Gymnura natalensis (Gymnu-n.) = (Backwater) butterfly. ray/= diamond. ray

 

Vergleich:

Comparison of Gymnura natalensis and

Ambra grisea (whale secretion)

Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger shark liver)

Lac delphinium (milk of dolphin)

Medusa (jelly-fish)

Murex purpurea (purple fish)

Sepia officinalis (cuttlefish)

Trach-d. = Stingray/= Rochen/= Große Petermann

Trach-v.                    

Urolophus halleri. = sting ray

                                               The organism displays aplacental viviparous development and the females produce uterine milk to nourish their young.

Siehe: Pisces + Meeresgruppe + Group Analysis Evaluation

 

[Vanishree Naidoo]

The particular species chosen, Gymnura natalensis is the only ray in Southern Africa with a broad, diamond-shaped pectoral disc twice as wide as it is long. It is often referred to by the

common name, butterfly ray, which is in reference to its extended wing-like pectoral fins. Fully developed adult rays attain a disc width of 2.5 meters and at least 90 kilograms.

The disc is flexible near its margin, which is an important aid in swimming, burying and feeding. The dorsal surface appears gray, brownish or olive green with a darker mottling whilst

the under surface is white. The diamond ray also possesses the ability to change the colour. of the dorsal surface rapidly to match that of the environment or substrate.

The tail which is separate from the disc is variably developed depending on the particular species. In Gymnura natalensis, the tail is shorter than the body with black and white bands and may

have one or two sharp serrated spines at the base. The head flattened and not raised above the disc. There are five pairs of gill slits on the underside of the head and no dorsal or tails fins.

The majority of stingrays live exclusively in the sea, occupying a variety of habitats but spends a part of their lives in estuaries. They may be found swimming tirelessly in midwater or lie

buried in the substrate of the ocean floor. Gymnura natalensis is endemic to the Southern African coast from Namibia to Mozambique. This species is usually found close inshore (off sandy

beaches), offshore banks down to 75 m and muddy estuaries along the coasts of the Eastern Cape and Kwa-Zulu Natal.

Gymnura natalensis is carnivorous and tends to target mainly bottom-dwelling fish, sea-lice, flat-fish, mole crabs, polychaete worms, crabs as well as sardine, gurnard and squid.

Being bottom-feeders, the mouth is located on the undersurface and food is directed into the mouth by manoeuvring directly above the prey. Stingrays in general are selective feeders; the

various shapes of the mouth and teeth are an indication of their food preferences. Gymnura natalensis possesses a modified feeding apparatus of a strong jaw with 68 – 93 rows of small,

sharply pointed teeth arranged as a pavement to facilitate the crushing of hard-shelled prey.

Both male and female diamond rays mature at a disc width of 1.1 meters. Mating takes place in the winter. The male fertilises the female internally by means of claspers which are the

modified inner edges of the pelvic fin. The developmental strategy of Gymnura natalensis is of an aplacental viviparous type, whereby the young are born alive but there is no placental

attachment of the embryo to the mother during the gestation period. During the 12-month gestation period, the pups are nourished by uterine secretions (milk) which is absorbed by accessory

gill filaments. There are usually 5 to 10 pups in a litter which are born in summer at a disc width of 40 centimetres.

Nature of the animal

Stingrays have been described as sociable animals with a reasonable learning capacity. Generally non-aggressive but males tend to display aggression during the mating season. They tend to

be shy and depart rapidly if approached. Most stingray attacks occur when the animal is threatened in its environment causing it to reflexively raise its tail above its head and thrust a spine

into the victim. Although normally solitary, Gymnura natalensis have been found in large shoals often comprising animals of one sex. Single rays tend to be found on the seabed, whereas

shoals are often found in the midwater region.

Stingrays move by vertical undulations of the disc and are adapted to ripple and glide through the water with very little effort. Propulsion is mainly achieved by lateral and horizontal

movements of the tail or vertical movements of the pectoral fins. In the case of Gymnura natalensis, movements of certain parts of the well-developed disc enable it to dive, climb, turn or

stop, offering a great advantage when seeking prey. The flattened disc also enables it to glide for long distances without any active movements.

Venom and stinging apparatus

The venom apparatus of stingray consists of the caudal appendage, a bilateral spine which is covered by an integumentary sheath and associated venom glands, and the cuneiform area of the

integument with which the sting is in contact when at rest. The caudal appendage is cylindrical and showing tapering in cross-section. The caudal fin is present as a cutaneous fold or is

may be indistinct. The cuneiform area is not usually well developed.

The spine is attached to the tail of the stingray by dense connective tissue. The spines have a serrated edge with two grooves on the underside which house the venom glands.

All stingray venoms are very similar. They contain serotonin, 5-nucleotidase, and phosphodiesterase. The latter two enzymes are responsible for the necrosis and tissue breakdown seen

in stingray envenomations. The envenomations by a stingray usually occur when the animal is disturbed, it reflexively whips its tail xxyy upwards and thrusts a spine or spines into the

victim, producing a puncture wound or laceration. The sheath covering the spine ruptures and the venom, along with mucus and fragments of the sheath and spine are released into the tissue

surrounding the wound. This results in intense pain, oedema and variable bleeding. The venom causes tissue damage by means of proteolytic enzymes and therefore heating the venom to

a temperature above 50º C diminishes some of its biologic effect. Reported systemic effects of stingray envenomations include: diaphoresis, nausea, cardiac arrhythmia (flattened and

biphasic T-waves), anxiety, headache, tremors, skin rash, diarrhoea, generalized pallor, delirium, neuritis, limb paralysis, paresthesias, lymphangitis, abdominal pain, arthritis, fever,

hypertension and hypotension, dyspnoea, congestive heart failure and syncope. Some of these effects can be due to allergy to the venom and psychological reactions to attack.

Penetration of the body cavities (chest, abdomen and groin) is a serious medical emergency. Introduction of the ray’s necrotising venom directly into the body cavity of a person has been

known to cause insidious necrotizing effects on the heart and other internal organs, and death is often inevitable. Tissue necrosis and subsequent secondary bacterial infection that occurs

as a result is extremely difficult to treat.

Repertory:

Mind: Alert

Alone – desires to be alone

Anxiety – from anticipation/beside oneself from anxiety/causeless/from excitement/with hurry

Cheerful – in morning on waking

Company aversed to

Concentration – active/difficult (cannot fix attention)

Confidence – want of self- confidence

Despair

Detached – “As if”

Discontended

Doubtful – himself

Dull (“As if intoxicated”)

Dyslexia

Forsaken – “As if isolated”

Irritable (in morning/easily/from trifles)

Mistakes in writing

Mood – alternating/changeable

Prostrated mind

Restless (in bed)

Sadness (extreme/gloomy)

Spaced out

Speech – low, soft voice

Stupefaction

Thoughts – rush, flow from sleeplessness

Weeping from despair

Vertigo: and pain in head/and blurred vision

> Closing eyes

“As if intoxicated”

Sitting

“As if head is turning round”

While walking

Head: “As if empty, hollow”

Heavy (bending forward/forehead/temples)

“As if light”

Pain [afternoon/bursting (after eating/in forehead/temples)/> closing eyes/dull (occiput/vertex)/ext. to eyes/ext. to forehead/behind eyes/forehead r./sides (l.)/pulsating/caused by strong odors/< motion/pressing/pulsating/> pressure/after eating]

Eye: Wants to close the eyes

Closing eyes involuntary

Red

“As if full”

Heavy

Opening the eyelids difficult – hard to keep the eyes open

Pain – r./morning “As from sand” (r.)/sore in morning on waking/sore (r./morning on waking)/pulsating/”As if warmth”

Vision: Blurred with vertigo

Face: Red

Throat: Dry

“As if a foreign body”

Inflamed – painful/on waking

Pain – swallowing/l. tonsil

Prickly

Tickling (night)

Stomach: Appetite – diminished/easy satiety/increased

Thirst (extreme on waking/drinking cold water)

Abdomen: Pain – sharp

Rectum: “As if a ball in rectum”

Constipation

Stool: Thin after eating

Bladder: Burning during urination

Urination frequent

Urine: Burning

Female organs:Leukorrhoea – bloody/brown/cream-like/thick

Menses too short – 2 days

Respiration: Anxious

> Deep/difficult (at night/> deep breathing/on inspiration/lying/> yawning)

Cough: in general/in daytime/at night

Dry

Tickling in throat

Chest: Conscious of heart’s action

Oppression with difficult respiration

Palpitation of heart (with anxiety)

Back: Eruptions (like sand/pimples/painful pustules

Eruptions red

Heat in spine

Pain [aching between scapulae/in cervical region ext. occiput/cutting in lumbar region – rising from sitting/descends/dull/in lumbar region (r./ext. glutei muscles in thighs/rising from seat/

walking)/rising from sitting/while walking/stitching in dorsal region r. scapula/ext. down to back]

Extremities: Cramps [l. foot/leg (> motion)/ext. to calf/> stretching leg/lower limbs)

Heaviness – lower limbs/shoulder

Itching – Hip

Pain (cramping l. foot/cutting r. calf/sore (lower limbs/upper arm on motion)

Tingling in foot (lying in bed)/hand

Sleep: Anxious

Deep

Disturbed (from anxiety/by  /by heat/by the slightest noise/by perspiration)

Falling asleep difficult (from a rush of thoughts)

Interrupted (by desire for micturition/by restlessness)

Light

Need of sleep

Restless

Sleepiness (evening/overpowering)

Sleepless (from anxiety/from  /from slight noise/from palpitation/from perspiration/from restlessness/with sleepiness/from activity of thoughts/with urging to urinate/in spite of

Weariness)

Waking – by  /easy/from slight noise/with desire to urinate

Yawning frequent

 : Accident with a car/acquaintances/amorous/books/conversation/(impending) danger/dead of pets/dogs/driving a car/frightful/past events/impending evil/fantastic/old friends/frightful (waking him)/like the house of youth/lucid/many/people not seen for years/pleasant/relationships/repeating/(detecting) robbers/sad/school/sea/sexual/strange/swimming/threats/unremembered/

Vivid/water/time of youth

Fever: # with chills

Heat [flushes (with palpitation)

Perspiration: cold

Profuse - at night (and sleepless)/during sleep

Skin: Heat without fever

Itching – burning

Generals: < after morning on waking

Excess of energy

Food and drinks: Desires: cold drinks, cold water/fish/salt; <: cold food;

Flushes of heat

Heaviness

Lassitude – must lie down

Prickling - internally

Changes of temperature

Weak

Weary

 

A review of the major themes of the remedy illustrated a possible essence or state as one of „alternation. The alternation or oscillation of states is clearly evident in the mental and physical

spheres of Gymnura natalensis and is represented by symptoms produced by many provers. On the mental level, there was an alternation between the present and going back to the past,

which is clearly depicted in the dream state. The alternation of mental function was evident in the symptoms of clarity of mind versus „spaciness. There was an oscillation between states of sleeplessness and sleepiness. On the physical level, there was an alternation of states of tiredness and increased energy. The alternation is further confirmed by the fluctuation in body

temperature noted by Prover 03F and 13M. “My temperature regulation has changed – I seem to oscillate very easily – if it is a colder day I am dressed with fewer clothes than normal and

if it is slightly warmer I am dressed with more clothes. It is out of kilter. Feels like a backward mercury thermometer.” “Fluctuating temperatures i.e. my entire body feels hot then cold.”

It is of the researchers opinion, that Gymnura natalensis possibly has specific indications in the treatment of disorders of the female hormonal system. This is evident from prover reports citing specific symptoms such as breast tenderness related to premenstrual syndrome and heat flushes. This is yet to be verified through clinical trials and the use of the remedy in homoeopathic practice. Additional conditions that could be indicated: Anxiety Palpitations Lower back pain Insomnia

The evaluation of the proving symptoms of Gymnura natalensis yielded the following prominent themes.

Anxiety The most prominent theme to emerge from this study was that of anxiety. The central feeling of the anxiety of mind was of nervousness and not being in control. This is then reflected as

an increased sensitivity to the environment – a „pseudo-paranoia.

There is also an element of self-doubt and lack of self-confidence experienced with the anxiety.

Disorientated

There is a central idea of disorientation of the mind with loss of control or composure. Seen in the inability to focus, relatively poor concentration or difficulty carrying out normal tasks.

It is reflected as a feeling of being „spaced out similar to that of intoxication with drugs. “As if in a dream-like state. Irritability and dissatisfaction The central feeling is one of being

dissatisfied – in a situation, with others or with events of the past. There is a decrease in tolerance levels leading to instability of mood and irritability. There may be associated

frustration.

Depression and sadness

The central idea of depression is a perceived sense of „doom or „gloom. It is expressed as heavy sadness and may be significant enough to cause one to isolate themselves despite there

being some degree of loneliness. The feeling may be expressed as „disconnected and detached. There is despair and associated negativity. Connection to the past an element of „going

back to the past. This theme was clearly portrayed as the central focus of the  . It was depicted by way of going back to ones childhood – a situation of being back at school or in the childhood house. There was a tendency to dream of people, acquaintances and friends from the past with the resurfacing of sad events and past relationships with people.

Tiredness and weakness Prominent prostration of the mind and body. There was a significant amount of tiredness and weakness experienced as exhaustion and lethargy. This lassitude is characterised by a loss/lack of energy making physical activity difficult.

 

The homoeopathic drug proving of Gymnura natalensis 30CH produced a variety of symptoms on the mental, emotional and physical levels of the body. Most prominent were the symptoms of anxiety; sadness and depression; disorientation of mind with concentration difficulties; headaches; sleep disturbances and weakness or tiredness. This symptomatology is indicative of the potential of Gymnura natalensis to provide cure to patients with similar conditions. It is hoped that further provings and clinical application of this remedy will provide verification of its indications in the scope of homoeopathic treatment. The group analysis as per family of remedies derived from sea animals and the comparative study served to highlight a minimal number of common themes and characteristic symptoms of this group. During this study, it was noted that insufficient literature on certain remedies e.g. Medusa did not allow for the complete analysis of the group and extraction of common symptoms, as these remedies were limited in the symptomatology constituting their remedy pictures.

 

Clinical use of Gymnura natalensis will help verify the symptomatology recorded during the proving. During the course of the proving, the remedy seemed to have had a curative effect on certain symptoms e.g. premenstrual breast tenderness. It is recommended that the information obtained during this proving be published in relevant journals so that it is freely available to the homoeopathic community. This will allow for the use of the remedy in clinical practice thereby helping to verify its therapeutic indications.

6.2.5. Indigenous substances

Provings of other members of the Gymnuridae family, indigenous to SA, are recommended. In recent years there has been a tendency of homoeopathic students at the Durban University of Technology to consider indigenous substances as the subject of their research provings. South Africa has a rich variety of indigenous flora and fauna with immense healing potential. Wright (1994) proposed the concept of proving indigenous substances for purposes of creating a South African aterial medica. Since then many indigenous substances have been the subject of homoeopathic research, namely Sutherlandia frutescens [Cancer bush] by Kell, Low, Van der Hulst and Webster (2002), Harpagophytum procumbens [Devils claw] by Kerschbaumer (2004), Naja mossambica [Mozambican spitting cobra] by Smal and Taylor (2004) and most recently, Erythrina lysistemon by Olivier and Thiel (2007) and Chamaeleo dilepis dilepis [Chameleon] by Moore and Pistorius (2007). The researcher recommends further provings of substances indigenous to South Africa to increase the database of remedies available for use, thereby facilitating the creation of a South African aterial medica.

 

Doctrine of Signatures. Pather (2008) in his proving of Gymnura natalensis reported that certain provers desired to be ‘left alone’; this correlates with the stingray being described as a solitary nimal. Certain provers experienced skin eruptions which were described as if their ‘backs were covered with sand’. A common behavioural activity of stingrays is to submerge themselves in sand on the sea floor such that the dorsal surface (‘back’) is covered; additional symptoms also experienced included ‘grittiness of the eyes’. Rays known for their specific skill and mode of swimming; in the proving this was noted by two of the provers having pleasant dreams of swimming one of which was a non-swimmer and yet swam efficiently in her dream. 

 

[Thrishal Pather]

An evaluation of the homoeopathic drug proving of Gymnura natalensis in light of a Doctrine of Signatures analysis and a comparison between the proving symptomatology and venom toxicology

Sting: LOCAL:

Pain is experienced immediately and increases over 1 - 2 hours and eases after 6 - 10 hours but may persist for a few days. The pain may be constant, pulsating or lancinating.

The pain may be aggravated by secondary infection.

Bleeding may be profuse and may relieve the pain.  A mucoid secretion may follow.

The area is swollen and pale, with a bluish rim.

The swelling or oedema present in the vicinity of the wound may persist due to lymphatic obstruction that is believed to be caused by inflammation and damage to the lymphatics and supporting tissues (Halstead, 1970:62).

There is local necrosis of fat and muscle with ulceration +/o. secondary infection commonly occurring.

Osteomyelitis in the underlying bone has been reported.

Symptoms that can persist for weeks after an injury include a dull ache and swelling over the area of the sting.

(Edmonds, 1989:70)

GENERAL:

Anorexia

Nausea

Vomiting

Diarrhoea

Frequent urination

Salivation

Extension of pain to the area of lymphatic drainage

Muscular cramps

Tremors

Paralysis in the affected limb and surrounding areas

Fainting

Palpitations

Hypotension

Heart rate irregularities and cessation of heart activities are possible.

Difficulty in breathing

Cough

Pain on inspiration

Fever during the night with copious sweating

Nervousness

Confusion

Delirium

Fatalities may occur immediately or within 2 weeks if the spine penetrates the pericardial, peritoneal or pleural cavities.

(Edmonds, 1989:70 - 71)

The venom glands of stingrays are not distinct and therefore, the extraction of the venom is difficult.  A great portion of the venom’s toxicity is lost by freeze drying. 

The above facts have hindered research into the effects of the venom of stingrays (Meier and White, 1995:137).

Stingray venom is primarily cardiotoxic and cytotoxic. 

The venom is composed of the enzymes, 5-nucleotidase and phosphodiesterase and the neurotransmitter, serotonin. Serotonin causes smooth muscle contraction

which is primarily responsible for the symptom of pain (Layton, 2006). 

The venom also contains a large water-soluble protein that is destroyed by heat. It is therefore suggested that a wound caused by a stingray sting be washed in hot water (about 50° C) until the pain subsides (Tricas, et al. 1997:126).

The venom does not block neuromuscular transmission but is responsible for the cardiac and circulatory disturbances that may occur in the victim (Meier and White, 1995:137).

Large doses of the venom causes vasoconstriction in blood vessels (Halstead, 1970: 68).  The venom affects the respiratory centers of the medulla in the brain causing symptoms of respiratory depression.  The cardiovascular changes due to the venom, may also contribute to the respiratory depression (Halstead, 1970:68). 

Stingray venom occasionally causes convulsive seizures which may be due to a direct effect of the venom on the central nervous system.  However, the mechanism of the how the venom causes such seizures is unclear (Halstead, 1970:68). 

The enzymatic components of the venom causes both cellular and tissue death (Layton, 2006). 

The tissue necrosis found in the victim, in the area of the stingray injury, suggests that the venom possesses proteolytic properties (Halstead, 1970:63).  The lethal dose for stingray venom has been calculated as 28mg dried crude venom per kilogram mice (Halstead, 1970:67).

TOXICOLOGY

“Toxicology is the study of the toxic properties of poisonous substances” (Swayne, 1998:217). 

According to Riley (1996:4), one can use information from toxicological studies to infer the possible indications of a homoeopathic remedy. 

Coulter (1981:45 - 46) suggests that during the provings of potentized poisonous substances, the toxicological symptoms appear in a milder form. 

The toxicology of a venom along with the proving symptoms of a homoeopathic remedy prepared from that venom and the observations made from the clinical use of that remedy will establish the remedy in homoeopathic medicine (Bonnet, 2000:112).  The above mentioned factors will not only establish a homoeopathic remedy but will also assist in the understanding and development of that remedy

(Riley, 1997:225). 

Sherr (1994:88) states that the addition of the toxicological symptoms of a substance to the proving symptoms of that substance will result in the formation of a complete, well-rounded remedy picture.

The toxicological symptomatology of a stingray envenomation is described in detail in section 2.2.7 of this study. 

Characteristics of Stingrays

The ancestry of rays dates back to more than 150 million years ago (Tricas, et al. 1997:118). 

Ferguson and Cailliet (1990:10) refer to stingrays as peaceful animals. 

Edmonds (1995:70 - 71) describes stingrays as gentle, delicate and non-aggressive animals. 

Smaller stingrays tend to be shy and will depart if rapidly approached (Tricas, et al. 1997:131) yet large stingrays are often inquisitive but cautious (Tricas, et al. 1997:132).

In terms of defence flight is preferred rather than attack (Ferguson and Cailliet, 1990:34).

These creatures are highly instinctual and can be territorial and threaten intruders by quickly raising their tails like a scorpion in order to protect themselves (Tricas, et al. 1997:132). 

Edmonds (1995:70-71) states that stingrays are capable of protecting themselves against intruders.

The venom apparatus is used more as a protective measure than a mechanism to incapacitate prey (Edmonds, 1995:59).

Rays have flat bodies that are often submerged in the sand or mud at the floor of the waters in which they are found.  When submerged in the sand, they are hardly detectable (Edmonds, 1995:69). 

The ray’s ability to avoid and ward off predators is vital to its survival.  By lying concealed in the substrate at the bottom of the water, rays can make themselves undetectable to predators (Tricas, et al. 1997:126).

The movements of a stingray can be sudden and fast yet elegant as displayed by the gentle flapping of its wings (Edmonds, 1995:69).  All rays ripple and glide with seemingly effortless grace.  This powerful motion is made possible by the well developed disc and the tail (Tricas, et al. 1997:128). 

Rays can be pelagic and swim tirelessly and actively in midwater, or they can lie on or bury themselves in the substrate at the bottom of the water and only swim off the bottom to browse for food,

reproduce or escape from predators (Tricas, et al. 1997:122).

The structure of the ray facilitates a wide range of movement capabilties for the animal enabling it to dive, climb, turn, bank or stop.  Low-speed, finely controlled movements, make rays incredibly maneuverable (Tricas, et al. 1997:129). 

Rays lack the swim bladder and large oily liver that help other bony fishes to maintain neutral buoyancy so unless they swim, they will sink to the bottom (Tricas, et al. 1997:129).

Stingrays can either be sociable or loners (presumably only socializing to mate (Tricas, et al. 1997:131). 

Solitary members of this species are usually found on the shallow and deeper sandbanks however shoals may be seen swimming together in midwater (Cliff and Wilson, 1986:37).

The sensory capabilities used for sight and smell, and the detection of vibration, touch, electrical and magnetic impulses are well developed and assist the organism in finding and gathering food and detecting predators, prey and other members of the same species (Tricas, et al. 1997:127).  It has also been noted that the skin of rays is markedly sensitive to touch (Tricas, et al. 1997:130).

Repertory:

MIND: ALERT

ALONE; being - desire to be alone

ANXIETY (from anticipation/being beside oneself from anxiety/causeless/from excitement/with hurry)

AVERSION to everybody

CHEERFUL in morning on waking

COMPANY – aversion to

CONCENTRATION – active/difficult (cannot fix attention)

CONFIDENCE – want of self confidence

DESPAIR

DETACHED – sensation of being

DISCONTENTED

DOUBTFUL of himself

DULLNESS (“As if intoxicated”)

DYSLEXIA

FORSAKEN – “As if isolated”

IRRITABILITY (morning/from trifles)

MISTAKES in writing

MOOD – alternating/changeable

PROSTRATION of mind

RESTLESS (in bed)

SADNESS (extreme/gloomy)

SPACED OUT feeling

SPEECH – low, soft voice

STUPEFACTION

THOUGHTS – rush, flow of from sleeplessness

WEEPING from despair

VERTIGO: in general

+ pain in head

+ blurred vision

CLOSING eyes >

“As if INTOXICATED”

> SITTING

“As if head is turning round”

WALKING

HEAD: EMPTY, hollow sensation

HEAVINESS (bending head forward/in forehead/in temples)

LIGHTNESS; sensation of                                                             

PAIN < < < ( ( ( viele ) ) ) > > >

PULSATING

EYE: to close the eyes

CLOSING the eyes involuntary

red

FULLNESS, sensation of

HEAVINESS

OPENING the eyelids difficult – hard to keep the eyes open

PAIN – r./”As from sand” (morning/r./sore/on waking/pulsating/”As if warmth”

VISION: BLURRED + vertigo

FACE: red

THROAT: DRYNESS

“As if a FOREIGN body”

INFLAMMATION – painful/on waking/swallowing

PAIN in l. tonsil/

PRICKLY

TICKLING (at night)

STOMACH: APPETITE – diminished/easy satiety/increased

THIRST [extreme (on waking)/drinking cold water]

ABDOMEN: PAIN sharp

RECTUM: “As if ball in rectum”

CONSTIPATION

STOOL: THIN after eating

BLADDER: PAIN – burning during urination

URINATION frequent

URINE: BURNING

FEMALE Organs: LEUKORRHOEA – bloody/brown/cream like/thick

MENSES – too short

RESPIRATION: ANXIOUS

> DEEP

DIFFICULT (at night/> deep breathing/inspiration/lying > yawning)

COUGH: in general/at night

> in DAYTIME

DRY

TICKLING in throat

CHEST: CONSCIOUS of heart’s action

OPPRESSION with difficult respiration

PALPITATION (with anxiety/of heart)

BACK: ERUPTIONS (like sand/pimples/pustules painful/red)

HEAT in spine

PAIN (aching in dorsal region between scapulae)

PAIN - in cervical region ext. occiput/cutting in lumbar region rising from sitting/descends

PAIN – between scapulae/lumbar region (r./dull/ext. glutei muscles and thighs/rising from a seat/walking/stitching in r. scapulae ext. down back

TIGHT feeling

EXTREMITIES: CRAMPS (in calf ext. heel/l. foot/> motion/when stretching/lower limbs)

HEAVINESS – Lower limbs/shoulder

ITCHING in lower limbs (burning)/in hip - Gluteal region

PAIN [cramping l. foot/cutting in (r.) calf/sore (lower limbs/upper arm on motion)

TINGLING – in foot (lying in bed)/in hand

SLEEP: ANXIOUS/deep/DISTURBED (from anxiety/by  /by heat/by the slightest noise/by perspiration

FALLING ASLEEP difficult (from a rush of thoughts)

INTERRUPTED (by desire for micturition/by restlessness

LIGHT

NEED OF SLEEP great

RESTLESS

SLEEPINESS (evening/overpowering)

SLEEPLESSNESS (from anxiety/from  /from slight noise/from palpitation/from perspiration/from restlessness/from activity of thoughts/with with urging to urinate/in spite of weariness

SLEEPLESSNESS with sleepiness

WAKING – by  /easy/from slight noise/with desire to urinate

YAWNING frequent

Dreams: ACCIDENTS with a car/ACQUAINTANCES/AMOROUS/BOOKS/CONVERSATION/DANGER (impending)/DEATH of pets/DOGS/DRIVING a car/past EVENTS/impending evil/

FANTASTIC/old FRIENDS/FRIGHTFUL (waking up)/like the house of youth/LUCID/MANY/PEOPLE not seen for years/PLEASANT/RELATIONSHIPS/REPEATING/(detecting) robbers/

SAD/SCHOOL/SEA/SEXUAL/STRANGE/SWIMMING/THREATS/UNREMEMBERED/VIVID/WATER/time of YOUTH

FEVER: # chills

HEAT

PERSPIRATION: COLD

PROFUSE [at night (with sleeplessness/during sleep)]

SKIN: HEAT without fever

ITCHING – burning

GENERALS: excess of energy

FOOD & DRINKS: Desires: cold drinks, cold water/fish/salt;

<: cold food;

HEAT flushes (with palpitation)

HEAT sensation of

HEAVINESS internally

LASSITUDE (must lie down)

PRICKLING internally

SLEEP < after sleep in morning on waking

TEMPERATURE changes

WEAKNESS

WEARINESS

 

DISCUSSION OF THE PROVING RESULTS

INTRODUCTION

The proving symptoms that were obtained from all the provers belonging to the experimental group of this study will be discussed as one unit, as if all the proving symptoms belonged to one individual (Sherr, 1994:32).   This concept allows the homoeopathic remedy picture to become clearer and more comprehensive.

The first hypothesis of this study was that Gymnura natalensis in the 30CH potency would produce clearly observable signs and symptoms in healthy proving volunteers.

This hypothesis was clearly confirmed by the number of symptoms that were obtained from the proving.

The materia medica symptoms of Gymnura natalensis 30CH we re converted into a total of 298 repertory rubrics as shown in section 4.3.2 of this study.  This total

includes one new rubric that has been created in the Back chapter of the repertory.

This new rubric is shown in section 4.3.2.18 of this study.  The total number of rubrics obtained in each section of the repertory is shown in the table below.

Total Number of Rubrics in each Repertory Section

Mind: 41

Rectum: 2

Extremities: 20

Vertigo: 8

Stool: 1

Sleep: 35

Head: 48

Bladder: 2

Eye: 15

Urine: 1

Fever: 2

Vision: 1

Female organs: 5

Perspiration: 5

Face: 1

Respiration: 8

Skin: 2

Throat: 9

Cough: 5

Generals: 16

Stomach: 8

Chest: 4

Abdomen: 1

Back: 22

 

THE SYMPTOMS OF Gymnura natalensis

Materia medica

Polarity 1

Polarity 2

Mind

Cheerfullness

Depression/Despair

 

Concentration increased

Concentration decreased

Head

Sensation of Light headedness and Emptiness

Sensation of Heaviness

Stomach

Appetite increased

Appetite decreased

Sleep

Deep

Disturbed

Dreams

Pleasant

Uneasy

Generals

Energy increased

Feeling hot

Energy decreased

Feeling cold

 

Edmonds (1995:70 - 71) states that stingrays are capable of protecting themselves against intruders. 

However, due to their non-aggressive behaviour, they defend themselves by flight rather than attack (Ferguson and Cailliet, 1990:34). 

To enable the quick detection of a potential threat in their environment, these creatures are highly instinctual (Tricas, et al. 1997:132).

Stingrays have well developed sensory capabilities for detecting predators (Tricas, et al. 1997:127).

This instinctive quality was represented by prover 03, who stated that she felt very sensitive to her environment which made her feel anxious and doubtful about everything (03F 00:06:30).  Anxiety was a prominent mental symptom of this proving and there were provers who reported this symptom without knowing or being able to express why the anxiety was present.  An increased sensitivity to their environment could have been a possible explanation for the anxiety.

Stingrays are described more as solitary animals and are presumed to be sociable only during the mating season (Tricas, et al. 1997:131).  This characteristic is clearly expressed in the proving by the desire of certain provers to be left alone.  Prover 22 wanted to be left alone but also felt very isolated, disconnected and detached (22F 20:XX:XX) as a result of being alone.

Rays have flat bodies that are often submerged in the sand or mud at the floor of the waters in which they are found.  When submerged in the sand, they are hardly detectable (Edmonds, 1995:69). 

In being submerged in the sand, the dorsal surface of the ray is covered in sand or mud.  Two provers developed back eruptions which

 

 

HEART PALPITATIONS

This symptom was experienced in four provers.  Two provers describe the duration

of the palpitations to be about 5 minutes long (03F 00:05:20; 22F 01:22:45), while another prover describes the duration of the palpitations to be 1-2 minutes long (09M

14:XX:XX). 

Symtoms that accompanied the palpitations include hot flushes (07F 00:10:00) and sense of anticipation and excitement (22F 01:22:45).

DIFFICULT BREATHING experienced by three provers.  Prover 06 describes the sensation of a weight on her chest prevents her from breathing (06F 23:XX:XX). 

Prover 13 states that he could not get enough air into his lungs and that his breathing inspiration felt restricted (13M 12:02:XX).  This symptom was described as

being worse at night and better when deep breaths were taken (13M 19:XX:XX).

FEVER DURING THE NIGHT WITH COPIOUS SWEATING

One prover reported a fluctuation in body temperature between hot and cold (13M 09:03:XX) while another prover noticed only a slight rise in body temperature (07F 00:04:45).  Prover 13 experienced profuse, cold sweating on the back and chest during sleep, which lefthis clothes and blanket wet.

DOCTRINE OF SIGNATURES

The third hypothesis of this study was that the proving of Gymnura natalensis 30CH would produce symptoms that correlate to the Doctrine of Signatures of the stingrays.

As shown in the symptom discussion below, this hypothesis was confirmed. Edmonds (1995:70-71) states that stingrays are capable of protecting themselves against intruders. 

However, due to their non-aggressive behaviour, they defend themselves by flight rather than attack (Ferguson and Cailliet, 1990:34). 

To enable the quick detection of a potential threat in their environment, these creatures are highly instinctual (Tricas, et al. 1997:132).

Stingrays have well developed sensory capabilities for detecting predators (Tricas, et al. 1997:127).

This instinctive quality was represented by prover 03, who stated that she felt very sensitive to her environment which made her feel anxious and doubtful about everything (03F 00:06:30).  Anxiety was a prominent mental symptom of this proving and there were provers who reported this symptom without knowing or being able to express why the anxiety was present.  An increased sensitivity to their environment could have been a possible explanation for the anxiety.

Stingrays are described more as solitary animals and are presumed to be sociable only during the mating season (Tricas, et al. 1997: 131).  This characteristic is clearly expressed in the proving by the desire of certain provers to be left alone.  Prover 22 wanted to be left alone but also felt very isolated, disconnected and detached (22F 20:XX:XX) as a result of being alone.

Rays have flat bodies that are often submerged in the sand or mud at the floor of the waters in which they are found.  When submerged in the sand, they are hardly detectable (Edmonds, 1995:69). 

In being submerged in the sand, the dorsal surface of the ray is covered in sand or mud.  Two provers developed back eruptions which were composed of many tiny pimples.  Both provers described this symptom as though their backs were covered by grains of sand (09M 10:XX:XX; 22F 10:XX:XX). 

This characteristic symptom led to the creation of the new rubric,

BACK – ERUPTIONS – sand-like.  This notion of being covered in sand was also evident in the dream of one prover who described burying objects underneath the sand at the beach (17M 01:XX:XX).

Two provers experienced a gritty like feeling in the eye (07F 03:10:00; 30M 00:21:15).  This symptom could be likened to the idea of the stingray lying under the sand or substrate at the bottom of the water.  When submerged in the sand, the eyes of the ray, along with the rest of the body, are in close proximity to or covered by the sandy substrate.

As shown in section 5.2.21 of this study, the symptom picture of Gymnura natalensis shows a polarity on many levels.  Rays also display a polarity in their nature.  These animals can either be social or solitary.

They can be gentle and non-aggressive yet capable of defending themselves adequately by using their venomous spines to threaten and sting intruders.  They can swim tirelessly and actively in midwater,

or they can lie on or bury themselves in the substrate at the bottom of the water and only swim off the bottom to browse for food, reproduce or escape from predators (Tricas, et al. 1997:122).

Smaller stingrays tend to be shy and will depart if rapidly approached (Tricas, et al. 1997:131) yet large stingrays are often inquisitive (Tricas, et al. 1997:132).

Rays are powerful yet elegant swimmers and glide through the water with effortless grace (Tricas, et al. 1997:128).  Two provers had pleasant dreams about swimming.  The correlation to swimming is an obvious one, considering that rays are marine animals. 

One of these provers cannot swim in reality but in the dream, she found herself swimming on her own and managing fine without any assistance.

 

ESSENCE OF THE REMEDY

As shown in section 5.2.21 of this study, the symptoms of Gymnura natalensis, exhibit a polarity that pervades the mental, emotional and physical spheres.  At the centre of this polarity lies the main central theme of changeability or adaptability.  On the mental level, the symptoms range from pictures of playfulness and cheerfulness to ones of anxiety, paranoia and irritability.  This range is then further expanded upon by the symptoms of depression, mental spaciness and feelings of disconnection and isolation.  Prover 03 stated that her moods became unstable during the proving while prover 24, who normally experienced premenstrual mood swings before the proving, stated that these mood swings were greatly reduced as a result of the proving remedy. The above two provers expressed the essence

of mood changeability during the proving from both causative and curative effects of the remedy respectively.  The polarity of physical symptoms is summarized in section 5.2.21 of this study. 

However, the essence of changeability on a physical level is clearly exhibited by two provers, who both described an oscillation or fluctuation between hot and cold body temperatures which was experienced within each of them during the proving. 

 

POSSIBLE CLINICAL INDICATIONS OF

Gymnura natalensis

Based on the proving symptoms and the homoeopathic Law of Similars, Gymnura natalensis could possibly be prescribed for the following symptoms:

Pre-menstrual syndrome

Headaches - mainly indicated for pain of a throbbing nature that starts in the occipital region and radiates towards the front of the head

Back acne

Insomnia

Fatigue

Depression

 

 

Vorwort/Suchen                                Zeichen/Abkürzungen                                   Impressum