[Misha Norland, Peter Fraser]
Schistocerca gregaria is a species of short-horned grasshopper that can form highly mobile swarms and spread over as much as 20% of the world’s land mass.
Comprised of more than 30 million locusts per square mile, locust swarms can travel up to 80 miles [129 km] a day and impact the livelihoods of up to 10% of the world’s population in 60 countries by eating the same amount of food in a day as several thousand people.
Plagues of the desert locust have threatened agricultural production in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia for centuries. The desert locust is potentially the most dangerous of the locust pests because of the ability of swarms to fly rapidly across great distances.
The species has 2 to 5 generations per year.
In swarms, adults are first pink but may become rose, brown or orange brown when conditions are cool, such as in mountains. When they mature the colour changes to bright yellow in males and dull yellow in females. In solitarious forms the colour is greyish or brownish, but males may become yellow when they mature. Males are 40–50 mm
[1.6–2.0 inch], females are 50–60 mm [2.0–2.4 inch] long. The translucent forewings are greenish yellow with many brown spots. Between the forelegs they have a peg-like structure. Male locusts start to mature first and then give off from their skin a chemical substance, the odour of which causes maturation to start in females, and also in any males in which it has not already begun. At this stage large swarms break up into smaller ones, as those locusts that mature first settle on the ground for breeding, while those not yet quite mature fly on.
When copulation ends the males usually remain for some time on the backs of the females. The females become restless and walk about carrying the males. They begin to select a suitable place to lay their eggs by probing and testing the soil with the tip of the abdomen. During this probing they can detect warmth, hardness, moisture and salinity
[salt content] of the soil. They are also attracted to each other at this time, assembling together in groups.
Plague locusts show an extreme form of phenotypic plasticity, changing between a cryptic solitarious phase and a swarming gregarious phase. Solitarious locusts show rapid behavioural phase change in response to tactile stimulation directed to the hind femora. Repeatedly touching as little as one quarter of the anterior [outer] surface area of
a hind femur produced full behavioural gregarisation within 4 hours. The phases can be distinguished by differences in colouration, form, physiology, and behaviour.
A solitary phase nymph adjusts its colouration to match that of its surroundings, does not collect in groups, has low metabolic and oxygen-intake rates, and is sluggish.
A gregarious phase nymph, on the other hand, has black and yellow or orange colouration in a fixed pattern, gathers in large groups, has high metabolic and oxygen-intake rates, and is active and nervous.
When a nymph of a solitary phase locust matures in the presence of many other locusts, it undergoes a physiological change and produces offspring of the gregarious type.
The young of a gregarious phase locust, on the other hand, will produce offspring that revert to the solitary phase if it matures in isolation. The solitary phase is the normal state of the species, with the gregarious phase being a physiological response to violent fluctuations in the environment.
Locust well known for its effect on man (destructive power)/in particular represents an example of a desert medicine.
The core sensation for this proving was related to the sensation of metamorphosis or transformation between two states.
1st state: described as being in a hole or cave and patiently waiting for some kind of signal. This state was solitary. In this state there is a feeling of timelessness and spatial distortion. Strange desire to sit still and listen; as if I am listening for something; sometimes I get feelings with these episodes or vibrations; it is a moment of peace;
I tune everything out and wait for something – I don’t know what; almost like I am expecting someone or something to say something to me; it is a space time moment of nothingness.
Much change; it is as though nothing is ever the same in my life and I wonder how people live day to day in the same thing; I actually like that I am able to move quickly
and I hate it whenever I get stuck.
Spiraled down into this deep hole today; went into a hold deep in the dearth; did not want to come out of it today; the sun came up and I realized that this is the yellow
that I have been attracted to-the sun; hard time coming out of the hole today; the hole is a really transformative place; I undergo some kind of metamorphosis when I am
in the hole; it is like a deep cellular change; it brings me to the brink of death and back again; when on the upswing I am ready to take flight towards the sun.
2nd state: described as a frenzy. One prover described it as “Tuberculinum on crack”. This state was very social and involved seeking a mate and various group activities. Images of flying became involved. Sexuality became very prominent with dreams of indiscriminate group sex and sex between children.
Feeling of frenzy will not leave me alone; frenzy about eating, sex, irritability, craziness in this phase; like swarming feeling; I cannot stand the way people drive-it is like this swarm of cars; feeding frenzy; like Tuberculinum on crack.
Very strange dream that was sexual and disturbing; came across this house while driving; looking for a place to rent; glass wall; can see the inside of it; hundreds of people naked standing in rows; some were engaging in sexual activities but they were acting like animals; all mixed; very disgusting; some were crawling like snakes on the walls; snake like people with bright kinds of colors that were crawling around the edges of the wall; very vivid dream; Walking through looking to rent a place; as we were going
I can see the inside of the house because of the glass wall; all these people who are lined up; some are standing; all naked; waiting in these rows; ton crammed into this area; 150 people; I could tell they were snakes the ones that were running the show; these people were all around the corner of the roof; purple, red, yellow, gold; very bright and colorful; what was disturbing was that they were all animals; no trace of humanity; these people seem disturbed; lost the human aspect of their reality; only left with their carnal desires; no boundaries of age or sexual orientation.
This frenzy leads to the feeling of the destruction or the end of the world. There is a quality of great destructiveness.
Dream that was very significant: Sensation was profound; it was that I had gone into a doctors office to get checked up; I thought I might be poisoned; standard inoculations; in inoculating me I become paralyzed completely; I can feel this so strongly; still completely paralyzed; as I sink back into my dream I see my grand daughter who pulls out scalpel and needles; implements of destruction; I was going to be destroyed; I try to move and throw myself over to get someone’s attention; feeling of entire body paralysis and inability to speak. - - - - -
Dream: trying to repurchase the . . . everything was water damage and falling apart. - - - - -
Another mobile home dream; end of the world sort of thing; trying to direct and motivate people to get moving; hunting and fishing camps; something going to happen; devastating; running out of time; shopping in a thrift store; a frail old woman was working and she and I were left; everyone else had evacuated; trying on clothes in case
of flooding; she was not interested in leaving; huge snake coming, like out of a horrormovie; and she would not budge-this woman; other people were trying to leave in an
old mobile home; these people could not get out. - - - - -
The transformation or metamorphosis sensation was accompanied by a sensation of buzzing and humming. Provers were exquisitely sensitive to noise (white noise = Rauschen).
The desert locust is well known to exist in two very different forms: the solitary phase and the gregarious phase. The process of transformation was well described in the following
Dream: Several people, about 20 and we were at some sort of seminar or tour group; we were dropped off at this site where it was just a plan slab from eons ago like a Greek ruin; there was a building beside us; I went into the building and I could see that it was going to collapse because there was water dripping in-it was full of water; I ran back out of the building; there was this sense that this was more than the building going to collapse; this was perhaps the start of the end of the world as we knew it; I told everyone to stick together and stay away from the building; The woman or tour guide wanted us to all rub our breasts and wanted to show us how to channel sexual energy; we all were doing that and I remember thinking this end of the world as we know it feeling might be a little bit more important; I remember thinking how clueless people are;
So then the building started collapsing and it was a dimension change; the building was going down and we aware of being pulled in that direction; I told everyone to stick together and hold on to each other so as not to be sucked in; everyone’s face/body was changing contorted and changing back and forth as if we were transmuting into something else; lots of people were afraid and screaming and I was afraid as well but then I got that we were just supposed to go with it and let it happen; I screamed at everyone to go with the energy and started smiling; it was way cool; could feel the energy moving through my body and it twisting and changing and it was amazing;
when it was over this man started screaming at me as if I had caused the whole thing saying his daughter/family were stuck in the rubble and would be dead; I told him
it was not my fault and I was sorry for his lows and that we may be the only people left on the entire earth and perhaps he should feel lucky he was alive; then we walked
over to the building-nothing left but rubble; there was nothing as far as the eye could see-no people, just could see far and wide; an eerie sense of what if we are the only people left in the world; pissed off-I am not populating the earth again; I signed up for this job? Felt like a time warp of some sort that we went through; it was really quiet except for a humming/buzzing noise. - - - - -
Extreme sensitivity to noise; < night; about to go out of my mind with the noise thing; shrill buzzing, humming noise like cicadas or crickets; white noise makes me berserk.
Hearing is acute; high pitched buzzing tinnitus.
Sensation of body vibrating all over when going to sleep.
Sensitive to noise; sounds not voices are louder than usual; it is the background noise that is a problem; have trouble noticing their direction; have to wear ear plugs; noises are loud and startling; I am hearing things before my dogs.
Several provers described the movement back and forth between these states as manic depressive.
The central motion: waving and flowing. This was variously described as waving between dimensions of time and space or of flowing in a current. It was also associated with flight. It feels in my life that I just bounce or flow around things; over and under hills and waves and mountains and through things; I seem to go right through things sometimes; if I hug someone I go right through them; different dimensions become the same.
Movement/Flowing; sense of moving through things, through people; flowing; riding the wind; wanting to drive fast; wanting to fly.
Faintness right after taking the remedy; a waverly feeling; woozy.
Dream: Sparkling, clear water sort of like it was swirling and dancing in the current; this Time being in the current I was bathed in wisdom like a wise old man at peace flowing in his current; sometimes my friends would flow in his own current; I stayed completely at peace in my current as I flowed through the corridor of life.
DD.: Insect Themes
Insect themes present in this remedy include primitive survival issues, tubercular miasmatic traits, frenzied activity and being busy. Primitive survival themes centered around food and sex.
= Desert Locust. Widely distributed in the
Prominent desert themes were see throughout the proving. These included:
Dryness and constriction and contraction
Isolation and aloneness
Violence; attack and defence
Drug like themes; distortions in time and space
Falling, downward motion
Codependent and merging
Mistakes in communication
The sensation of birth through some kind of transformation or metamorphosis was particularly prominent.
Several provers also noticed significant improvement in chronic codependency traits.
A strong focus on survival during the proving. In addition there was a distinct animal consciousness. Many provers described themselves as feeling like an animal.
Feeling of being a snake; searching for prey; ready to snap at anything in my way; feeling of not being respected in my current relationship.
I feel I am in the beginning go of the declining decay phase; I feel like an animal no longer able to be the top dog in the pack, so its my time to slowly step aside and let the stronger more powerful ones be on the top.
My car window was cracked open all day; when I got in my care there was a grasshopper sitting on my dash boar; at first I was grossed out and scared; but then I just let
him look out the window while I drove; when I got in my car later he was sitting on my back seat; I got to my destination and got in my car later again and he was gone;
I’m convinced he is dead in my car and I am terrified to find a dead insect there.
Dreams of animals, particularly insects were also prominent. Thoughts of death and presentiment of death was noted. The feeling that would could be attacked by others at any time was also seen.
Miasmatic classification is difficult to do based on a single proving. However, there are fairly strong suggestions of the Tubercular Miasm: desire to travel/desire for change, ennui, fear of things remaining the same or getting stuck, the need to break free, frenzied activity, weight loss and emaciation, feeling of suffocation and narrow tight places, desire for open air, and restlessness.
The feeling of being trapped and wanting to escape was particularly prominent.
This manifested in several provers in the idea of needing to rise to the surface in order to breathe. These ideas are characterized further in the proving themes.
L. sided symptoms predominated. Tended to be chilly and was associated with hot flushes in several patients. Several provers noted cures in the feeling of chronic chilliness. There was some tendency < forenoon time.
Other general characteristics included a tendency towards injuries (falls), weight loss, heaviness, swelling and lassitude. The tendency to falling was associated with faintness and weakness (lower limbs) The weight loss was sudden and associated with fluid loss. Several provers described up to 15 pounds of weight loss within 5 days of taking the remedy.
In addition to the falling seen in several provers, one prover described the opposite - an improvement in her feeling of being connected to the ground. This was described as follows:
I feel more grounded; I feel more connected to the ground; usually I walk more on the balls of my feet but now I walk with m whole foot.
Pain: constricting/contracting/squeezing/cramping. Several provers described this cramping and squeezing “As if all the water was being wrung out”, leaving them feeling desiccated.
The biggest thing was the sensation of contraction and cramping in the stomach; felt like everything was being squeezed and cramped (HG of cramping); as if you had dried up;
like you squeezed something that had water in it and dries up; that extended to my tongue.
Dryness was a prominent characteristic of the skin and mucous membranes. This was associated with the external skin and mucous membranes. Cracking of the nails and finger tips were noted.
One prover had a cure of chronic dry skin with a sensation of the hair and skin feeling softer.
Electrical, buzzing and humming sensations were noted throughout the body. A food craving for meat and especially raw meat was noted in several provers.
Emotional and Mental Characteristics
Emotions were typically felt in the stomach. Most commonly this was an empty or hollow sensation that had to be filled + feelings of loneliness, and anxiety.
One prover described a cure of a chronic feeling of emptiness and aloneness in the stomach.
Watchfulness was prominent in several provers as noted above. This + an increased awareness of time and space. It was a torporous and slow state.
Confusion was associated with it, including confusion of identity. An issue with boundaries was noted and several provers noted healing of codependency traits.
The aggressivity of this remedy was particularly marked by irritability and anger. This was accompanied by a profound sensitivity to noise, particularly white noise < the irritability.
Music would somewhat ameliorate this. Sensitivity to light was also noted but not as profound as the sensitivity to noise.
Mistakes in using words were noted in several provers.
The frenzy of this remedy manifested in irritability, restlessness, hurry, impatience, impetuousness, impulsivity, confrontational, violence, desire to attack others, panic and panic attacks,
threatening behavior, shrieking, hatred, mania and insanity. Sexuality was prominent even to the point of nymphomania. In this state provers described a feeling of being invincible.
Two provers noted improvements in their relationship with their significant other after this remedy. They found that their relationship was deeper and they felt more connected. Other prover
describe an improved connection to people in general.
Physical areas most targeted by this remedy included the jaw, mouth and stomach.
Head: congestion, and a sensation of constriction like a band or hoop. Headaches could be severe and of migrainous nature. The head pain was most prominently pressing “As if in an armored helmet”.
The pains were typically sudden and violent. There was also a sensation of water in the head.
Eye: Twitching of the eyelids was noted. There was a tired sensation in the eyes and dryness. A scratching sensation was noted with the need to rub.
Ear: A stopped sensation in the ears. Tinnitus was heard mostly of a buzzing, humming or popping character.
Hearing: Profound noise sensitivity and acuity was noted.
Nose: Nasal obstruction was most prominent accompanied by sneezing. Dryness was also strong and the nose was chapped. Discharge when present tended to be viscid or bloody.
Face: characterized by problems with the jaw, mostly related to pain. Dryness of the face and chapped lips was also marked. Acne was noted. Swelling of the face and tension of the skin was also noted.
Mouth: Several provers noted cancre sores of the mouth. Dryness was prevalent; The remedy seems to effect the salivary gland with ranula symptoms. Inflamed of the gums was also prominent.
Throat: Dry with throat pain was noted. Several provers described mucous in the throat. Accompanied Swelling of the cervical glands.
Stomach: Decrease in appetite was prominent accompanied by weight loss. A general feeling of constriction and contraction in the stomach with crampy abdominal pains.
Pain > bending double/heat. Emptiness sensation was noted by several provers. Nausea and vomiting was common. An interesting symptom of heat in the stomach that ascended was noted.
There was much intestinal activity with grumbling noises in the abdomen. Several of the provers described the abdominal pain as if someone was hitting them as hard as they could in the
stomach, like a blow. The stomach was quite sensitive to touch. Accompanied by THIRST.
One prover had a cure of a chronic feeling of emptiness in the stomach. They described it as feeling full for the first time in their life whereas it had always previously felt empty.
Another prover had a cure of chronic gastritis and food intolerance:
Abdomen: Lower gastric symptoms improved; I can eat almost anything now, whereas before it would cause tremendous bloating and gas; I used to get severe gastritis and a lot of distress usually; my stomach got < initially during the proving; worst attack; severe distress; cramping and burning; after the second week I could eat anything; was eating macrobiotic before and now I can eat anything;
after 2 ½ weeks I could eat anything I wanted; now I only get occasional twinges.
Rectum: characterized mostly by diarrhea. This tended to be sudden and caused accidents.
Female organs: Sexual desire was quite high. Cramping pains in the uterus accompanying menses were noted. Again, the symptom of pain in the uterus as if being punched was noted. Several provers described amelioration in symptoms of menstrual cramps during the proving.
Cough: The cough typically was dry and deep, accompanied chest heaviness.
Chest: Angina like symptoms were noted.
Back: not much effected but stiffness was the most prominent. This was in both the neck and low back. There was a feeling of tension of the spine.
Extremities: Coldness was noted. Much cramping (lower limbs). Electrical current sensations were noted. Ataxia and a propensity to fall were noted. Limbs were described as heavy.
Pains were most prominent in the toes and to a lesser extent in the fingers and shoulders. The pains again were often crampy and also stitching. Swelling in the hands and fingers.
Sleep: restless and difficult. Falling asleep was particularly a problem.
Skin: quite dry with cracking of the nails and skin. Dry and rough. A sensation of tension was noted.
During preparation of the Remedy
Split; balance between two poles; couples
Live dangerously; that is what makes life fun
Sensation of squeezing
Fast manifestations. Freshwater. Increased by warmth. Marine; seawater. Paralysis.
Red tide. Seafood; shellfish. Seasonal variation.
Acrididae is the predominant family of short-horned grasshoppers, comprising some 10,000 of the 11,000 species of the entire suborder Caelifera.
hoppers are characterised by short, heavy antennae, a four-valved ovipositor for laying eggs, and three-segmented tarsi, which are the distal segments of the leg. Short-horned grasshoppers range in size from 5 mm to 11 cm [0.2 to 4.3 inch] in length.
The shape of the body may be long and slender or short and stout. Many species are green or straw-coloured, which helps them blend into their surroundings. The large hind legs are modified for jumping, with greatly enlarged femurs. The antennae have fewer than 30 segments and are usually shorter than the body. Some species have wings, whereas others are wingless. Among the winged species, the males can produce characteristic noises by rubbing the front wings together or by drawing the hind legs across the edge of the wings. Most species have a pair of tympanal [auditory]
organs at the base of the abdomen.
Acrididae are herbivorous and include some of the most destructive agricultural pests known. The swarming phase of certain species of short-horned grasshoppers are called locusts. They are also known as plague. or migratory., species.
Schistocerca, commonly called bird grasshoppers, is a genus of short-horned grasshoppers, several of which swarm as locusts. Most species are, however, sedentary and non-swarming grasshoppers that are ecologically diverse and have adapted to different environments. The genus is also known for its unusual biogeographic distribution where a single species, S. gregaria occurs in the Old World, while the rest of the genus occurs strictly in the New World. There are around 50 species, 2 of which have been introduced in the materia medica.
S. americana is native to North America, where it occurs in the eastern U.S., Mexico, and the Bahamas. There are occasional, localised outbreaks of this grasshopper, and it is often referred to as a locust, though it lacks the true swarming form of its congener, the desert locust, S. gregaria.
The overall colour of S. americana gradually changes from a pinkish-brown or reddish-brown to more of a yellowish-brown hue as the grasshopper reaches sexual maturity. The adults bear fully developed wings with large dark brown spots on a lighter background. Adults are distinctly different in appearance from the immature stages [nymphs]. The length of the male is 39 to 45 mm [1.5–1.8 inch], whereas the female is 42 to 55 mm [1.6–2.2 inch].
S. americana has 2 generations per year. It overwinters in the adult stage, unlike most grasshoppers, which pass the winter in the egg stage. The female deposits her eggs in the soil about 2 to 3 cm [0.8–1.2 inch] below the surface by pushing her ovipositor down into the substrate. The grasshoppers prefer areas with some ground cover to deposit their egg clusters. The egg cluster generally consists of 60 to 80 eggs that are secured together by a frothy polymer-like substance that the female secretes.
Females may lay up to 3 egg pods. The eggs are 7 to 8 mm [0.3 inch] in length and are light orange in colour. The nymphs hatch from the eggs 3 to 4 weeks after deposition and must work their way to the surface. The nymphs go through 5 or 6 instars [moults] before reaching adulthood. Initially the nymphs remain aggregated in small groups, moving from plant to plant and feeding gregariously. As they grow older they become less aggregated.
This species can cause injury to citrus, corn, cotton, oats, peanuts, rye, sugarcane, tobacco and vegetables. Aside from commercial crops, it also shows a preference for several species of grasses: bahiagrass, bermudagrass, crabgrass, nutgrass and woods-grass. It also feeds on dogwood, hickory and palm trees.
Phenotypic plasticity in behaviour induced by high rearing density is often part of a migratory syndrome in insects called phase polyphenism. Among locust species, swarming and the expression of phase polyphenism are highly correlated. S. americana rarely swarms, even though it is closely related to the swarming Old World desert locust, S. gregaria, as well as 2 swarming New World locusts. Anecdotal field observations of locust-like behaviour in S. americana indicate that it may express behavioural phase polyphenism, but empirical investigations are lacking.
This species was the source of a newly discovered class of chemical compounds called caeliferins. Caeliferins are composed of saturated and monounsaturated sulphated alpha-hydroxy fatty acids with
15-20 carbons and are present in the grasshopper’s regurgitant/saliva. When the grasshopper feeds on a plant, the caeliferins in the regurgitant induce the plant to release volatile organic compounds.
This is a common response to herbivory in plants; the volatile organic compounds are attractive to predators of the herbivorous insects. Caeliferins may also play a role in defence, as the grasshopper expels large amounts of regurgitant when attacked.
Symptoms from a proving by Todd Rowe, American Medical College of Homeopathy [Arizona, USA], 9 female and 2 male provers, 30c, 2007.
Sensory organs; auditory. Gastrointestinal. “Physical areas most targeted by this remedy included the jaw, mouth and stomach.”
Desire to sit still and listen, as if listening for something, tuning everything out and waiting.
Change. “As if nothing is ever the same in my life and I wonder how people live day to day in the same thing; I like that I am able to move quickly and hate it whenever I get stuck.”
Persistent feeling of frenzy; frenzy about eating, sex, irritability, craziness; like swarming feeling; feeding frenzy. “The frenzy manifested in irritability, restlessness, hurry, impatience, impetuousness, impulsivity, confrontation, violence, desire to attack others, panic and panic attacks, threatening behaviour, shrieking, hatred, mania and insanity. Sexuality (nymphomania). In this state provers described a feeling of being invincible.”
Oversensitive to noise (white noise); < night. Irritability from white noise; somewhat > music.
Emotions felt as an empty or hollow sensation in the stomach, & anxiety and feelings of loneliness.
Attracted to the colour yellow.
Theme: Waving, flowing, moving. “Sense of moving through things, through people; flowing; riding the wind; wanting to drive fast; wanting to fly.”
Left side more affected.
General characteristics: Tendency towards injuries [falls], weight loss, heaviness,
swelling and lassitude. Tendency to falling & faintness and weakness (lower limbs). Sudden weight loss, associated with fluid loss.
Pains constricting, contracting, cramping, squeezing. “Several provers described this cramping and squeezing as if all the water was being wrung out, leaving them feeling dehydrated.”
Dryness mucosa and skin. Cracking of nails and fingertips. Chapped nose and lips.
Appetite decreased. Thirst increased.
Body as if vibrating all over when going to sleep.
Sensation of falling off the bed on waking up in middle of night.
Head “As if constricted by a band or hoop”; pressing “As if in an armoured helmet”.
Fog behind eyes and temples.
Water sloshing around in head. Ears “As if stopped”.
Eyes “As if swollen”. Heavy feeling under eyes.
Dryness face, nose, cheeks; skin feels rough and crusty.
Pain “As if being punched violently in the stomach”. Stomach sensitive to touch.
Bursting sensation stomach and right lower quarter of abdomen, “As if it would rip open”, “As if intestines are stretching”.
Pain in uterus “As if being punched”.
Coccyx “As if dislocated”.
Leg bones as thick and heavy; heaviness in front of legs, “As if walking through mud”.
Toes “As if bruised”, “As if curling them to grip”.
High-pitched buzzing tinnitus.
Severe diarrhoea, mainly; must rush to make it in time to the toilet.
Coldness limbs. Ataxia and propensity to fall. Heaviness limbs. Crampy or stitching limb pains (toes, fingers, and shoulders).
“The core sensation for this proving was related to the sensation of metamorphosis or transformation between two states. The first state was described as being in a hole or cave and patiently waiting for some kind of signal. This state was solitary. In this state there is a feeling of timelessness and spatial distortion.
“The second state was described as a frenzy. This state was very social and involved seeking a mate and various group activities. Images of flying became involved.
Sexuality became very prominent with dreams of indiscriminate group sex and sex between children.
“This frenzy leads to the feeling of the destruction or the end of the world. There is a quality of great destructiveness.”
Rubrics strange, rare, peculiar
Mind: Ancient feeling.
Anger, before menses; on waking. Desire to attack others.
Aversion to self. Desire for change. Co-dependency. desires orange, red, yellow.
Delusions: Being an insect; not appreciated; emerging from birth canal; approaching death; forced to be here against one’s will; being in a hole; being invincible; being a predator; something about her makes others stare; time is endless; being trapped; being watched; moving in a new world. Increased environmental orientation. Sensation of flowing. Gestures, picking at fingers.
Hurry while driving, wants to overtake all others.
Inquisitive, observing others.
Joy in nature.
Love for everyone around one.
Love for self.
Mania # sadness.
Sensitive to noise, background; high pitched; slightest; voices.
Concerned about social position.
Sun, > sunlight
Desire to travel. Watchfulness, waiting for a signal.
Dreams: • Being attacked. Babies. Being busy. Crowds. Devastation. Food. Holes. Nakedness. Doing wrong.
Vertigo: On looking around.,
< Standing, While walking.
Head: Congestion, occiput; temples.
Discolouration, grey hair.
Formication, occiput; vertex. Pressing pain “As if in an armour”; “As if by an iron helmet”.
Swashing, splashing sensation.
Eyes: Itching, morning on waking. “As if swollen”.
Ears: Buzzing noise in ears during headache.
Nose: Obstruction in morning. Sneezing in morning.
Face: Eruptions, acne, lips.
Itching in eyebrows; margins of lips.
Pain in jaw, on drinking.
Tension in jaw.
Twitching around eyes.
Mouth: Musty odour of breath.
Tingling tip of tongue.
Throat: Pain “As if something sticking in throat”. Feeling of small sticks in throat.
Tickling in pit of throat
Stomach: Heat ext. upward.
Knotted together feeling.
Pain >: bending double/heat/lying/stretching;
Pain “As from a blow”.
Sensitive to touch. Sensation of sucking in.
Abdomen: Pain “As from a blow”, hypogastrium. Burning pain > stool. Twisting pain.
Rectum: Diarrhoea on waking with urging in morning.
Female organs: Pain in uterus “As from a blow”, “As if being punched”.
Sexual desire insatiable.
Larynx: “As if foreign bodies in larynx”.
Chest: Burning pain in heart region.
Back: Pain in lumbar region ext. hips.
Pain “As if dislocated” in coccyx.
Limbs: Cold feet at night.
Cramps in feet.
Dryness of hands (fingertips). “As if an electric current” in feet/legs/upper limbs.
Heaviness in shoulders; legs, bones.
Pain in hips at night/in shoulders at night.
Roughness of fingertips.
Skin: Sensitive to open air; to touch.
Stings of insects, wasps.
Generals: Desires hot bathing.
Electricity, “As if electrical sparks”. “As if falling out of bed while awake”.
Knotted sensation internally.
Noise, humming, buzzing and whizzing in body. Squeezing pain, “As if all the water had been squeezed out”.
> Stretching; must stretch. Sudden change of weight
Desires: Cold drinks/(raw/red) meat/seafood;
CUES & CLUES
Aggregating when young. Blending in. Grasses. Jumping. Regurgitating when attacked. Shades of brown. Working one’s way to the surface.
Rage, like a ball of fire raging from stomach; wants to annihilate and blow up
Competing for attractiveness.
Darkness <. “Oppressive feeling as if the darkness would enclose me.”
Fascinated or harassed by flying insects, and spiders.
Aversion to the colour pink.
Imaginary odours: Cigarette smoke; smoke, like an ashtray. Heightened sense of
Dream themes: Water and floods. Becoming invisible. Black and white. Sexual encounters. Spiders of all different shapes and sizes. Wood and wooden objects.
Hiding and wanting to keep things private. Building up energy, holding it in until it bursts out with explosive force.
Exuberant energy. “Dancing manically in the evening for ages, really energetically and powerfully with agility and confidence that my body could bend in strange
ways and could jump and not fall.”
Need for fresh air, movement and exertion.
Very thirsty for cold water.
Sensation of leaning to the right on closing eyes.
Heavy back of head – hard to hold head up.
Outward pressing weight above root of nose, radiating outwards over eyebrows.
Sharp pain and raw, hot sensation in tip of tongue, like a piece of glass or splinter.
Taste of rotting meat in back of throat.
Nausea & profuse perspiration, sensation of bubbling inside, body feeling like its going to explode into pieces. “A sense of pushing out from inside, like a volcano
eruption, no control over it, waiting for it to happen feels really uncomfortable.”
Sensation of nausea, like a fist of heavy metal stuck in centre of stomach.
Heaviness in uterus like a breeze block, a solid heavy lump dragging the insides down.
Breasts felt huge, as if they had metal plates on them; hard, swollen and solid.
Mid-back feels crushed, compressed all out of place.
Tightness in upper right trapezius muscle, sensation of rope inside muscle being stretched to capacity.
Burning stinging tip of tongue.
Nausea from eggs. Nausea < thought of food.
Fishy smell of urine.
“The fact that the locust has 2 different forms and physically changes when it is a gregarious animal from the form it has when it leads a solitary existence is definitely
characteristic. The need to conform and find a place as part of the group, whether it be herd, flock or hive, is again a part of many animal remedies. The particular
expression of this in the locust, especially the idea of being one or the other and of there being no intermediate state, is more characteristic and so more useful in under-
standing the remedy. There is also a contrary in that the provers felt there was a need to be part of the group and they felt alone and abandoned when away from it;
yet at the same time they feel suffocated by the needs of the group and better away from it.
They feel vulnerable when alone and need company in order to feel safe. There is a feeling of being particularly vulnerable when indoors where they feel unsafe; they feel
much safer and less agitated when outside.
“The theme that came through most powerfully and which is so characteristic is the idea of building up energy, holding it in until it bursts out with explosive force.
This idea is expressed in many ways. In the purely physical form, gases building up in the digestive tract until they burst out in explosive belching. The provers were much better for physical exercise and exertion which allowed some of their pent up energy to dissipate. On a more emotional level the irritability that is common to the insects builds
up until it reaches a level of uncontainable anger. The most expressive example of this in sexuality where a low level of sexual excitement builds to a point of uncontrollable
need that could not be denied.”
FOOD & FLUID
Desires: Chocolate. Dairy; cheese;
CUES & CLUES
Blending in. Cohesive groups. Disturbing transformation. Extremes; sharp contrasts.
Harmless individuals, destructive crowds. Highly mobile. Long distance journeys.
Millions. Reacting to environmental fluctuations. Settling for breeding. Swarms.
Insect themes present in this remedy include primitive survival issues, tubercular miasmatic traits, frenzied activity and being busy. Primitive survival themes centered
around food and sex.
Wüstenheuschrecke = Schistocerca gregaria
Die Geschlechtsreife wird durch günstige Bedingungen ausgelöst: Wenn es regnet, erreichen alle Individuen des Schwarms die Geschlechtsreife gleichzeitig.
Ein einziges Weibchen legt etwa 80 Eier in den Boden. Auf einem Quadratmeter wurden schon bis zu 1.000 Eier gefunden. Die Heuschrecken schlüpfen nach zwei Wochen, nach etwa zehn Tagen können sie fliegen.
Wenn Flügel wachsen
Die Heuschrecke verändert ihr Verhalten, wenn sie engen Kontakt zu Artgenossen hat. Durch die Berührung wird Serotonin ausgeschüttet. Der Botenstoff bewirkt unter anderem ein Wachsen der Flugmuskulatur.
Eigentlich ist die Wüstenheuschrecke eine Einzelgängerin: klein, braun und harmlos. Doch das kann sich ändern – innerhalb weniger Stunden. Erst färbt sie sich rosa, dann leuchtend gelb. Sie wird gefräßig, rottet sich mit anderen zusammen und fällt in riesigen Schwärmen über das Land her. Die Verwandlung ist so frappierend, dass Forscher
bis 1921 glaubten, es handele sich um zwei verschiedene Arten.
Eigentlich ist die Wüstenheuschrecke eine Einzelgängerin: klein, braun und harmlos. Doch das kann sich ändern – innerhalb weniger Stunden. Erst färbt sie sich rosa, dann leuchtend gelb. Sie wird gefräßig, rottet sich mit anderen zusammen und fällt in riesigen Schwärmen über das Land her. Die Verwandlung ist so frappierend, dass Forscher
bis 1921 glaubten, es handele sich um zwei verschiedene Arten.
In Kenia ist ein besonders großer Schwarm mit Hunderten Millionen Insekten unterwegs: 60 Kilometer lang und 40 Kilometer breit. Mit seinen 2.400 Quadratkilometern ist er fast so groß wie das Saarland.
Heuschrecken: In Kenia ist ein besonders großer Schwarm mit Hunderten Millionen Insekten unterwegs: 60 Kilometer lang und 40 Kilometer breit. Mit seinen 2.400 Quadratkilometern ist er fast so groß wie das Saarland.
150 Kilometer kann ein Schwarm am Tag zurücklegen. Dort, wo die Heuschrecken landen, bleibt kaum ein Halm stehen. Sie zerstören Acker- und Weideland.
Ostafrika erlebte zuletzt eine lange Dürreperiode, im Oktober und November dann überdurchschnittlich starke Regenfälle. Die Nässe schafft ideale Bedingungen für die Wüstenheuschrecke: Die Insekten legen ihre Eier gern in der feuchten Erde ab, die wachsenden Pflanzen liefern Futter.
Heuschrecken: Ostafrika erlebte zuletzt eine lange Dürreperiode, im Oktober und November dann überdurchschnittlich starke Regenfälle. Die Nässe schafft ideale Bedingungen für die Wüstenheuschrecke: Die Insekten legen ihre Eier gern in der feuchten Erde ab, die wachsenden Pflanzen liefern Futter.
Das große Fressen
Eine erwachsene Wüstenheuschrecke frisst am Tag so viel, wie sie selbst wiegt – etwa zwei Gramm. Bereits ein einziger Quadratkilometer Heuschrecken isst nach Schätzungen der UN-Behörde für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft (FAO) so viel wie 35.000 Menschen.
Heuschrecken: Eine erwachsene Wüstenheuschrecke frisst am Tag so viel, wie sie selbst wiegt – etwa zwei Gramm. Bereits ein einziger Quadratkilometer Heuschrecken isst nach Schätzungen der UN-Behörde für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft (FAO) so viel wie 35.000 Menschen.
Die einzige effektive Möglichkeit, die Insekten zu bekämpfen, sind Pestizide, die mit einem Flugzeug versprüht werden. 70 Millionen Dollar benötigt die FAO, um gegen
die Insekten vorzugehen und die betroffenen Staaten zu unterstützen.
Heuschrecken: Die einzige effektive Möglichkeit, die Insekten zu bekämpfen, sind Pestizide, die mit einem Flugzeug versprüht werden. 70 Millionen Dollar benötigt die FAO, um gegen die Insekten vorzugehen und die betroffenen Staaten zu unterstützen.
Die UN warnen vor einer Hungersnot. Laut der FAO haben in der Region bereits jetzt 11,9 Millionen Menschen zu wenig zu essen. Hinzu kommt: Die meisten Menschen
in den betroffenen Gebieten sind Kleinbauern und sind von den Erträgen der Landwirtschaft abhängig.
Heuschrecken: Die UN warnen vor einer Hungersnot. Laut der FAO haben in der Region bereits jetzt 11,9 Millionen Menschen zu wenig zu essen. Hinzu kommt: Die meisten Menschen in den betroffenen Gebieten sind Kleinbauern und sind von den Erträgen der Landwirtschaft abhängig.
Hier ist die Not groß
Besonders betroffen sind Kenia und Äthiopien. Somalia hat diese Woche den Notstand ausgerufen.
Mehr als eine biblische Plage
Neben Stechmücken, Viehpest oder Hagel zählen auch Heuschrecken zu den zehn Plagen, von denen Ägypten laut der Bibel angeblich heimgesucht wurde.
Die Schwärme kann es weltweit geben, wie unsere Zeitleiste zeigt.
Heuschrecken: Neben Stechmücken, Viehpest oder Hagel zählen auch Heuschrecken zu den zehn Plagen, von denen Ägypten laut der Bibel angeblich heimgesucht wurde.
Die Schwärme kann es weltweit geben, wie unsere Zeitleiste zeigt.
[Misha Norland, Peter Fraser & The School of Homeopathy]
The Locust is hemitabolous, it moults several times each larval stage, or instar, is a little more like the adult form. Only the adult form, the imago, is able to fly; the nymphal forms move by jumping and are called hoppers. The hoppers can swarm but there are never mixtures of hoppers and adults. The female lays her eggs in the ground pushing them into the earth with her long adapted abdomen. The time taken for the eggs to hatch and for the larvae to develop varies tremendously and is vastly speeded up when in the gregarious state.
The Locust is associated with tremendous destructive power. They can form swarms of many billions of individuals each of whom will eat its own weight (2g) of vegetation every day. In the years in which the largest swarms occur they can completely destroy the vegetation over an enormous area. Hence its name and the place it has in biblical and other histories as one of the plagues that afflict mankind. On the other hand, the Locust (perhaps all Orthoptera depending on the authority you consult) is the only insect that is regarded as Kosher and Halal and is the most widely consumed of all insects. Whilst the locust destroys the crops of the landowner it is can be a nutritious windfall to those that have nothing to lose.
When swarming the insects are vulnerable to many predators. The unpredictable nature of the swarming behaviour means that no predator can adapt to an exclusive diet of Locusts but a great number of them do take advantage of the plentiful food that a swarm, particularly a swarm of hoppers, provides. Not only are individuals vulnerable but whole species are too. The Rocky Mountain Locust of Western North America produced larger swarms than any other insect. One swarm in 1874 covered an area greater than California and contained 12,500,000,000,000 individuals, yet 30 years later the species was extinct.
Swarming occurs when favourable conditions cause the number of Locusts to increase. When this happens they are more likely to come into contact with each other and if they rub their legs against those of other Locusts a certain number of times a serotonin based reaction is initiated which causes a hormonal cascade and the release of pheromones. The insect then changes from its solitary form to the gregarious form, which reproduces more quickly and forms the enormous destructive swarms. In years of recession when there is no swarming the individuals live quietly in an area of Africa north of the equator. In swarming years, they spread throughout Africa, into Europe and across the Middle East as far as India. Related species are found in America and Australia.
In the Bible, a swarm of locusts comprised the eighth plague in the story of the ‘Plagues of Egypt’. This was because Pharaoh refused to set the Israelites free so God decided to punish Him.
God had told Moses to stretch out his hand over the land of Egypt to bring a plague of locusts. The locusts covered the land and swallowed up every crop and all the fruits of the trees. Afterwards there was nothing green in the trees, and all the crops in the fields had been destroyed. ‘They invaded the whole land of Egypt and settled on all its territory in swarms so dense that the like of them had never been seen before, nor ever will be again’ Exodus 10:14
Plagues of locusts are also mentioned in the Quran and is mentioned in the below verses:
‘We sent upon them the flood and locusts and lice and frogs and blood as distinct signs, but they were arrogant and were a criminal people.’ (7:133) of chapter (7) surat l-a?raf (The Heights):
‘They will emerge from their graves with downcast eyes, like swarming locusts.’ (Qur'an, 54:7)
Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher; having left no evidence of his own he is known through Plato one of his students. He states that locusts were once human.
When muses first brought song into the world, its beauty captivated the people so they forgot to eat and drink, to which they died. The muses turned these into locusts, so they would be singing their entire lives.
The Ancient Egyptians carved locusts on tombs in the period 2470 to 2220 BC. The grasshopper was a common motif for the Ancient Egyptians and was used as a hieroglyph. It represented a symbol of beauty and as an illustration of life along the Nile. As we know this species can produce enormous populations, with these massive hoards it was considered a plague. Due to the association with large numbers this became the hieroglyphic meaning for locusts.
On the wall of Medinat Habu reads an inscription ‘battalions will come like the locusts’. In ‘Mereruka’ tomb locust are carved into the wall representing life along the Nile. They also found in the tomb illustrations from the New Kingdom and Tel el Amarna with the locust drawn in full flight with their hind legs held along their sides.
These illustrations were significant as they showed that the locust wings were drawn with the hind wing in the same shape as the forewing. There are several distinctive locust carvings and drawings in the tombs. Locusts were also used as models for productions, the best known is the grasshopper toilet box found among the treasures of King Tutankhamun (Hoving 1978).
Locusts are eaten in many African, Middle Eastern and Asian countries. They have been used as food throughout history; and can be cooked in a variety of ways, with them most often being fried, smoked or dried. The Torah although disallows the use of most insects as food, permits the consumption of certain locusts. In Islamic jurisprudence, eating locusts is considered halal. Desert locust provides 11.5 g of fat, 53.5% of which is unsaturated, and 286mg of cholesterol.
It is recorded in the Bible that John the Baptist ate locusts and wild honey while living in the wilderness. ‘John was clothed with camel's hair, and with a girdle of a skin about his loins; and he did eat locusts and wild honey.’ (Mark 1:6).
Certain kinds of locusts were permitted by God for consumption, and were a part of the clean food diet. ‘Even these of them ye may eat; the locust after his kind, and the bald locust after his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the grasshopper after his kind. ‘(Leviticus 11:2)
Locusts are used in biology as models especially for Olfactory, which is our sense of smell and the detection of chemicals in the air. Neurophysiology which is the study into the functioning of the nervous system and Locomotor which looks at the variety of movements and the progression from one place to another. This is one of the organisms that scientists have obtained detailed data from on information processing. Locusts are suitable for these experiments due to their sheer growth in numbers, easiness to reproduce as well as their robustness