Comparison 5 acidums

 

Vergleich: Siehe: Acidums + Group anylysis evaluation

 

[Edward Peter Phahamane]

A group analysis evaluation of the selected members of the acidum family of homoeopathic remedies in terms of known materia medica

The aim of this study was to extract the common characteristic symptomatology of five selected homoeopathic remedies belonging to the acidum family as represented in the known

materia medica and repertory.

The acidum remedies appearing in Radar® 10 repertory (Archibel 2008) were analysed in terms of rubric representation (frequency) and the top five were selected for inclusion in the study.

The top five remedies were:

Nitricum acidum

Phosphoricum acidum,

Muriatic acidum,

Sulphuricum acidum

Fluoricum acidum.

All rubrics in which the selected remedies appeared were extracted using the homoeopathic software package Radar® 10 (Archibel, 2008) and analysed for sensations and active, passive

and compensation reactions of the selected remedies, as per Sankaran (2002).

The common primary sensations identified were, burning, sore, swelling, pressing, cramping, dryness, weakness, tearing, and coldness. And sensations of anxiety, restlessness, delirium,

delusions, dullness, sadness and cheerfulness.

Active reactions identified were: hot, heat, inflammation and sensitivity.

Passive reactions identified were: coldness, numbness and weakness.

Compensation reactions identified were: restlessness, hurriedness, intense reaction and passion.

Miasmatic keywords as per Sankaran (2002) used to determine the miasmatic tendencies of the selected top five acidum remedies. In general all acidum remedies appeared to have a dominant

syphilitic miasmatic tendency but acidums were present through all the miasms. Their miasmatic tendencies are easily recognised when viewed in the light of their pathophysiological processes.

The pathological tendencies of acidum remedies examined in this study include: haemorrhoids, general haemorrhage, syphilis, warts, neoplastic and non-plastic tumours, irritable bowel syndrome

(reflux, colic, constipation), rheumatism, muco-cutaneous ulcerations (STIs, Xerostomia, diabetic ulcers) and bone diseases (osteoporosis, osteitis, and peri-osteitis).

The results of this research were compared to the findings of Scholten (1993) and Mangialavori and Marotta (2005).

It is the researcher’s view that Sankaran’s methodology of group analysis which he used to explore biological groups of remedies (plants and animals) is adequate for use with non-biological groups

of remedies such as mineral acidums.

The researcher found group analysis methodology worthy as a tool for classifying the mass data of acidum remedies into orderly sets of meaningful data. Group analysis is consistent

with the laws and principles of homoeopathy and encourages the use of materia medica and repertory which are fundamental to the study and application of homoeopathic knowledge.

 

In order to expand the understanding of the extracted sensations, a thesaurus was consulted (Collins, 2006) and the synonyms listed

Definitions of sensations

Burning: On fire, very hot, intense, hotly discussed

Swelling: Abnormally swollen place especially on the body; a condition of being larger/ rounder than normal due to injury/illness.

Weakness: Lack of strength, power or determine; a weak point system; difficulty in resisting something liked

Pressing Needing to be dealt with, difficult to refuse/to ignore, tense; tense feelings; unfriendly; feeling of anxiety and stress that makes it impossible to relax; feeling of fear and excitement

Coldness -Having a lower than usual temperature. Unfriendly, emotionless, not easy to find.

Tearing: Damage something by pulling apart, injure a muscle by stretching too much, to move somewhere very quickly or in an excited way. To cry. To attack somebody or something physically

or with words, to start doing something with a lot of energy. To destroy something violently by pulling it apart, to make people in a country or an organization fight or argue with each other.

Sore: A painful, often red, place on the body where there’s a wound or infection; upset, angered due to unfairness/ annoyed to be very noticeable in an unpleasant way.

Dryness: Without water or moisture; ill humour; without emotion; boring; without alcohol, thirsty.

Cramping: Sudden pain experienced when a part of a body contract usually caused by cold or too much exercise; to prevent development or progress; to stop somebody from behaving

in the way they want to; not enough space.

 

Summary of confirmed sensations

First order sensations from original extraction.

Sensation keywords confirmed by literature search.

(1) Burning: Burning, itching, red hot, prickly, desire, lascivious, heat, hot, glowing red.

(2) Sore: Ulcer, Excoriated, sensitive, chancre, varices, aphthae, offended, ichorous discharge, necrosis, gangrenous, syphilitic.

(3) Swelling: Inflammation, tension, congestion, excrescences, warts, gooseflesh, moles, nodules, bunions, callosities, eruption, erection, corns, distension, induration,

pimples, proud flesh, cancer, heaviness, fullness, haemorrhoids, enlarged, flatulence, spongy, foreign body sensation, brooding, greed, swelling.

(4) Pressing: Tension, compressing, persistent, insistent, unrelenting, demanding, tenacious, irresistible, persuasive, unyielding, constriction.

(5) Cramping: Shrivelled, paralysis, hang-down, cramps, contraction, bandaged, flexed, wrinkled, cicatrices, atrophy, compressed, oppressed, stricture, choking, crushed, stiff, numb, painless.

(6) Dryness: Hard, constipation, dull, thirst, hoarseness, husky, casts, sediment, stones, sheep-dung, hard, dullness.

(7) Weakness: Lameness, weariness, faintness, looseness, fractures, prolapse, hernia, dullness, death, flaccid, deflation, fistulae, unconscious.

(8) Tearing: Ripping, slashing, scratching, gashing, slitting, shredding, destroying, rending, injuring.

(9) Coldness: Coldness, chilblains, chills.

(10) Pain: Cutting, burning, drawing, pinching, pressing, squeezing, tearing, rheumatic, jerking, stitching, aching, sore, splinter, ulcerative, growing, paroxysmal,

numb, gnawing, smarting, twinging, periodicity, shattered, blow as from, prickling, throbbing.

 

Sensations                                                                 Nit-ac                          Mur-ac                        Ph-ac               Sul-ac                       Fl-ac                No. of rubrics

Throat-Pain-burning, itching, smarting                                                        1                                 1                                                                                           12

Throat-Pain-oesophagus, sore                             1                                                                                                         1                                                          10

Throat-Swelling-uvula, oedematous                            2                                  2                                                                    2                                                         21

Throat-Pain- < swallowing, pressing                                  3                                                                     1                                                                                           22

Generals-Pain-internal parts, cramping                                                       1                                   1                                                                                             24

Throat-Dryness-night                                                1                                                                     1                                                                                           45

Generals-Weakness-excessive                                                                   1                                 1                                                                                           30

Generals-Pain-tearing pain, asunder                                   3                                  1                                 1                                                                                           38

Coldness, fingertips                                                                                     1                                 1                                                                                           41

 

First order analysis

The most significant sensations were burning, swelling, sore, cold, dryness, pressing, cramping, tearing, and weakness.

Burning

Although there is a distinction between a physical burning and a perception or sensation of burning, both of these concepts of burning connect to the underlying sensation as defined by

Sankaran (2005) who describes sensation as “discernment of consciousness of any experience” where the experience itself and the nature of the experience qualify the sensation.

According to the toxicology of acids, on first contact most acids induce a burning sensation especially the strong acids. The burning sensation is a result of tissue destruction that occurs

locally where there is contact with the acid compounds. The burning sensation may be perceived as itchiness, heat, fiery, smarting, glowing, hot sensation, etc., in line with the

synonyms of burning.

Rubric examples:

 

 

Nitricum acidum                                                     Muriaticum acidum                        Phosphoricum acidum                      Sulphuricum acidum                                 Fluoricum acidum

 

Burning

Head: Eruptions

Head: Pain in temples

Eye: Pain in morning

Ear: Itching: meatus

Mouth: vesicles, tongue

Teeth: Pain

Throat: Pain in oesophagus ext. stomach

Stomach: Pain sudden

Abdomen: Pain in r. hypochondria/liver

Rectum: Haemorrhoids

Rectum: Pain in evening/perineum

Urethra:Pain during ejaculation

Urethra:Pain before urination

Male Organs: Pain

Male Organs: Pain in penis

Male Organs: Pain in testes

Back: Pain in spots

Limbs: Corns

Limbs: Itching lower limbs

Limbs: Pain in knees

Limbs: Ulcers on legs

Skin: Tubercles

Skin: Eruptions vesicular

Skin: Condylomata

Generals: Pain in bones

 

 Burning

Head: Eruptions

Head: Pain in scalp,

Eye: Pain inner canthi

Eye: Pain: eyebrows

Eye: Pain morning

Ear: Itching in meatus

Face: Pain in lower lip

Mouth: Vesicles on tongue,

Mouth: Pain ext. to stomach,

Mouth: Pain in gums

Mouth: Pain: hard palate

Throat: Pain: itching, smarting

Throat: Pain after cough

Abdomen: Pain in r. hypochondria

Abdomen: Pain in inguinal region

Abdomen: Pain in liver

Rectum: Haemorrhoids

Rectum: Pain in morning/evening

Rectum: Pain in perineum,

Male Organs: Pain in penis

Chest: Pain in external chest

Back: Pain in (sacral region/spine)

Limbs: Itching lower limbs

Limbs: Pain in elbows/upper arms

Limbs: Pain in shoulders

Limbs: Painful swelling in lower limbs

Limbs: Ulcers on legs

Skin: Tubercles

Skin: Eruptions vesicular

Skin: Ulcers in margins

 Burning

Head: Eruptions

Head: Pain in forehead in sides above eyes

Head: Pain in scalp,

Eye: Pain in inner canthi

Eye: Pain: eyebrows

Face: Pain in lower lips

Mouth: Pain in gums

Mouth: Pain in hard palate,

Teeth: Pain

Throat: Pain: itching, smarting

Throat: Pain after cough

Stomach: Eructations burning

Abdomen: Pain in r.

hypochondria

Abdomen: Pain in liver (lower abdomen)

Abdomen: Pain in (region of) umbilicus

Bladder: Pain in neck of bladder < during urination

Bladder: Pain < after urination

Urethra:Pain before urination

Male Organs: Condylomata on penis

Male Organs: Pain in testes

Chest: Pain in external chest

Chest: Pain: middle of chest/l. side

Back: Pain: between scapulae/in sacral region/in spine/in spots

Limbs: Corns

Limbs: Heat feet, burning

Limbs: Pain in elbows/knees/shoulders/upper arms

Limbs: Pain in soles of feet (at night/stitching)

Limbs: Swelling lower limbs, painful,

Skin: Burning in spots

Skin: Condylomata

Skin: Ulcers burning in margins

Generals: Pain in bones

 

 Burning

Head: Eruptions

Head: Pain in temples

Mouth: Vesicles on tongue

Mouth: Pain ext. stomach

Throat: Pain in oesophagus ext. stomach

Stomach: Eructations

Stomach: Pain sudden

Abdomen: Pain in liver (lower abdomen)

Abdomen: Pain in umbilicus

Rectum: Haemorrhoids

Urethra:Pain during ejaculation

Male Organs: Pain

Chest: Pain external chest

Chest: Pain in middle of chest

Chest: Pain l. side

Back: Pain between scapulae

Limbs: Pain in 4th finger tips

Limbs: Pain in knees (stitching)

Skin: Burning in spots

 

 Burning

Head: Pain in forehead in sides above eyes

Teeth: Pain

Abdomen: Pain in inguinal region

Rectum: Haemorrhoids

Bladder: Pain in neck of bladder < during urination

Bladder: Pain < after urination

Urethra:Pain before urination

Limbs: Hot feet

Limbs: Pain in soles of feet at night

Limbs: Pain 4th tips of fingers

Limbs: Pain in knees

Skin: Burning in spots

 

Sore

Head: Pain: < touch/walking

Ear: Pain behind the ears

Nose: Pain during coryza burning, sore

Face: Pain (in lower jaws/in malar bones)

Mouth: Canker/ulcers painful, smarting

Throat: Pain in oesophagus

Abdomen: Pain in inguinal region

Rectum: Pain < after stool

Male Organs: Condylomata on penis

Chest: Pain (in external chest/in sides)

Limbs: Corns

Limbs: Pain in hands/in wrists

Limbs: Pain in hip-joints (morning)

Limbs: Pain in thighs above knees

Limbs: Pain in toes

Limbs: Pain in joints upper limbs

Skin: Pain after scratching

 

Sore

Head: Eruptions

Head: Pain (in brain/> motion)

Ear: Pain behind the ears

Nose: Pain during coryza

Face: Pain ( in lower jaws/in lips)

Mouth: Pain in nursing infants

Mouth: Canker

Mouth: Ulcers painful, smarting

Abdomen: Pain: in hypochondria/in

inguinal region

Rectum: Pain after stool

Male Organs: Pain in margins

of prepuce

Chest: Pain in sternum (< touch)

Limbs: Pain in joints

 

Sore

Head: Eruptions

Head: Pain: in brain/> motion/<

Touch/< walking

Face: Pain in lips

Throat: Pain l.

Abdomen: Pain in hypochondria

Rectum: Pain in anus

Male Organs: Condylomata on penis

Male Organs: Pain

in margins of prepuce

Chest: Pain [in external chest/in sides/in sternum (< touch)]

Back: Pain in nape of neck,

Limbs: Corns

Limbs: Pain in hands

Limbs: Pain in hips (joints in morning/< motion)/in joints in

Morning/lower limbs/(between) toes

Limbs: Pain in joints upper limbs (wrists)

Skin: Pain after scratching

Sore

Head: Eruptions

Head: Pain < touch

Face: Pain (in malar bones)

Mouth: Pain in nursing infants

Mouth: Canker

Mouth: Ulcers painful

Throat: Pain (l./in oesophagus)

Chest: Pain [in heart/in sternum (< touch)]

Back: Pain in nape of neck

Limbs: Corns

Limbs: Pain in thighs above knees

Generals: Varicose veins

Sore

Chest: Pain in heart

Limbs: Pain in corns

Limbs: Pain in < motion

Limbs: Pain between toes

 

Swelling

Ear: Swelling: behind the ears/in meatus /in (lower) jaws/in lower lip/in sub maxillary glands

Teeth: Complaints of teeth + swelling in

cheeks/pain + swelling

Throat: Swelling oedematous (in uvula)

Neck: Swelling

Abdomen: Swelling in spleen

Rectum: Swelling of anus

Urethra:Swelling/”As if swollen”

Male Organs: Swelling in penis

Oedematous (in glans/in prepuce)

Male Organs: Swelling in spermatic cords

Male Organs: Swelling r. testes

Back: Swelling in glands of nape of neck

Limbs: Swelling of feet during

perspiration

Limbs: Swelling red of feet

Limbs: Swelling of fingertips

Limbs: Swelling nodular in hands

Limbs: Swelling white in knees

Limbs: Swelling bones of legs (tibia)

Limbs: Swelling lower limbs

Limbs: Swelling upper limbs nodular

Skin: Eruptions with swelling (bluish black)

Skin: Swelling: inflamed/spongy

Skin: Swelling after scratching

Generals: Swelling with emaciation of glands

Generals: Swelling of glands painless

 

 

Swelling

Face: Swelling in lower jaws

Throat: Swelling oedematous

Throat: uvula oedematous

Rectum: Swelling of anus

Back: Swelling glands of nape

Limbs: Swelling (tips of feet/hands/in painful lower limbs

Limbs: Swelling in upper

limbs nodular

Skin: Swelling inflamed

Swelling

Ear: Swelling (behind the ear/in

Meatus

Teeth: Complaints of teeth + swelling in cheeks (painful)

Urethra:Swelling (in meatus)/”As if swollen”

Male Organs: Swelling (in

penis, glans/spermatic cords

Limbs: Swelling [in feet during perspiration/in bones of legs (tibis)]

Limbs: White swelling in knees

Limbs: Swelling in lower limbs painful

Skin: Eruptions with swelling

(bluish black)

Skin: Swelling spongy

Generals: Swelling of glands + emaciation

Generals: Swelling of glands painless

Swelling

Face: Swelling in lower lip

Face: Swelling painful in submaxillary glands

Throat: Swelling oedematous (uvula)

Neck: Swelling

Abdomen: Swelling in spleen

Male Organs: Swelling in r. testes

Limbs: Swelling in feet during

Perspiration

Limbs: Swelling nodular in hands

Skin: Swelling: bluish black/after

Scratching

Skin: “As if swollen”

Generals: Swelling in glands with emaciation

Swelling

Face: Swelling in (lower) jaws

Male Organs: Swelling oedematous in penis (prepuce)

Limbs: Swelling in tips of fingers

tips

Pressing

Head: Pain pressing afternoon

Head: Pain pressing in occiput [ext.

forehead/sides (l.)/down-/inward (in temples)/in spots]

Eye: Pain in outer canthi

Eye: Pain (in evening/in lids)

Ear: Pain outward

Throat: Pain < swallowing

External Throat: pain in sides

Neck: Pain

Stomach: Pain < before eating

Stomach: Pain < pressure

Abdomen: Pain in r. hypochondria

Abdomen: Pain in (inguinal region) pressing outward

Abdomen: Pain in l. side

Rectum: Pain < after stool

Rectum: Pain before stool

Kidneys: Pain pressing

Chest: Pain r./l. side

Limbs: Pain in ankles

Limbs: Pain in (inner) thigh (lower part)

Generals: Pain in glands

Generals: Pain: pressing, sticking

 

Pressing

Head: Pain in l. forehead (pressing

downward/l. side)

Head: Pain in occiput ext. forehead

Head: Pain pressing (downwards/ inward/l. side/r. outward)

Head: Pain ( in scalp

Head: Pain r. temple outward

Eye: Pain in evening

Ear: Pain pressing outward/r.

Ear: Pain in

Teeth: Pain pressing (asunder/apart)

Chest: Pain in sides

Back: Pain < standing

Limbs: Pain in back of feet

Limbs: Pain in feet

 

Pressing

Head: Pain in afternoon

Head: Pain forehead (l./r./pressing downward)

Head: Pain < noise

Head: Pain in occiput (< noise/sides/in-/up-/downward)/in scalp/in sides/in spots/in temples (r./out-/inward)

Eye: Pain in outer canthi

Eye: Pain in lids

Ear: Pain in tragus

Teeth: Pain pressing (asunder/”As if pressed apart)

Throat: Pain < swallowing

External Throat: sides pain

Neck: Pain

Stomach: Pain (< before eating/”As from a weight”)

Stomach: Pain < pressure

Abdomen: Pain in r. hypochondria

Abdomen: Pain pressing outward

Abdomen: Pain in pubic region, mons pubis pressing outward

Rectum: Pain < after stool

Kidneys: Pain

Chest: Pain in sides

Chest: Pain in r. side

Back: Pain < standing

Limbs: Pain in lower limbs

Limbs: Pain in lower part thighs

Limbs: Pain in thighs outer side

Generals: Pain in glands

Generals: Pain sticking

Pressing

Head: Pain in r. forehead/l. side

Head: Pain pressing inward

Head: Pain in temples pressing inward

Eye: Pain in outer canthi

Neck: Pain pressing

Abdomen: Pain r. hypochondria

Abdomen: Pain in inguinal region pressing outward

Abdomen: Pain in pubic

region, mons pubis pressing outwards

Abdomen: Pain l. side

Rectum: Pain < after stool

Rectum: Pain before stool

Chest: Pain (l.) sides

Limbs: Pain in ankles < walking

Limbs: Pain in feet

Limbs: Pain in lower limbs

Limbs: Pain in inner thigh

Limbs: Pain in thighs outer side,

Generals: Pain sticking pain

 

 Pressing

Head: Pain in occiput [ext. forehead/in sides (l.)]

Head: Pain pressing upward

Head: Pain in temples pressing

inward

Ear: Pain r.

Limbs: Pain in feet pressing

 

Cramping

Ear: Pain cramping

Face: Cramping in joints of jaw

Stomach: Pain cramping from becoming

cold

Abdomen: Pain < passing flatus

Abdomen: Pain in hypochondria

Abdomen: Pain < motion

Abdomen: Pain at night

Abdomen: Pain < after stool

Limbs: Cramps in calves < walking

Limbs: Pain in legs

Generals: Pain: drawing, cramping

Generals: Pain in muscles, tearing

 

Cramping

Ear: Pain (in meatus)

Abdomen: Pain < passing flatus

Abdomen: Pain: at night/< motion

Abdomen: Pain in flanks

Limbs: Cramps: in -/upperarms/wrists

Generals: Pain in internal parts

Generals: Pain tearing in muscles

 

 

Cramping

Ear: Pain (in meatus)

Abdomen: Pain in evening

Abdomen: Pain in hypochondria

Abdomen: Pain in sides/flanks

Limbs: Cramps: in forearms/in hips/in upper arms/in wrists/in thighs/in upper limbs/in internal parts/in muscles, tearing pain

Cramping

Stomach: Pain cramping as from becoming cold

Abdomen: Pain in abdomen (at night)

Abdomen: Pain < after stool

Limbs: Cramps in calves < walking

Limbs: Pain in legs

Limbs: Pain in upper limbs

Generals: Pain drawing, cramping

Generals: Pain in muscles, tearing

 

Cramping

Face: Cramp in joints of jaw

 

Dryness

Head: Eruptions dry

Nose: Dryness inside during coryza

Mouth: Dryness early morning

Mouth: Dryness: during chill/during fever (fever)/during perspiration

Throat: Dryness at night

Cough: Dry, expectoration only in

Morning

Cough: Dry < during fever

Cough: Dry < lying

Cough: Dry during perspiration

Skin: Eruptions herpetic dry

Skin: Eruptions tetters, dry

Generals: Food and Drinks: < dry food

 

Dryness

Head: Eruptions dry

Nose: Dryness inside during coryza

Mouth: Dryness early morning

Mouth: Dryness during chill

Mouth: Dryness during fever

Mouth: Dryness of tongue during

fever

Cough: Dry during perspiration

 

Dryness

Head: Eruptions dry (scales)

Head: Hair dry

Mouth: Dryness (during chill/during fever)

Mouth: Dryness (during perspiration/fever)

Cough: Dry expectoration only

morning

Cough: Dry < lying

Limbs: Dryness of hands

Skin: Eruptions herpetic, dry

Skin: Eruptions tetters, dry

Generals: Food and Drinks: < dry food

 

Dryness

Throat: Dryness at night

Larynx and Trachea: Dryness, trachea

Cough: Dry: expectoration only in morning

Cough: Dry < during fever

Limbs: Dryness of hands

Dryness

Head: Eruptions dry (scales)

Head: Hair dryness

Larynx and Trachea: Dryness trachea

Skin: Eruptions herpetic, dry/tetters dry

Weakness

Chest: Weakness < cough

Back: Weakness in dorsal region

Limbs: Weakness in legs < walking

Generals: Weakness after coition

Generals: Weakness from cough

Generals: Weakness in daytime

Generals: Weakness dyscratic

Generals: Weakness < after dinner

Generals: Weakness from death of loved ones, parents or friends

Generals: Weakness excessive

Generals: Weakness before fever

Generals: Weakness > lying

Generals: Weakness in morning after rising/at noon

Generals: Weakness < motion

Generals: Weakness in old people

Generals: Weakness paralytic, sliding down in bed from a half sitting position

Generals: Weakness < sitting

Generals: Weakness < standing

Weakness

Male Organs: Erections too weak

Generals: Weakness from death of loved ones, parents or friends

Generals: weakness < motion

Generals: Weakness: paralytic, sliding down in bed from a half sitting position

Generals: Weakness: desires to sit

Generals: Weakness < sitting

Generals: Weakness < standing

Generals: Weakness during typhoid

Weakness

Male Organs: Ejaculation

weak

Male Organs: Erections too weak

FeMale Organs: Leucorrhoea with

weakness

Larynx and Trachea: Voice weak after talking

Chest: Weakness < cough

Chest: Weakness of heart < talking

Chest: Weakness: speech,

impending

Chest: Weakness < talking

Generals: Weakness from

debauchery

Back: Weakness in dorsal

Region

Limbs: Weakness in legs < walking

Generals: Weakness after coition

Generals: Weakness from cough

Generals: Weakness during

daytime

Generals: Weakness < after dinner

Generals: Weakness from death

of loved ones, parents or friends

Generals: Weakness excessiv

Generals: Weakness before fever

Generals: Weakness > lying

Generals: Weakness with leucorrhoea

Generals: Weakness < in morning after rising

Generals: Weakness at noon

Generals: Weakness paralytic, sliding down in bed from a half sitting position

Generals: Weakness with

perspiration

Generals: Weakness desires to sit down

Generals: Weakness during

typhoid fever

 

Weakness

Male Organs: Ejaculation weak

FeMale Organs: Leucorrhoea with

weakness,

Larynx and Trachea: Voice weak after

talking

Chest: Weakness of heart < talking

Chest: Weakness: speech, impending

Chest: Weakness < talking

Generals: Weakness dyscratic

Generals: Weakness debauchery

Generals: Weakness with leucorrhoea

Generals: Weakness in old people

Generals: Weakness with perspiration

Generals: Weakness < standing

Weakness

Generals: Weakness from debauchery

Tearing

Face: Pain in zygoma, tearing

Rectum: Pain (< during stool)

Back: Pain at night

Limbs: Pain in l. hand

Limbs: Pain in (hollow of) knees ext. hip

Limbs: Pain in bones of legs: tibia

Limbs: Pain as from nails

Limbs: Pain in bones of thighs (< sitting/< walking)

Limbs: Pain in bones of upper limbs

Limbs: Pain: (joints of) upper

Limbs

Generals: Pain drawing in bones

Generals: Pain in muscles during chill

 

 

 

 

Tearing

Head: Pain tearing, asunder

Head: Pain in r. temple

Eye: Pain in orbits

Ear: Pain in conchae

Face: Pain in malar bones

Teeth: Pain in upper r. molar

Limbs: Pain in heels

Limbs: Pain in knees (ext. hips/ext: upwards

Limbs: Pain in hollow of knees

Limbs: Pain in thigh bones

Limbs: Pain in thighs (< sitting/< walking)

Generals: Pain stitching in joints

Generals: Pain in muscles (tearing pain, cramping/sticking)

 

Tearing

Head: Pain in l. temples

Ear: Pain in conchae

Teeth: Pain in r. upper molars

Rectum: Pain

Back: Pain at night

Limbs: Pain in l. hand

Limbs: Pain in hollow of knees

Limbs: Pain in bones (tibia) of legs,

Limbs: Pain in thighs <

Sitting

Limbs: Pain in joints of upper limbs

Limbs: Pain in upper limbs, (tearing downwards/twitching)

General: Pain in bones,

drawing pain, tering pain

Generals: Pain in muscles (during chill/cramping/jerking)

 

Tearing

Head: Pain tearing asunder

Head: Pain in l./r. temple

Eye: Pain in orbits, tearing

Face: Pain in malar bones

Rectum: Pain during stool

Rectum: Pain tearing

Limbs: Pain in heels

Limbs: Pain in bones of upper

limbs

Limbs: Pain in upper limbs, tearing pain, twitching

Generals: Pain in joints, stitching, tearing

Generals: Pain in muscles tearing, cramping

Generals: Pain in muscles, tearing, jerking

Generals: Pain tearing asunder

Tearing

Limbs: Pain in knees ext. upwards

Limbs: Pain in nails

 

 

Coldness

Head: Heat and coldness of

Head: Pain < becoming cold

Ear: Heat yet cold to touch

Teeth: < cold (air/applications/food)

Teeth: Pain after taking a cold

Stomach: “As if coldness”

Stomach: Pain < after cold drinks

Stomach: Pain: cramping “As from cold”

Rectum: Diarrhoea < after cold drinks

Rectum: Diarrhoea < cold food

Cough: Cold, wet air

Cough: < cold drinks/< becoming cold

Limbs: Coldness of feet < evening, in bed

Limbs: coldness of feet, < mental exertion

Limbs: coldness of feet < mental exertion

Limbs: Coldness of finger tips

Limbs: Coldness of hands during fever

Limbs: Coldness of legs, evening

Limbs: Pain: after rheumatic, after taking a cold

Limbs: Pain rheumatic < cold weather

Sleep: Sleeplessness from coldness

Chill: coldness one sided

Generals: Cold applications <

 

Coldness

Head: Heat and coldness of feet

Cough: Cold, wet air

Cough: < becoming cold

Chest: < cold air

Limbs: coldness of finger tips

Limbs: Heat of hands and

Coldness of feet

Sleep: Sleeplessness from coldness

Coldness

Head: Heat: with coldness of feet

Eye: Cold lids/”As if cold”

Teeth: cold [< cold (air)/< cold applications]

Stomach: “As if cold”

Rectum: Diarrhoea < after cold

drinks/< cold food

Chest: < Cold air

Limbs: Coldness of feet

< evening in bed

Limbs: Coldness of feet < mental exertion

Limbs: Coldness of finger

tips

Limbs: Coldness of legs, evening

Limbs: Pain rheumatic after

taking a cold

Limbs: Pain rheumatic < cold weather

Chill: Coldness one side

Generals: < Cold applications

 

Coldness

Head: Heat with coldness of feet

Head: Pain < becoming cold

Ear: Heat yet cold to touch

Teeth: < cold air/< cold applications/< cold food

Teeth: Pain after taking a cold

Stomach: “As if cold”/< after cold drinks

Stomach: Pain cramping “As from a cold”

Rectum: < Diarrhoea after cold drinks

Rectum: Diarrhoea < cold food

Cough: Cold wet air

Cough: < Cold drinks/< becoming cold/< cold air

Limbs: Coldness of hands during fever

Limbs: Pain rheumatic < cold weather

Chill: Coldness on one side

Coldness

Eye: Coldness of lids/”As if cold”

Ear: Heat yet cold to touch

Teeth: < Cold air

Cough: < cold drinks

Limbs: Heat of hands and

Coldness of feet

Itch

Ear: Itching in meatus, burning

Ear: Pain stitching itching

Neck: Itching

Abdomen: Itching in inguinal region

Rectum: Itching from haemorrhoids

Rectum: Itching < after stool

FeMale Organs: Itching from leucorrhoea after menses

FeMale Organs: Itching < after

menses,

Back: Itching evening

Back: Itching in lumbar region

Limbs: Eruptions between the

fingers, pimples

Limbs: Eruptions on hands itching

Limbs: Itching back of feet

Limbs: Itching in joints

Limbs: Itching in bends of joints

Limbs: Itching in tibia

Limbs: Itching in lower limbs, burning

Limbs: Itching of first toes

Skin: Tubercle, itching

Skin: Itching < scratching, changing place on scratching

Skin: Itching smarting

Skin: Itching in spotts

 

Itch

Ear: Itching of meatus, burning

Ear: Pain stitching itching

Nose: Itching in tip

Throat: Pain: burning, itch, smarting

Neck: Itching

Rectum: Itching from haemorrhoids

Rectum: Itching in perineum

Rectum: Itching: < after stool/< scratching

Back: Itching: evening

Limbs: Eruptions itching hands
Limbs: Itching in heels

Limbs: Itching in joints of feer

Limbs: Itching in hips, gluteal region

Limbs: Itching in lower limbs, burning

Limbs: Itching nates

Limbs: Itching in shoulders (evening)

Limbs: Itching upper limbs (< in bed/< undressing)

Skin: Tubercle itching

Skin: Itching < in bed (evening)

Skin: Itching: smarting

Itch

Ear: Pain stitching

Nose: Itching in tip

Throat: Pain burning, itching,

smarting

Abdomen: Itch in inguinal region

Rectum: Itching < scratching

FeMale Organs: Itching from leucorrhoea after menses

FeMale Organs: Itching < after menses

Limbs: Eruptions between the fingers itching

Limbs: Itching in heels

Limbs: Itching joints of feet

Limbs: Itching in hips,

gluteal region

Limbs: Itching in (bends of) joints

Limbs: Itching in legs over tibia

Limbs: Itching (nates/first toes/< in upper limbs < in bed)

Limbs: Itching in upper

Limbs < undressing

Skin: Itching < in bed (evening)

 

Itch

Rectum: Itching from haemorrhoids

Skin: Itching < scratching, changing place

Skin: Itching in spots

Itch

Head: Eruption itching

Rectum: Itching from haemorrhoids

Rectum: Itching in perineum

Back: Itching in evening

Back: Itching in lumbar region

Limbs: Itching back of feet (heels)

Limbs: Itching in hips, gluteal region

Limbs: Itching in shoulders (evening)

 

Excoriated

Nose: Excoriated nostrils during coryza

Face: Excoriated of lips

Mouth: Mucous membrane excoriated (palate/tongue)

Rectum: Excoriated from stool

Male Organs: Excoriated penis [prepuce on margin)]

Male Organs: Excoriated scrotum

FeMale Organs: cervical glands

Kidneys: Inflammation interstitial (chronic)

Urethra:Inflammation of meatus

Male Organs: Inflammation [of penis/scrotum (erysipelatous)]

FeMale Organs: Inflammation of

Uterus (chronic)

Larynx and Trachea: Inflammation of

larynx, syphilitic

Chest: Inflammation: bronchial tubes,

bronchioles

Chest: Inflammation of lungs, neglected

Limbs: Inflammation (back of ) feet

Limbs: Inflammation of toes

Generals: Inflammation of bones (bone

Marrow)

Generals: Inflammation of wounds

Excoriated

Nose: Excoriated nostrils during coryza

Face: Excoriated lips/corners of

mouth

Mouth: Mucous membranes: excoriated palate/tongue/”Palate as if

excoriated”

Throat: Excoriated rectum from stool

Male Organs: Excoriated on margins prepuce

 

Excoriated

Face: Excoriated lips

Mouth: Mucous membrane excoriated palate /corners of mouth

Mouth: Mucous membrane excoriated: tongue

Throat: Excoriated

Male Organs: Excoriated penis (prepuce/scrotum)

Female Genitalia/Sex -Excoriated

Feet: Excoriated between toes

Feet: Excoriated between thighs

Chest: Excoriated nipple

Inflammation of bones

Limbs: Inflammation of feet (back of feet)

Limbs: Inflammation of toes

Generals: Inflammation of bones (marrow)

 

 

Excoriated

Eye: acute inflammation

Nose: Coryza with inflammation of larynx

Throat: Inflamed oesophagus

Throat: Inflammation: follicular

External Throat: Inflammation (cervical glands)

Chest: Inflammation of lungs neglected

Generals: Inflammation of wounds

Excoriated

Head: Inflammation in periosteum

Eye: Inflammation in lachrymal ducts

Eye: Inflammation of orbits: with caries/with necrosis

Face: Inflammation of bone

Face: Inflammation of periosteum

Larynx and Trachea: Inflammation of

larynx, syphilitic

Limbs: Inflammation in bones

Generals: Inflammation of bones (marrow)

 

-

Tension

Head: Tension in scalp

Eye: Tension in lids

Abdomen: Tension in r. hypochondria

Abdomen: Tension in liver

Limbs: Tension fingers (joints)

Limbs: Tension in hips

Limbs: Tension in joints (upper limbs)

 

Tension

Head: Tension in scalp

Abdomen: Tension in r. hypochondria,

Abdomen: Tension in liver

Male Organs: Tension

Limbs: Tension: upper limbs in elbows/in joints

 

 

Tension

Eye: Tension in lids

Face: Tension of skin “As if egg white were dried on the face”

Face: Tension of lips

Male Organs: Tension

Limbs: Tension in fingers (joints)

Limbs: Tension in hips

Tension

Face: Tension of skin “As if egg white were dried on the face”

Face: Tension of lips

Limbs: Tension in elbows

Limbs: Tension in joints (upper limbs)

 

Tension

No rubrics

Stitching

Head: Pain in evening

Head: Pain in forehead in frontal eminence

Head: Pain in l./r. forehead

Head: Pain in scalp

Head: Pain r. side

Head: Pain in vertex, afternoon,

Ear: Pain behind the ears

Face: Pain in lips

Mouth: Pain in palate

External Throat: Pain in cervical glands

Abdomen: Pain < during cough

Abdomen: Pain in lower abdomen

Rectum: Pain < during stool

Rectum: Pain in anus during stool

Urethra:Pain

FeMale Organs: Pain

FeMale Organs: Pain in vagina

Chest: Pain < deep breathing

Chest: Pain < motion

Chest: Pain stitching outward

Chest: Pain l. side (evening/< during cough/< inspiration)

Back: Pain in r. scapula

Back: Pain in lumbar region, < lifting

Back: Pain in spine (vertebrae)

Limbs: Pain in heels (“As from a splinter”)

Limbs: Pain in palms of hands

Limbs: Pain joints in upper limbs

Skin: eruptions: tetters, stitching

Skin: Ulcers: painful, stinging, in areola

Generals: Pain: stitching downward

Stitching

Head: P ain in evening

Head: Pain in forehead in frontal

eminence

Head: Pain l. side

Head: Pain r. side

Head: Pain in r. temple

Head: Pain in vertex, afternoon

Eye: Pain: in canthi/lids

Ear: Pain > boring into ear

Ear: Pain stitching pain (behind ears)

Throat: Pain in morning

Abdomen: Pain external

Rectum: Pain < during stool

FeMale Organs: Pain in

vagina

Chest: Pain < deep breathing/< motion

Chest: Pain stitching outward

Chest: Pain l. side in evening

Back: Pain: coccyx/in dorsal region, r. scapula

Limbs: Pain knees, stitching burning

Limbs: Pain in legs, Tendo-achillis

Limbs: Pain in shoulders in

evening

Limbs: Pain in thighs < sitting

Limbs: Pain in balls of first toes

Skin: Eruptions tetters, stitching

Skin: Ulcers painful, stinging in areola

Generals: Pain in joints, stitching

tearing

Generals: Pain stitching pain,

jerking pain

 

 

Stitching

Head: Pain in l./r. forehead

Head: Pain in scalp

Head: r./l. Side

Head: Pain in r. temples

Eye: Pain in (inner) canthi

Eye: Pain in lids

Ear: Pain > boring into ear

Ear: Pain: stitching pain, itching

Ear: Pain behind ears

Face: Pain in lips

Face: Pain in submaxillary glands

Mouth: Pain palate, stitching

Throat: Pain in morning

External Throat: Pain in

cervical glands

Abdomen: Pain in external

abdomen

Abdomen: Pain in hypochondria

< inspiration (< motion)

Abdomen: Pain in lower abdomen,

Abdomen: Pain in sides < inspiration

Abdomen: Pain in l. side

Urethra:Pain

Chest: Pain l. side < inspiration

Chest: Pain sides, lower part, r.

Back: Pain in cervical region,

nape of neck

Back: Pain in coccyx

Back: Pain in lumbar region <

lifting

Back: Pain in spine/vertebrae

Limbs: Pain in heels “As from splinter” (burning)

Limbs: Pain in palms of hands

Limbs: Pain in thighs < sitting,

Limbs: Pain balls of first toes

Generals: Pain stitching pain,

jerking pain

Generals: Pain stitching downward

Stitching

Head: Pain in forehead in frontal eminence

Head: Pain r./l. forehead

Eye: Pain in lids

Ear: Pain: > boring in ear

Face: Pain in submaxillary glands

Abdomen: Pain < during cough

Abdomen: Pain in hypochondria < inspiration

Abdomen: Pain in hypogastrium < motion

Abdomen: Pain in sides < inspiration

Abdomen: Pain in l. side

Rectum: Pain < during stool

Rectum: Pain in anus < during stool

FeMale Organs: Pain

In vagina

Chest: Pain in l. side: < during cough/evening/< inspiration

Chest: Pain sides, lower part r.

Back: Pain in spine (vertebrae)

Limbs: Pain in knees, stitching

burning

Limbs: Pain in Tendo achillis

Limbs: Pain in joints of

upper limbs

Generals: Pain in joints, stitching

pain, tearing

Stitching

Eye: Pain in inner canthi

Back: Pain in nape of neck, sore

Limbs: Pain in feet of soles:

Stitching/burning

Limbs: Pain in shoulders in evening

 

Constipation

Head -´Pain + constipation

Abdomen: Distension during constipation,

Rectum: Constipation: difficult stool,

recedes stool

Rectum: Constipation periodical (< alternate days)

Rectum: Constipation during perspiration,

Rectum: Constipation painful

 

Constipation

Rectum: Constipation: difficult stool, recedes, stool

Rectum: Constipation: painful

Constipation

Abdomen: Distension during

constipation,

 

Constipation

Rectum: Constipation periodical (< alternate day)

 

Constipation

Head: Pain + constipation

Rectum: Constipation periodical (< alternate day)

Rectum: Constipation during

perspiration,

 

 

Paralysis sensation

Hearing: Impaired from paralysis of the

auditory nerve

Limbs: “As if paralysed” in legs

 

Paralysis sensation

Rectum: Paralysis of sphincter ani

Limbs: Paralysis of lower

Limbs + involuntary stool

Generals: Paralysis toxic

Paralysis sensation

Hearing: Impaired from paralysis of the

auditory nerve

Rectum: Paralysis of sphincter ani

Limbs: “As if paralysed”

Limbs: Paralysis of lower

Limbs + stool involuntary

Paralysis sensation

Generals: Paralysis toxic

Paralysis sensation

No rubrics

Ulceration sensation

Head: Pain in scalp ulcerative

Head: Ulcers

Eye: Ulceration of conjunctiva

Nose: Ulcers on septum (round ulcers)

Face: Ulcers on lips, eosinophilic ulcers

Face: Ulcers in corners of mouth

Mouth: Pain in ate ulcerative

Mouth: Ulcers: canker sore/cheeks [nside (lichen planus)]/painful (sore, smarting

Mouth: Ulcers phagedenic/on (soft)

plate/syphilitic (on tongue)/white

Throat: Ulcers on fauces/ulcers spreading/syphilitic/on tonsils/on uvula (syphilitic)

Rectum: Haemorrhoids ulcerating

Male Organs: Ulcers: penis, chancres (elevated margins)/on

Prepuce/on scrotum

FeMale Organs: Ulcers: uterus/

Vulva

Chest: Phthisis pulmonalis, purulent and ulcerative

Chest: Ulcers lungs

Limbs: Ulcers on fingers nails/on legs (burning/bones, tibia/thighs)

Skin: Pimples ulcerated

Skin: Ulcers: areola, red/discharges, offensive/putrid/discharge [thin/watery/elevated (with indurated margins)/flat/fungous/edges gangrenous]

indurated margins/with jagged margins (with zigzag)/mercurial/with gnawing pain/painful, stinging, stitching in areola in/proud flesh/pulsating/after scratching/

spongy/superficial/swollen/syphilitic/tense/

unhealthy

Generals: Cancerous affections: ulcers

(on glands)/mucous membranes with

complaints of ulceration/ of

Generals: Pain in ulcerative glands

Generals: Ulcers in cancerous glands

 

Ulceration sensation

Head: Pain: ulcerative pain in scalp

Ear: Ulceration

Mouth: Pain on palate ulcerative

Mouth: Ulcers: canker sore

Mouth: Ulcers deep

Mouth: Ulcers: in corners/painful (sore, smarting)/on palate

Throat: Ulcers on tonsils

FeMale Organs: Ulcers vulva

Limbs: Pain in nails ulcerative

Limbs: Ulcers on legs burning

Limbs: Ulcers on lower limbs, fetid

Skin: Ulcers: black/bluish/burning in margins/crusty/discharges offensive, putrid/elevated and indurated

margins/fungous/gangrenous/mercurial

painful (with cutting/painful margins/

stinging, stitching, areola in/

surrounded by pimples/pulsating/ pustules/margins sensitive/tense (areola)/with thrust inside/unhealthy

Generals: Mucous membranes with

complaints of ulceration

Generals: Pain in glands ulcerative

Ulceration sensation

Head: Pain scalp ulcerative

Ear: Ulceration

Face: Ulcers on lips eosinophilic

Face: Ulcers in mouth, corners

Mouth: Ulcers on soft palate

Mouth: Ulcers on palate, velum,

Rectum: Haemorrhoids ulcerating

Male Organs: Chancres on penis (elevated/on margins)

Male Organs: Ulcers, on penis, prepuce

FeMale Organs: Ulcers uterus

Chest: Phthisis pulmonalis, purulent and ulcerative

Limbs: Ulcers: on ankles/on hands/legs, bones, /tibia on thighs/on fingernails

Skin: Eruptions, pimples,

ulcerated

Skin: Ulcers: with red areola/bluish/burning in margins/

crusty/with crawling/discharges

(copious/offensive, putrid/watery/ (with elevated and) indurated

margins/flat/gangrenous/jagged margins (with zigzag)/mercurial/

painful, biting/with painful cutting/gnawing pain/painful

margins/gnawing pain/painful, smarting/spongy/with thrust inside/varicose (indurated margins)/ proud flesh/surrounded by pimples/superficial/swollen /syphilitic/tense/unhealthy

Generals: Cancerous affections (ulcers/glands)

Generals: Mucous membranes,

complaints of, ulceration of

Generals: Pain glands, ulcerative

Generals: Ulcers glands

 

Ulceration sensation

Head: Pain on scalp, ulcerative

Head: ulcers

Eye: Ulceration of conjunctiva

Mouth: Ulcers: canker sore/deep/ painful, sore, smarting/phagedenic/on (soft) palate/white

FeMale Organs: Ulcers, uterus,

cervix

Chest: Ulcers on/in lungs

Limbs: Pain ulcerative in nails

Limbs: Ulcers: on hands/lower

limbs, fetid/

Skin: Ulcers: black/with crawling/discharges copious/gangrenous (edges)/painful, biting/painful with cutting/painful gnawing/painful smarting

spongy/with thrust inside/varicose

Generals: Cancerous affections ulcers (glands)/mucous membranes, ulceration

Generals: Pain: glands, ulcerative

ulcers on glands

Ulceration sensation

Nose: Ulcers on septum (round ulcers)

Mouth: Ulcers in [inside (lichen planus)] cheeks/painful/syphilitic (on tongue)

Throat: Ulcers: in fauces/spreading/syphilitic/on tonsils/on

Uvula (syphilitic)

Male Organs: Ulcers on scrotum

FeMale Organs: Ulcers on cervix

Uterus

Limbs: Ulcers on: ankles/fingernails/bones of legs tibia/discharges (copious/thin surrounded by pimples/proud flesh/syphilitic/varicose

 

Chill

Mind: Unconsciousness during chill

Mind: Dryness during chill

Mouth: Odor offensive during chill

Stomach: Nausea with chilliness

Abdomen: Chill in external abdomen

Abdomen: Pain during chill

Limbs: Heat in feet during chill

Sleep: Sleeplessness with chill

Sleep: Waking with chill

Chill: Chilliness morning (< in bed)/in afternoon (without subsequent heat)/before o./+ at midnight

Chill: Chilliness “As if hair standing on

End”

Chill: in daytime/in evening < after lying down

Chill: > Motion

Chill: Shaking in forenoon/evening

Fever: Internal heat with external chill

Fever: chill + internal heat

Fever: heat followed by chill

Generals: Pain (tearing) in muscles during chill

Generals: stretching out during chill

 

Chill

Mouth: Dryness during chill

Limbs: Numb fingers/hands during chill

Limbs: Pain in upper limbs during chill

Sleep: Sleeplessness with chill

Sleep: Waking with chill

Chill: Chillness in morning (< in bed)/evening 20 h./at midnight/before midnight

Chill: Chillness “As if hair standing

on end”

Chill: Heat without subsequent

Chill: Shaking one side

Chill: a during sleep

Generals: Stretching out during chill

 

Chill

Mind: Unconsciousness

during chill

Mouth: Dryness during chill

Abdomen: Chill in external abdomen

Abdomen: Pain during chill

Limbs: Numb fingers during chill

Limbs: Numb hands during chill

Limbs: Pain in upper limbs during chill

Chill: Coldness one sided

Chill: Chilliness in afternoon/in evening 18 h./20 h./ (without subsequent heat)

Chill: Evening < after lying down

Chill: Shaking in forenoon/ evening/ext. over body/one sided

Chill: < during sleep

Chill: Walking < in open air

Fever: Internal heat with external chill

Generals: Pain (tearing) in muscles during chill

 

Chill

Mouth: Odor offensive during chill

Stomach: Nausea with chilliness

Limbs: Heat in feet during chill

Chill: Coldness one sided

Chill: Daytime/evening 18h

Chill: > motion

Chill: Shaking external over body

Chill: Walking < in open air

Fever: heat, followed by chill

Chill

No data

 

 

 

 

Burning

Sore

Swelling

Pressing

Cramping

Dryness

Weakness Tearing Coldness

Itch

Heat

Desire

Smarting

Damaging

Vital

Feverish

Corroding

Strong

Arson

Wound

-

Ulcer

Excoriation.

Annoying

-

Sensitive

Offended

-

angry, bitter.

Painful

-

Tender

Inflammation

Eruption

Growth

Erection

Distension

Boil/ abscess

Bloating

Inflating

Tension

Stiffness

Paralysis

Stitching

Numbness

Paroxysm

Hard

Stony

Constipation

Dull

Desiccate

Wry

Teetotal

Deadpan

Lameness Ulceration Chill

  Discharge Dead

  Perspiration Insensitive

Paralysis   Emotionless

Fatigue

Passion

Exhaustion

Faintness

Impotence

Powerless

Flaw

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REACTIONS TO THE SENSATIONS

The three reactivity modes are: the active reaction, the passive reaction, and the compensated reaction. These reactivity modes are interrelated and oppose each other in clinical

symptomatology representation. For example if the sensation is ‘caught up’ or ‘stuck’ the active reaction will be to want to move, the passive reaction will be being immobile or unable

to move, while the compensation will be a person who is always on the move (Sankaran 2004).

shows the reactions to the sensations found in this study.

Reactions to the sensations

Sensation                                                       Active reaction                                              Passive reaction                                                           Compensation

Burning                                                         Hot, heat, active hurried                         Cold                                                                                  Desire for open air, fanning; hurried

Sore                                                               Sensitive, aggression, annoyed, angered             Numbness                                                                  Restlessness

Swelling                                                        Enlargement                                                  Atrophy                                                                    Discharge; restlessness

Pressing                                                         Tension, pressure                                               Weakness                                                                  Aversion to tight clothing; restless; freedom want of

Cramping                                                      Paralysis                                                         > Motion                                                                   Restlessness

Dryness                                                         Constipation, stones, necrosis                      Thirst, teetotal, friendlessness                                   Polydipsia, alcohol abuse; desire for company

Weakness                                                      Exhaustion, lameness                                            Active, hurried                                                           Desire for activity; intense reaction

Tearing                                                          Ulceration                                                      Growths                                                                    Desire for unification; intense reaction involving

the union of two substances/compounds or entities

Coldness  Chill, dead/dying                                  Heat, alive                                                                  Desire for heat, passion, sex, fatty foods, spicy foods, coffee,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               refreshing things

 

MIASMATIC CLASSIFICATION

Most authors such as Farrington (1992) and Scholten (1993) regard acidum remedies as being syphilitic in nature, mainly due to their destructive nature. In this study the selected acidum

remedies were classified into specific miasms along the lines of Sankaran’s miasmatic model (Sankaran 2005), using Sankaran’s miasmatic keywords (see Appendix C). This study also

found that the syphilitic miasm is dominant in the selected group of acidum remedies studied.

 

Nitricum acidum

[Vermeulen (2001)] Nitricum acidum is predominantly a sycotic remedy. Being of a hydrogenoid constitution, Nitricum acidum checks syphilis after the abuse of mercury and cachexia due

to syphilis. Even though predominantly sycotic, Nitricum acidum is also syphilitic and therefore has a broad spectrum of action on syphilitic diseases as well as miasmatically.

The following are syphilitic miasm related rubrics with their grading in brackets:

Head: Pain: syphilitic (2)

Nose: (Ozena): syphilitic (3)

Face: Eruption: syphilitic (1)

Mouth: Ulcers: syphilitic (Tongue) (1)

Throat: Ulcers: syphilitic (2) (uvula)

Male Organs: Eruptions: syphilitic (3)

Male Organs: Eruptions: mucous patches (2)

Larynx and Trachea: Inflammation: larynx, syphilitic (2)

Limbs: Pain: rheumatic, syphilitic (2)

Skin: Eruptions: (pustules), syphilitic (2)

Skin: Eruptions: tubercles, syphilitic (2)

Skin: Ulcers: syphilitic (3)

Generals: Bones: complaints of, syphilitic (2)

Generals: Cartilage: affections of, syphilitic (2)

The following are sycotic miasm related rubrics with their grading in brackets:

Limbs: Warts: fingers (2) (painful) (1)

Limbs: Warts: hands (3)

Skin: Warts: bleeding (2)/indented (1)/jagged (3)/large (3)/moist (3)/pedunculated (3)

Generals: Tumour: angioma (2)/atheroma, steatoma (2)/gummata (1)

Generals: Convalescence during ailments after gonorrhoea

Urethra: Discharge: gonorrhoea chronic (1)

 

Muriaticum acidum

[Farrington (1992)] Muriatic um acidum is dominated by clinical features relating to the typhoid miasm. It is widely represented in other miasms according to keyword searches conducted

using Sankaran’s model but the greatest dominance comes from the typhoid miasm.

The following are typhoid miasm related rubrics with their grading in brackets:

Hearing: Impaired after typhoid fever (1)

Rectum: Diarrhoea involuntary during typhoid fever (1)

Bladder: Urination involuntary: typhoid fever (2)

Fever: Remittent becomes prone to typhoid haemorrhagic fever (2) (haemorrhagic, oozing of dark thin blood from capillaries) (1)

Generals: Weakness during typhoid fever (2)

Generals: Collapse after smallpox (2)

 

Phosphoricum acidum

[Vermeulen (2001)] outlines the miasmatic predilections of Phosphoricum acidum as typhoid, tuberculinic, cancerinic but dominantly sycotic. Excrescences of Phosphoricum acidum are

sycotic in nature and there is a general predisposition to warty tendencies.

The following are sycotic miasm related rubrics with their grading in brackets:

Head: Tumour on scalp (1)

Limbs: Warts on hands (2)

Skin: Warts: bleeding (1)/indented (2)/jagged (1)/large (1)/moist (1)/pedunculated (1)

Generals: Tumours: atheroma, steatoma (2)

Generals: Convalescence: ailments after gonorrhoea (1)

 

Sulphuricum acidum

Miasmatically related to most miasms but has most predilection for the syphilitic miasm where it can be used as a traumatic remedy. The ulcerations which are

more common in the syphilitic miasm are common within the Sulphuricum acidum remedy (Vermeulen 2001; Farrington 1992).

The following are syphilitic miasm related rubrics with their grading in brackets:

Head: Ulcers (1)

Mouth: Ulcers: canker sore (2)/painful, sore, smarting (1)

Female Organs: Ulcers: uterus, cervix (1)

Chest: Ulcers: white (2)

Limbs: Ulcers on hands (1)

Limbs: Ulcers: lower limbs, fetid (1)

Skin: Ulcers black (2)

 

Unique sensations arising from this study

The three extracted sensations which do not have a comparative pair to that of Scholten are pressing, cramping, and dryness respectively.

The three unpaired sensations arising from this study are a unique discovery and add value to the our understanding of acidum remedies.

A second unique contribution arising from this study is the rearrangement of the Scholten sensations in such a way as to be comparable to the extracted sensations.

This rearrangement has grouped the sensations into meaningful sets that represents the pathophysiology of disease at mental, emotional, and somatic level.

These outcomes contribute to the group analysis methodology and the body of homoeopathic knowledge.

 

COMPARISON OF SENSATIONS EXTRACTED IN THIS STUDY AND SANKARAN’S ACIDUM GROUP ANALYSIS

Three of the underlying, extracted sensations are comparatively similar to that of Sankaran even though the terminology for the sensations is different.

There are six sensations arising from this study which do not have a comparative match in Sankaran’s analysis.

Extracted sensations

Sankaran’s analysis of acidum remedies

Burning

Struggle (represents all acidums)

Need to make effort (Sul-ac)

Feeling of danger (Nit-ac)

Sore

Swelling

Pressing

Cramping

Dryness

Weakness

Collapse (all acidums)

Tearing

Coldness

Unloved, uncared for, indifferent (Ph-ac)

Disappointment, disgraced, aversion to company (Mur-ac)

Let down (Fl-ac)

 

Burning compared to struggle ‘Burning’ is defined as being on fire, very hot, hotly discussed, vital, strong, desire and intense activity (Oxford Dictionary 2010).

The idea of struggle means to fight for something that is vitally needed such as freedom from something. A burning sensation identified in this study is can be understood as an intense activity which compares well to the idea of ‘struggle’ or a fight which Sankaran identified as the beginning theme of acidum remedies (Sankaran 1994).

 

Sensation compared to collapse ‘Weakness’ is defined by lack of strength, power or determination; may also be defined as a weak point system; a difficulty in resisting something liked (Oxford Dictionary 2010). The sensation of weakness identified in this study compares well to the theme of ‘collapse’ identified by Sankaran (1994). According to Sankaran (1994), failure of all faculties (mental, emotional and physical faculty) highlights the arrival or presence of collapse which in this study is viewed as weakness.

 

Unique sensations arising from this study

The six extracted sensations which do not have a comparative pair to that of Sankaran are; sore, swelling, pressing, cramping, dryness, and tearing.

These six unpaired sensations arising from this study are a unique discovery and add value to the our understanding of acidum remedies.

A second unique contribution arising from this study is the rearrangement of the Sankaran’s sensations in such a way as to be comparable to the extracted sensations. This rearrangement has grouped the sensations into meaningful sets that represents the pathophysiology of disease at mental, emotional, and somatic level. These outcomes contribute to the group analysis methodology and the body of homoeopathic knowledge.

 

COMPARISON OF SENSATIONS EXTRACTED IN THIS STUDY AND MANGIALAVORI AND MOROTTA’S ACIDUM GROUP ANALYSIS

Eight of the underlying, extracted sensations are comparatively similar to that of Scholten even though the terminology for the sensations is different. There is one sensation arising from this study which does not have a comparative match in Mangialavori and Marotta’s group analysis.

Comparison of sensations extracted in this study and Mangialavori and Marotta’s acidum group analysis

Extracted sensations

Model of acidum remedies

Mangialavori                                     Marotta

Burning                                             Burning

Serving family duty: work

Consumed

Sore                                                    Self-destructiveness: corrosive

Head-/Backache

Swelling                                            No safe place

No personal identity/structure

Backache

Pressing

Cramping                                          All or nothing

Cut off in order to escape

Dryness                                             Water

Cheese, chocolate, sweets, acid foods

Weakness                                           Weakness/Depletion/Empty

Tearing                                              Loss of memory

Coldness                                           Depression

 

Burning sensation compared to the themes: Serving family duty-work; consumed

Burning’ is defined as being on fire, very hot, hotly discussed, vital, strong, desire and intense activity (Oxford Dictionary 2010).

The idea of family service is realized as a vital issue which is true with acidum patients and it compares well with the findings of this research in terms of urgency, vitality and goal. The same burning sensation can be compared with the theme of ‘consumed’ as a result of working too much and rapidly often without a reward or personal benefit (Mangialavori and Marotta 2005). At a physical level,

after contact of an acid with the integument, the body gets into a frantic reactivity. Bodily reactions that aim to access, report and repair damage get underway immediately. At a cellular level certain families of cells work together towards a certain objective not necessarily looking to be part of the body after the healing process i.e. immune cells that eventually becomes pus.

This example brings to mind the idea of self-sacrifice which according to Mangialavori and Marotta (2005) is common in acidums. These immune cell merely sacrifice themselves for the welfare of other cells to survive. They have a duty which they serve not looking for a reward or pleasure.

 

Sore sensation compared to the themes: Self-destructiveness-corrosive; headache; backache

Sore’ may be defined as being offended, bitter, cross, resentful, mad which may lead to aggression and outbursts of fighting, battle and or war (Oxford Dictionary 2010).

A ‘sore’ may be defined as a wound, ulcer, abscess, painful lesion, blister, infection or corrosion (Oxford Dictionary 2007).

The destruction of tissue that occurs at a physiological level during the formation of an ulcer compares well with the theme of destruction that occurs at a mental-emotional level in Mangialavori and Marotta’s (2005) analysis of acidums. The headache that has aetiology of a problematic digestion also compares well.

An ache or aching is described as a sore sensation (Oxford Dictionary 2010). The hint that the aetiology is problematic digestion is important because this guides the thinking process towards acidum remedies which are known for their weak digestion.

 

Swelling sensation compared to the themes: No safe place; no personal identity/structure; backache ‘Swelling’ may be defined as an abnormally enlarged place especially on the body; a condition of being larger or rounder than normal due to injury or illness (Oxford Dictionary 2010). The physiological development of swelling involves the influx of inflammatory agents into an affected area (Guyton and Hall, 1997). These elements break through their normal borders into another area. In essence they join together in one space although performing different functions.

Lack of firm borders can be viewed as a threat to safety.

At the same time, one must note that inflammatory agents also include appropriate immune components which heal and so in this instance crossing borders and joining together is

a positive element of inflammation, although that is not the aspect in focus for this sensation in this study.

Also, lack of borders may be viewed as loss in structure and primary identity. Backache has both the sore sensation and swelling sensation. Mangialavori and Marotta (2005) state that a backache is present as a theme because it articulates a loss of structure, social standing and power, just like a house without walls or a person without self-confidence

or power. All these comparisons articulate lack of support structures which Mangialavori and Marotta (2005) find as a detrimental flaw that characterizes acidum remedies.

These findings compare well with the finding of this research on swelling using this view as an approach.

 

Cramping sensation compared to the themes: All or nothing; cut-off in order to escape

Cramp’ may be defined as a sudden pain that is experienced when a part of a body contract usually caused by cold or too much exercise; to prevent development or progress; to stop somebody from behaving in the way they want to; not enough space (Oxford Dictionary 2010).

A cramp may be viewed as a way in which the body halts the processes of toxic exertion in order escape into a resting state. This compares well with the theme ‘cut-off in

order to escape’ as well as the theme ‘all or nothing’. If the problem is so overwhelming, acidum patients find it easier to just cut-off to escape and not face the problem. This

compares well to the physiological scenario of cramping where the body just halts or ‘freezes’ to escape the overwhelming activity.

 

Sensation of dryness compared to the food themes: Cheese, chocolate, sweets, acid foods; water ‘Dry’ may be defined as without water or moisture; ill humour; without emotion; boring; without alcohol, thirsty (Oxford Dictionary 2010).

According to Mangialavori and Marotta (2005), all acids have a strong desire for cheese which they claim prevents large amounts of fluid loss. The comparison here is that there is a craving for cheese because the patient is in a state of dryness and as a result needs water or water conserving foods such as cheese for self-preservation. Acidum patients are known to have dreams of water (Mangialavori and Marotta 2005) which represents the feminine side of humanity. The dryness that a patient may experience at a dream level may predispose them to dreams of water in an effort to balance their internal need. Therefore, the food themes of water and cheese compares well with the sensation of dryness found in this study.

 

Sensation of weakness compared to the theme: Weakness/Depletion/Empty

Weakness’ is defined by lack of strength, power or determination; it may also be defined as a weak point system; a difficulty in resisting something liked (Oxford Dictionary 2010).

This sensation compares well with the theme ‘weakness/depletion/empty’ described by Mangialavori and Marotta (2005).

 

Tearing sensation compared to the theme: Loss of memory

‘Tearing’ may be defined by damage to something by pulling apart, injure a muscle by stretching too much, to move somewhere very quickly or in an excited way. To cry. To attack somebody or something physically or with words, to start doing something with a lot of energy. To destroy something violently by pulling it apart, to make people in a country or an organization fight or argue with each other (Oxford Dictionary 2010). The tearing sensation is compared to the theme ‘loss of memory’ because of the idea of loss and detachment from self and mental capacity. As the memory refuses to remain part of what can be remembered the idea of separation is reflected. In acidum patients the idea of loss of memory reflects the idea of loss of everything or separating from the known reality. A tearing sensation compares well to this theme as it defines the loss and or separation from known reality.

 

Sensation of coldness compared to the theme: Depression

‘Coldness’ is defined as having a lower than usual temperature, being unfriendly, emotionless, not easy to find, indifferent, aloof, detached (Oxford Dictionary 2010).

At the end stage of all disease when all is tried and done, depression sets in. The sensation of coldness defines loss of vital heat or expressions that are not pro-life. These expressions are in line with the theme of depression outlined by Mangialavori and Marotta (2005).

 

Unique sensations arising from this study

One extracted sensation does not have a comparative pair to that of Mangialavori and Marotta, namely, pressing. This one unpaired sensation arising from this study are a unique discovery and add value to the our understanding of acidum remedies. A second unique contribution arising from this study is the rearrangement of the Mangialavori and Marotta sensations in such a way as to be comparable to the extracted sensations. This rearrangement has grouped the sensations into meaningful sets that represents the pathophysiology of disease at mental, emotional, and somatic level. These outcomes contribute to the group analysis methodology and the body of homoeopathic knowledge.

 

CHARACTERISTIC SENSATIONS OF ACIDUM REMEDIES

The case studies presented below highlight the sensations that the prescriber used to guide the prescription selection. This illustrates how sensations from group analysis can help the

student and practitioner alike in fine tuning the prescription process and reaching an appropriate remedy efficiently yet swiftly.

This case studies help articulate the purpose of group analysis in the homoeopathic prescription process as well as substantiate the sensations identified in this research study.

Unless otherwise stated the rubrics data below is taken from Radar® 10 (Archibel 2008).

 

Burning

A burn is described as “tissue damage caused by such a gents as heat, cold, chemicals, electricity, ultraviolet light or nuclear radiation” (Oxford Dictionary 2007).

A burning sensation is described as “being very hot, looking and feeling very hot” (Oxford Dictionary 2010). Both descriptions qualify as descriptions of a sensation as described by Sankaran.

A burning sensation is the most common sensation in the acidum group of remedies. As described above, the burning sensation could describe the idea of intense passion; sexual urges; a compelling idea; the actual burn on the integument or the mucous membrane +/o. the generalized intense feeling of heat throughout the body. All these descriptions work at different levels of a being (i.e. mental, emotional and physical level).

 

Nitricum acidum acts more on the borders between the mucous membranes and the skin. It is renowned for dry heat symptoms and deep fissures with a red base (Vermeulen 2001;

Boericke 2000; Phatak 2002).

Mouth: Eruptions: vesicles, tongue, burning

Rectum: Pain: morning, burning

Male Organs: heat in glans of penis

Urethra: Pain before urination burning

 

Muriaticum acidum has a great affinity for the mucous membranes of the digestive tract.

There is also an intense burning that arises locally at the peripheries of formed ulcers. Body heat may also become generalized as fever (Vermeulen 2001; Boericke 2000; Phatak 2002).

Mouth: Pain: in hard palate, burning

Throat: Pain: burning, itching, smarting pain

Skin: Ulcers: burning in margins

Fever: Continued fever stupid

 

Phosphoricum acidum has burning in particular parts of the body as well as generally throughout the body which may be represented as fever. Intense sexual desires +/o.

erections are characteristic in this remedy. These intense urges eventually result in great weakness (Vermeulen 2001; Boericke 2000; Phatak 2002).

Teeth: “As if heat”

Male Organs: Sexual desire increased after a pollution

Back: Pain in spine, burning

Fever: Continued in evening

Generals: Orgasm of blood after emotions

Generals: Pain burning in bones

 

Sulphuricum acidum has generalized heat that may present as hot flushes during a febrile state or other illnesses. This remedy also affects the digestive tract with affinity for organs (mouth, rectum

and the stomach) which are often affected simultaneously (Vermeulen 2001; Boericke 2000; Phatak 2002).

Ear: Heat “As if escaping”

Mouth: Eruptions: vesicles burning on tongue

Mouth: Pain burning ext. stomach

Throat: Pain burning in oesophagus, ext. stomach

Stomach: Eructations type of, burning

Fever: Continued at night

 

Fluoricum acidums are strongly opinionated; have anxious ideas; their intense sexual passion and desire is increased which causes insomnia; have excessive enjoyment and pleasure during coition.

May report violent itching around ulcers; heat and pain in the bones as well as generalized heat during fevers (Vermeulen 2001; Boericke 2000; Phatak 2002).

Mind: Audacity in children

Teeth: “As if heat”

Male Organs: Sexual desire increased in children

Male Organs: Erections < during sleep

Female Organs: Masturbation disposition in children

Limbs: Pain: burning in knees

 

Sore

A sore is described as an ulcer or an open wound on the skin or mucous membranes, which may be caused by injury or infection (Oxford Dictionary 2007). A sore sensation can also be

described as being upset and angry especially due to bad, unfair treatment. It is also described as a sensitive, painful area on a part of a body, often red due to infection or a wound

(Oxford Dictionary 2010). After the formation of an ulcer or injury, metabolic processes become rapid depending on the size of the ulcer or injury. The acid-base balance is therefore

affected favouring the acidic end rather than the alkaline end (Bishop, Fody and Schoeff 2005). All clinical symptomatology relating to acidosis at all three levels may ensue.

 

Nitricum acidum patients may become highly sensitive generally, and may present with violent anger.

Forms deep ulcers which may be syphilitic, sycotic +/o. cancerous. There is also soreness and burning in glans and beneath the prepuce on micturition while in females external genital parts are

sore and ulcerating (Vermeulen 2001; Boericke 2000; Phatak 2002; Farrington 1992).

Mind: Sensitive to all external expressions

Mind: Anger in morning on waking

Mind: Hatred and revengeful,

Throat: Ulcers on uvula syphilitic

Male Organs: Condylomata on penis with soreness

 

Muriaticum acidum patients become irritable and peevish mentally. They also develop deep ulcers especially on the tongue; skin and genitals with great sensitivity; they may also present

with great sensitivity of sexual organs aggravated by the least touch (Vermeulen 2001; Boericke 2000; Phatak 2002; Farrington 1992).

Mind: Irritability with sadness,

Face: Pain sore in lips

Mouth: Ulcers painful, sore, smarting

Male Organs: Pain: sore in margin of prepuce

Female Organs: Vaginismus from sensitiveness of vagina

 

Phosphoricum acidum patients have soreness of the skin after infections such as measles, small-pox, etc.; the skin is predisposed to ulcer formation with offensive pus. Soreness may

also occur in various parts of the body (Vermeulen 2001; Boericke 2000; Phatak 2002; Farrington 1992).

Head: Pain sore in brain

Skin: Eruptions: smallpox malignant

Skin: Ulcers: discharges offensive, putrid/sensitive in margins

Male Organs: Pain in penis, sore margin in prepuce

 

Sulphuricum acidum patients are irritable and sensitive like Nitricum acidum patients. Have quick spreading ulcers due to the great propensity of the tissue to become rotten, i.e

gangrene of the vagina or of the skin (Vermeulen 2001; Boericke 2000; Phatak 2002; Farrington 1992).

Mind: Irritability with sadness

Chest: Pain: sore in sternum < touch

Limbs: Corns sore

Skin: Ulcers with gangrenous edges

Generals: Sensitiveness in glands

 

Fluoricum acidum is renowned for its destructive potential as a keynote. There are syphilitic ulcers in the throat which are sensitive to cold but on the skin the ulcers have red edges

surrounded by violent itching. There is ulceration of the uterine os. There are caries of ossicles and periosteal abscess formation. There is soreness and sensitivity of nipples,

there may be nymphomania and increased sexual desire in both sexes (Vermeulen 2001; Boericke 2000; Phatak 2002; Farrington 1992).

Throat: Sensitive in pharynx

Throat: Ulcers syphilitic

Larynx and Trachea: Sensitive larynx

Female Organs: Ulcers, uterus, cervix

Male Organs: Sexual desire increased in children

 

Swelling

A swelling is described as a place on the body that has become larger or rounder than normal as a result of an illness or injury (Oxford Dictionary 2007). A swelling otherwise understood

as inflammation is an immediate defensive reaction of tissue to any injury as a result of damage by infection, chemicals and or physical agents. Inflammation involves pain,

heat, redness, swelling and loss of function of the part affected. There is vasodilation and hyperperfusion near the site of injury. White blood cells also move towards the area

to provide protection against pathogens (Oxford Dictionary 2010). This cascade of reactions causes swelling in the area affected.

 

Nitricum acidum patients may have syphilitic iritis; puffy swelling on the scalp; generalized painful swelling of glands with or without suppuration; oedematous prepuce. Skin eruptions

such as seen in sexually transmitted infections may also be present (Vermeulen 2001; Boericke 2000; Phatak 2002; Farrington 1992).

Throat: Swelling in uvula, oedematous

Urethra: Swelling of meatus

Male Organs: swelling oedematous in penis (prepuce)

Male and Female Organs: Eruptions: herpes

Limbs: Swelling bones in legs

Generals: Swelling of glands painless

 

Muriaticum acidum patients may present with swollen tongue, uvula, tonsils; burning and swelling of the tips of the toes; the skin may have popular, vesicular eruptions; rectal piles

oozing moisture; haemorrhoidal tumours that prevent stools (Vermeulen 2001; Boericke 2000; Phatak 2002; Farrington 1992).

Face: Swelling of lower lip

Throat: Swelling of uvula, oedematous

Mouth: Eruptions: vesicles on tongue burning

Rectum: Haemorrhoids: bluish/swollen

Skin: Eruptions: blood boils

 

Phosphoricum acidum patients may present with periosteitis (tender, swollen, “As if periosteum had been scraped off with a knife”); osteitis; caries; rachitis; the eyelids may be

swollen; there may be difficulty in speech due to the swelling of the tongue; eczema of the scrotum; herpes preputialis; swelling of the left testicle

(Vermeulen 2001, Boericke 2000, Phatak 2002, Farrington 1992).

Head: Inflammation in periosteum

Female Organs: Inflammation chronic in uterus

Male Organs: Inflammation on scrotum, erysipelatous

Limbs: Swelling in bones of legs

Limbs: Swelling nodular in upper limbs

Limbs: Eruptions on fingers, vesicles

Skin: Swelling spongy

Generals: Inflammation of bones

 

Sulphuricum acidum May present with concussion of the brain with coldness of the skin. There may also be inflammation and aphthous ulceration in the mouth which may ext. abdomen

(Vermeulen 2001; Boericke 2000; Phatak 2002; Farrington 1992).

Head: Concussion of brain

Head: Eruptions: moist crusts, scabs

Mouth: Aphthae in children

Throat: Inflammation follicular

Rectum: Aphthous condition of anus

Fever: Intermittent with enlarged spleen

 

Fluoricum acidum patients may present with chronic inflammation of the lachrymal sac; inflammation of the throat < cold; ascites of liver origin; inflammation of finger joints;

and syphilitic tubercles on the skin (Vermeulen 2001; Boericke 2000; Phatak 2002; Farrington 1992).

Eye: Inflammation of periosteum of orbit

Limbs: Inflammation of bones

Skin: Eruptions: tubercle: syphilitic/suppurating

Skin: Eruptions: dry herpetic

Face: Swelling in lower jaws

 

Swelling’ research study

The following research study is included here to give a different perspective, as derived from fundamental research, regarding the action of homoeopathic acidum remedies in relation to

‘swelling.’ In this study, Nadareishvili (2006) showed how Phosphoricum acidum can affect the ionic homeostasis of normal and tumour cells. In the context of the current research study,

a tumour is an example of swelling.

Nadareishvili (2006) conducted a series of studies on the effect of homeopathy on the ionic homeostasis of normal and tumour cells. Ionic homeostasis is one of the most sensitive tests

for the evaluation of the functional state of a cell. It provides sensitive indices such as the rate of transmembrane transport of Na+, K+, and Ca 2+ and the enzymes controlling the transport

which are crucial in the treatment of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tumours.

Nadareishvili (2006) assessed the action of the homoeopathic dilution

Phosphoric acidum on ionic homeostasis in the cells of Ehrlich carcinoma.

He used a method of continuous recording of sodium, potassium and calcium ions with selective electrodes in a Ringer solution, and monitored the activity of the enzymes that control

the transport of ions through the cell membrane.

The results showed that Phosphoric acidum 14 CH promoted functional ionic transport and Na, K-ATPase in Ehrlich carcinoma cells.

Nadareishvili (2006) concluded that  Phosphoricum acidum 14CH restores the normal ionic homeostasis of stressed cells which in turn improves the health of the cells thereby making them less

susceptible to DNA degradation and tumour production.

The researcher was unable to read the original article because it is in Russian, so is not privy as to why Phosphoric acidum was selected as the test substance in the above study.

However, all acids are proton donors therefore impact ionic transfer, and one can hypothesise that a material dose of Phosphoric acid can severely derange the ionic transfer in and out of cells,

therefore a homoeopathic dose can have the opposite effect, as demonstrated in this case.

‘Swelling’ case study

The following Phosphoricum acidum case study from the British Homoeopathic Association journal paper with the title ‘Tired all the time’ (Hardy 2004).

This is a typical Phosphoricum constitutional case study substantiated by the mental-emotional symptomatology with an overlap to the Phosphoricum acidum clinical aspect. This clinical aspect

Links the physical symptomatology and therefore the sensations that arise as a result. The swollen sensation represented in the case study as distension of the stomach further substantiate the

findings of this research on acidum remedies and their potential to cure gut dysbiosis.

Hardy (2004) presents the case of a married woman, 36, mother of eight children, who for some time had been so melancholy, depressed and tired that she was unable to fulfil her household duties.

There was no discoverable mental cause, though her condition had been made worse by a sudden death in the family. The beginning of the illness was apparently a weakness of the stomach: small

appetite; always pain and distension after eating; the food seemed to lie long in the stomach undigested.

Phosphoricum acidum 6x H, ten drops three times a day, soon restored the patient. This case illustrates the overlap between the physical

and mental/emotional symptoms which are characteristic of acidums, particularly concomitant fatigue and sadness.

 

Pressing

Progressive inflammation requires more space which brings on the element of pressure as both a sensation and a pathophysiological occurrence. Pressure is described as the force or weight with which something presses against something else or it could be described as difficulties and feelings of anxiety that are caused by the need to achieve or to behave in a particular way. Pressing is an adjective which describes pressure as an emergency needing to be dealt with immediately which cannot be ignored (Oxford Dictionary 2007).

 

Nitricum acidum patients may present with a sensation of a band around head; pressure of a hat causes headaches with crushing pain; there is a sensation of pain as if bound by an iron band; pressive pain in the shoulders; tensive pain in the right hip joint (Vermeulen 2001/Boericke 2000/Phatak 2002/Farrington 1992).

Head: Pain pressing afternoon

Head: Pain in occiput < noise

Stomach: Pain < pressure, pressing

Rectum: Pain before stool pressing

Kidneys: Pain pressing

Extremities: Tension in joints

Throat: Pain < swallowing pressing

 

Muriaticum acidum

A bruised, crushed sensation in the head; fullness and distension in the abdomen (Vermeulen 2001/Boericke 2000/Phatak 2002/Farrington 1992).

Head: Pain in forehead pressing downward

Head: Pain in temples, < pressure,

Teeth: Pain pressing, “As if a part pressed”

Ear: Pain pressing outward

Abdomen: Distension morning on waking

Extremities: Tension in elbows

 

Phosphoricum acidum

May present with head pain as if the temples were crushed; feeling of tension as from dried egg white; pressure in the hypogastrium; pressive pain in the stomach; sharp pressure in the left mammae; pressure behind the sternum, and warm food makes pressive pain better generally (Vermeulen 2001/Boericke 2000/Phatak 2002/Farrington 1992).

Head: Pain in forehead l. pressing pain

Face: Tension of skin “As if egg white were dried on the face”

Stomach: Pain pressing, “As from a weight”

Chest: Oppression at night

Abdomen: Distension > passing flatus

Skin: Ulcers tense areola

 

Sulphuricum acidum

May present with sensation as if rectum contains a big ball;

Symptoms < for pressure (Vermeulen 2001/Boericke 2000/Phatak 2002/Farrington 1992)

Rectum: Pain before stool, pressing

Rectum: Pain < after stool

Abdomen: Pain l. side pressing

Abdomen: Pain r. hypochondria pressing

Abdomen: Pain in inguinal region, pressing outward

Head: Pain in temples, pressing

Extremities: “As if bandaged” in legs

 

Fluoricum acidum

May present with pressure on the head from within outwards;

fullness and pressure in the epigastrium < bandaging; pressure and dullness in the occiput (Vermeulen 2001/Boericke 2000/Phatak 2002/Farrington 1992)

Head: Pain in forehead “As if compressed”

Generals: Sexual desire suppressed

Abdomen: > Bandaging

Extremities: Pain in feet pressing

Pressing’ case study

The following case is a typical constitutional Phosphoricum case study with physical symptomatology that represents the Phosphoricum acidum clinical features. The slightest

noise is represented as a very intense pressure sensation within the organism. This cured case represents the potential to cure effected by acidum remedies with the keynote

sensations used as a guide to the remedy.

This is a historical case by Lutze (Hahn. Adv. 1900:664) and involves a German woman, 66, with a main complaint of chronic, early morning, painless diarrhoea cured by

Ph-ac after the failure of Podophyllum and partial success of Gelsemium.

The patient had been ill for two years, dating from the time she came to Brooklyn from Germany to be near her daughters. One of the latter gave Lutze the keynote of the

case by telling him that her mother was homesick, and wanted to return to Germany, though she had not a single relative there. The symptoms were: < music (every note = stitch

in ears; violent pains in head); slight shock or noise = pressure in head which was extremely violent.

The curative was Ph-ac. 6 CH, ten drops 3x daily (Clarke 2010).

 

Cramping

Following inflammation and swelling there is mass effect which induces pressure on the affected area. The inflammatory pressure effect on vasculature compromises circulation

leading to ischaemia and ischaemic effects. Cramping is one of the clinical symptomatology of delayed or compromised circulation and circulatory processes (Beukes 2001/Guyton and

Hall 1997/Kumar et al. 2007). A cramp is defined as a sudden pain which occurs when the muscles in a particular part of the body contract as a result of exercise or cold. It could also

be defined as the prevention and or halting of development or progress (Oxford Dictionary 2010).

 

Nitricum acidum

May present with paralysis of the upper eye lids; needle like stitches in the urethrae; stitching pain in the lumber region when coughing; stitches in and between scapulae; stiff neck

drawing in lumber region as if stiff; cramps in calves when walking; stiffness and stitches in the knees (Vermeulen 2001/Boericke 2000/Phatak 2002/Farrington 1992)

Extremities: “As if legs paralysed”

Extremities: Cramps in calves < walking

Ear: Pain behind the ears stitching

Head: Pain in vertex in afternoon stitching

Rectum: Pain in anus < during stool

Back: Pain in scapulae  r. stitching

Back: Pain in lumber region < lifting stitching

 

Muriaticum acidum

May present with periodical pain over the left eye and numbness down the right arm + aphasia; tongue may be paralysed; difficulty in speech from heaviness of the tongue; attempts

to swallow produce spasms and choking; cramping in the abdomen; drawing pain when walking so that the foot becomes paralysed; cramps in the ball of thumb when writing; cramp

like tearing in the thighs (Vermeulen 2001/Boericke 2000/Phatak 2002/Farrington 1992)

Head: “As if numb in forehead”

Extremities: Numbness in fingers during chill

Extremities: - Numbness in hands during chill

Head: Heaviness sides

Extremities: Heaviness in forearms

Back: Pain between capulae drawing

 

Phosphoricum acidum

patients may present with spasmodic drawing pain in the ear, cramps in upper arms and wrists; cramp like pressure in hands and fingers (Vermeulen 2001/Boericke 2000/Phatak 2002/Farrington 1992)

Back: Pain in between scapulae

Extremities: Pain in hollow of knees drawing

Extremities: Cramps in hips

Extremities: Cramps in upper arms

Extremities: Cramps in wrists

Extremities: Heaviness in joints

 

Sulphuricum acidum

May present with stitches in both hypochondria; stitches in the chest; cramp like paralytic contractions in the arm; jerking of fingers while writing; writer’s cramp; jerking of tendons; stitches in the joint

(Vermeulen 2001/Boericke 2000/Phatak 2002/Farrington 1992)

Extremities: Jerking in fingers

Abdomen: Twitching and jerking sides

Extremities: Pain in legs jerking

Generals: Pain in muscles, tearing, jerking

Stomach: Pain cramping “As from becoming cold”

Abdomen: Pain in evening cramping

 

Fluoricum acidum

May present with feeling of weight in stomach between meals; numbness of parts and heaviness especially of the head (Vermeulen 2001/Boericke 2000/Phatak 2002/Farrington 1992)

Stomach: Pain pressing “As from a weight”

Head: Heaviness on waking

Head: Heaviness < stooping

Head: Numbness “As if numb in forehead”

Mouth: Numb tongue

Extremities: Numb hands < morning in

Cramping’ case study

The following case study is included here to provide a different perspective while conveying the fundamental key features of sensations identified in this study. The violent cramping experienced by

this particular patient during the cholera episode is one of the sensations found in this study. The violence that amplifies the sensation is also consistent with the overall nature of acidum remedies.

The Sulphuricum acidum which is used as a prescription in this case study is well known for its effects against cramping resulting from loss of vital fluids such as in the case of cholera.

This is also an historical case, presented by Cannon (1927), of a man aged 35 with violent cramps, vomiting, and rice-water stools. On microscopic examination, the cholera vibrio was found to be

present.

Sulphuricum acidum 3 CH was given within two hours of the commencement of symptoms. Six hours later, no vibrio was to be found.

Sulphuricum acidum is well known for its beneficial effects on cramping resulting from loss of vital fluids such as in the case of cholera. The violence that amplifies the sensation in this case is also

consistent with the overall nature of acidum remedies.

 

 

Vorwort/Suchen                                          Zeichen/Abkürzungen                             Impressum