Bothrops lanceolatus (Both) = lanceolatus/= Martinique-Lanzenotter/= Yellow Viper/= Lanzenotter


Vergleich: Enthalten in: Naja comp. w;

Comparison Both-l. + Crot-h + Lach + Naja + Vip

Comparison Tilia cordata with Bothrops lanceolatus.

Vergleich: Bothrops atrox + Bothrops lanceolatus + Bothrops jararaca


Siehe: Anacardiumgruppe + Anhang (Otto Leeser/Amati Holle/Massimo Mangliavori) + Anhang 2 + Schlangen allgemein + Schiebegruppe +


Vergiftung: 1. Schock/Schmerz/Ödem, 2. Dünndarm blutet/geschwollene Schleimhäuten innerlich, Kehle trocken + Durst, 3. Blindheit/Tod durch Erschöpfung o. Geschwüren (bis Knochen);

First stages remind strongly of Crot-h.

1. With PAIN edema spreads immediately and rapidly,

2. serosanguinous infiltration of the subcutaneous tissue, ecchymoses and hemorrhage.

3. Bleeding occurs from the engorged mucous membranes and skin, the throat is parched, thirst intense.

4. Complete exhaustion may lead to the fatal end.

5. Where death does not supervene, suppuration, necrosis, gangrene and sloughing of tissues to the bones may lead to gross mutilation;

Lokal häufig Blutung aus Bissstelle, meist innerhalb Minuten - ½ - 2 Stunden Schmerz + Ödem, manchmal minimale Lokaleffekte; Schwellungszunahme [ganzes Glied in ersten 24 h (- Kompartimentsyndrom)];

Schmerzhafte Lymphknotenschwellung; in 12 h Blasen, lokale Purpura; Nekrosebildung (meist nur bis Subkutangewebe), aber auch Schädigung lokaler Muskulatur ist möglich.

Üblicherweise 1 – 6 h nach Biss beginnend, Schock FRÜH.

Herz: frühzeitig Hypotonie bis Schock durch vasoaktive Substanzen, Arrhythmie

Verbrauchskoagulopathie mit Fibrinogenabfall meist nur für 6 - 12h; Gerinnungsstörung ohne Antiserum selten auch 10 - 12d anhaltend;

Nierenversagen bei schwerer Intoxikation meist > 6h nach Biss mit Nierennekrose.

Fibrinogen-koagulierende Komponenten;

Negativ: A. < eating, B. Developing strokes from hypertension. C. Developing high blood pressure after the stroke, D. Blindness after stroke;

Träge/müde, trockner Kehle + Durst, Tagesblindheit, schwarz, kann nicht mehr sehen, sprechen, ringt nach Worten;

[Dr. Egidio Galli]

Bothrops lanceolatus stands out as the remedy which gives the best similarity, not for the patient but for the illness, as it covers all the symptoms reported as adverse reactions, even if the symptoms are often only to the first degree due to the fact that it is a remedy with few provings (only 236 symptoms) and little clinical confirmation.

Research Perspectives on the Therapeutic Power of Homeopathic Remedies According to Omics Sciences: A Study on the Venom of Bothrops Lanceolatus

Dr. Egidio Gallio discusses the advantages of incorporating into homeopathy the “omics” sciences, which aim at the characterization and quantification of biological molecules that translate into the structure, function, and dynamics of an organism.

BACKGROUND  ‘omics’ sciences Siehe

Hahnemann tells us: The physician’s duty is the knowledge of the full medicinal power of the remedies” Organon par.3.

Is it possible to improve this knowledge by using modern ‘omics’ sciences? The object of omics science is to characterise biological molecules in order to delineate structure, function and dynamics in an organism. Genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics respectively study the genetic information (DNA), messenger RNAs (mRNA) and proteins of the cell.

The ‘whole’ to which the suffix omics alludes, is not only the totality of the information that DNA, RNA and proteins contain, but also the totality of the functional interactions that underlie cellular metabolic processes and determine the difference between cell and cell or organism and organism.

We now know that it is not just DNA that determines this difference: it is gene expression, its regulation, post-transcriptional modifications and post-translational modifications that proteins undergo. These are networks of ‘non-linear’ interactions that are created between the three components DNA, RNA, proteins.

We must remember, for example, that not all RNAs code for proteins, but many of them perform a function without ever being translated, such as Trna transporters

of amino acids or the so-called non-coding RNAs that regulate cellular processes, first and foremost gene expression.

The integration of omics sciences and technologies, in what is known as complex systems biology, thus makes it possible to improve understanding of the system, considered as a set of biological molecules that make it up. These brief hints make us understand the innovative depth of an “omics” approach and the possibility of moving towards an increasingly “individualised” study that respects the uniqueness of the person and gives meaning to his “peculiar ways of feeling, acting and suffering”, which Hahnemann also places as the basis of the search for a remedy that carries similar information in its biology.

The venom of the snake Bothrops lanceolatus or jararaca, from which an important homeopathic remedy is derived, has been studied using this method, revealing

a vast therapeutic power, opening up a new avenue for the knowledge and study of homeopathic remedies on a scientific basis.

Materials And Methods

The homeopathic Bothrops lanceolatus constitutes the likely anatomo-pathological simillimum for Covid -19 as evidenced by a range of evidence. Unique among snake venoms, it contains molecules such as:

1) an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, BPP5a, (Bradykinin-Potentiating Peptide), which binds, like the virus, to the ACE receptor 2 structurally very similar to ACE, and part of a regulatory complex linked to the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone (SRAA) system, which regulates extracellular fluid volume, particularly blood volume. This nonapeptide was the precursor to the ACE inhibitors and sartans that revolutionised hypertension therapy. The ACE2 receptor, which is almost ubiquitous in the body, is also the same binding site for the spike protein used by Sars-Cov-2 to penetrate human cells, and the spike is also the elective target of the immune reaction triggered by anti-Covid vaccines.

2) A BjSP serine protease from the venom is analogous to the viral transmembrane serine protease type 2 (TMPRS2), which increases viral uptake at the cell wall almost 100-fold.

And again, shared with other snake venoms:

3) metalloendopeptidases that degrade the extracellular matrix and components of the coagulation cascade leading to haemorrhage, oedema, inflammation and necrosis up to consumption coagulopathy (DIC). Diffuse endothelitis and thromboinflammation cause severe heparin-resistant thromboembolic complications, typical of Covid.

4) Phospholipase A2: contributes to oedema, myotoxicity and coagulation disorders.

Bradykinin-mediated alveolar angioedema, released by zinc-dependent metalloproteinases and by phospholipase A2 of the venom, is characterised by resistance to corticosteroids.

5) C-type lectin with anticoagulant, procoagulant, platelet activation agonist/antagonist action.

In COVID-19, ACE2 is reduced (downregulation) and cannot balance ACE and its vasoconstrictive, inflammatory, oxidative stress and mitochondrial depletion effects. The transformation of angiotensin II into angiotensin 1-7, which has “opposite” effects (vasodilation, antiproliferative and anti-fibrotic effects), is also reduced. 

The almost ubiquitous presence of ACE2 in many cell types, and also in a soluble circulating form, accounts for the great variety of symptoms expressed, but also for

the broad spectrum of action, still partly unknown, of Bothrops.

The homeopathic Bothrops is therefore a candidate not only for the treatment of COVID -19 pictures with thromboembolic complications from multi-organ vasculitis,

as demonstrated in another publication (3), but also for preventing adverse events related to vaccines (4), both mRna and GMO viral vector, as they induce the synthesis of the spike protein, which is intrinsically capable of activating endothelitis.

It could also be considered in persistent symptoms of the so-called Long – Covid (5).


The homeopathic pathogenesis of B. is typically derived from:

— The homeopathic proving of Bothrops (6-7) shows a certain number of physical and mental functional symptoms, but apart from having been carried out on relatively few subjects compared with similar remedies, such as Lachesis m. or Crotalus h., it can never be pushed to the point of harming the prover, nor can it be protracted for too long, with loss of information.

Moreover, it does not allow us to have data on the chronic action of the remedy, although it can highlight a certain sensitive type, through repeated provings. The quality of the proving itself in general is very much conditioned by the experience and competence of the proving staff and it is difficult to replicate it on large numbers.

— The toxicology of the venom (8), which faithfully reproduces the typical clinical effects of Covid-19 in all stages of severity according to individual susceptibility, is fundamentally based on snakebite poisonings and provides insight into the related acute organ-lesional damage.

–Finally, the clinic, the third source of homeopathic pathogenesis, tells us of symptoms repeatedly cured over time by the prescription of the remedy, but with relative reliability.

A new possibility of study for deeper knowledge:

Omic sciences can provide access to a new source of pathogenetic information of homeopathic remedies, particularly those of biological origin, using information from analysis of the characteristic transcriptome and proteinome, far beyond simple traditional analysis.

From these data, it is possible to gain an insight into the complexity and peculiarities of the biological ‘totum’ of the substance of origin, as used in homeopathic medicine for the search of the simillimum, but starting from objective, measurable, reproducible data.

In classical pharmacological research, on the other hand, these analyses are mainly carried out to obtain active ingredients from which new therapeutic agents on specific functions can be obtained.

In the case of Bothrops jararaca, the great interest aroused by the richness and variety of biopeptides it contains led to a study of deep sequencing of its mRNA library, allowing the identification through transcriptome analysis of as many as 76,765 de novo assembled isoforms, 96,044 transcribed genes and 41,196 unique proteins, 78 distinct functional classes of proteins, including toxins, inhibitors and tumour suppressors.

Another study applied a large-scale proteomic approach to gain extensive knowledge of the composition of the venom. Using functional genomics coupled with the connectivity map approach (C-map) in the above work, a direct search for the biological activities of venom incubated with the human mammary adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7) was performed followed by RNA extraction and gene expression analysis.

The aim was to submit the list of up and down-regulated genes for C-map analysis in order to screen an expanded panel of biosimilar drug activities related to B. jararaca venom. In a list of 90 differentially expressed genes that was proposed for the discovery of 100 positively correlated drugs with the highest score, only the antihypertensive, antimicrobial (both antibiotics and antiparasitic) and anticancer classes had been previously reported for B. jararaca venom .

In a second study (2), a proteomic approach was devised in which Bothrops j. venom was fractionated by OFFGEL followed by chromatography, generating peptide and protein fractions. The latter was subjected to trypsin digestion. Both fractions were analysed separately by reversed-phase nanochromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

This strategy allowed deeper and joint characterisations of the peptidome and proteome (proteopeptidome) of this venom. Our results lead to the identification of 46 protein classes, comprising eight high-abundance venom components and 38 additional classes in lower abundance.


Summary information on the already known components of Bothrops jararaca venom:

Jararhagin, Metalloendopeptidase : Degrades components of the extracellular matrix and coagulation cascade leading to haemorrhage, oedema, inflammation and necrosis, apoptosis through production of ROS.

Serine endopeptidase: Affects platelet aggregation, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, the complement system, blood pressure and the nervous system, has a high affinity for the TMPRS2 protein which promotes penetration of SARS-CoV-2 into cells.

C-type lectin / similar to C-type lectin:  Anticoagulant, procoagulant, platelet activation agonist/antagonist

Cysteine-rich secretory protein: Induces an inflammatory response and affects the complement system (generation of anaphylatoxins), CNS action

Phospholipase A 2: Myotoxicity, neurotoxicity, anticoagulant effects, antiviral and antibiotic activity towards gram-positives and negatives

L-amino acid oxidase:  Agonist and antagonist of platelet aggregation; induces apoptosis

Vascular endothelial growth factor : Increases vascular permeability

Bothrojaracin (BJC): Potent antithrombotic action by selective thrombin inhibition

C-type natriuretic peptides and bradykinin potentiation:  Vasodilation by inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme through binding to ACE and ACE2 receptor

Phosphodiesterase:  Release of pyrimidines and purines, which may contribute to increased vascular permeability

Hyaluronidase:  Degrades hyaluronic acid present in the extracellular matrix, facilitating the spread of toxins

Ecto-5′-nucleotidase: Release of pyrimidine and purine, which may contribute to increased vascular permeability

Inhibitor of metalloendopeptidase: Inhibits enzymatic and haemorrhagic activity of snake venom metalloendopeptidases; found in abundance in snake plasma (protective mechanism)

Disintegrin: Inhibits platelet aggregation, anti-tumour action

Cobra venom factor b : Activates complement cascade

Three-finger toxin b, Sarafatoxin: Neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity effects targeting nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholinesterase receptors, beta1 and beta2-adrenergic receptors and L-type calcium channels.

Batroxobine  : Effective in all heparin-resistant coagulation defects.                           Also makes a hemostatic superglue for wounds.

In a list of 90 differentially expressed genes that was proposed for the discovery of 100 positively correlated drugs with the highest score, only the antihypertensive, antimicrobial (both antibiotics and anti-parasitic) and anticancer classes had been previously reported for B. jararaca venom.

 Most of the drug classes identified were related to:

1) antimicrobial anti-parasitic and antiviral activity;

2) treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases (Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s, schizophrenia, depression and epilepsy);

3) treatment of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, heart failure, decompensation, arrhythmias;

4) anti-inflammatory and/or analgesic action, b-endorphin stimulation;

5) gastroesophageal diseases and diabetes;

6) oncological diseases, induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis in tumour cells.

The C-map results also indicated that the venom may have components that target G-protein-coupled receptors (muscarinic, serotonergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, GABA and adrenergic) and ion channels.

In addition, this work has indicated the existence of additional active components of venom that could potentially be used in the treatment of other novel disorders.

The omics technologies, as demonstrated by the example of the Bothrops proteopeptidome, with their sequencing accuracy may open up new and interesting possibilities for study and research even in homeopathic medicine, which instead uses the energetic and biochemical ‘totum’ according to the Law of Similes, revealing misunderstood aspects such as to consider it a polychrest.

Derived considerations:

1) Demonstration of the wide spectrum of therapeutic action of a unique homeopathic remedy used in its totality thanks to its biological complexity, overcoming the limits of the single symptomatic active principle but on condition of a deep and global individualisation allowed only by the homeopathic methodology at present.

2) Scientifically founded justification of the symptomatology treated and curable by a certain remedy.

3) Enlargement in the knowledge of foreseeable effects resulting from homeopathic experimentation, from toxicology and from the clinic of a remedy, even if already known, both in acute and chronic conditions, thanks to the highlighting of the biological action tropisms in an enlarged systemic vision.

4) Potential contribution to the differential diagnosis between remedies and to a better selection of the individual simillimum.

5) Proposal of new remedies to be tested with a rich transcriptome and proteinome suggestive of high clinical interest.

6) Establishing scientific criteria of plausibility of the Law of Similitude and homeopathic therapy through pharmacological and biochemical correlations and interaction with the PNEI system.

7) Discovery of new fields of application, which currently escape the traditional methods of studying the therapeutic potential of substances.

8) Prediction of possible secondary or dissimilar effects of the incorrectly indicated remedy on the symptomatic whole.

9) Study of the in vitro action of different remedies, dilutions, dynamization, pharmacopraxis methods to demonstrate their efficacy and optimise their clinical use.

10) A revision of the homeopathic Materia Medica based on omics sciences would be of great interest to widen the pathogenesis and to justify it scientifically.


The study of the transcriptome and proteinome of Bothrops lanceolatus can be a precursor to an improved methodological approach for the study of homeopathic pharmacopoeia and its extension, improving the possibility of accurate prescription and differential diagnosis between similar remedies, to achieve more and more precision medicine.

The analysis of genomic patterns integrated by the expression of DNA, RNA, metabolites and proteins, to identify their biological roles in the response to diseases and drugs, is of great interest for a finally holistic approach to the biological complexity underlying the problems of health, disease and target therapy.

As has often been the case in the past, homeopathic medicine, with its original empirical-experimental-vitalist system, has anticipated the correct direction to take in order to orientate towards a radical and not merely symptomatic and ephemeral solution.

The omics sciences, which are in the vanguard of biomedicine, allow new possibilities of knowledge and research of new therapeutic molecules; however, if we do not overcome the reductionist and materialistic vision currently dominant, progress will be equally ephemeral.

Homeopathy, which has always been based on systemic concepts and on the personalisation of therapy, can take advantage of these new discoveries and technologies to perfect its knowledge and methodology, but also to build a bridge of ever closer scientific sharing with academic medicine which will allow a therapeutic continuum to be established between classical pharmacology, low-dose pharmacology and ultramolecular doses, enhancing with equal dignity both the therapeutic law of contraries and the

law of similes, in order to achieve together the ideal of a single medicine that can provide the best possible solutions to diseases not only of man but also of all beings in the biosphere.


[Farokh Master] = Gelbe Viper/= Fer-de-Lance

Verbreitungsgebiet: Martinique

Gift in Glyzerinlösung, Potenzen in rektifiziertem Alkohol.

Hat keine Gemütssymptome außer „vergisst Wörter sprechend“, („nach Worten suchend“)


Associated thrombocytopenia

Blackness of the affected part

Hemorrhagic blood is thin, dark, black and non-coagulable

Patient may have twitching of the muscle here and there.

Person can bleed from any orifice of the body

Pulse is slow and weak

There is H/O gangrene or recurrent thrombosis

Gemüt: Verwirrung, geistige

Vergesslich – vergisst Worte beim Sprechen/Aphasie

Benutzt falsche Worte;

Macht Fehler, weil er falsche Wörter benutzt

Beschwerden r.

Hämorrhagien – Dunkles Blut, das nicht gerinnt

> in einem dunklen Raum

Schmerzen durch Erschöpfung und Depression

Lähmung aufgrund von Thrombose und Embolie

Thromboembolie in den zentralen Gefäßen

Dieses Mittel hat sich als eine der wichtigsten homöopatischen Arzneien für jegliche Form von zerebraler Thromboembolien erwiesen – gekennzeichnet durch rechtsseitige Lähmung und

vollständiger Aphasie.

Faulig-aashafter Geruch, der sich weder auf Schweiss noch auf Atem zurückführen lässt.

Zerebrale Hämorrhagie aufgrund von Kopfverletzungen.

Thrombose und Hämorrhagie der Hauptarterie in der retina Blutungen aus den Augen, Sehschwäche, die sich im Sonnenlicht verstärkt.

Gangrän, rechtsseitig Knochengangrän, offene Beine mit nekrotisierenden Knochen.


Gute Resultate auch bei sehr hartnäckigen Fällen.

Schlangen - Träumt von Tieren, die sich paaren - Träumt von ungebührlichem Verhalten bei Männern und Frauen

Leitsymptome - Allgemeine

Frösteln – Rechtsseitige Symptome – Erträgt keine enge Kleidung – Pulsierende Gefühle, synchron mit Herzschlag -

Allergien im Frühjahr

Verlangt: kalte Getränke, gesalzener Speck;

Abneigung: Frühstück

Supraventrikuläre Tachykardie – Angst mit Herzrasen – „Als ob die gesamte Brust gebläht sei und das Herz sehr wund sei – Extreme Wahrnehmung des Herzens –

Erhöhter Puls – Herzflattern, schwacher Puls.

Angina pectoris – plötzlicher scharfes Stechen im Herzen gefolgt von dumpfen Schmerz, der langsam nachlässt – Scharfes Stechen im Herzen –

Dumpfer Schmerz im Herzbereich

Reizcolon – Durchfälle mit Krämpfen – Stuhl sieht aus wie Haferkleie – Herausschiessender wässriger Stuhl, häufig, mit dunklem Sediment, anfangs schmerzlos, einige Stunden später starke Schmerzen vor Stuhlgang. – Starke Durchfälle in der Nacht, reichlich, grau gefärbt, nicht schwächend – Herausplatzender Flatus mit Darmblähungen nach der geringsten Nahrungsaufnahme

- Abends großen Durst auf kaltes Wasser, mit trockenem Mund – Ekel vor Frühstücksspeisen – Appetitlosigkeit - Verlangt: gesalzener Speck;

Asthma – Dyspnoe (Atemnot) mit Todesangst – Erstickungsgefühl nach dem Zubettgehen abends – Muss den Kopf zurücklegen wegen zu starker Würgereize – Häufiges Seufzen - Trockener

Harter Husten gegen 3 h., der bis zum Abend anhält – Husten < schnellem Gehen/Treppensteigen/nach dem Zubettgehen abends; - Husten verursacht Tränen des l. Auges – Schaumig -  Weißer Auswurf, morgens in allen Gelbfarben – Lockerer Husten am Morgen, mit schaumigem Auswurf


[Konstantinos Pisios]

Bothrops lanceolatus key note

Memory loss &Vision > in the dark [affinity to eyes]; Paralysis - post stroke, one sided

Gangrene to the bones.

Bothrops rubrics

MIND; APHASIA; hemiplegia, with (3) *

HEAD; PARALYSIS; nerves (1) *

HEAD; CEREBRAL hemorrhage (61) ***

SPEECH & VOICE; SPEECH; slow (63) **

[Paul Herscu]

When I think of Bothrops, I am reminded of a story that I read in college some years ago. It was of Damocles and his sword. Dionysius, the king, had a subject, Damocles, who lamented about how great it would be to be the rich and powerful, even for one day. Dionysius said great, come back and we will change places for a day.

The next day, Damocles arrived to a feast in his honor. He ate the best of foods, prepared by the finest chefs. He drank the finest wines, and enjoyed the greatest of jewels.

By chance, he looked up. He was shocked to find a very, very sharp sword hanging, point down, aimed straight at his head. It was held by a single horse’s hair.

Horrified, he asked Dionysius why it was there. The short version of the story has Dionysius share that all the rich and powerful had such a sword hanging over their heads.

It was the difficult part, the responsibility, that came with the benefits of power. Needless to say, Damocles gave up his desire to be a king. Who can blame him?

The reason I am reminded of this myth has to do with a patient I consulted on several years ago. He was a man who, in the prime of his life, all of a sudden developed a pericarditis. With drugs it began to resolve only to return once more. This time, though, the cardiologist noted that he was beginning to have clots occlude his carotid arteries. With all the medical help he received, with all of the drug therapies he tried, the clots were simply becoming more numerous and larger. He had very little flow left going to his brain. They told him that there was nothing more they could do for him. They did not know why the drugs were not working. They had given up. It was only a matter of time until the blockage would get so large as to end this vibrant, young man’s life. And so he walked about, having this Sword of Damocles hanging over his head with the thinnest

of hairs holding it in suspension, waiting for his time to run out.

Bothrops saved his life.

Bothrops is a remedy that is not well known to us. It has not had a proper proving and has not been used in a grand way, outside of a few types of situations. The reason we do not use it as often as we should has to do with the fact that it lacks known symptoms. In fact, in the repertory it is listed in only about eighty rubrics. That makes this remedy one of the smallest in our materia medica. It is thought of for specific clinical uses such as thrombi, strokes and heart attacks, during as well as after the attack.

It has such specific strong key symptoms in this sphere that the pathology actually leads to the remedy. The remedy is given, it acts in some of these situations and we confirm its use, but we still do not have a good picture of the remedy.

By studying a number of my own patients that benefited greatly from using Bothrops, as well as from a handful of cases that I consulted with colleagues about, I was able to find common ideas, which lead to a Cycle of the remedy. In this article, I shall describe some of these key features and see if we can develop a fuller understanding of Bothrops.

The Cycle of this remedy as I see it is: Thrombi Formation, leading to Fullness  which leads to Restlessness. The restlessness leads to Inflammation followed by Discharges like Bleeding.

The bleeding leads to Weakness and finally to a kind of Paralysis which brings us back to the stuck sort of Segment of Thrombi Formation. Let’s go through Segment by Segment and see how this Cycle unfolds.

The first main idea or Segment is the tendency towards Thrombosis. As I mentioned, this is one of the main pathologies helped by this remedy. The physical pathology is

only one example of a generalized thrombosis, a closing up. I have seen this tendency in many of my Bothrops patients. The easiest way to notice this, is to observe the paralytic effect on the face, mouth and eyes, where they are basically closed. This paralysis we will talk about further along in this article. The point is that the closing off nature is a very strong component of this remedy.

Interestingly, the emotions often show this closed, shut down tendency in Bothrops patients as well. One way to see it is in their obstinacy. Bothrops patients, may feel quite strongly about their opinions. This is not necessarily haughtiness or self-assuredness, it is more an issue of getting stuck in one way of being. Could be confused with Calc.,

in obstinacy and even more so with Caus., especially if there is also one-sided paralysis along with being strongly opinionated. It is this strong stubborn opinion that becomes problematic after a stroke. Bothrops should be added to the rubric, Mind, conscientious about trifles, in plain type.

After a stroke some people develop aphasia. Here, the Bothrops patient wants to say something, but can not say it. They have the clear image of what they want to say but are unable to do so.

They use a different word, but are troubled or tortured by the fact that they cannot say exactly what they want to say. Think about it. The main point of language is to communicate.

For some of us, if we can put our point forth, if we can state our case, it may not matter what words we use. But that is not so with Bothrops. Even though they make their point, they will be dissatisfied because the exact word in their brain is not the word that comes out. It is a kind of obstinacy, not being satisfied with strictly making the point, in fact frustrated by not making

it the way they want to. It is this dichotomy that disturbs them.

Some people that have surgeries and come out of anesthesia with these same symptoms. There is no clear diagnosis of a stroke and yet the symptoms persist. Think of Bothrops in this situation.

The thrombosis can be a clot in the leg, leading to a thrombophlebitis, with attendant symptoms. It can involve the heart and may lead to a pericarditis or a heart attack.

But most often, for this remedy, we will see a thrombus in the brain leading to a stroke with major damage resulting. Interestingly enough, this tendency may become so strong, so intense that the patient may develop clots throughout his great vessels. I treated one man whose carotids were nearly occluded.

The most closed that this patient is, is when he or she is in a coma or unconscious during and after the stroke. If the symptoms match, Bothrops may be given at this time. Bothrops comas are serious comas; it is possible that without aggressive intensive care unit therapies, as well as giving this remedy, the patient may die.

Another place to see this tendency of thrombosis or closing off is in the feeling like the throat is closing off. This is a typical symptom of other remedies in the snake group

and Bothrops has it as well.

Lastly, one may need this remedy for a patient who develops tremendous swelling and clotting in a wound which is purple and may remind one of Belladonna or Lachesis.

The pains may also be cramping off anywhere in the body.

The next Segment is Fullness, which accompanies the thrombi. For example, the patient may tell you that during the pericarditis, he felt like a great weight was sitting on his chest, stopping his heart. Fullness in the stomach aggravates him, fullness in the head, eyes, ears or the throat all are common symptoms of the remedy. Feeling full in the abdomen and not wearing tight things, just as seen with the clothing aggravation of Lycopodium or Lachesis are also common.

We then can see a Restlessness in this remedy. I think it is in part a discontentment with their state. This can happen before, during, and after the actual stroke. He may feel that there is something wrong with him. Who knows, maybe he can feel on a subconscious level that something bad is going to befall him. Surely after his first attack, he fears what will happen to him. He is dissatisfied with his situation. He feels all the little symptoms greatly and thinks he will die from his condition. This is not so much an anxiety panicky feeling, but rather an internalized knowledge that this is the truth about his current condition. He is doubtful of his recovery because he knows the seriousness of his condition.

The restlessness is seen at night, when he dreams of his condition, and of his fate. He tosses and turns and may wake up frequently from his sleep. The restlessness <.

One of the oldest key symptoms of this remedy is the aggravation by eating. His stroke may come on after a meal. Similarly, his pericarditis may be aggravated by a full meal. He may develop some shortness of breath after eating.

When the restlessness leads to excessive motion, as in getting up and exerting herself, it may eventually lead to fainting. So all in all we find the person, for one reason or another, not doing things

yet being extremely dissatisfied internally with their health prospects and he becomes restless from that.

There is an Inflammatory element in this remedy, though it is much less than for other snake remedies. This remedy spends most of its time in the clotted stage. The inflammations may be seen in the localized area where the clots first developed. For example, the blood vessels may become inflamed, or the patient may develop pericarditis, or the leg may become inflamed from the phlebitis.

The easiest place to see the inflammatory aspect is in the pains. The pains are more severe and sharper than other remedies such as Lachesis. In fact, there is a keynote that the pains are so severe that they lead the patient to shiver. In truth, this shivering from pain is a rare symptom for the remedy, I mention it here to illustrate just how severe the sharp pains can be. More common is the fact that the pains are worse from motion, whether it be chest pain or a headache.

The most dangerous place to see this inflammatory portion of the remedy relates to blood pressure. Bothrops has a keynote of developing strokes from hypertension. But the bigger keynote is to develop high blood pressure after the stroke. It is as if the blood vessels changed in some way. As if due to some clogging, or due to some blockages, the blood pressure changed to accommodate the need for the blood. Now we find hypertension where there used to be none. Before understanding the inner workings of this remedy, this keynote alone had led me to prescribe this remedy early on in my practice, much to the benefit of my patients.

The face may be mottled, or dark red or purplish.

The inflammations may lead to Discharges. Bleeding is found in this remedy, though not as commonly as it is found in other snake remedies like Lachesis. Here, the bleeding is related to the clotting and is secondary to the coagulation which is the main problem.  So even though there is bleeding mentioned in many locations, it rarely shows up in practice. Do not deny someone this remedy because they did not bleed enough, according to your readings. The thrombi is much more to the point!

Bleeding into the eye is a major symptom of the remedy. However, there are other remedies that have this symptom. And in fact, looking at all patients that have this symptom occurring, it is the minority that will benefit from Bothrops. However, Bothrops is one of the remedies. It can be used in diabetic retinopathy, with bleeding. It is a main remedy for people who bleed in the eye

during a stroke. We also think of Bothrops in acute hypertensive crisis, leading to stroke.

Another form of discharge is the tendency towards loose stools and vomiting. I would like to talk about this tendency for a bit and compare it to Lachesis, which has the extreme, explosive, component more commonly, yet is balanced off by a strong tendency towards constipation. In Bothrops, we find the exact opposite; we see its strong tendency to clump or coagulate, which is balanced off by occasional loose stools and vomiting. While both remedies share these two poles, they spend most of their energy on opposite sides. In Bothrops patients, the vomiting is followed

by intense weakness and lassitude.

This brings us to the next Segment: extreme Weakness which is manifested by both physical weakness and the mental confusion.

In the physical weakness, we find a tendency to faint from exertion. One person reported, “Since the stroke, I want to sleep all the time.” Another said, “I can’t function anymore… I have to sit all the time…I used to lift weights, I used to play professional sports. Now I cannot do anything with my body…I am so weak, I cannot eat.”

Another person said, “I pass out if I get up to vacuum or clean the house. Faintness after a stroke, or with thrombi occluding major vessels are common characteristics.

“Since the stroke, my blood pressure drops quickly and I faint,” is how one patient put it. During this time the heart beats feebly; the patient is also chilly, and has a pale, blue discoloration of the extremities. It feels like the heart is going to stop beating. “All you want to do is sit or lie down, and think on how your life is ending right here and now.” So here we have the opposite of the main keynote of the remedy, the hypertension.

The weakness is also seen in vertigo. They may be dizzy (exerting themselves), as in rising from a chair, standing too long, or lifting. They feel faint with the dizziness and want to lie down.

The mental weakness has to do with being able to keep focus, especially soon after a stroke. The patient may be really disoriented and may take months to feel reoriented.

The mind wanders, as does the speech. This is easy to see when you talk to some of these patients. Many tend to be quiet. But if you do get a patient that is answering you fully, you will notice that their speech wanders.

This is also seen in Lachesis, but in Lachesis it is due to an intensity that cannot be contained, whereas in Bothrops it is seen when the mind is so weak that the thoughts lazily trail from one to the other. This is not the aphasia I am describing here, I will do that in the Paralysis section below. Here I am focusing on the weakening of the mind and body.

The patient may become more sleepy as well. Here it is not so much a narcolepsy, as much as the sleepiness found in post head trauma patients. It is a mixture of weakness, tiredness, and sleeping from weariness due to the trial of focusing and working the mind.

Paralysis is the segment that follows weakness and as such is another main idea for the remedy. The most prominent symptoms that fit here are the paralysis of the body

seen in three different places. Keynote number one is the stroke that leads to true aphasia. Where some people have a difficulty moving their mouth, that is less the case with Bothrops. Here, the patient is able to move the mouth but they have lost the words they want to say. This is not so much the difficulty articulating, as is found in Crotalus cascavella, this is a paralysis of the brain, not of the tongue.

The way they deal with the paralysis of the brain, is to use the wrong words. They may get their idea across by using some words and by gesturing, but they use the wrong words. For example, instead of saying window, they say “that hole,” or instead of saying door they may say “that wood” and point in the direction of the object.

They make their point, but not with the words that they wish. This leads to a paradox or a state of agitation, as they are stuck on the word they want to say. They may be as surprised at the word that comes out as the listener, but still they stick to the point. They may also try several words out to find the one they want, and even though they may try very hard, they may still not get it.

The second big keynote is the blindness. Bothrops is one of the main remedies that have blindness after stroke. There may or may not be a reason in the eye that accounts for this. There may, for example, be a hemorrhage in the eye, but the bigger keynote is that there is nothing that can be seen pathologically in the eye, yet the patient does not see. The symptom in the materia medica says that they are blind in daylight mostly. I have not seen this so much. Mostly, if they are blind, they are blind. Do not be misled by that symptom.

Lastly, the paralysis may be of a limb, the face or one side. The keynote from the old literature is that the paralysis is right-sided; while this is mostly true, I have clearly seen the paralysis on either side. There may be some paralysis of the throat as well, where the patient has difficulty and may even choke on swallowing.

I would like to make some final differentiating points between Bothrops, Lachesis, and Arnica. Towards Lachesis, let me say that many of the common symptoms of Lachesis may also be found in Bothrops. However, Bothrops tends to be more inward, more towards the closing, thrombi, chilly, whereas Lachesis is more excessive, intense and hot. One interesting tidbit is the fact that Lachesis craves oysters, while I have found several of my Bothrops patients crave all kinds of fish.

The differential with Arnica is an important one for several reasons, including the fact that because we know Arnica better, we give it more frequently. Arnica is also mentioned much more frequently in the materia medica and therapeutic books. I think the easiest way to differentiate the two has to do with the etiology. When the etiology is from the outside, the remedy is more likely to be Arnica. When the etiology is an internal process the remedy is more likely to be Bothrops. Sometimes, the etiology is an injury and the remedy is Bothrops; where the injury is the final push of a process that has been going on previously. The injury then creates or dislodges a thrombus and the rest of the symptoms ensue. Even though the etiology looked like an injury, really the person was developing this state before. So injuries that lead to a vascular accident of some sort and finally lead to blindness or paralysis should make one think of Bothrops.


[JJ Kleber]

Richter: aggressiv allein an der Spitze; enthemmte Bindungsstörung mit Selbstgefährdung und plötzlicher starker Aggressivität (Kind schlägt um sich um Kontakt zu bekommen); wegen Selbstüberschätzung (als Kind zu enge Grenzen = Unterdrückung, im Wechsel mit keine Grenzen) gefährliche Exploration mit gefährlich provokativem Verhalten;

Verführt durch Intellektualität/Spiritualität o. einfach Aggressivität (mit intellektuelle/spirituelle Fassade) versuchen an die Spitze zu kommen (Kinder: durch Provokation bis Aggression).

Hoher Leistungsdruck gegenüber sich selbst (muss perfekt/der Beste/Stärkste sein); sehr starker Egoismus; Unterdrückung von Emotionen mit plötzlichen bedrohlichen Aggressionsausbrüchen (blitzschnell); Lähmungen

Hals: Schluckbeschwerden für Flüssiges (DD.: Lach. Cench.: für Festes)

Auge: Blindheit, Netzhautblutung; < Tageslicht, > nachts;

Blutungen: nicht geronnenes, schwarzes Blut; schwärzliche Blutungen aus Köperöffnungen + ins Gewebe; Thrombose, Lungenembolie

Symptome diagonal; Symptome halbseitig (eine Seite gesund, andere krank)

Blutungen + Thrombosen (Auge/Hemiplegie/Venen/Lungenembolie); Auge (Blutung/kurzsichTIG/Sehverlust)

Oft halbseitige Beschwerden (Hemikranie/Apoplexie)



Gemüt: Bewusstlos/Aphasie


Spricht undeutlich/langsam/schweigsam/benutzt falsche Worte

Schwindel: im Allgemeinen

Auge: Lähmung in Sehnerv/Bluten aus Augen

Sehen: Trübsichtig, trübes Sehen < Sonnenlicht/tagsüber

Verlust des Sehvermögens (abends in Dämmerung/tagsüber

Nase: Nasenbluten//Ohr - Absonderung Blut

Gesicht: Dunkel/bläulich

Mund: Sprachverlust/Lähmung in Zunge

Innerer Hals: Trocken/Schlucken schwierig von Flüssigkeit

Magen: Übelkeit/Erbrechen

Urin: Blutig

Weibliche Genitalien: Blutung (flüssig)

Rücken: Opisthotonus

Glieder: Kälte/gefühllose, taube Arme/Oberschenkel blau

Schmerz (große Zehe)/Phlegmasia alba dolens/Unterschenkel „Wie gelähmt“/Finger „Wie gelähmt“ erstr. ganze Seite/Arme/Hemiplegie

Schwellung (große Zeheballen/Oberschenkel/Arme/schlaff, livid)

Schlaf: Schläfrig

Schweiß: Klebrig/Kalt           

Allgemeines: diagonal, kreuzweise - r. oben und l. unten + v.v./rechts

Abmagerung, Marasmus

Blutung (aus Körperöffnungen/Blut (schwarz/nicht gerinnungsfähig/dünn)

Fisteln/Entzündung (Lymphgefäße/Venen/gangränös)/Abszesse, Eiterungen

Konvulsion (tetanische Starre; Starrkrampf)

Lähmung r./einseitig (nach Apoplexie)

Schwäche (durch Durchfall)/Ohnmacht (häufig)

Schwarzfärbung äußerer Körperteile/Zyanose

Thrombose/Sepsis./Nekrose o. Karies in Knochen

Wunden heilen langsam/bluten reichlich/Verletzung mit Extravasaten

Zittern äußerlich


Komplementär: Lyss (= An). Sulph.


Vergleich: Enthalten in: Naja comp. w;

Comparison Both-l. + Crot-h + Lach + Naja + Vip

Comparison Tilia cordata with Bothrops lanceolatus.

Vergleich: Bothrops atrox + Bothrops lanceolatus + Bothrops jararaca


Siehe: Anacardiumgruppe + Anhang (Otto Leeser/Amati Holle/Massimo Mangliavori) + Anhang 2 + Schlangen allgemein + Schiebegruppe +


Antidotiert von: Led. Thuj.            


Wirkung: 1. r. seitig, 2. diagonal                                                 


Allerlei: Martinique/Karibik                       

Liebt feuchte Umgebung/70 Jungen 1x

Der Name lanceolatus wird von der flachen Kopfform der Schlange abgeleitet, die sich lanzenförmig zuspitzt. Um Feinde zu vertreiben, schlägt diese Schlangenart

mit dem Schwanz sehr schnell auf den Boden und verursacht damit ein äußert beunruhigendes Geräusch.

Beim Zubeißen öffnet die Gelbe Viper ihr Maul extrem weit. Das Gift ist (ähnlich Crotalus horridus - hochgiftig. Es bringt das Blut zum Gerinnen und ist hämo- und neurotoxisch)



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