Aspartam (Aspart) = E 951/= Asparaginsäure + Phenylalanin (= Aminosäuren)/= C14H18N2O5

 

Gebrauch: Allergische Beschwerden/Kopfschmerz/Sehstörung/Hyperaktiv/depressiv/Schädigung von Nerven;

Wird in Tausenden Nahrungsmitteln weltweit enthalten ist, werden gentechnisch veränderte Bakterien verwendet. Gleichfalls schockierend ist die Erkenntnis, wie lange diese Information schon bekannt ist. In 1999 wurde in einem Artikel im Independent erstmals auf diesen abscheulichen Aspekt des Herstellungsprozesses von Aspartam hingewiesen. Es ist schon eine bittere Ironie, dass diese Erkenntnis zur gleichen Zeit erfolgte, als die Vertreter der reichen Industrienationen auf dem G8-Gipfel über die Sicherheit gentechnisch veränderter Lebensmittel diskutierten.

Aspartam ein chemischer Süßstoff ist zuständig:

Gedächtnisverlust, Depressionen, Blindheit und Verlust des Hörvermögens sind nur einige der Wirkungen von chemischen Süßstoffen wie Aspartam auf den menschlichen Organismus.

Monsanto setzte oft genmodifizierte Bakterien bei der Produktion von Aspartam, in seinen amerikanischen Fertigungsstätten, ein. Als Ergebnis hat man es hier mit der Verbindung zweier der größten Bedrohungen zu tun, mit denen die Nahrungsmittelindustrie jemals konfrontiert wurde. Und zwar, künstlichen Süßstoffen und einer größeren Anzahl gentechnisch veränderter Organismen (GVO). Beide haben in der Öffentlichkeit zu erheblichen Diskussionen geführt. Vor allem Aspartam wurde in Kongressausschüssen erörtert und war Gegenstand heftiger wissenschaftlicher Kritik.

Die amerikanische Behörde für Lebensmittelsicherheit, FDA, erhielt zahlreiche Zuschriften von Verbrauchern, die Nutrasweet, eines der Süßungsmittel mit Aspartam, betrafen. Nach 1992 stellte die FDA allerdings die Dokumentierung der Berichte zu diesem Thema ein.

Im Herstellungsprozess von Aspartam ein chemischer Süßstoff wird unter anderem eine Aminosäure namens Phenylalanin mit Asparaginsäure kombiniert. Aspartam wurde 1965 zum ersten Mal synthetisiert und benötigt die Bakterien ausschließlich zur Herstellung von Phenylalanin. Monsanto hat schnell herausgefunden, dass genetisch veränderte Bakterien Phenylalanin viel schneller herstellen können. In dem genannten Artikel im Independent räumt Monsanto offen ein, dass die von ihnen genetisch veränderten Bakterien ein wesentlicher Bestandteil des Herstellungsprozesses sind. »Wir verfügen über zwei Bakterienstämme (eine wurde auf herkömmliche Weise verändert, und der andere gentechnisch manipuliert)«, erklärte der Informant von Monsanto. »Letzterer weist ein verändertes Enzym auf und unterscheidet sich in einer Aminosäure.«

Aspartam viele wissenschaftliche Studien zum Thema genetische Manipulation durchgeführt, und viele kommen zu negativen Schlussfolgerungen;

Nebenwirkungen: Depressiv [manic depression/anxiety attacks (morning)]/Hallucinations/irritable/slurred speech

(Short term/poor) memory loss/unable to concentrate/forgets what is saying in middle of sentence/feels like “fog has been lifted” (on giving up)/confused

Abdominal Pain

Anxiety attacks

arthritis

asthma

Asthmatic Reactions

Bloating, Edema (Fluid Retention)

Blood Sugar Control Problems (Hypo-/Hyperglycemia)

Brain Cancer (Pre-approval studies in animals)

Breathing difficulties

burning eyes or throat

Burning Urination

can’t think straight

Chest Pains

chronic cough

Chronic Fatigue

Confusion

Death

Depression

Diarrhea

Dizziness

Excessive Thirst or Hunger

fatigue

feel unreal

flushing of face

Hair Loss (Baldness) or Thinning of Hair

Headaches/Migraines dizziness

Hearing Loss

Heart palpitations

Hives (Urticaria)

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

Impotency and Sexual Problems

inability to concentrate

Infection Susceptibility

Insomnia

Irritability

Itching

Joint Pains

laryngitis

“like thinking in a fog”

Marked Personality Changes

Memory loss

Menstrual Problems or Changes

Migraines and Severe Headaches (Trigger or Cause From Chronic Intake)

Muscle spasms

Nausea or Vomiting

Numbness or Tingling of Extremities

Other Allergic-Like Reactions

Panic Attacks

Phobias

poor memory

Rapid Heart Beat

Rashes

Seizures and Convulsions

Slurring of Speech

Swallowing Pain

Tachycardia

Tremors

Tinnitus

Vertigo

Vision Loss

Weight gain

Aspartame Disease Mimics Symptoms or Worsens the Following Diseases

Alzheimer’s Disease

Arthritis

Birth Defects

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Diabetes and Diabetic Complications

epilepsy.

Fibromyalgia

Lupus

Lyme Disease

Lymphoma

Multiple Chemical Sensitivities (MCS)

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Parkinson’s Disease

ADHD, aggravates autism;

Repertorium:                                                           [Richard Bocock]

Mind: Activitiy desires it

Alert

Calm

Cheerful

Confused - with headache/talking

Content (during mental prostration)

Delusion - things no longer automatically done/awake, wide-awake/everything runs like clockwork/been poisoned

Dull - with headache/speaking/during work

Exhilaration

Forgetful during headache

Grief

Industrious (efficient)

Indifferent - durikng headache/to important things/to usual intellectual occupation/to irritating, disagreeable things

Irritable - # indifferent/to own family/> headache

Laughing/loquacious

Memory waek (for what is about to do/for what is about to say/for proper names)

Mistakes - speaking (using wrong words)/in work/in time/days of the week

Prostration of mind during headache

Reproaches himself

Senses acute

Time appears longer/passes too slowly

Tranquility (performing tasks)

Untidy

Weak will

Vertigo: Turning head/or moving head quickly

Walking

Head: Heavy

Pain - l./from light in general/in forehead ext eyes/in occiput/bursting > after eating/cutting (in forehead)/in a line or rod

Eyes: Glassy appearance

Itching in innere canthi

„As if hair in eye“

Staring

Vision: Acute/foggy

Ear: Heat

Itching in meatus

Smell: acute

Face: corners of mouth cracked

Dry

Eruptions around corners of mouth

Heat in spots

Pain - in bones/in cheek/stinging

Mouth: Tongue yellow

Saliva - frothy/offensive/thick

Salivation profuse

Taste acute

Ulcer in Gums

Throat: Dry

„As if foreign body“

Stomach: Appetite increased (morning)/wanting

Distended

Empty (in morning after breakfast)

Eructations/retching with cough

Heartburn

Abdomen: Pain in Hypogastrium/in region of umbilicus: spot beneath navel/stitching

Rectum: Constipation (stool insufficient)/urging

Stool: Hard/long, narrow/smells offensive

Bladder: urging

Female organs: Menses - delayed

protracted

Stitching in uterus

Respiration: Deep - desires to breathe

Difficult (eating/after exertion)

Cough: dry

Chest: constricted/oppressed

Pain - sore/stitching/with respiration/l. mamma/between ribs

Back: Heat in lumbar tegion on waking from sleep at night radiating to body

Pain - cervical region (aching)/burning in lumbar tegion on waking from sleep at night

Stiffness in cervical region (creaking „As if bones need oiling“)

Extremities: Heaviness in upper limbs writing

Pain - stitching in lower limbs (> motion/knees)

Weakness in ankle suddenly walking/knee suddenly gives away walking

Sleep: sleepy

Dreams: Dead children/eyes bloodshot and r. eye glows

Skin: cicatrices itching

Generals: > open air

Food and drinks: Aversion to: sweets; <: errors in diet;  Desires: sweets;

Lack of vital heat

„As if heat“

Pain - appears suddenly/in spots/stabbing/stitching

Weary in evening

 

Vergleich: Enthält: Methanol (10%) by weight/wird metabolised into formaldehyde + Form-ac + CO2; Enthalten in: Light cola;

Siehe: Saccharum officinalis + Allergie + Süßmittelgruppe

 

Unverträglich: in Phenylketonurie

 

Wirkung: carcenoid

 

Allerlei: = Excitotoxin

Non-nutritive sweetener 160 - 220x sweeter than sugar.

Approved for dry use/chewing gum/carbonated drinks in 1981/for general use in 1996. Approved in over 100 countries/WHO/EC scientific Committee on Foods.

Found in over 6000 products [puddings/frozen desserts/carbonated soft drinks (70% of demand)/breath mints/vitamins/cold preparations]. Mostly combined with sugar/saccharine/trend towards use as the sole sweetener in processed foods (Pepsi/Coca-Cola).

In slimmers, due to it’s low calorific value/in diabetics as it is claimed to satisfy sugar cravings without affecting blood sugar levels/recommended by the American Diabetic Association. Claimed be be free from any side-effects in the majority of people (except  PKU).

The history of aspartame is extremely controversial.

It has been extensively tested but still doubts remain as to its safety, or otherwise.

In the Spring of 1971, the neuroscientist, Dr John Olney (whose work on the effects of Monosodium glutamate resulted in it being removed from baby foods) informed GD Searle that his studies had revealed that aspartic acid caused holes in the brains of baby mice. These results were replicated by one of Searle’s own researchers in a similar study. GD Searle tests were sloppy/inaccurate.

Aspartic acid: 40% of weight of aspartame. It is claimed that reports of brain damage is built on faulty premise that large amounts of aspartame leads to a build-up of aspartic acid in the blood circulating to brain + kills nerve cells by over stimulation. NutraSweet claim that due to the nature of the aspartic acid transport system it doesn’t cause any neurotoxilogical effects as, it does not cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore doesn’t accumulate in the brain. Ketchner & Hollenbeck (1991) stated that, although this is normally true, at high doses it can cross into the brain, where it acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter and, potentially cause brain damage. High levels of aspartic acid in its unbound form significantly raise blood plasma level of the neurotransmitter, Aspartate. Excess levels of aspartame allow the influx of too much calcium into the cells, which, in turn triggers excess free radicals that kill the cells. Again, the point is made that some parts of the brain are not protected by the blood-brain barrier. 

Aspartame has simiLAR characteristics as Glutamate (Monosodium Glutamate). Brain

Aspartam can cause magnesium deficiency.

 

[Richard Bocock]

This proving was carried out by students at the South Downs School of Homeopathy between January and April 2002. My thanks to the students for their commitment to the proving and diligence

in carrying out their roles as provers and supervisors, in what was a very challenging and long last proving. My thanks also to Christian Taylor who did most of the work of writing up this proving,

and Gill Bowden who did the research on the remedy substance.

WHY THIS PROVING?

I read a spate of articles in the press and on the Internet about the possible side effects of using this artificial sweetener in our diet obsessed world. It’s use is very widespread in diet drinks and

foods and I was curious to see first of all if the homeopathic proving mirrored the reported side effects of the material substance, and wondered if there might indeed be an Aspartame

constitution or layer engrafted on those who ingested alot of the substance either directly, or indirectly in the womb.

The proving was started in January 2002. It was conducted using the guidelines contained in “The Dynamics and Methodology of Homeopathic Provings” by Jeremy Sherr.

The following text includes information on the substance itself and the proving symptoms grouped according to key themes using the provers’ own language. No attempt is made to integrate this

pure information or to suggest a material medica picture. A fuller synthesis suggesting a material medica picture is written separately and will be published in appropriate journals.

Toxicological data on Aspartame has not been included at this stage in the repertorisation although it might be beneficial to add this in to expand the picture and suggest additional rubrics if time

permits at a later stage. However due to the controversial and anecdotal nature of some of this information it could prove difficult to know what to include and what to exclude.

Repertorisation

All rubrics are from the Complete Repertory.

L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl methyl ester, also known as aspartame, NutraSweet, Equal, Candarel, Spoonful and E951 in Europe.

Uses

Aspartame is classed as a non-nutritive sweetener (i.e. offers no nutritional energy) as its nutritional value is negligible at approx. 4 kcal/g from metabolisation of amino acids. It is high intensity sweetener 160-220 times sweeter than sugar, thus requires little volume to produce sweetness.

It was approved by the FDA for dry use, chewing gum and carbonated drinks in 1981, and for general use in 1996. It is approved for use in over 100 countries, and by organisations such as the WHO, EC scientific Committee on Foods and the European Parliament. It is found in over 6000 products incl. puddings, frozen desserts, carbonated soft drinks (70% of demand), breath mints, vitamins and cold preparations. In most products it is combined with either sugar or saccharine, but the trend is towards it’s use

Aspartame is marketed particularly at slimmers, due to it’s low calorific value, and at diabetics as it is claimed to satisfy sugar cravings without affecting blood sugar levels and is recommended by the American Diabetic Association. It is claimed be free from any side-effects in the majority of people, though it must be used with care in those suffering from PKU, a rare genetic disorder (we will

discuss later).

History

The history of aspartame is extremely controversial, with claim and counter-claim being made by the manufacturers and a number of, mainly, Internet sites as to the safety of aspartame. Each side argues the validity and objectivity of it’s own research, and the inaccuracy and bias of the other side. It has been extensively tested but still doubts remain as to its safety, or otherwise.

Aspartame was discovered by James Schlatter, a chemist at G.D. Searle in 1965. While testing a peptic ulcer drug Schlatter spilt some on his fingers and, on licking it off, found the substance to be incredibly sweet. In 1967 G.D. Searle began the safety tests required by the FDA for approval of food additives.

Dr Harold Waisman, a biochemist at the University of Wisconsin, conducted safety tests on infant monkeys on behalf of GD Searle. Seven monkeys were fed aspartame mixed with milk, of these 1 died after 300 days and 5 had grand mal seizures

The results of this experiment were not submitted to FDA until 18th August 1985, 27 months after aspartame was approved for dry use. Searle maintained that it had been overlooked.

In November 1970 Cyclamate, the leading brand of low-calorie sweetener was withdrawn due to a suspected link with cancer. At the same time the safety of saccharine was being questioned, leaving the field open for a new sugar substitute.

In the Spring of 1971, the neuroscientist, Dr John Olney (whose work on the effects of Monosodium glutamate resulted in it being removed from baby foods) informed GD Searle that his studies had

revealed that as particacid caused holes in the brains of baby mice. These results were replicated by one of Searle’s own researchers in a similar study.

Searle applied for FDA approval in February 1973, submitting more than 100 studies to support its claims that aspartame is safe. The FDA reviewed this data but on the 5th of March 1973 stated that

“the information provided (by Searle) is inadequate to permit an evaluation of the potential toxicity of aspartame” and calls for further clinical tests. However, on the 26th July 1974 the FDA granted

first approval for use in dry goods. In August Jim Turner & Dr. John Olney filed first objections to aspartame approval on safety ground, and in December 1975 the FDA stayed approval until Searle’s safety studies could be audited

The Turner & Olney petition triggered a FDA investigation in March 1976, looking at the laboratory practices at GD Searle. The investigation found Searle’s testing procedures shoddy, inaccurate and with “manipulated” test results. On the 10th January 1976, the FDA formally requested that US attorneys office to begin grand jury proceedings to investigate whether indictments should be filed against Searle for “concealing material facts and making false statements” in aspartame safety tests. With grand jury proceedings underway Sidley & Austin, the law firm representing G.D. Searle, begin job negotiations with U.S. attorney in charge of the investigation, Samuel Skinner on the 26th of January 1977. It is worth noting that Skinner’s wife already worked for Sidley & Austin. Sam Skinner left the District attorney’s office to take up his new position on the 1st of July 1977; he later went on to be the White House Chief of Staff under George Bush. It is claimed that Skinner’s resignation and subsequent departure led to the drawing out of the case until, on the 8th December 1977, the statute of limitations on aspartame charges runs out and the grand jury investigation is dropped.

In the meantime, GD Searle hire prominent Washington insider, Donald Rumsfeld as CEO in an attempt to turn the company around. Then, on the 1st August 1977, The Bressler Report, compiled

by FDA investigators and headed by Jerome Bressler, is released. It finds that in one report 98 of the 196 animals died during one of Searle’s studies but weren’t autopsied until up to a year after death.

Many other inconsistencies are found, including one rat being reported as dead, then alive, then dead again, and a mass, a uterine polyp and ovarian neoplasms were found in the animals but not reported by Searle. On 1st June 1979 The FDA established a Public Board of Enquiry with a remit to rule on the safety issues surrounding aspartame.

On the 1st July 1981 Dr Hayes, the new FDA commissioner, ignored the PBOI and the recommendation of his internal FDA team, and approved aspartame for dry use. Hayes stated that aspartame has been shown to be safe for it’s intended use and says that few compounds have withstood such thorough testing and repeated close scrutiny.

 

Repertory:

Mind:

ACTIVITY; desires

ALERT

CALM

CHEERFUL

CONFUSION of mind - with headache/while talking

CONTENT (during mental prostration)

DELUSION - automatic; things done automatically are no longer (NR)/awake, wide-awake (NR)/everything runs like clockwork (NR)/has been poisoned

DULLNESS - with headache/while speaking/during work

EXHILARATION

FORGETFUL; headache, during

GRIEF

INDUSTRIOUS (efficient) (NR)

INDIFFERENCE - during headache/to important things/to usual intellectual occupation/to irritating, disagreeable things

IRRITABILITY (# indifference)

IRRITABILITY - to own family/> headache

LAUGHING

LOQUACIOUS

MEMORY - Weakness of memory

MEMORY - Weakness of memory; for what he is

about to do

MEMORY - Weakness of memory; for what he is

about to say

MEMORY - Weakness of memory; proper names

MISTAKES - speaking, in; using wrong words

MISTAKES - in work

MISTAKES - time, in; days of the week

PROSTRATION of mind - headache, during

REPROACHING himself

SENSES - acute

TIME - slowly, appears longer; passes too

TRANQUILLITY (performing tasks)

UNTIDY

WILL - weakness of

Vertigo: TURNING head/moving the: quickly

WALKING; while

Head: Heavy

PAIN - l./from in light general/in forehead ext. eyes/in occiput/bursting > after eating/cutting (in forehead)/in a line or rod

Eyes: appear glassy

ITCHING in inner canthi

“As if hair in eye”

Staring

Vision: ACUTE/FOGGY

Ear: HEAT

ITCHING in Meatus

Nose:

Smell: acute

Face:

Mouth - corners CRACKED/ERUPTIONS

DRY skin

HEAT in spots

PAIN - in Bones/in cheek/stinging

Mouth: Tongue yellow

SALIVA - frothy/offensive/thick

SALIVATION - profuse

ULCER - Gums

TASTE: acute

Throat: DRYNESS/”As if a foreign body inside”

Stomach: APPETITE increased (morning/wanting)

DISTENded

EMPTINESS (morning after breakfast)

ERUCTATIONS

HEARTBURN

RETCHING with cough, with

Abdomen:

PAIN - Hypogastrium/in region of umbilicus spot beneath navel/stitching

Rectum: CONSTIPATION (stool insufficient)

URGING

Stool: HARD/LONG, narrow

ODOR - offensive

Bladder: URGING

Female Genitalia:

MENSES - delayed/protracted

PAIN - stitching in uterus

Respiration:

Desire to breathe deep

DIFFICULT (eating/after exertion)

Cough: DRY

Chest:

CONSTRICTED

OPPRESSION

PAIN - sore/stitching (at respiration/l. mamma/between ribs)

Back:

HEAT in lumbar region on waking from sleep at night, radiating to body (NR)

PAIN - Cervical (aching)/ burning in lumbar region on waking from sleep at night

STIFFNESS - in cervical region creaking as if bones need oiling (NR)

Limbs: HEAVINESS in upper limbs writing

PAIN - stitching in lower limbs (> motion)/in knees

WEAKNESS - Ankle: walking; while: sudden

EXTREMITIES - WEAKNESS - Knee: walking; while: sudden, gives way (NR)

Sleep: sleepy

Dreams: DEAD children

EYES - bloodshot: eyes bloodshot and right eye glowing (NR)

Skin: CICATRICES - itching

Generals: > open air

FOOD and Drinks: <: errors in diet;

Aversion to: sweet;

Desires: sweet;

HEAT - lack of vital heat/sensation of heat

PAIN - appears suddenly/in spots/stabbing/stitching

WEARy in evening

 

Vergleich: Enthält: Methanol (10%) by weight/wird metabolised into formaldehyde + Form-ac + CO2; Enthalten in: Light cola;

Siehe: Saccharum officinalis + Allergie + Süßmittelgruppe

 

Unverträglich: in Phenylketonurie

 

Wirkung: carcenoid

 

Allerlei: = Excitotoxin

Non-nutritive sweetener 160 - 220x sweeter than sugar.

Approved for dry use/chewing gum/carbonated drinks in 1981/for general use in 1996. Approved in over 100 countries/WHO/EC scientific Committee on Foods.

Found in over 6000 products [puddings/frozen desserts/carbonated soft drinks (70% of demand)/breath mints/vitamins/cold preparations]. Mostly combined with sugar/saccharine/trend towards use as the sole sweetener in processed foods (Pepsi/Coca-Cola).

In slimmers, due to it’s low calorific value/in diabetics as it is claimed to satisfy sugar cravings without affecting blood sugar levels/recommended by the American Diabetic Association. Claimed be free from any side-effects in the majority of people (except  PKU).

The history of aspartame is extremely controversial.

It has been extensively tested but still doubts remain as to its safety, or otherwise.

In the Spring of 1971, the neuroscientist, Dr John Olney (whose work on the effects of Monosodium glutamate resulted in it being removed from baby foods) informed GD Searle that his studies had revealed that aspartic acid caused holes in the brains of baby mice. These results were replicated by one of Searle’s own researchers in a similar study. GD Searle tests were sloppy/inaccurate.

Aspartic acid: 40% of weight of aspartame. It is claimed that reports of brain damage is built on faulty premise that large amounts of aspartame leads to a build-up of aspartic acid in the blood circulating to brain + kills nerve cells by over stimulation. NutraSweet claim that due to the nature of the aspartic acid transport system it doesn’t cause any neurotoxilogical effects as, it does not cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore doesn’t accumulate in the brain. Ketchner & Hollenbeck (1991) stated that, although this is normally true, at high doses it can cross into the brain, where it acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter and, potentially cause brain damage. High levels of aspartic acid in its unbound form significantly raise blood plasma level of the neurotransmitter, Aspartate. Excess levels of aspartame allow the influx of too much calcium into the cells, which, in turn triggers excess free radicals that kill the cells. Again, the point is made that some parts of the brain are not protected by the blood-brain barrier. 

Aspartame has simiLAR characteristics as Glutamate (Monosodium Glutamate). Brain

Aspartam can cause magnesium deficiency.

 

 

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