Staphylococcinum (Staphycoc) = Staphylokokkeneiter/= sterilisierte Bakterienkultur von Staphylococcus epidermis

 

After-effects of Common Infection

The staphylococcus bacterium thrives in circumstances of debility from overwork, anxiety, poor nutrition, constitutional weakness. Affinity for the endocardium.Staphylococcal is the chief

bacterial factor in acne, abscess, furuncle; empyema, endocarditis. Micro-organism responsible for producing a superficial cellulitis, in association with an open wound (Beers and Berkow, 1999).

S. aureus, which is present in the nose and on the skin of a variable proportion of healthy people, is an opportunistic pathogen in that it causes infections most commonly at sites of lowered host

resistance e.g. damaged skin or mucous membranes. The common infections caused by S. aureus are skin and wound infections, abscesses, osteomyelitis and food poisoning.

Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to many antimicrobial agents but some strains produce the enzyme β-lactamase which inactivates the action of β-lactam antibiotics. These are called

multi-resistant strains of S. aureus (MRSA).

S. aureus is the commonest cause of both social and community acquired infections. Patient to patient transmission via the hands of the personnel are the most common and prevalent

means of spread (Berkow et al., 1992).

Growth Characteristics

S. aureus are facultative anaerobes that are able to grow on any nutrient media. Due to the fact that it does have some haemolysins, certain strains can cause β-haemolysis on blood agar plates.

It does not grow on MacConkey agar with crystal violet.

Toxins and enzymes

S. aureus is the primary toxin-producing type of staphylococci and produces a wide range of extracellular products viz. haemolysins, leukocidin, enterotoxins, exfoliatinand enzymes (Howard et al., 1995).

S. aureus produces four types of haemolysinsviz. alpha, beta, gamma and delta. The exact role of each type of haemolysin is not known but it is believed that alpha haemolysins have

dermonecrotic activity as well as haemolytic abilities (Howard et al., 1995).

Leukocidin toxin is capable of causing lysis of human leucocytes and macrophages.

If these toxins are produced the patient will develop an impaired immune system. The leucocytes are a major part of the human immune system. This will expose the patient to infections

(Iwase et al., 1990)

There are five types of enterotoxins (labelled as A through to E) produced by S. aureus. These toxins are responsible for staphylococcal food poisoning and conditions such as toxic

shock syndrome which results when staphylococci grow and thrive within a cavity on the human body (Howard et al., 1995).

Exfoliatin is a toxin which has an epidermolytic or exfoliative effect. It causes layers within the epidermis of the skin to split thereby causing exfoliation of the skin (Ladhani et al.., 1999).

There are numerous enzymes produced by staphylococci viz. lipase, fibrinolysins and proteases. However, S. aureusproduces the enzyme coagulase which not only causes haemolysis but also inhibits the bactericidal activity of the normal serum. (Howard et al., 1995)

Staphylococcal Infections

S. aureus constitutes the largest amount of Staphylococcal infections due to coagulase enzyme production. Local infections are by far the most common of all types of staphylococcal

infection. More serious invasive staphylococcal infections are not very common in healthy individuals, but may occur in immunocompromised patients. Predisposing factors include injury to

normal skin, prior viral infections, leucocyte defects, deficiencies in humoral immunity and alteration of normal flora due to use of antimicrobial agents to which S. aureus is not susceptible.

This organism may also invade the blood stream and from the re spread to numerous body sites (Howard et al., 1995).

Pathogenic staphylococci are ubiquitous; they are carried in the anterior nares of about 30% of healthy adults and on the skin of about 20%. Newborns and nursing mothers are predisposed to staphylococcal infections, as are patients with influenza, chronic bronchopulmonary disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, pulmonary emphysema), leukaemia, neoplasms, transplants, prostheses or other

foreign bodies, surgical incisions, diabetes melJitus, and indwelling catheters. Patients receiving adrenal steroids, irradiation, immunosuppressants, or antitumor chemotherapy are also at risk.

(Beers et al., 1999:1147.)

 

[Jonathan Reuben/Rai Invernizzi]

2.4.3 STAPHylococcus AUREUS

2.4.3.1 Classification

Staphylococcus aureus tails under the family Staphylococcacea and genus Staphylococcus, which comprises of at least 20 different species of which Staph. al/reus together with Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, are recognised as being the most medically significant (Mims, et aI., 1998:513).

2.4.3.2 Morphology and identification

Staphylococcus aureus are spherical organisms, usually about one micrometer in diameter, and occur in irregularly shaped clusters. They may also be seen singularly, in pairs, tetrads or chains.

Younger cells stain Gram-positive, however older cells may stain Gramnegative. (Jawetz, el aI., 1991: 194.) Staph. auretts are non-motile, non-sporing and generally non-capsulate. When grown

on laboratory media, colonies are generally circular, 2-3 mm in diameter, and have a-smooth, shiny surface. Colonies are opaque, and may have a golden-yellow, fawn or cream colour to them. (Greenwood, Slack and Peutherer, 1992:204.) When grown anaerobically, colonies are notably smaller, and more greyish in colour (Jawetz, el al., 1991: 194). The optimum growth temperature

is 37° C, although pigment is formed best at 20 - 25° C (Mackie and McCartney, 1996:246).

2.4.3.3. fu1idemiology

Staphylococcus aureus occurs as part of the normal flora of the skin, and is present in the nasal cavities of 40 - 50% of healthy human beings (Jawetz, et al., 1991: 196).

2.4.3.4 Staphylococcus aureus infections

Staphylococcus aureus is by far the most clinically important Staphylococcal pathogen (Mackie and McCartney, 1996:248). Most strains are incapable of penetrating the normal barrier function of the skin, and tend only to cause infection when penetrating through breaks in the skin. Localised infections may progress to bacteraemia, whilst spontaneous' bacteraemias have been noted, where there

is no origin of sepsis evident. This occurs more often in chronically debilitated patients. (Mackie and McCartney, 1996:248.)

Once past the barrier of the skin, Staphylococcus aureus strains possess a large number of cellassociated and extracellular factors, which often enable the organism to survive the bodies defences and colonise the tissue. It is thought that these factors acting in unison make it possible for the organism to bind to connective tissue, resist the bactericidal response of the complement system, and prevent uptake by phagocytes.

Staphylococcus aureus may cause: Pyogenic infections such as: carbuncles, boils, breast abscess, lung abscess, and empyema;

o Disseminated infections such as septicaemia; & Toxin-mediated illness, such as toxic shock syndrome and staphylococcal food poisoning. (Greenwood, Slack and Peutherer, 1992:204.)

Pathological changes caused by Staph. al/reus, are usually due to enzymes and toxins produced by the bacteria. These include:

o Coagulase, an enzyme that both clots plasma and inhibits the uptake and phagocytosis of the bacteria by macrophages; Cl) Leucocidin, which kills white cells;

e Lytic exotoxins, which destroy red blood cells and platelets;

o Deoxyribonuclease, which destroys deoxyribonucleic acid;

o Lipase, which aids in the breakdown of fats;

e Staphylokinase, which causes fibrinolysis;

Cl) Exfoliatin, which causes the peeling of the skin;

o Enterotoxin B, which causes food poisoning;

o Beta-lactamases that lead to penicillin-resistance.(Greenwood, Slack and Peutherer, (1992:205.)

2.4.3.5 Anti-microbial sensitivity

Staph. aureus is resistant to most broad-spectrum penicillin such as ampycillin and amoxycillin due to the production of beta-lactamases by the bacterium. Clavulanic acid inactivates beta-Iactamase, and sometimes is used in conjunction with amoxicillin (co-amoxiclav) as a therapy. Certain strains resistant to other antibiotics such as tetracycline or erythromycin, and even beta-lactamase-resistant penicillin, are not uncommon. All Staphylococcus aureus strains remain susceptible to the glycopeptides antibiotics, vancomycin and teicoplanin. (Mackie and McCartney, 1996:247-248.)

 

Repertorium:

Gemüt: Auf-/Zusammenfahren (erwachend)

Froh

Furcht (in engen Räumen)

Gedächtnisschwäche (für das, was geschrieben hat)/vergesslich (vergisst, wohin sie geht)

Konzentration gut, aktiv

Lasziv, lüstern

Reizbar, gereizt/verbittert, verärgert

Verwirrt geistig (im Freien)

Weinen (aus Verzweiflung/um Zukunft)

Kopf: Abszess in Gehirn

Entzündete Hirnhaut

Pulsieren l.

Schmerz [nachmittags - 16 h/gegen Mitternacht/im Hinterkopf (um Mitternacht/dumpf/pulsierend)/in r. Schläfe (pulsierend)/r. erstr. l. (drückend)/in l. Schläfe (ziehend)/seitlich (lanzinierend)/in Stirn r./in Stirn über/hinter den Augen l.]

Schweregefühl in Stirn

Auge: Hautausschläge um die Augen

Jucken

Schmerz in Lider (wund schmerzend)

Gerstenkörner (an Lider)

Zysten der Meibomsche Drüsen

Zuckende Lider - r.

Ohr: Absonderung wässrig

Geräusche im Ohr, Ohrgeräusche wenige

Nase: Absonderung - dünn/klar/aus Choanen

Schnupfen morgens erwachend

Niesen morgens erwachend/+ trockener Nase

Verstopfung + Schnupfen/< im Schlaf

Gesicht: Aufgesprungene Lippen

Hautausschläge - Bart - Follikulitis/Lippen/Nasenmuschel vorne innerlich

Hitze l.

Schmerz (prickelnd, kribbelnd)

Mund: Hautausschläge - Zunge

Schmerz (Zunge/wund schmerzend)

Trocken

Geschmack - sauer nachts

Innerer Hals: Schleim gelb

Schmerz r.

Äußerer Hals: Schmerz (wund schmerzend)

Geschwollene Halsdrüsen Magen: Durst

Leeregefühl nicht > durch Essen

Übel < nach Essen

Bauch: Flatulenz

Hautausschläge - juckend/rot/um Nabel

Jucken

Schmerz - vor/während Durchfall/krampfartig/in Hypogastrium/r./lanzinierend

Vergrößerte Milz

Rektum: Durchfall (morgens/< nach Essen)

Fistel

Flatus (vor/beim Stuhlgang)

Stuhldrang bei Durchfall

Stuhl: Dunkel/häufig/lang, schmal/wässrig

Gewaltsam, plötzlich, in einem Schwall

Blase: Harndrang vergeblich

Urinieren tröpfelnd

Urin: Sediment eitrig

Prostata: Abszess/Entzündung

Weibliche Genitalien: Menses lange sich hinziehend

Atmung: Behindert, gehemmt mit Zusammenschnürung der Brust

Brust: Abszess in Lungen

Entzündung im Endokard + Perikarditis - rheumatisch/im Perikard/in Lungen durch Staphylokokken

Hautausschläge - flüchtiges Exanthem - rot

Kribbeln

Herzbeschwerden - Myokard

Glieder: Anthrax

Nagelgeschwür

Schmerz - Finger (schneidend)/Handgelenke (Wehtun)/Oberschenkel < Bewegung (Wehtun)/Schultern (Wehtun)

Geschwollene Füße/Hände

Steifheit in Ellbogen/r. Schulter

Zittern in Hände

Zusammenschnürung in OberarmeRücken: Entzündung in Rückenmark/in Wirbel

Schmerz (in Sakralregion/wund schmerzend/in Steißbein)

Schlaf: Einschlafen früh

Erwacht zu früh/plötzlich

Ruhelos

Träume: Kämpfe/merkwürdig, wunderlich/Wanzen

Fieber: mit Frost

Veränderliche, wechselnde Anfälle

Haut: Hautausschläge - Bläschen

Bläschen - Purpura

Ekthym

Furunkel/Karbunkel

Herpes zoster

Impetigo

Pusteln (Purpura)

Allgemeines: Entzündung der Knochen (des Knochenmarks)

Hitzewallungen

übermäßige, körperliche Reizbarkeit

Speisen und Getränke: Verlangt: Erdnussbutter/Gewürze, Würzmittel/Süßigkeiten;

Schwäche

Sepsis.

 

Komplementär: Ars. Hep. Nat-m. Sil. Sulph.

 

Vergleich: Anag. Bac. (enthält Pyr. + Strept. + Staphcoc). Spenglersan.: Kolloid D. Spenglersan.: Kolloid Dx. Micrococcus (Staphycoc gehört zur Familie Micrococcinae). Pyrog. Raja-s. Rhus-v.

Siehe: Nosoden allgemein

 

Unverträglich: Potenz unter C 500 

 

Antidotiert von: Mag-f. Rheum.

 

Wirkung:            psorisch/sycotisch

Phytologie: Manukaöl,

 

 

Vorwort/Suchen.   Zeichen/Abkürzungen.                                   Impressum.