Miasma Psora = Skabies/= Krätze

 

Kind: Anhang;

 

Vergleich: Anhängsel (Carola und Ravi Roy/R. Schule/Laurence Gromier-Heim/ Frederic Schmitt) + Anhang (Manuel Harand) + Comparison Psora and Sycosis (Y.R. Agrawal)     

 

[Sankaran]

The keywords that predominate in a Psoric patient is “struggle.” The patient is always in a struggle with regards to money and ego. He feels that things may go wrong at any time, even though

his situation is fine. He feels he is losing something, like his business will fail or he will lose his fortune. He fears poverty, hence talks of business, has delusions that he is going to lose his fortune,

therefore to keep things as they are he must struggle. To conclude a Psoric patient feels anxious about his future and doubts his abilities to deal with stress. His main concerns are a fear of poverty.

[Edward C. Whitmont]

Sykose and syphillinie (tuberculinie) are special forms of Psora. Most remedies are a blend of all or some miasmen.

[Mohinder Singh Jus]

Psorische Depression

Weil wir so psorisch sind, sind wir empfindlich. Wir sagen feinfühlig und meinen es als Kompliment. Eigentlich ist es eine Krankheit, beleidigt und verletzt bei der kleinsten Bemerkung

zu sein oder Kopfweh von Nordwind, Tee, Kaffee zu kriegen. Bei psorischen Menschen zappeln die Nerven sofort. Sie sind überempfindlich, leicht schockiert, leicht verängstigt,

ein bisschen Lärm im Keller und schon haben sie Herzklopfen und Angst. Solche Feinfühligkeit ist wie ein wucherndes Unkraut. Es macht unfähig, die Schönheit des eigenen Lebensgartens

zu sehen und hindert daran, ein normales Leben zu führen.

Meistens sind psorische Depressionen temporär und kurz dauernd. Der Patient spricht gewöhnlich schnell auf eine Behandlung an und findet bald wieder sein Gleichgewicht.

Psorische Auslöser

Unerfüllte Erwartung: Psorische Menschen sind sehr ehrgeizig aber auch leicht frustriert. Aus diesem Grund können sie mit einer Depression reagieren, wenn die eigenen Erwartungen nicht erfüllt

werden (Sil.)

Enttäuschung: Sehr possessiv, schnell enttäuscht, wenn es nicht so geht wie sie wollen. Bsp.: Eine Mutter wird depressiv, wenn die Tochter auszieht.

Sie weiss, dass es normal ist, kann sich aber damit nicht abfinden

Zuviel Freude: Angst vor Freude (Psor.) Bsp. Ein Geschäftsmann wird depressiv in einer Zeit, wo sein Geschäft floriert. Er kann nicht an sein Glück glauben, hat grosse Zukunftsängste und

denkt immer: «es kann nicht lange so gut gehen»

Angst im Geschäft zu versagen, im Allgemein zu versagen. Bsp. Eine Calc-Frau backt diesen Kuchen seit 20 Jahren, aber jedes Mal hat sie Zweifel, ob der Kuchen gut ist. Sie studiert das Gesicht

von allen Gästen und kann sich erst entspannen, wenn sie von allen gelobt wird.

Wetterabhängige Depression: z.B. < Frühling, < heißes Wetter usw.

Starker Blutverlust

Unterdrücktes Nesselfieber, allgemein unterdrückte psorische Symptome (unterdrückter nervöser Darm, unterdrückte Hautausschläge usw.), unterdrückter Scharlach, Masern, unterdrückte Menses

Ängste

Folgende Ängste gehören zum psorischen Miasma:

Ängste vor: Verlust/Tod/Dunkelheit/Gespenster/Überfall/Einbrecher/Dieben/Veränderungen/Neuem/Zukunft/Prüfungen/Lampenfieber/Alleinsein/Männer/Gegengeschlecht/Existenz finanzielle;

<: Sonne/Wetterwechsel/mit leerem Magen;

>: nach dem Essen (Anac. Phos. Chel. Psor. Lyc.)

Nach Durchfall: (Cimic. Nat-s.)

 

Psora                                                                                                                            Struggle/“Itch“

              Reacts to a situation which demands struggle with the circumstances outside in order to survive.

              Aspects: Apathy/indecisions about serious issues - Irresolution

Psora Miasm: The feeling is that of a difficult situation where one has to struggle in order to succeed. Anxiety with doubts about his ability, but he is hopeful and

failure does not mean the end of the world. He must struggle in order to recover or maintain his position.

Psora spends its action largely upon the nervous system. The greatest force to rouse the psoric dyscrasia is grief or sorrow. Mentally alert and easily fatigued.

They dread to undertake any exertion. They fear their health will fail, that they will be incurable, or that they will be dependent. Psoric manifestations > elimination: diarrhea, perspiration or urination.

[Edward C. Whitmont]

Psora ist der Anstoß zur Kreativität, Entwicklung, Gestaltung und Sinnfindung. Dies erfordert ständige Objekt-/Substanzbegegenung/-auseinandersetzung. Aber hier gilt: Was nicht seelisch verarbeitet

werden kann, fällt oder bleibt ins Körperliche. Wenn ein Problem eigentlich seelisch verarbeitet werden müsste und nicht von der psychologischen Seite angegangen wird. Kann sich dies als Widerstand

gegen die Arznei äußern. Es heißt immer in die Schmerz (Trauer durch Weinen) hineingehen. Wandel braucht was wir Krankheit nenn, verursacht durch Vieren/Bakterien/Gifte/Partner/Vorgesetzte/Automobile/

Luftverunreinigung je nach Bedarf. Die Umwelt ist nach Bedarf verunreinigt.

 

Psora: derived from the Hebrew word “tsorat”, meaning ‘groove, defect, pollution or stigma.’ According to Hahnemann, psora is the oldest and most universal miasm and the primary manifestation of psora is expressed through the skin. It can be expressed through eruptions of all kind such as erysipelas and scabies or itch. Hahnemann believed that everyone has the psoric miasm as it was easily transmitted through scratching of the eruption. If the eruption was suppressed through allopathic treatment, the psoric miasm would be considered to be a latent susceptibility remaining in the person

(de Schepper, 2001:356 - 364).

Principles and Art of Cure by Homeopathy - H.A. Roberts MD - Thanks to Carl Townsend -UK

 

Vergleich Psora - Sykose - Syphillinie - Tuberkulinie

 

The best time for taking an antipsoric is the morning, before breakfast and the patient ought then to wait about an hour before eating or drinking anything. [Hahnemann]

Roger Bacon: His description of the effects of Antimony in leprosy reminds of Hahnemann's concept of psora. "To begin with the patient is given six drops on an empty stomach. And arrange it so that the unclean person is alone without the company of any healthy people, in a separate and convenient place. For his whole body will soon begin to smoke and steam with a stinking mist or vapour. And on the second day his skin will start to flake and much uncleanness will detach itself from his body. He should then have three more drops of the medicine ready, which he should take and use in solitude on the fourth day. Then on the eight or ninth day, by means of this medicine and through the bestowal of Divine mercy and blessing, he will be completely cleansed and his health restored."

 

Darmnosoden:

 

BB.: zur Abgrenzung dienen und auf Solar-Plexus und Wurzelchakra wirken, alle Blüten, die bei Empfindlichkeit helfen.

Psora gekennzeichnet durch Mangel und Hemmung auf allen Ebenen; funktionelle Beschwerdekomplexe, körperliche Abwehrschwäche, seelisch überempfindlich/schüchtern; Mangel an Selbstvertrauen/-wertgefühl belasten.

Häufige Infekte der Atemwege/Allergien/Neurodermitis und Asthma sind

die häufigsten Erkrankungen, die eine Entlastung für die Psora darstellen. Maßgebend für die Psora ist eine Grundschwäche, die sich insbesondere auf der Haut als Krätze und Hautausschlag bemerkbar macht. Psora = die innere Krätzekrankheit tritt durch den äußeren Krätzeausschlag in Erscheinung.

Die Ursache der Schwäche ist wahrscheinlich keine körperliche, sondern eine energetische, die aber zu körperlichen Kompensierungen führt. Z.b durch übermäßiges Essen in der aktiven psorischen Phase - es kann dadurch aber der energetische Mangel nicht ausgeglichen werden, weshalb der Drang nach Stimulantia weiter besteht (Miasmen als Energieform), da die Heilungsversuche nicht auf der gleichen Ebene geschehen. Das ist der Grund der Schaffung der Miasmen, wobei der Organismus versucht, einen Mangel auf Ebenen auszugleichen, auf denen sie nicht ausgeglichen werden können und er somit pathologische Reaktionen im Organismus schafft. Das Verlangen nach Stimulantia (heißen Getränken und Speisen/gebratenen, scharf gewürzten Speisen/Betäubungsmittel/Anregungsmitteln/Tee/Kaffee/Tabak u.a.). Ursache = der Einwirkung der Psora auf die Lebenskraft. Die Lebenskraft wird so sehr geschwächt, dass der Körper die Stimulantia braucht, um die notwendige Spannung für das tägliche Leben aufzubauen.

Charakteristische Zeichen:

Bescheidenheit => lebt mit Mangel

Charakterisiert durch den Defekt - erkennen wir an der Hemmung des Individuums auf vielfache Weise: an Mangelzuständen, an der Schwäche, am Minderwertigkeitsgefühl, dem Kältegefühl; all dem, was den Mensch in seinen Ausdrucksmöglichkeiten reduziert

Charakter: schwächlich, pedantisch, spärlich, unzugänglich

Tendenz: Sehnsucht

Farbwahl: blau

Krankheitsbereiche: Minderwertigkeitskomplexe, Angst-Syndrome

Mittel: Sulfur, Calcium

Heilmittel: Sulfur/Psor./Chin. (Grenzen ziehen)

Ein noch einigermaßen gut funktionierendes Immunsystem, das noch Lebensenergie zur Verfügung sucht die Aktivierung. Daher tritt die aktive Psora zuerst auf. Angst, Furcht (was passieren könnte), Brennen, übersteigerte Einbildung, wechselhafte Emotionen und leicht zu erschüttern durch starke emotionale Eindrücke (Kummer/Schock/Wut/Furcht)/gesteigerte Gedankentätigkeit, Heißhunger, Krämpfe, Reizbarkeit, Ruhelosigkeit (in der tuberkulinen Phase der Erkrankungen nimmt diese psychische Unruhe ein Eigenleben an und führt zur Sucht nach ständigen Veränderungen und der tiefen Sehnsucht nach der verlorenen Heimat, die auf der Ebene, in der gesucht wird, nicht gefunden werden kann), schreckhaft, Schwindel, überempfindlich und überaktiv auf allen Ebenen des Daseins, wechselhaftig/launenhaft - Stimmungsschwankungen, gestörtes Zeitempfinden, Langsamkeit und Verzögerung.

Lokale Beschwerden:

Heiße, trockene Hautstellen; übermäßige Schweißabsonderung, rasende Gedanken (Geist überempfindlich/-aktiv); Schwierigkeiten, sich neuen Situationen zu stellen = Angriff als mögliche Reaktionsform; Husten; Juckreiz und Brennen (Haut/Augen); Augen überempfindlich; gesteigerte Darmtätigkeit (Rumoren); Völle- o. Druckgefühl („Wie einem Stein im Bauch“; Blähungen; Schmerz im Bauch; Hämorrhoiden; Hautausschläge (trocken, rauh und pickelig, Bläschen, die furchtbar jucken und nach dem Kratzen brennen), Nessel-/Krätzeausschlag; Herzbeschwerden durch Furcht, Enttäuschung, Schocks, übermäßige Freude, obwohl EKG unauffällig ist = > durch Ruhe; Kopfschmerz; Hörvermögen empfindLICH;

Geistes- und Gemütssymptome:

Arbeitsunlust (kann Arbeit nicht bewältigen "“Wie zu schwach"), keines Gedanken fähig, Hypochondrie, Mangel an Selbstvertrauen (traut sich die Verantwortung

nicht zu übernehmen. Alles erscheint einem wie ein großer Berg, den man nie bewältigen wird, schafft es dennoch immer); schwierig sich neuen Situationen zu

stellen = Rückzug als mögliche Reaktionsform; Neigung zu Schwermut und Selbstanklage; Hängt sich an andere (übernimmt nicht die Verantwortung für das

eigene Leben, sondern macht das Leben für die eigene Situation verantwortlich und verlangt vom Leben, genährt zu werden).

 

Schlüsselwort: Ringen/Überreaktion/Unterfunktion (verstopft:/apathisch usw.);

Thema: Hoffnung/struggling/= Antwort auf Sprache + Werkzeug;

Lösung: sich zusammentun in Gruppen zur erreichen eines gemeinschaftliches Ideal;

Negativ: = Mangel/unbeweglich/“Wie minderwert“

Positiv: Problem = lösbar mit Optimismus/= Aufbauend/Hoffnung/Morgen/Frühling/Jugend;

Negativ: Furcht, durch schlechte frühere Erfahrungen, nicht mit von außen kommenden Stress umgehen zu können/empfindet vieles als Stress. (Manisch-depressiv).

Ohne Stress sind keine Beschwerden da. will Umgebung ändern (irgend was). Ringt mit der Umgebung, gewinnt er = alles in Ordnung o. hat Vorahnungen, verliert er = Beschwerden da, viele Beschwerden/Verlangen/Abneigungen. Körperliche Systemen werden gestört (sensitiv) + können nicht geordnet werden. (Tests sind negativ)

Mangel an Selbstvertrauen/Stimmung wechselnd von Hoch nach Tief und umgekehrt/aktiv, beschreibt seine Beschwerden lebendig und korrekt.

Emptiness/passing away of hunger after eating a little

Qual ohne Bedrohung mit Hoffnung. (Jugend + Adolescenz)

Struggle against an external problem with Baby/young child.

< vormittags + abends;

 

Vergleich: Hauteruptionen. hartnäckig: Graph. + Petr. + Psor. Neue Variant von Psora = Cand.

Siehe: Allergie

 

Sankaran: Calc. Coll. Cupr-met. Graph. Kali-c. Lyc. Nicc-met. Sulph. Zinc-met.

Aktive Phase: Acon. Bell. Sulph.

Latente Phase: Fago. Sax. Skook. BB.

Erschöpfungsphase: Psor.

Skrofulös: Aeth-a. Aeth-m. Aq-mar. Bac. Bad. Bar-c. Brom. Calc. Calc-p. Cist. Hep. Iod. Ol-j. Sil. Sil-mar. Spong.

Nosode: Psor.

Puls. Nux-v. Op. Acon. Cham. Bry. Staph. Coloc. Ign. Hyos. Dulc. Coff. Ip. Rhus-t. Caps.

Calc. Am-c. Ant-c. Metals: Antimony, Gold, Platina, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Silver, Tin.

Andere Quellen: Aloe. Ant-c. Ars-i. Bar-c. Brom. Calc. Calc-p. Carb-an. Carb-v. Cupr-met. Graph. Hep. Iod. Kali-i. Kreos. Lyc. Nat-c. Nat-m. Nit-ac. Petr. Psor. Sil. Sulph. Tub.

Agar. Alum. Am-c. Am-m. Anac. Ant-c. Ars. Aur. Aur-m. Bar-c. Borx. Calc. Carb-a. Carb-v. Caust. Clem. Coloc. Cob-met. Con. Cupr. Con. Cupr-met. Dig. Dulc. Euph. Ferr-met. Graph. Guai. Hep.

Iod. Kali-c. Lyc. Mag-c. Mag-m. Mang-met. Mez. Mur-ac. Nat-c. Nat-m. Nicc-met. Nit-ac. Nitrium. Petr. Phos. Ph-ac. Plat-met. Sars. Sep. Sil. Stann-met. Sulph. Sul-ac. Zinc-met.

 

Allerlei: "zum Krätze kriegen" Ausdruck tiefer Verzweiflung

 

[David Little]

Most of the apsoric remedies come from the plant world and most of the anti-psoric remedies come from the mineral world. This tells something about the nature of the plant and animal kingdoms.

Plants grow fast and go through rapid transformations and many are very similar to traumas, crisis, acute disorders and acute miasms. The minerals are slow moving, stable and pass through changes

over longer periods of time. This is analogous to chronic diseases and miasms.

The animal remedies are always on the move and the most quick reacting species. The animals remedies are some of the quickest acting most rapidly destructive medicines in the materia medica.

They are suitable for very destructive forms of acute and chronic diseases.

[David Quinn]

Psora and Miasmic Dispositions

In curing his patients of specific ailments Dr Samuel Hahnemann began to investigate the question arising in his mind as to fact that while he could be successful in giving homoeopathic treatment for someone, they would again at some future point come down with another form of illness. In wanting to find out more about the problem of sickness and what created the susceptibility to becoming ill.

He began to look at what lay deeper, that being what he called their 'deep seated original disease' (The Chronic Diseases). What Dr Hahnemann began to uncover was the question of what generated sickness. After much study and investigation he identified this process which he named the chronic miasm of psora. Interestingly, Samuel Hahnemann thought of psora as being the result of suppression. He described psora as an ‘internal itch’ almost like an internal disharmony within the person’s being. He also identified and named two other major miasms, sycosis and syphilis. For Dr Hahnemann however, Psora is the oldest and most fundamental of the miasms and all suffering, for him, emerges from the foundation of psora.

With an awareness of suffering as being the process of non-integration of feelings of self, I think we can begin to realize what psora actually is. By studying the mental/emotional symptoms of the

remedies in the materia medica we can perceive what is common to suffering. As Dr Hahnemann considered Sulphur to be the deepest of psoric remedies, I will list some rubrics of Sulphur trying not

to emphasize that which is specific to the expression of the Sulphur state and more what is general to all suffering.

[Sangeeta Chawla] “The Indepth Materia Medica of Human Mind”

Spoken to, called < mental symptoms, being.

Starting; called by name, when.

Touch; does not know if objects are real, until she has touched them.

Absent minded; unobserving, starts when spoken to.

Amusement; averse to.

Anger; himself with.

Anxiety conscience, as if guilty of a crime.

Busy.

Confidence; want of self.

Confusion of mind.

Despair.

Discontented, displeased, dissatisfied.

Doubtful; recovery of soul’s welfare, of.

Dullness, sluggishness, difficulty of thinking and comprehending, torpor.

Embittered, exasperated.

Emptiness; sensation of.

Fear, apprehension, dread.

Hurry, haste.

Idleness.

Impatience.

Inconsolable.

Indifference, apathy.

Irresolution, indecision.

Irritability.

Jesting; aversion to.

Looked at; cannot bear to be.

Mood; alternating.

Morose cross, fretful, ill-humor, peevish.

Prostration of mind, mental exhaustion, brain fag.

Restlessness.

Sadness despondency, dejection, mental depression, gloom, melancholy.

Sighing.

Starting, startled; spoken to, when.

Timidity.

Unfortunate; feels.

Will; loss of.

These symptoms illustrate the state of a person where a fundamental break has occurred in relationship to them being themselves. How someone feels, when to some extent they have ceased being who they are. It appears to me this is what psora is, a state of separation from self. It is a non-acceptance of self. Put into words, it is like; ‘I do not accept myself for who I am because I think myself to be unworthy’. In the context of psora the ‘crime’ the person feels they have committed is that of not accepting themselves. Psora becomes like a constant state of needing to prove to yourself and everyone around you that you are a worthy human being.

We can see that suffering becomes at least two very related processes. 1st the non-acceptance of ourselves and the 2nd the non-integration of the feelings that are part of our self.

Catherine Coulter in her essay on Psorinum (Portraits of Homoeopathic Medicines, vol 2, 1988, ISBN 1-55643-036-1, North Atlantic books) describes the raw state of non-acceptance of self.

Once we have, to an extent, entered this state of non-acceptance of self there is an awareness of this and naturally a wanting to return to the place of integrity of self. When we enter into suffering we want more than anything else, more than wanting to become the person we want to be, more than wanting to do what we most want to do, and more than wanting to recover our health (although people want to do these), more than all these things we most desire to return to who we are. This is unmistakably what a certain study of the different miasms reveals.

Each miasm represents a different stage of psora. The most important characteristic of each miasm is the attitude the person has about their ability to return to being themselves. This ability is also characterized by perceived obstacles they have in doing this. Each different disposition perhaps creates a definite form of stress and constitutional susceptibility to the major disease of the miasm.

In the descriptions of each miasm identified I will follow closely the work of Dr. Sankaran.

 

 

THOUGHTS ABOUT THE NATURE OF THE PSORIC MIASM

[Dr. George Loukas]

The word “psora” can be found in Latin and Greek. One view suggests that it derives from the Hebrew “Tsorat” which means stretch mark, mistake, ditch, contamination, stigma; it was often attributed to outbreaks of leprosy and severe plagues.

Hahnemann’s use of the word “psora” had a special connotation. By this term he meant an original unhealthy condition, whereby after the internal infection of the whole organism is completed, there appears a peculiar skin exanthema. He argued that, “Psora is the oldest, the most universal, the most devastating and most little known miasmatic disease, which has disfigured and tormented nations for thousands of years”. Haehl states that, “For Hahnemann, psora is a disease or the susceptibility to a disease which has been passed from generation to generation for thousands of years. It is the breeding ground for every sickly condition and it is at the same time the most contagious and infectious disease of all”.

It is difficult to understand how psora is transmitted. We read in classical writings that a simple touch is enough for one to catch psora. A baby is infected as it passes through the mother’s genital tube. Alternatively the baby gets infected from the hands of the midwife who has in turn been infected by another woman giving birth, or perhaps even before that. After the psoric miasma comes into contact with the skin, it is transmitted through the nerves to the rest of the body. A few days later, after it has fully developed internally, the disease will manifest itself externally.

We are, therefore, faced with the following question: Does psora derive from without? If it does not begin in our brain, which is the seat of our psyche, then how did it first appear, when it did, thousands of years ago? It is of course very difficult to answer this question. We are faced with the dilemma of either accepting that the disease first appeared in mankind as a result of external factors or as a result

of an internal process. However, before we attempt to give an answer, we ought to describe the characteristics of psora in the human organism, that is its symptomatology.

Amongst the symptoms of psora there are two common characteristics: hypersensitivity and lack. Lack is stressed in some books and hypersensitivity in others.

We can understand the concept of hypersensitivity with a simple example: If we stimulate externally two different individuals they will react differently. The psoric individual reacts more strongly than the supposedly “normal individual”. That is to say there is an excessive reaction. This hypersensitivity is present in all aspects of the psoric’s life. He is very observant and aware of his immediate environment. He is sensitive. He also gets angry easily. After he has expressed his anger and has had a good sleep he is not bitter or hateful. He also cries easily. After crying he feels better. He is temperamental due to the hypersensitivity. He is very rich in the expressions of his feelings. The psoric can be a scientist or an artist. He is hypersensitive to light, sound and smell. The most typical expression of the hypersensitivity in the body is itching. An external or internal itching, like tickling for example, is a sign of psora. The suppression of the external bodily manifestations of psora, because of the wrong medical treatment, results in the appearance of an internal or psychic itching, which is even more troublesome to the individual. Such suppressions led Hahnemann to the discovery of the psoric miasma and its description.

The other main characteristic of psoric miasma is lack. This lack is expressed as a feeling of inadequacy. There is a deep feeling of inferiority. It can be seen in the successful businessman who is intelligent and hard-working but who always wants to rely on somebody else. He is always looking for a partner. His partner, if he is a crook, can easily take advantage of him. He always needs support; he always seeks protection. This feeling of inferiority can also be seen in the scientist, who continuously asks for the support of his teacher or his colleagues despite the fact that he knows his subject well.

He is anxious and fearful and gets scared easily.

This sense of inadequacy forces him to live in a world of fantasy. However, this world is not the autistic world of a schizophrenic. It is simply the feeling of inadequacy that stops him from fulfilling his dreams and so his rich inner world has to be expressed through fantasy. This can be seen in the individual who goes to a lecture and instead of paying attention, he spends most of his time day-dreaming. There are two reasons as to why he loses contact. Firstly, because of his deep emotions due to his hypersensitivity. Secondly, because he does not express these emotions due to his feeling of inadequacy.

Thus, psorics are people with a rich inner world, which is not expressed, because they lack boldness. Because of their feeling of inferiority they become stagnant, immobile and reserved. If this feeling of inferiority was absent they would be much happier people and would offer more to society. The awareness of their “helplessness” causes them sadness. When they feel sad they look far into the future

and see happier days ahead.

The words of a popular Greek song express very well the psoric sadness: “Be patient and the sky will become bluer ...”. There is hope in them; it has not been lost.

The psoric is particularly concerned with what others think of him. He respects society’s customs and traditions and he feels guilty if he does not abide by the rules. He is scared of rejection because of this feeling of inadequacy. It is this feeling of inadequacy that makes him always seek support from someone else. He creates relationships of support, bonds of support and he does not want them to break because he will be left alone without them.

A lot of people are sociable because they need this support from the group.

These needs of his, coupled with his sense of duty, continuously inhibit his desires. “I must” is stronger than “I want”. Before the psoric acts he asks himself if it is socially acceptable. If it is not, he usually does not act.

He is very generous with his relatives. He is easily hurt by the remarks of others. It takes him time to express his anger but once he has expressed it the incident is forgotten.

The psoric individual has a tendency towards platonic love. Let’s say that a psoric man likes a woman. He thinks: “What a beautiful woman ... What an amiable person ... I wonder if she likes me. Well, so many men are after her, I doubt that she wants me ... What if she rejects me?” Here also there is an inhibition. An inhibition caused by his sense of inadequacy on one hand and on the other his fear that his behaviour could be rejected by society.

This makes him experience love through fantasy. He is a person who has fallen in love many times but who has very rarely fulfilled his fantasies. He is also emotional, he gets worried easily and he gets hurt easily.

His love fantasies are heterosexual. He is pure in his feelings. He falls in love with the whole person not with a breast or a thigh. He sees the personality, he does not see his partner as a sex object.

The psoric is also religiously inclined. He is religious in a broad sense. His faith is of a philosophising nature, born from a need to search, to comprehend the agony of existence, to cope with the feeling of being alone and inadequate in a vast universe.

Lack is manifested in the body in a variety of ways. Insufficient feeding is an example of that. He eats continuously but the body cannot digest the food. So there is lack. It is possible to make a connection between lack of vitamins and trace elements in the body with psoric miasma. For example the lack of vitamin A causes dryness. Dryness is one of the basic symptoms of psoric miasma. When Hahnemann wrote about psoric miasma he did not know of the existance of vitamin A. This lack of elements can be seen in delayed osteoporosis or late teething. The lack of trace elements causes weakness, fatigue and sluggishness.

Therefore, we can see that there is hypersensitivity on one hand and lack on the other. Lack and hypersensitivity coexist in the psoric miasma. It is difficult to say which one precedes the other.

Let us ask ourselves once more: “What is psoric miasma? What is the foundation on which human disease has been built?” I could not find a satisfactory explanation in all the homeopathic literature known to me. So I tried to find a solution within ancient Greek philosophy and literature, psychoanalysis and religious systems. Perhaps these areas would provide a clue to the genesis of disease. A comparative study would help me understand psoric miasma.

Let us first study the psychoanalytic views on the development of symptoms. It is not of course possible to give a detailed account of the psychoanalytic views. Whoever is interested can have a better look in the writings mentioned in the bibliography.

It is necessary to refer to the “structural” model of the personality developed by Freud. The personality of an individual, that is the sum total of his particular and fixed character traits (his views, his ideas, his values, his emotional reactions, his actions and his adaptive behaviour) is divided into three parts. The Pre-ego, or “That”, or “It”, or Id is the part of the personality that includes all the instinctive impulses. It follows the pleasure principle.

The Ego is the most “systematized area” of the personality. It is the part that primarily serves the psychosocial adaptation. It is a mediator between the inner impulses and the restrictions. It also preserves the contact and the control of the external reality. The Ego is governed by the reality principle.

The Superego includes the moral values imposed upon the individual by his family upbringing during the first years of the development of his personality. It includes the prohibitions and the ideals of the individual.

Health according to the psychoanalytic theory is achieved when there is a balance amongst these three parts of the personality. Apart from the structural model, Freud has also described the topographical model, which includes the following: the Conscious, the Subconscious and the Unconscious.

In the unconscious there are experiences that one is not aware of. In the subconscious there are experiences and processes that one can become conscious of more easily.

Any instinctive desire goes through the “cencorship” of the Superego, where it can be examined as to whether it is possible for it to be satisfied without ridiculing the individual. If it is considered prohibited, a conflict between the Id and the Superego is created which leads to a dead-end. The Ego tries to reach a compromise by delaying the gratification of the desire by using the repression mechanism. Repression is the primary defence mechanism. It does not allow unacceptable desires, tendencies, thoughts etc. to come to the conscious and “pushes” the conflict into the unconscious. Although all this takes place on an unconscious level, the Ego has a sense of danger in that if the unconscious and “prohibited” desires are expressed, it will be carried away into unacceptable conduct.

The feeling of this threat is the unconscious or primary anxiety, which acts as an “alarm signal” and urges the Ego to confine the instinctive desires and the whole conflict to the unconscious, so that the threat is not realised by the conscious mind.

This means that there is a constant dynamic process. The instinctive desires on the one hand and their repression caused by the Ego on the other. When the instinctive impulses intensify, the conflict rises to the subconscious and now there is a real danger that it will reach the conscious. At this point the symptom of anxiety is clearly felt by the individual. As this is uncomfortable, various defence mechanisms are mobilized and act subconsciously.

These defence mechanisms, apart from the repression that has already been mentioned, are the following: Identification, compensation, substitution, sublimation, rationalization, regression, displacement, intellectualization, undoing, reaction formation, dissociation, conversion, symbolism, projection, introjection, incorporation, denial, postponement, expectation (for more details please, read the “Psychoanalytic Psychopathology” by H. Hierodiaconou).

A part of the psychic conflict is discharged in the body and in this way physical symptoms develop.

The similarity between homeopathy and the psychoanalytic school on what is disease is evident. From the psychoanalytic school of thought we can use the following points in order to clarify the riddle of psoric miasma:

a) The concept of the psychic conflict

b) the concept of repression. In theory, if we did not repress, there would be no primary anxiety and symptoms. The necessary condition not to repress is constant awareness.

Reference to the creation of disease can be found in the Old Testament, in the myth of Adam and Eve. Adam and Eve lived happily in Paradise. They had everything. There was only one thing they were not allowed to do.

They were not to eat from the tree of “Knowledge of good and evil”. One day Eve was tempted by the evil spirit, the devil, who appeared before her in the form of a snake. He told her that if they ate the fruit they too would become Gods. She ate from the forbidden fruit, persuading Adam to do the same. After the deed they began to feel ashamed and they covered themselves so they would not see their nakedness. God was very angry with them and sent them away from Paradise with the following curse: “Eve, with pain you will give birth to children. Adam, by the sweat of your brow you will eat your food”. After the fall from Paradise people started getting ill and dying.

In this myth we can see the following:

a) There is desire and there is the law,

b) Adam and Eve have a feeling of inferiority in the face of God. The eating of the fruit symbolizes the violation of the laws of nature,

c) after their disobedience they feel remorse,

d) after the violation of the law people start getting ill and dying.

Two questions are raised at this point: If this had not happened would man never have experienced death? Did man perhaps then start being afraid of death?

The myth of Prometheus.x Bound is also of interest to us.

Conclusions.

 1. Psoric miasma is not an external but rather an internal disease.

 2. It is related to desire and to the primary anxiety of death. The primary anxiety of death exists in every being form the moment of birth.

 3. Desire and the primary anxiety of death are triggered by any external stimulus. So, for example, when we see somebody being ill or when somebody we like touches us, psora is triggered within us.

 4. The primary anxiety of death is due to a limited awareness of the function of the universe.

 5. Repression is the defence mechanism that is directly related to psora. Psoric miasma was born from the moment man started to use repression as a defence mechanism.

 6. Lack and hypersensitivity express the nature of psoric miasma.

 

 

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