double/burning/> cold drinks/cramping/in epigastrium/after ice cream/> lying (cramping)/morning (burning)/> pressure on dorsal vertebrae/preventing sleep/
> stooping/violent/on waking]
THIRST [daytime/morning (on waking)/evening/at night/# with thirstlessness/burning, vehement/for cold water/extreme (on waking)/unquenchable]
ABDOMEN: PAIN – daytime/noon/cramping very violent/< after diarrhoea/before diarrhoea (cramping)/during diarrhoea (cramping)/hypogastrium [cramping (at night)]/
lower abdomen [morning (on waking)/cramping/stitching/tearing pain/interrupting sleep/stinging/stitching/tearing
RECTUM: CONSTIPATION (in daytime/painful)
DIARRHOEA (daytime/afternoon from cramping/at night/< during fever/hectic/during menses/< rich food/during sleep/during stool)
STOOL: like (black/small) BALLS
LUMPY small; and
BLADDER: URINATION – < drinking/frequent (after drinking/during ache/with pain/but scanty
URINE: yellow bright
COPIOUS (during ache)
SCANTY (and frequent)
FEMALE GENITALIA/ SEX:
MENSES copious [daytime only/morning (only)/afternoon/evening/too early/too late/painful/pale with dark clots/scanty]
PAIN – Ovaries
LARYNX AND TRACHEA:
VOICE – broken/complaints/higher after hawking/hoarseness > hawking/weak (after talking)
COUGH: in general
NIGHT (waking from the cough)
> COLD drinks
ITCHING in throat
SLEEP wakens from cough
COUGH in general
EXPECTORATION: in BALLS
DIFFICULT (too weak to cough)
EXPECTORATION – MUCOUS /< cold weather/TOUGH/VISCID/WHITE (tough)
PAIN (l./in dorsal region/lumbar region (from lying in a wrong position)/< during menses/on motion (> gentle motion)/sore/> external PRESSURE)
EXTREMITIES: CHAPPED hands
DRYNESS in palms
ERUPTIONS [hands (palms/pimples)]
ERUPTIONS – Upper limb (pimples)
complaints of FEET (soles)
FORMICATION in fingers
HANDS – complaints of
HEAT [feet (burning)]
KNEES; complaints of
LEGS – complaints of
NAILS; complaints of
PAIN [r./Ankles (< standing)/burning (foot/sole)/cramping/elbow/< grasping something/hands (closing the hand/holding anything/< motion/Knees (< motion/sore)/legs (calves/< ascending stairs/cramping/sore)/
nails sore/shoulders /ext. neck/sore/in general)]
DISTURBED [by dreams (frightful/after fever/by the slightest noise/by pain (stomach)/by cough]
DREAMING (driving out of bed)
FALLING ASLEEP – morning/afternoon (13.30 - 14.30 h.)/in daytime/difficult (morning/with sleepiness/too early/late (after four hours)/INTERRUPTED (from pain)
NEED OF SLEEP – great/little
POSITION changed frequently
PROLONGED (in daytime)
SHORT (afternoon/after midnight (4.30 - 6.30 h.)/in catnaps
SLEEPINESS [in daytime/morning (on waking)/afternoon (14. h./14.30 h./17 h.)/evening (early/20 h.)/night/overpowering/with weakness/with weariness/during work]
SLEEPLESS – evening (from activity of thoughts)/night (after going to bed/before midnight/middle part/sleeps at daytime)/< during fever/+ sleepiness/during diarrhoea/from pain/
large part of the night/from restlessness/from sadness/from shocks/from activity of thoughts/in spite of weariness/
WAKING – morning (7 h.)/night/from cough/difficult/by dreams/too early
(and falling asleep late)/frequent/too late/as having slept one’s fill/
YAWNING (daytime/constant/during sleepiness/with aversion to work)
DREAMS: ACCIDENTS/AFRICA/AIRPORTS/ANGER/ANCIOUS/being ATTACKED (by black person)/BROTHER/about CHILDREN (rescuing)/CHRISTMAS/
CONFUSED (being confused)/COUSIN/of the DEAD (friend)/DEATH (of relatives/of parents)/DISCONNECTED/DROWNING (children/people)/FALLING (from a height/into a pit)/
GRANDPARENTS (of grandmother old; isolated)
HAMMERING her, someone is
HOME – turned out of
MUSIC (religious Middle Eastern music)
TRAP – being trapped
UNPLEASANT (from fear)
FEVER: DIARRHOEA during
FEVER, heat in general
SLEEP, heat comes on – during
PERSPIRATION: AT NIGHT (during heat)
PERSPIRATION in general
PROFUSE (at night/during sleep)
ECCHYMOSES (in spots)
ERUPTIONS [blisters (“As from a burn”)/eczema/pimples
ITCHING (+ “As if skin is hot”/burning/< after eating)
SENSITIVE to sun
GENERALS: MORNING (on waking)
ACTIVITY - desire for/increased
BATHING – (ice) cold bathing desire for/< hot bathing
BUSINESS, work, occupation; complaints from
COLD air <
COMPLAINTS – body weight; regulation of
EATING after >
ENERGY – excess of energy (# low energy/sensation of)
EXERTION – physical desires/< physical exertion
FAINTNESS + constipation
FANNED; being – desire to be
FOOD and DRINKS: <: sweets/cold drink (water)/warm drinks/ice (cream)/pastry/potatoes/salad/spices/
>: cold drink (water)/food/milk/sugar
Desires: bland food/carbonated drinks/cheese/(bitter) chocolate/ice cream/nuts/warm soup/sour drinks/tomatoes
HEAT - + complaints/flushes of heat (in daytime/at night/with perspiration)/sensation of heat (night/< exertion/during perspiration)
INFLUENZA (“As if”)
JOINTS complaints of
LOSS of fluids
OBESITY (during sadness in women)
PAIN [morning/aching/all over body/cramping in muscles]
REST – desire for
SICK FEELING; vague (on waking)
SLEEP – > short sleep in afternoon
STIFFNESS (in joints/in muscles)
STRENGTH, sensation of
TENSION in general
WARM – air <
WEAKNESS [in daytime/morning (on rising/on waking)/at noon/afternoon/14 h. – 15 h./evening/at night/+ nausea/appetite increased/< after breakfast/after a dream/excessive/< (slight) exertion/
“As from excessive exertion”/from hunger/after menses/during menses/< mental exertion/from pain/progressive/+ restlessness/from loss of sleep/”As from sleepiness”
WEARINESS [daytime/morning (on waking)/noon/afternoon/evening/at night/extreme/< mental exertion/(after/much) talking
WEATHER – hot <
WIND – < cold
The number of symptoms produced by Panthera leo that has been categorised as a symptom is extensive, and have therefore been grouped into themes, to facilitate discussion.
Absentmindedness was experienced by 5 provers. This was expressed as misplacing personal items, loss of focus or concentration on the task at hand confusion of making mistakes with regard to time as well as making mistakes with regard to speech. Prover 6 also described a dazed feeling and being ‘delayed in everything’.
Feelings of anger and frustration were experienced by nine provers. Provers experienced anger toward other people
Provers also experienced anger with thoughts of violence and the desire to violently injure the person at which their anger was directed. They described a desire to strangle, beat and kill the other person
Prover 8 experienced anger toward their child which was very out of character and was followed by being angry with herself
Provers 8 and 16 experienced anger toward their husbands
Four provers experienced causeless anger
Prover 30 experienced anger and rage and described feeling as if they were ‘a bomb ready to explode’
Prover 30 also related how they became angry very quickly and had a short-temper
All provers who experienced anger said that it was very unusual for them to experience such anger and that they felt it to be out of character. They described the anger as being intense and used words such as ‘rage’, ‘frustration’ and ‘aggression’ to express how they felt.
Three provers has thoughts about being violent toward others. One prover imagined strangulating another person until they stopped breathing. Prover 21 had a desire to burn down a building
Prover 30 felt as if she could ‘beat up’ another person. She said that she had felt ‘violent and confrontational’, which was very out of character for her
Provers experienced a sense of boldness and bravery. Prover 2 experienced
boldness with regard to speaking with an indifference to being criticised
Provers 2 and 23 felt that they were bold and courageous enough to express their feeling, where they would normally suppress their feelings.
Provers 10 and 11 experienced a desire to ‘lash out’ at people
Prover 2 and 6 experienced fearlessness, prover 2 with regard to expressing himself and prover 6 with regard to trying new activities
Five provers expressed a desire for change. They each desired a change in life, sought more excitement and experienced boredom with their everyday routine
Provers 6 and 18 desired to nurture children in a motherly form. They each expressed a desire to bear their own children and felt the need to nurture other children
Prover 6 felt ‘raw and hurt’ when she visited orphaned children. Provers 6 and 23 felt great sadness when they had to leave children or say goodbye to a child
Provers 8 and 23 experienced anger toward children who were being noisy and reprimanded them. This was quickly followed by feelings of remorse for their action
Company (aversion, ameliorates, desire)
Provers 2, 6, 10, 23 and 30 experienced an aversion to company and desired solitude
Prover 23 desired solitude because of pain, ‘physically and emotionally’
Provers 22 and 28 felt better when they were in the company of friends and family
Prover 6 desired the company of a close child relative, prover 30 desired the company of specific close relatives and prover 23 desired the ‘right company’
Prover 6 experienced a sense of isolation, even when in the company of others
Prover 13 felt as if she were ‘alone in this world’
Four provers felt a sense of gratitude
Prover 6 felt grateful for loved ones .
Prover 28 felt grateful for ‘the gift of life’
Prover 30 felt grateful for additional finance
Ten provers experienced happiness and contentment. Prover 6 experienced an unusual sense of happiness and contentment with life in general which she had never experienced before
Prover 16 felt happy to be able to help others
Prover 18 felt content with life in general
Prover 22 felt ‘happy as if in my own world’
Provers 22 and 30 felt happy about going home
Prover 23 felt happy about being in the company of friends and reminiscing over fond memories. Prover 28 experienced great happiness and contentment when involved with religious practices,
spending time with religious groups and listening to religious music
Prover 30 felt happy when listening to ‘upbeat music’
Provers 14 and 21 experienced happiness on waking in the morning
Provers 8, 10 and 16 felt anger and irritation toward their husbands.
Prover 10 felt a desire to kill her husband
Provers 6, 21 and 30 felt an unusual longing to be near their boyfriends
Prover 21 felt infatuated with her boyfriend
Prover 28 felt worse with her boyfriend at times, while felt very happy with him at other times.
In one instance, prover 16 was happy because she was able to have a conversation with her husband, due to the fact that the television was off
Thirteen provers experienced irritability during the proving. Provers 2, 6 experienced irritability toward others. Prover 3 experienced irritability in the morning.
Provers 6, 8, 10, 13, 14, 16 and 23 experienced a general sense of irritability and felt ‘grumpy’
Prover 14 felt sudden irritability in the afternoon. Provers 8, 10 and 16 experienced irritability toward their husbands and prover 21 toward their boyfriend. Prover 15 experienced irritability when
listening to disagreeable music. Prover 16 experienced irritability as a result of things not going their way/ as planned. Provers 16 and 23 felt irritated when doing mathematical calculations
Prover 21 felt irritated because of having to record dates in the proving journal. Prover 28 felt irritated because she felt that she was working too hard. Prover 28 also experienced causeless irritability
Prover 30 felt irritated because of experienced anger that was induced by taking the proving substance
Provers 19, 21 and 30 experienced a sense of laziness. Provers 21 and 30 said that they felt too lazy to write their symptoms in their proving journals
Prover felt too lazy to complete work related tasks. Prover 30 felt too lazy to get out of bed or eat
Provers 16, 18 and 21 experienced a sensation of being lost. Prover 16 felt lost because of not knowing where she should go. Provers 18 and 21 felt as if they did not belong anywhere.
Provers 16 and 28 were worried about whether they would have enough money to pay their expenses
Provers 28 and 30 felt as if they were not earning enough money for the work that they were doing
Prover 30 was grateful for having money
Prover 1 felt that her moods had improved in general, after taking the proving substance.
Provers 6, 13, 19, 23, 28 and 30 experienced changeable moods throughout the day
Prover 30 described it as being ‘up and down mood swings’
Prover 6 felt positive that she had taken a placebo, while prover 30 felt positive that she had taken verum
Pleasing others Provers 21, 23 and 28 experienced a desire to please others. Prover 21 felt a desire to please her mother, while prover 16 felt a desire to please her god
Prover 21 sought prayer to assist her with being positive that she had passed her examination.
Prover 28 felt better for occupying herself with religion and constantly acknowledged and praised her god.
Twelve provers experienced a sense of sadness during the proving. Prover 4 felt sad after attending a funeral. Prover 6 experience a deep and causeless sadness. She felt ‘heavily depressed’
Prover 13 felt sadness which was accompanied by weeping. Prover 18 felt depressed when thinking about her future. Prover 19 experienced sadness alternating with happiness.
Prover 23 felt sad because she could not please people loved ones. Provers 13 and 28 felt sad up on remembering close relatives who have died.
Prover 6 said that she cried after having a disagreement with her sister and she also said that she felt as if she ‘could cry over anything and everything’ Prover 19 felt better after crying)
Provers 6 and 13 expressed a desire to cry. Prover 23 said that she had cried while asleep and dreaming.
Four provers said that they were very snappish.
Prover 11 also said that she was being ‘extremely rude to people’.
Nine provers experienced stress, and used synonyms such as ‘anxiety’ and ‘tension’ to describe this feeling. Prover 1 said that she did not feel as stressed after taking the proving remedy,
as she had been feeling prior to taking the remedy
Prover 22 experienced anxiety before presenting work to her boss Prover 28 felt financial related stress. She worried about not having enough finances.
Thoughts of dead loved ones
Three provers had thoughts of older male relatives that had died. Provers 1 and 13 thought of their dead fathers a lot while prover 28 thought of her dead grandfather.
Three provers felt that time passed too slowly. Prover 6 said that it was as if ‘time were retarded’. Prover 8 said that her morning ‘seemed to drag on forever).
Prover 23 felt that ‘everything took too long’ and she also felt as if she were being rushed in other instances.
Five provers felt calmer in general while four provers expressed a desire to be tranquil. Prover 6 said that she was calmer in situations where she would normally panic.
Provers 14, 19, 23 and 28 said that they felt relaxed Provers 10 and 16 felt that they were not in a calm state. Prover 23 said that she needed a break in order to relax and prover 30 said that
she wanted peace
Provers 28 and 30 felt unappreciated in their place of work
Prover 28 also felt that certain relatives did not appreciate what she had done for them.
Prover 28 felt better for writing her symptoms in her proving journal.
Provers 16, 21 and 30 felt too lazy and did not enjoy writing their symptoms in their
Prover 30 made mistakes while writing, i.e. she wrote ‘birthday’ even though she meant to write ‘bed’. Prover 30 also pointed out that the neatness of her writing had
changed since she had taken the proving remedy. She said that prior to taking the remedy she was very particular about maintaining neat handwriting, however she
had noticed that her writing had become untidy. Prover 21 felt irritated about having to write the date.
One prover felt ‘distraught’ after quarrelling with family. Impatience was experienced. Prover 16 experienced frustration as a result of ‘not knowing’ whether or not she had passed her exam.
One prover felt that she could not ‘switch off’ mentally Disappointment was experienced, as result of things not meeting a certain standard and not being able to go on holiday.
One prover found it difficult to follow through on plans made. A feeling of indifference was experienced. One prover felt indecisive about her future.
One prover desired sleep as an escape from her troubles. One prover expressed regret for having participated in this research, because of the mental symptoms she had experienced,
as well as regret for having studied in a specific field. A sensitivity to injustice was felt, when one prover felt that others were unfairly favoured more than her.
Prover 6 experienced a desire to be consoled and comforted.
Prover 30 expressed great determination to accomplish life goals. Prover 21 described feeling as if she were in a drug state or a ‘drug addict’.
Provers 18 and 30 described feeling ‘like death’.
Prover 6 said that she felt ‘permeable’ and was picking up the mood of those around her. Prover 21 felt as if she were ‘diffusing with everyone’.
Prover 21 expressed a desire to be independent
Prover 21 felt invisible in one instance and a desire to be invisible in another. Prover felt that her memory had improved while taking the proving substance.
Prover 16 found it difficultto remember work that she had studied. Prover 21 expressed a desire to be one with the elements. She said that she desired to be ‘one with the
sky and clouds and float with them wherever they go’. Provers 21 and 30 said that they felt very out of character while under the influence of the proving remedy.
Two provers said that they had positive attitude. Two provers said that they has felt refreshed while taking the proving remedy. Prover 6 felt as if she were ‘not adding anything useful
to this research’ and experienced guilt as a result. Prover 8 felt angry with herself. Prover 28 felt as if she had too many responsibilities. Two provers said that they felt very restless
during the proving. Prover 15 exclaimed that she felt strong, while prover 23 said that she had a strong will power. Provers 13 and 23 said that their thoughts wandered constantly.
Prover 1 recorded a feeling of being ‘emotionally tired’ and prover 8 felt ‘mentally drained’. Prover 1 described being very alert, especially at night and during heavy rainfall.
Provers 23 and 29 experienced fear upon waking in the morning
Vertigo was experienced by 3 provers. Provers 28 and 30 felt dizzy, while prover 11 felt light headedness which was accompanied by tinnitus.
Aches, of varying types were experienced by 19 provers (66%). Some aches were slight or mild.
The headaches occurred at different times of the day. Provers 4, 8, 13, 14, 15, 19 and 22 experienced aches in the morning
Provers 1, 4 and 6 experienced aches in the evening Provers 6, 8, 10, 14, 19, 28 and 30 experienced aches in the afternoon. With provers 8, 19 and 29 the aches started immediately
after they took a dose of
Provers 4, 6, 17, 19, 23 experienced aches which was located on the forehead
Other aches were located in the occipital region. Provers 11 experienced a throbbing ache. Dull aches were experienced
Some provers had aches which were aching in nature. aches which were sharp in nature were also experienced. Hammering aches were felt.
Some provers described the ache as feeling sore
Some provers had a ache accompanied by pain Concomitant symptoms included dehydration, dizziness, nausea and frequent urination. aches > water, eating, sugar.
Prover 15 experienced a unilateral temporal ache which prevented sleep. aches with a sensation of congestion was experienced.
Provers felt as if their head had become too heavy.
A sensation of burning
A yellow exudate was found in the ears, and the ears also felt oily and sticky. Buzzing sounds occurred, which was described as sounding ‘like a thousand little insects’
Prover 26 experienced tinnitus. Pain occurred on the right ear and the left ear. Congestion was felt.
Hearing impairment occurred in 2 provers. Prover 11 said that she could not hear after waking up from bending for too long. Prover 23 could not hear properly in her left ear, and
was + pain in the left ear
Congestion of the nose occurred. Provers recorded sneezing a lot
Some provers experienced a discharge from the nose: Dryness of the nose occurred.
Oiliness and stickiness of the face occurred.
Pimples erupted on the face, on the lower cheeks and on the left side of the face. Prover 11 said that her skin had become less sensitive to a variety of beauty products and she was
able to use products which caused irritation in the past.
Numbness of the tongue occurred. Hypersalivation occurred. Prover 30 had bleeding gums when she brushed her teeth
Prover 6 recorded that after taking the 1st dose of the proving remedy, she felt as if it had a metallic or chemical taste.
Prover 23 experienced a bitter taste after eating.
Six provers experienced a sore throat
Prover 6 described having a sore throat accompanied by itching of the throat, and said that it felt as if there were thorns in her throat. Dryness of the throat occurred.
and was ameliorated by cold water in the case of prover 26. Itchiness of the throat occurred. Prover 26 felt as if there were stones in her throat.
5.3.11. External throat
An enlarged thyroid gland occurred in prover 11.
Neck pain occurred in 5 provers.
Provers 1 and 19 experienced pain on the left side of their neck. Prover 16 experienced a burning sensation on the left side of her neck. Stiffness of the neck occurred.
Provers experienced an increase and decrease in appetite. Ten provers said that they had an increase in appetite. They described having an appetite was insatiable and they felt hungry all the time
7 provers had a diminished appetite
A sensation of burning in the stomach occurred
Prover 11 experienced burning after eating spicy food
Prover 17 experienced burning accompanied by stomach cramps. In the case of prover 23, the burning was ameliorated by eating yogurt.
Four provers experienced a cramping pain in the stomach. Prover 19 experienced pain in the epigastrium region. The pain was ameliorated by leaning forward and placing a pillow behind her back.
Thirstiness and thirstlessness were experienced by provers. Eight provers experienced thirstiness.
Prover 28 experienced a decrease in thirst. Prover 11 experienced thirstiness alternating with thirstlessness.
Bloating occurred in 2 provers.
Prover 22 felt as if his stomach were filled with air. Five provers experienced nausea.
Prover 11 experienced nausea when she smelled spicy food cooking. Prover 17 felt uneasiness in her stomach after eating sweet delicacies.
Prover 11 experienced a stinging pain in her abdomen. She also experienced a stinging pain in the region of her ovaries accompanied with a cramping pain in her abdomen. Provers 16 and 17 experienced cramping pain in the abdomen
Prover 30 experienced a sensation as if there was ‘boiling water’ in her abdomen.
Constipation occurred in six provers
Three provers experienced diarrhoea
Prover 17 experienced diarrhoea which was accompanied by abdominal cramps and bloating.
Prover 6 passed stool which was dark in colour and looked like ‘pebbles’.
Prover 11 passed stool which was loose, pale, and almost yellow in colour. On another occasion she passed stool which was loose and dark in colour. Prover 16 passed stool which looked like
small pieces and soft stool. Prover 22 described a putrid smell when passing stool.
Three provers recorded an increase in frequency of urination
Prover 16 experienced a decrease in the quantity of urine.
Prover 30 experienced an increase in the quantity of urine.
5.3.19. Female genitalia/ sex
An increase in menstrual flow occurred.
Menses delayed, accompanied by a stinging pain in the ovaries. A decrease in menstrual flow occurred, with diminished bleeding at night. Prover 11 described the menstrual blood as being pale pink with dark clots
Prover 14 started menses earlier than usual.
5.3.20. Larynx and trachea
Prover 11 felt as if her voice had faded and sounded ‘cracked’.
Coughing occurred in 2 provers. Prover 11 coughed after drinking cold water
Prover 26 experienced coughing at night, which woke her from sleep.
The cough was > by cold water.
One prover had a buildup of phlegm, which was difficult to cough out at times. The expectorant was white and tenacious.
Pimples erupted on the right side of the chest, underneath the breast
Back pain occurred. Pain occurred on the lower back and was worse for movement. The back pain was > lying down with a pillow behind the back. A burning sensation was felt in the back, and was > cold applications.
A sensation of heaviness was felt in the upper back, as from a weight.
A burning sensation was felt in the feet.
Eruptions of pimples occurred on the upper limbs. Prover 11 had pimples on her left hand, while prover 19 had pimples on her upper arms.
Pain, cramping and stiffness of the extremities occurred. Pain occurred in the neck and shoulders. Pain and cramping occurred in the legs, knees and hands.
Muscle stiffness occurred in the calves. Prover 11 experienced a tingling sensation in her left hand.
Provers experienced sleeping difficulties. Some of the symptoms include sleeplessness, sleepiness during the day, unrefreshing sleep, and difficulty falling asleep. Prover 19 felt that her sleeping had improved and
she was able to sleep through noises that would otherwise disturb her. Three provers had disturbed sleep and said that their sleep broke numerous times during the night.
Seven provers experienced difficulty in falling asleep.Prover 13 could not fall asleep as she was thinking about past events.
Provers 16 and 23 were kept awake by their racing thoughts.
Prover 1 fell asleep later than usual. Nine provers fell asleep earlier than usual.
Provers 11 and 15 found difficulty in finding a comfortable position to sleep in. Two provers reported sleeping longer hours at night.
Three provers felt refreshed upon waking. Three provers said that they had a restful sleep. Unrefreshing sleep occurred.
Restlessness during sleep occurred in six provers. Five provers slept for short periods during the day.
Provers experienced sleepiness during the day.
Six provers woke up earlier than usual in the morning. Prover 30 experienced difficulty in waking up in the morning. Two provers woke up later than usual.
Provers had various during the proving. Prover 15 dreamt about islands on the coast of Africa. Prover 29 had a recurrent dream that she was being attacked at night by a black person,
who intended to ‘hammer’ her. Prover 14 had a dream about the death of her family members. Prover 16 had a dream about family members, as well as friend who had passed away.
Prover 23 experienced frightful. Prover 28 dreamt that her brother had fallen off a mountain, and that her grandmother had fallen into an abyss. Prover 15 dreamt of cartoon characters and felt happy in the dream.
Prover 23 had a dream of her own wedding, which made her feel happy. Prover 11 had a dream of being trapped in an extremely small room, as well as shopping with friends. Prover 4 had unusual and scary.
Prover 23 had a dream about travelling to India. Prover 19 dreamt about seeing a child drowning in a pool of water. Prover 30 had a dream about a class mate being treated as if they were royalty. She described this dream as being vivid.
Five provers recorded having that they could not remember.
Five provers had a fever during the proving.
Provers 3, 6 and 8 had a fever which was accompanied by a runny nose and a sore throat.
Prover 17 experienced a fever accompanied by diarrhea.
Three provers recorded an increase in the production of perspiration.
Prover 11 perspired mostly on her upper lip and along her hairline as well as during the night.
Prover 1 noticed an improvement in skin and felt that the eczema which she had in the past got betterand her skin was brighter. Prover 11 had an eruption of fine pimples on the left side of her face and said that her skin felt drier than usual. The dryness of skin was pronounced on the scalp, around her lips and cheeks. The skin in these areas had become so dry that they were flaking.
There was also an improvement in skin sensitivity toward the sun. Prover 23 experienced itchy skin after eating.
Three provers experienced general body aches and pains.
Dehydration occurred in four provers.
Four provers said that they felt an increase in energy levels, while three provers said that there energy levels had decreased.
Nineteen provers experienced a feeling of tiredness and exhaustion.
Provers craved a variety of food during this proving. These include chocolate covered nuts, cold fizzy drinks, cheese, potato chips, tomato-soup, ice cream, dark chocolate and popcorn.
Certain foods <.
Ice water caused coughing, cold drinks caused a runny nose, spicy food caused a sensation of burning in the stomach. rich food caused diarrhoea and potato, salad and pastry caused nausea.
A sensation of heat was felt. Six provers had the sensation as if they had influenza.
A general feeling of restlessness occurred.. Four provers said that they felt sick in general. Three provers experienced physical weakness.
Prover 6 felt better for being in a moving car. Prover 11 felt uncomfortable when she had her usual hot water bath, and therefore had to bath using lukewarm or cold water during the proving.
Lymphadenopathy of right occipital and superficial cervical nodes occurred.
5.4. POST PROVING WORKSHOP
A post proving workshop was held after all journals had been collected and analysed. The purpose of the seminar was to unblind the proving, by informing participants whether they were on verum or placebo.
A total of ten provers attended this workshop, nine of which were on verum and one who was on placebo. All participants on verum were given an opportunity to voluntarily share their experiences,
while on the proving substance, with the rest of the group. Provers shared prominent symptoms that they had experienced, which lead to a discussion on how numerous provers experienced similar symptoms.
Following the discussion of symptoms, the researchers revealed the nature of the proving substance to all participants.
The common themes that provers discussed during the post proving workshop was as follows:
5.4.1. Change in sleeping patterns
Provers explained that they had experienced insomnia at night and felt very sleepy during the day. Some provers also noticed that they were sleeping longer hours.
Provers had experienced a dull, pounding ache which was felt in the vertex.
Some described the pain as shooting toward the vertex. The ache was said to be severe. One prover explained that she normally experienced aches, however after taking the proving remedy, the ache had intensified significantly.
One prover shared how she had coughed intensely immediately after taking the first dose of the proving substance. She said that it was as if the remedy was too strong and had irritated her throat.
A number of provers said that they had experienced extreme hunger while under the influence of the proving remedy. They described the hunger as being insatiable and constant.
5.4.5. Craving for meat
One prover shared that even though she is vegetarian, during the proving she had a craving for red meat.
5.4.6. Heightened senses
Provers described how the felt as if their senses were heightened and they felt more alert.
5.4.7. Change in emotional state
Provers shared how they felt out of character during this proving. They explained how they felt, thought and behaved in a manner that was very different from their norm.
Provers experienced a violent aggression. Some experienced thoughts of wanting to injure others by pushing them from the roof of a tall building or a balcony. Some provers had felt aggression toward their husband or boyfriend.
5.4.9. Authority, rebellion
Provers described having a problem with authority figures. One prover explained how she was even averse to recording in her journal when being prompted to by her research supervisor.
Numerous provers experienced violent anger during this proving. In some instances the anger was causeless but mainly they became very angry over slight offences.
One prover was very angry and lashed out at her son, which was unusual for her.
5.4.11. Maternal instinct
Female provers desired to nurture a child. One prover described how she felt a desperate longing to be a mother.
Provers described being obsessed with their partners. They experienced clinginess which was out of character for them.
5.4.13. Jealousy, possessiveness
Provers experienced tremendous jealousy in relationships. One prover explained how she became upset whenever her boyfriend noticed another female and would often confront him about it and ‘watched his every move.’
One prover shared how she would hold on to her boyfriend whenever she noticed another female looking at him.
5.5. COMPARISON OF SYMPTOMS WITH LION ETHOLOGY
In this section, a comparison will be made between the themes of symptoms (discussed above) and the behaviour of the lion. Each theme corresponding to lion ethology will be discussed separately.
One prover wrote about feeling extremely alert at night while driving, even in rainy weather. During the post proving seminar, numerous provers said that they had experienced ‘heightened senses’.
This can be related to the lion, who is known for their excellent night vision. Since most hunting is done at night, lions are particularly alert in the dark in order to capture prey, relying heavily on all their senses in order to locate, stalk and kill their prey. Adult lions and lionesses are also naturally alert at all times, in order to sense danger and to protect the cubs within a pride (Skinner et al., 1990; Taylor et al. 2000).
Nine provers experienced anger which was mostly directed at other people.
Some provers experienced anger with a desire to be violent, and used words such as strangle, kill, beat and injure in order to describe this. Other provers said that they had a short temper and would become angry very quickly.
This can be related to lions, whose lives are filled with very violent encounters. A lion will immediately go into a violent rage when danger or an attack is suspected. Lions are particularly violent and aggressive during hunting, which is usually done in groups. The lions select their prey and then the group positions themselves strategically leaving no way of escape. The preferred method of killing their prey is asphyxiation. They accomplish this by working as a team. One lion pounces onto the back of their victim trying to sever the spinal cord, one lion clenches the windpipe of their victim between their teeth until their opponent suffocates and the other lions will claw and pierce the limbs of the victim in order to immobilise them (Skinner et al., 1990; Taylor et al., 2000).
Prover 8 described how she imagined putting her hands around someone’s neck and squeezing until they stopped breathing. Lions will also displace another animal from their prey by attacking them, in order to acquire a meal. The violent technique utilised by lions when hunting often results in major injury of one or more lions, sometimes causing the death of that lion. Lions are also very aggressive during feeding. The adult males are given first preference to feed, regardless of whether they made the kill. These males will attack anyone, including members of his pride, if they tried to approach the kill (Skinner et al., 1990; Kalimuthu, 2010).
Male lions are also particularly violent during a coalition take over. This is when nomadic males fight another male for possession of his pride. These encounters are
brutal, often resulting in the death of one of the combatants (Kalimuthu, 2010).
If a lion senses a coalition in their territory they will roar as a sign of warning in order to drive the coalition away from their pride (Skinner et al., 1990).
“The lion hath roared, who will not fear” – Amos 3:8, (Holy Bible, King James Version, 2012).
Three provers wrote of how they were very angry with their husbands, specifically because their husbands did not do enough for them. One prover was angry at her husband because she had to do the household chores.
This can be related to lions and the social organisation of lions. Females form the nucleus of the pride, taking care of the cubs and doing most of the hunting. After the female acquires prey, the males are given first preference to feed even though the females do the hard work of stalking, attacking and killing the prey (Taylor et al., 2000/Skinner et al., 1990).
Four provers displayed audacity. Provers 2 and 23 were bold and courageous with regard to expressing themselves and provers 10 and 11 were rude to others. This can be related to lions, who are known as ‘King of the beasts’. The lion appears is a recurring symbol used in the coat of arms of bravery and chivalry (Kalimuthu, 2010). Lions are at the top of the food chain, and have no natural predators, making them therefore fearless (Skinner et al., 1990). Lions usually hunt medium to large animals, weighing 50 - 300kgs. They also often take prey much larger than themselves, such as buffalo, hippo, rhinoceros, elephant and giraffe.
Lions also chase other predators off kills, which they then claim for themselves (Taylor et al., 2000; Kalimuthu, 2010).
“The lion, king of animals, who won’t turn aside for anything.” – Proverbs 30:30, (Holy Bible, New Living Translation, 2010).
Five provers expressed a desire for change and said that their everyday routine had become boring. The activities of a lion include hunting, feeding and sleeping. Even then, they are usually only active at night and spend the day laying down. Further, females remain with their pride for life, as opposed to young males who leave the pride in search of a pride of their own (Apps, 1992/Taylor et al., 2000).
Two provers desired to nurture children in a motherly form. This can be related to lionesses who are responsible for taking care of and raising the cubs within a pride. Females within a pride usually give birth in sync, making it possible for suckling cubs to feed from any adult female in their pride (Skinner et al., 1990/Taylor et al., 2000).
Adult lions also become irritated with cubs who don’t let them sleep during the day and usually roar softly as if to reprimand the cubs (Taylor et al., 2000). Provers 8 and 23 experienced anger directed children who were being noisy.
Lions are the most social of all big cats, and live in close net prides. There is no communication between prides, as lions will only associate with their own relatives (Skinner et al., 1990).
Provers 22 and 28 were ameliorated by the company of close friends and family while provers 6 and 30 desired the company of close relatives only. Even though they are highly social, adult males and sometimes females will distance themselves from their pride for a while when they desire solitude. Males will remain close enough to see the pride and protect them but will become agitated when disturbed. Females also sometimes prefer to go out alone at night in order to hunt (Skinner et al., 1990). Five provers desired solitude (02 M, 06 F, 10 F, 23 F, 30 F).
Prover 28 said that she felt as if she had too many responsibilities. This relates to adult female lionesses who are responsible for looking after the pride.
There is a matriarch in every pride, who takes the lead during hunting and is responsible for teaching the older cubs how to hunt and feed. During a coalition take over, the lionesses rely on the matriarch to protect suckling cubs from infanticide.
This dominant female is usually the oldest, strongest and most fierce of the all the lionesses and will challenge an adult male who threatens the cubs. Interestingly, it has been observed that the cubs of the matriarch are usually the ones who grow up to be the dominant members of the pride, i.e. the females become matriarchs of their pride and the males take over other prides (Skinner et al., 1990/Taylor et al., 2000/Kalimuthu, 2000).
Provers 28 and 30 also felt that others did not appreciate their hard work.
Ten provers said that they had an increased appetite. This appetite was constant and insatiable. This relates to lions, who will eat whenever food is available. If food is readily available, a lion can eat up to 5kgs in a single serving. At a large kill, the dominant male lion will feed first, followed by the females and then the cubs. These mammals use their sharp teeth to tear meat of the prey. Lions will gorge themselves until they are almost immobile. During feeding, lions are very aggressive and territorial, and will not tolerate another pride member trying to share their portion of meat (Skinner et al. 1990/Apps, 1992).
During the post proving seminar, one prover, who is a vegetarian, said that during the proving she had a craving for red meat. This relates to lions, who are solely carnivorous (Skinner et al. 1990).
Eight provers experienced thirstiness during this proving.
This relate to lions who drink water throughout the day. For this reason they prefer to live near rivers or in areas where there is adequate water supply (Skinner et al., 1990).
Eight provers experienced insomnia at night, and eight provers felt sleepy during the daytime.
Five provers took short naps during the daytime.
This relates to lions, who show their full behavioural repertoire at night. 89% of kills are made at night, as lions have excellent night vision which other animals lack and therefore cannot see as lions stalk them.
Another reason for hunting in the cool of night is that lions become heated very quickly, and are therefore able to be more active when the temperature is lower. This is also one of the reasons that lions sleep during the heat of the day under large trees which provides shade. Lions are also especially alert at night, so that they can sense danger or nomadic males who may roam in search of a vulnerable pride (Apps, 1992/Skinner et al., 1990/ Taylor et al., 2000).
“I had seen the royal lion, before sunrise, below a waning moon, crossing the grey plain on his way home from the kill, drawing a wake in the silvery grass, his face still red up to the ears”, (Dinesen, 1954).
Prover 30 had a vivid dream in which a classmate was being treated like royalty. This relates to the cultural depiction of the lion, also known as king of the beasts.
Lions have always been associated with royalty, courage, bravery (Herrick, 1998). Lions have also become a recurring symbol on the coat of arms of bravery and chivalry (Kalimuthu, 2010).
5.6. POSSIBLE CLINICAL INDICATIONS OF PANTHERA LEO
Based on the analysis of the symptoms retrieved from the proving of Panthera leo 30CH, through application of the Law of similars, this remedy may be indicated for the following clinical conditions:
Anger, aggression and irritability
Disturbed/ interrupted sleep and insomnia
Aches, especially frontal aches which begin in the afternoon