Mehrere Miasmen

Sozialstation Letzenberg e.V.
Mauhecke 12
69242 Mühlhausen

Vertretungsberechtigter Vorstand:
Frau Dr. Susanna Re, Herr Bernhard Martin

Homeopathy, Aids and its Miasmatic Identity.

Annäherung. an die Miasmen der Klassischen Homöopathie (Angelika Franz/Darius Ploog/Roland Methner/Anne Vervarcke)

Kinderkrankheiten - ein miasmatischer Selbstheilungsversuch des Kindes

Miasmen Anhang. (Roger Morrison)

Miasmen allgemein Anhang (Farokh Master)

Miasmen and the Birth Process: Harry van der Zee

Miasmen Fürworter Anhängsel. (Roger Morrison)

Miasmen Skeptiker Anhängsel. (Manuael Harand)

Miasmen und Einordnung der Mitteln. (Roger Morrison/Darius Ploog/Roland Methner/Anne Vervarcke) + Miasmenstrukturvergleich (Matthias Klünder)

Miasmen Illusion. (Roland Methner)

Vergleich. Miasmen und Kinderkrankheiten (Dr.-Ing. Joachim-F. Grätz)

Miasmen Anhang Kritik. (Roland Methner)

Isopathie/Autoisopathie Anhang.x

Miasmen und Zähnen. (R. Schule)

Mythologie and Miasms

Nosoden + Miasmen.x (JJ Kleber/Peter Morell)

Stages of consciousness.

Tri-Miasmatische Mitteln.

Vergleich Miasmen in Kinder und Jugendlichen (Dr. Wolfgang Mettler)

Vergleich. Carsinosinum - Syphillinum - Tuberculinum - Leprominum.

Vergleich. Psora - Sykose - Syphillinie - Tuberkulinie


Anhang. 2 (Peter Morell/Dr. Trebin)

Anhang. 4 (Dr. Trebin)

Anhang 5 (Mir Zahed)

Anhang 6 (Interview George Vithoulkas)

Impfungen Anhang. 7 (M.S. Jus/Benjamin McRearden)

Zuordnung. der Mitteln nach Miasmen

Annäherung an die Miasmen der Klassischen Homöopathie [E. Trebin/Angelika Franz/Darius Ploog/Roland Methner/Anne Vervarcke]

[Patty Smith]

A Heilkunst Look at the Miasms

A fundamental aspect of Heilkunst is the discovery by its founder, Dr. Samuel Hahnemann, of primary, constant infectious diseases of a chronic nature that can be passed

on from one generation to another. These represent archetypal disease forms, out of which emerge the numerous variable, individual diseases.

To the constant infectious forms Hahnemann gave the name of chronic miasms, as their nature was as constant as those of the acute miasms, like measles or whooping cough. This is part of the tonic side of disease.

The variable forms he termed the chronic diseases, which form part of the pathic side of disease.

“Miasm” is an old medical term for “noxious influence” or “bad air.” There are acute miasms, of which the most common are the childhood diseases like measles, mumps, scarlet fever, etc., and also the well-known infectious diseases such as yellow fever, malaria, cholera, typhoid, and smallpox.

Hahnemann discovered three chronic miasms: Psora, Sycosis and Syphilis. Later, with the emergence of tuberculosis in the 19th Century, this was also found to be an infectious disease of constant Wesen (essence, or underlying nature).

It had been considered part of Psora early on and in some of the books had been initially referred to as pseudo-Psora. Tuberculosis has many features of Psora, but it also

has aspects of Syphilis. The isolation by Robert Koch, a German scientist, of the tubercular microbe in the late 19th Century confirmed the infectious nature of this miasm.

Later, with the rise of cancer, came the discovery by Royal Raymond Rife that cancer too, in its primary form, had an infectious origin. This led to the view that this scourge

of mankind was a 5th chronic miasm, sharing elements of Sycosis and Syphilis.

Acute miasms, as with other true acute diseases, have a relatively sudden onset, climax and resolution, and thus are self-limiting. In contrast, the chronic miasms have a slower onset, seldom grow to any climax (although there are periodic flare-ups) and continue until one’s death.

Their course cannot be prevented, only slowed, by a careful diet and lifestyle, or the absence of stresses. If untreated the prognosis is usually poor and the outcome generally fatal, as we all will tend to die along the same lines, with the same general conditions, as those with which our family tended to die.

The chronic miasms are infectious natural diseases, and each has a characteristic skin lesion. This lesion is the first response of the Living Power in its efforts to evict the disease. If it is unable to do so, the Living Power, in its counter-action, pushes the disturbance, as far as it is able, to the periphery of the organism where it can do the least harm and is visible to the physician so that he can effect a cure.

If the natural law of cure is not followed, the treatment only provides temporary relief (palliative) or it suppresses the expression of the disease on the skin and forces the Living Power to set up a line of defense deeper in the organism, affecting the more important (what Hahnemann called “more noble”) organs.


Dr. Hahnemann called the first chronic miasm, Psora, from the Hebrew word “tsorat,” which has a multitude of meanings, but in this context the sense of “fault, groove, pollution, stigma.” It was often applied to leprous manifestations and the great biblical plagues.

Hahnemann was able to trace this disease far back into history, seeing its origins in the reported cases of antiquity of an itch disease, manifesting itself in a skin lesion that

was relatively minor, but itchy, particularly if scratched.

Psora is mainly a disease of deficiency at all levels – deficiency of knowledge, thought, assimilation of ideas and nutrition. There are a host of conditions identified by the prefix “hypo” (hypotension, hypochondriasis, hypotrophy) associated with psora.

It causes little or no structural change, but much disturbance of functions, feelings and sensations. It seems to involve largely the nervous and reticulo-endocrine systems of

the organism. The psoric state of mind feels it does not have enough (of anything – money, food, energy, love, warmth, etc.).

You may be familiar with it if you know anyone who had to live through the Great Depression or a war. They may hoard food, toilet paper, rubber bands or twist ties, for

no apparent reason other than, “You never know when you may need them.”

The stereotypical street person illustrates this miasm well, when they are carrying with them every one of their possessions, while wearing virtually all of their clothing, including coats and hats, even in sweltering heat.


This chronic miasm is identified by the characteristic small genital warts, which reminded Hahnemann of figs in their shape and texture. The Greek word for fig is sycosis.

It originally comes from a gonorrheal infection and leads to various excesses in mind and body function.

Here a host of conditions involving the prefix “hyper” are involved (hypertension, hyperactive), as well as inflammatory conditions, various conditions with the suffix “itis” (like sinusitis, vaginitis, urethritis, etc.).

We see in sycosis an excess in mind and tissue, providing the foundation for later tissue degeneration. People who have sycosis are more susceptible to vaccine shock, to the

ill-effects of any suppression of morbid discharges (nasal secretions, vaginal discharges, etc.) and to the shock of the surgical removal of various skin manifestations (warts, cysts, fibroids, moles), which can lead to the activation of any latent sycosis.

It seems to involve mainly the blood and circulatory systems, with sycotics being highly susceptible to heart attacks, blood disorders, the ill-effects of blood transfusions, arteriosclerosis, etc. The state of mind is of excess – the sex, drugs and rock-and-roll energy, like Las Vegas at 3 h:, and those who are just getting started at night when others are going to bed.


Syphilis is represented by the characteristic genital ulcer and, in general, involves ulcerative conditions. It is marked by tissue destruction and degeneration, involving various conditions marked by the prefix “dys” (such as dystrophy, dystonia).

Here we see the corrosive effects of the syphilitic infection in terms of the mind (suicide, serious mental disorders) and the body (ulcers, decay, congenital defects). Most very serious disorders have their roots in this miasm.

The syphilitic patient will lean toward either self-destruction, as in bulimia, anorexia, drug or alcohol addictions, obsessive-compulsive disorders (Did I lock the door?

Did I lock the door? Did I turn off the stove?), and even flesh-eating disease lies in this realm; or destruction, including violence toward property or others.


Dr. Hahnemann may have realized later in his life that there was another miasm hidden in Psora. His followers called it “pseudo-Psora” because it had elements of psora,

but also of syphilis. This was the term used by homeopaths until later in the 19th Century when tuberculosis emerged as a full-fledged illness in Europe.

The creation of a nosode by J. Compton Burnett in England from the morbid secretion of a tubercular patient (he named Baccillinum), plus the later allopathic discovery

of the same infectious agent by Koch, led to Tuberculosis being more closely associated with this newer miasmic discovery. Nebel and Vannier in Europe did more work in identifying the characteristics of Tuberculosis as a chronic miasm.

Tuberculosis is familiar to most of us in its manifestations and appears to have elements of both Psora and Syphilis. One of the keynotes of Tuberculosis is an internal restlessness and degree of consciously-directed destruction.


The person with tuberculosis in the family history has a great desire for change, and it can manifest at any level. They will travel, if possible, to new locales. They may change jobs, change houses, and if those more expensive outlets are not open to them they will change the furniture placement in the house, or paint the walls, or hang new curtains. They cannot even drive to work in the same way every day, because they need the change of route and scenery.


The essence of cancer is sensitivity to the world and criticism, and anxiety for others and events generally. It shares some noteworthy features of Tuberculosis, such as hair

on the spine, blue sclerae, genupectoral sleep position and the desire for travel. There are also links to Sycosis – hyperactivity in children, increased sexual desire, > by the ocean, desire for salt, sweets and fats, and insomnia.

Carcinosin is fastidious and worse from consolation. It desires chocolate and has a love of dancing. It is exhilarated in thunderstorms. It has a strong connection with the constitutional remedy Silicea and also to Natrum mur. The essence of cancer is resignation, a loss of the self, living for others and not realizing their own destiny.

It is also a great remedy for opposites. There can be great love or desire, then intense hate or aversion.

The child can have high fevers or no childhood fevers. They have a magnetic energy and attraction. The sexual desire of the cancer type is high.

Completing the Sequence of Chronic Miasms


We discovered, based on close observation of our cases, that most people have most, if not all, of the chronic miasms through inheritance, which corresponds to Elmiger’s experience and understanding. Both Hahnemann and Dr. Elmiger set out a particular order of appearance and therefore treatment of the chronic miasms.

This particular order is called the law of succession of forces by Elmiger. Dr. Elmiger also discovered a relationship between the four classic chronic miasms – Psora, Tuberculosis, Sycosis, Syphilis – and the four seasons: Fall-Psora; Winter-Tuberculosis; Spring-Sycosis; Summer-Syphilis.


However, the more recent discovery and confirmation of the Cancer miasm posed a puzzle as to where this fit in. Based on Dr. Elmiger’s work as well as the observations of Rajan Sankaran, this miasm came to be placed between Sycosis and Syphilis.


This intervenient miasm raised the question as to whether there might be miasms intervening between the other miasms. Based on our clinical work over several years, we discovered there were indeed three additional intervenient miasms.


The complete cycle is now:




More recently, we have been working with these other miasms – Malaria, Ringworm and Lyme – as part of the systematic and sequential treatment of diseases in each patient. This approach has proved particularly welcome and effective in the treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorders.


Malaria has a passive sense of victimization (picture the mosquito sucking the blood of a challenged individual in the transmission of the actual disease). It is like psora, with the niggling sense that there is something wrong in their environment.


They are depressed, feel that people, and circumstances, are picking on them, singling them out, and it is worse at night. There is a very heavy energy, sleepiness, stupor and forgetfulness on the mental sphere and diarrhea, colic and liver pain on the physical. If you read any reference on this disease, you will see the picture of the chronic miasm.


Where Malaria’s feelings are more passive, those of Ringworm are active, more penetrating, and they feel depressed, angry and trapped. It is more powerful, the emotions strong. They want to accomplish something, but can’t. Rajan Sankaran’s description of the woman making a New Year’s resolution to lose weight is a great example of this chronic miasm.


She wants to, has every intention in the world to do so, is hopeful, makes plans, buys the treadmill, exercises for a few days, weighs herself, is discouraged, and quits and figures she will just have to live with it. And that cycle repeats. There is struggle, then resignation in this chronic miasm.


Lyme has a much deeper and darker energy than syphilis. There is a withdrawal from society, which causes many to think the physical pathogen is contributory in autism. Lyme now has beaten out syphilis for the honor to wear the title of “the great masquerader,” for it has hundreds of different presentations. And Lyme, the chronic miasm, is dark.


Physically you might see arthritis of all types, fibromyalgia, lupus, multiple sclerosis, irritable bowel, Crohn’s, photophobia, worse for even slight sound, smells are intense, taste is diminished or perverted, hypersensitivity to touch, and pain – anywhere… you name it, and it mit just point you to Lyme.


Mentally and emotionally, there is depression, memory loss, irritability, trouble finding words, mood swings, uncontrollable outbursts of emotion, violence, homicidal ideation, dissociation, problems doing calculations, dyslexia, inability to process information, mistakes in speaking or writing, spatial disorientation; this list goes on and on.


As noted, Dr. Elmiger of Switzerland discovered that there was a link between the four classic chronic miasms and the rhythm of the seasons, this link being particularly strong and influential at potencies above 10M.


Conceptually, Steven Decker has been able, through his capacity for etheric thinking, to link the chronic miasms to dynamic physiology, more specifically with the life body of man and also with the four aspects of that body. An essential element of dynamic physiology is the recognition of the polar or two-fold nature of the organism – into an upper and nether being.


The four classic miasms seem to relate and work on disturbances in the upper being, the realm of awareness and mentation, and the four intervenient miasms more to the nether being, the realm more of the sub-conscious and of fear.


* In order to more properly place the work of Hahnemann and others on the crucial issue of the chronic miasms, and to provide a more rational therapeutic framework for their treatment, given their importance in disease and health, we have written a book detailing the literature and the latest findings. It is available in electronic format, free to all who request it. Please contact for access to this new work.


[Judyth Reichenberg-Ullman]

In brief, the following are the miasms, and a brief explanation of each. I have referred to them often in articles and teaching, but never actually written about using them to understand our world situation. The two sources, out of countless, that I use here are Rajan Sankaran’s Schema and Miasms of the New Millennium by Nancy Herrick and Roger Morrison (quite a magnum opus on the subject). In brief, from the least serious and entrenched, to the most.

    Acute (Rabies) miasm (introduced by Hahnemann)

    Typhoid miasm (Sankaran)

    Malarial miasm (Sankaran)

    Ringworm miasm (Sankaran)

    Psoric miasm (Hahnemann)

    Sycotic miasm (Hahnemann)

    Cancer miasm (Foubister)

    Tubercular miasm (Vithoulkas)

    Leprosy miasm (Vakil)

    Syphilitic miasm (Hahnemann)


 Why was it necessary to introduce more miasms? Because they were archaic and not very helpful clinically much of the time; in fact, they were often ignored, and the remedy based exclusively on materia medica. So, Dr. Sankaran and his colleagues organized nearly 250 remedies to specific miasms.


[Manfred Mueller]

In other words, our modern miasms may be generated by cortisone, ionizing radiation and glyphosate rather than by microbes.

They form the blockages or injuries to the metabolic functions that Dr. Sherry Rogers talked about. These miasms are caused by chemical compounds or perhaps a single toxin interfering with our bodies’ proper functioning, including their protective response against harmful microbes.

[Swayne, 2000]

A  miasm  is  an  inherited  or  acquired predisposition  that  presents  in an  individual making them susceptible to a pattern of morbidity

[Aanishah Ford]

The other miasms would not exist without psora, psora gave rise to the other chronic miasmatic diseases.   Through   evolution   diseases   either   remained   dormant  

or express themselves within the individual when triggered. In modern times individuals are   vulnerable   and   highly   susceptible   to   various   diseases   due   to  

social, environmental  and  genetic  factors.  Humans  can  develop  any  disease  as  we  are predisposed  biologically  and  genetically.  Once  an  individual  is  exposed 

to  an infection,  the  disease  nature  is  dependent  on  the  individual’s  immunity  and  overall level of health(Owen, 2007).


Psora                                                            Sulphur


Tuberkulinie                                                Phosphor



Skrofulose                                                Silicea

Calcium carbonicum


Parasitose                                                Nux vomica


Syphilinie                                                Mercurius




Primäre Sykose                                    Pulsatilla,

Calcium carbonicum


Sekundäre Sykose                                    Lycopodium

Karzinogenie                                                Carcinosinum


Tertiäre Sykose                                                 Thuja,



[David Quinn]

People can change miasms and still be indicated for the same remedy.

Even someone in the state of a nosode of a particular miasm may have a different miasmic disposition to that which the remedy was derived. With a nosode, the miasmic disposition is potentised into a feeling. With Medorrhinum for instance, the miasmic disposition of ‘uncertainty’ has become the feeling itself. The uncertainty is no longer related to the non-integration of other feelings, it has become the feeling, and with it being suppressed the miasmic disposition of this non-integration could be of another miasm.

In sickness where the feeling of fright, or sudden fright is being suppressed, then the miasmic form of this suffering will frequently correspond to the acute miasm.

The remedies which produce this feeling or a similar feeling of fright will be the ones most frequently indicated in the acute state. Likewise, when the feeling is of sudden loss or of helplessness, the miasmic disposition of the person may become that of typhoid and the remedies that also produce this are known to become indicated in some typhoid affections. There seems to be a connection being criticised or insulted, and the tendency of suffering coming out of this of taking the form of the cancer miasm. We cannot distinguish remedies by classifying them into any one particular miasmic form of suffering.


Chronic Miasms Map

There are 4 “dominant” chronic miasms:


and 4 “recessive” chronic miasms:


What is a Miasm?

“Acquired, inherited characteristic.

“Not genetic (only 1 - 3% of conditions genetic)

“Epigenetic, but inherited - ‘noxious influence, vapor’

“Various conditions in family are passed on as structural weaknesses.

“Contains, in spiritual sense, karmic baggage.

“There are transient and intransigent miasms.

[Tharushka Pillay]

2.5.2 Miasmatic Theory

This system of prescribing in Homoeopathy was created by Hahnemann, who realised that in a large number of cases, the patient would relapse after the administration of

the correctly chosen remedy. He concluded that there was an existence of a deeper, more fundamental disease process preventing patients from complete cure (Sankaran, 2004:263). After much observation and study, Hahnemann concluded that these deeper chronic disease processes followed one of three specific patterns, namely Psora, Sycosis and Syphilis which he named ‘Miasms’ (Eizayaga, 1991:288). Patients could be treated with identified anti-miasmatic remedies which he systematically grouped

thus simplifying each prescription by differentiation of similar remedies (Sankaran, 1994:21).

[Gaier, 1991:342]

A miasm is an underlying chronic or recurrent disease state, which may be acquired or inherited.

[Andreas Krüger / Falk Kuhfuhs / Michael Antoni / Heidi Baatz / Stephanie Engert]

Carcinogenie - Der miasmatische Weg - Siebtes Miasma

Parasitose - Der miasmatische Weg - Sechstes Miasma

Syphilinie - Der miasmatische Weg - Fünftes Miasma

Skrophulose - Der miasmatische Weg - Viertes Miasma

            Viertes Miasma - Die Skrophulose

Andreas Krüger:Miasma des Lebensanfangs und wird auch als "lymphatische Diathese" beschrieben, mit der Bereitschaft des Organismus, auf Belastungen mit

lymphatischen Erkrankungen zu reagieren. Während der Lymphe bis vor einigen Jahren wenig Beachtung zuteil wurde, hat sie in der medizinischen Forschung heute

einen hohen Stellenwert. Jens Brambach: Beulenpest die prototypische schwere Krankheit, die zum Miasma Skrophulose gehört - mit dem Thema Unabhängigkeit bzw.

Individualität. Charakterzüge die von skrophulöse Arzneien brauchen, sind Unmündigkeit und Kindlichkeit. Sie entsprechen dem Kern der Skrophulose als einer oral

geprägten Störung der eigenen Verdauung (Assimilation).

Die Mitarbeiter um Andreas Krüger stellen verschiedene kleine, wenig bekannte Mittel vor, von denen einige dem Ursprungsmilieu des Lebens entstammen - der Urlymphe, dem Ozean:

Aq-m. (= Meerwasser), Silica marina (= Sand vom Meeresstrand), Ol-j. (Lebertran) und Aethi-a. (Verbindung aus Mercurius, Sulfur und Antimon). Michael Antoni: Verbindung der Skrophulose zum Aspekt Mond-Saturn, der Achse der Individuation.

Andreas Krüger: Trägheit, Abhängigkeit und Fettsucht und referiert typische skrophulöse Arzneien: Calc. (die Auster, das Urkind) und Sil., ein bewährtes Mittel der lymphatischen Diathese. Sein Vortrag nährt sich wie immer aus der eigenen Erfahrung und Praxis, lebensnah und voller Humor. Krüger stellt seine Arzneien nicht anhand trockener Symptome vor, sondern so, wie sie sich ihm mit ihren seelischen Problemen offenbart haben.

Sykose - Der miasmatische Weg - Drittes Miasma

Tuberkulinie - Der miasmatische Weg - Zweites Miasma

Psora - Der miasmatische Weg - Erstes Miasma

Akute miasma


[Patricia Hatherly]

Psora is recognised as the primary (fundamental) miasm and I think that Hahnemann got it right when he nominated but three miasms and Joe Rozencwajg (interestingly proposes that these 3 miasms are not so much about the epigenetic imprint of grand diseases, but rather more about the three basic human metabolic pathways of homeostasis (Psora), anabolism (Sycosis) and catabolism (Luesis).

[Ruth Heather Hull]

Miasm: a “mode in which the body reacts” (Bloch and Lewis, 2003: 35). It can be described as a pattern, tendency or predisposition towards a particular type of disease and can be inherited or acquired.

[David Quinn]

Considered by H. the second of the chronic miasms (next to psora) is syphilis. I think the miasm of syphilis belongs to a group of miasms which also includes tuberculosis and leprosy. These 3 miasms all have the feeling of being “unable” to be oneself. In each of these this disposition is experienced in a different way.

Tubercular miasm: "I am unable to be myself where I am because here I am restricted even suffocated, and so I must get to a different place and there I may be able to be myself". Because this attitude eventually becomes free floating, then in getting somewhere else they will invariably experience the same thing and have the urge to move again. In this the tubercular miasm creates a hectic disposition of always being on the move, as described in the materia medica.

Leprosy: belief that they cannot be and accept themselves because they consider who they are to be disgusting. This might have come about because of something they have done or they may have become convinced of it by others. The strength at this attitude corresponds to the extent it effects them. The person here can be someone who would never do anything even remotely disgusting and as described in the literature they can also develop a great deal of contempt for themselves and others.


[Sankaran’s extended Miasm model]

First there were 3 Psora, Sycosis and Syphillis -in Hahnemann’s days- then Tub and Cancer added. Now there are 10 That was my first response. The 3 or 5 miasm models are confusing enough, this 10 miasm model is just too much and should be avoided. In Sankaran’s philosophy the miasms can be understood sytematically or conceptually - then the 10 items are not such a problem.

Sankaran’s miasms are descriptors of the deep sensation experienced by patient - they express the degree to which the patient experiences their ‘vital disturbance’. Kind of like and adjective describing a noun. Lets take a simplified example: Looking at well known group of remedies (Compositae or Daisy botanical family), we find a common sensation for all members that includes feeling: injured, hurt, insulted, etc. The question now becomes to what degree and in what way the patients experiences these sensations.

Acute miasm. = Arnica, the response could be: In sudden danger of injury, hurt or insult, there is an instinctive drive to escape now

[Edward Peter Phahamane]

Key words: fright, insanity, alarm, escape, danger, terror, panic, violent (Sankaran 2002).

The sensation is experienced as temporary, sudden, dangerous and life-threatening. Even though there is a threat to one’s life, there is hope of recovery.

An acute threat and reacts strong and instinctive. acute; sudden; violent; panic; danger; reflex; escape; helpless; terror; insanity; fright; alarm; instinctive.

The person generally reacts instinctively, and can panic or feel helpless (Sankaran, 2005b:268).

“Panic”. There’s a feeling of an imminent, acute threat and the reaction is strong against the stimulus (Sankaran 2002). The suddenness of all symptomatology gives a clear picture of an acute miasm.

Delusion of being killed, of being tracked by police, of dying from an acute disease is so strong that they become overly reactive in all planes. This is seen in people with fever, panic attacks and mania

[Sankaran 1994].

This miasm later added by Hahnemann and described in more detail by Kent (1995), characterised by an immediate instinctive response to a situation + high fever and bounding pulse (Sankaran, 1999).

Typhoid miasm.: which is between the Acute & Psoric (hopeful strugglers) miasms = Chamomilla: Facing a dangerous situation, if I do the right thing I will recover and escape injury. Key word is: demanding, like the teething toddler.

[Edward Peter Phahamane]

Placed between the Acute and Psoric miasms. There is an experience of a sudden and temporary situation (as in the Acute miasm) but it requires a concentrated effort for

a short period of time (as in Psora). The situation is like an intense, short crisis which requires a period of sustained effort (Sankaran, 2005b:274). A critical situation which,

if properly handled for a critical period, will end in total recovery. The reaction is an intense struggle against it. intense; recover; typhoid; emergency; homesick; sub-acute; collapse; impatient; critical

“Critical”. This miasm defines a critical scenario which must be handled carefully so that the outcome may be full recovery. The reaction is struggle against the critical situation. Key words: crisis, intense, typhoid, emergency, homesick, sub-acute, collapse, impatience, critical (Sankaran 2002).

Psoric miasm.: so far no examples have been found in the plant kingdom. Key word: lack/life is struggle, but nevertheless I am hopeful of coming out the other side.

Psora                                    early fall                        Dominant (lack/poverty)                       

Keynotes: lack, dryness

*Pathology - skin (psoriasis/neurodermitis).

*Lack vitality and are weak.

*Catch every cold, slow to recover.

*Expect the worst, pessimistic.

*Fears - health and poverty.           

Must wear a warm or fur hat all year, even in summer. (One of the very coldest remedies.)

Street people who carry all their possessions with them, and who wear coats and hats even in the summer weather.

Headaches, <: fasting/suppressed eruptions/drafts and open air;

Chronic infection of eyes, sinuses, ears. (Child with a perpetually running nose.)

Chronic discharges from ears, offensive discharges.

Acne. Rosacea. Oily skin.

Eruptions behind ears, on neck, face, scalp and head, very itchy.

Crusty or scaly eruptions on head and face.

Styes. Inflamed margins of the eyelids.

Mouth ulcers.

Face has a dirty look even when well-washed.

[Edward Peter Phahamane]

A person can perceive a situation as a permanent stress, which often results in an instinctive and automatic response .There is a feeling of struggle and effort

with some hope of recovery. Therefore, it is a mixture of self doubt and hope (Sankaran, 2005b:270).

The feeling is that of a difficult situation where one has to struggle in order to succeed. Anxiety with doubts about his ability, but he is hopeful and failure does not mean the end of the world. He must struggle in order to recover or maintain his position. Fixed, irremediable weakness within the self. Attempting to cope with it and hide it from others; covers it up with egotism, compulsive acts, very secretive etc. fixed; guilt; hide; secretive; warts; tumours; gonorrhea; neurosis; avoidance; weakness; accepting; covered

“Struggle”. This miasm explains an event or situation which one must struggle with to become successful. In this miasm, doubts of being inadequate may arise but there’s much hope that all will be alright eventually. In this miasm, struggle means a reward of better achievement later i.e. rising to or maintaining a position (Sankaran 2002).

Ringworm miasm.: which lies between the Psoric and Sycotic (fixed weakness) miasms = Taraxacum. I am in difficult situation where I alternatively feel hopeful (Psora) and then resigned (Sycotic).

Key word is: Trying and then giving up. An example from the Compositae family = Taraxacum whose expression could be according to Sankaran: “Trying to struggle with injury, hurt and insult sometimes avoiding it, sometimes accepting it”. Trying, giving up, irritation are common keywords.

[Edward Peter Phahamane]

Placed being between the Psoric and Sycotic miasms. The sensation is fixed and permanent (as in Sycosis) but not irreversible. There is hope of recovery and struggle (as in Psora) with a reaction of intermittent acceptance creating a constant sequence (Sankaran, 2005b:277).

Alteration between periods of struggle with anxiety about success, and periods of despair and giving up.

“Trying”. Periods of activity, struggle for success # periods of no activity, despair and giving-up. Key words: trying, giving-up, irritation, ringworm, tinea, acne, discomfort, herpetic (Sankaran 2002).

Ringwormoid                        late winter                        Recessiv (persecution)

Keynote: Victimization

Ringworm is not a worm – it is a systemic fungus.

The feelings of victimization in Malaria is passive, like being attacked by mosquitoes, but in Ringworm it is much stronger, more penetrating, depressed, angry and trapped.

Ringworm is a more concentrated and active form of victimization, and more powerful.

The person wants to and can’t, they have the desire but lack the confidence           

Sankaran: proving of Ringworm: he understands the main feeling of this miasm to be that the task at hand is just beyond where the person can be sure of success.

So they try to do something, and lack the confidence.

Then they become hopeful that maybe they can accomplish the task, and they struggle at it.

But at some point they will decide again that it is not going to work for them, that it is beyond their reach. So they will give up, and think they have to live with it.

But then another possibility seems like it might work. So they get hopeful once again.

And they start trying once more, and struggling, and then have to give it up again, because it is still beyond them.

So there is an alternation between struggling and trying, and then giving up, between hopefulness and resignation.

Interestingly, the time of this miasm is 4 - 6 weeks after the winter holiday season, so often people will write resolutions of what they

want to accomplish for the New Year. They make big plans, and try at first, and then give up their hope to make their resolution work –

You can see this in people who want to lose weight, or someone who wants to give up smoking, or change their lives in another way.


Malarial Miasm.: has aspects of the acute and sycosis miasm. Thus it is like a chronic malaria state where there is an fixed (Sycotic miasm) underlying problem (parasitism) – which is punctuated from time to time by Acute attacks. An example from the Compositae = Cina. Sankaran suggests the feeling as: “Persecuted by injury and hurt”.

Malaria                        late fall                        Recessiv (victimization)

Keynote: victimization

*General sense of weariness.

*Liver and spleen.

Cold hands; cold hands/feet at night.

*Soles of feet almost numb.

*Copious perspiration on least exertion.

*Aversion to food.

*Nausea, colic, cramps, diarrhea and headaches.           


Key word is: Harrassed, hindered and persecuted.

[Edward Peter Phahamane]

Is between the Acute and Sycotic miasms. The sensation is felt as fixed and permanent (as in Sycosis) but there is also an experience of sudden, intermittent attacks

(Acute miasm). This gives rise to feelings of being persecuted or hindered (Sankaran, 2005b:275).

Acute feeling of threat that comes up intermittently, in phases, between which there is an underlying chronic, fixed feeling of being deficient. Characterized by sudden,

acute manifestations that come up from time to time, followed by periods of quiescence. stuck; persecution; colic; paroxysmal; malaria; worms; migraine; periodicity;

hindered; obstructed; torture

“Persecuted” (lies between an Acute miasm and Sycosis miasm). This miasm is defined by acute phase manifestations that come intermittently from time to time followed

by relapse. There’s also a feeling of being deficient due to an underlying disease state. Key words: persecution, colic, worms, periodicity, hindered, torture, obstruction, malaria (Sankaran 2002).

Nit ac.: Katalysator an der Schwelle der Syphilinie zur Sykose

Sycosis miasm.: = Senecio. excess/I have a fixed weakness (not life threatening) which I need to hide to avoid injury, hurt and insult. Common keywords are: Fixed, cover-up, hide, guilt, secretive.

Sycosis                        early spring                        Dominant (desperate need to break loose)

Keynote: Excess, Extremes

            Allergies. Angina. Anxiety. Arthritis (Reiter's syndrome – arthritis effecting the eyes, urethra, skin and joints.). Asthma. Behavior disorders. Eczema. Herpes.

Hypertension. Interstitial cystitis. Vaginal discharges.

Manic-depression. Migraine. Ear infections. Peptic ulcer. Pulmonary fibrosis. Sinusitis. Urethritis. Vaginitis. Warts.

Sex, drugs and rock and roll Or now, “techno or screamo music.” And raves.

These are people who are extremely passionate, and energetic, and who can get into problems from their strong need for expression

and for venting their energy.

They want to experience everything, extreme sports, extreme sex, extreme emotions.

They work in extremes – they either have passionate relationships filled with love or hate, they get great grades in school, or they fail miserably.

They can perform brilliantly at work, and then be totally inept.

They can be very aggressive, which can lead to cruelty and violence.

They love the night, and when most people are going to bed, they are just get started.

They have discharges, and feel better for them.

Medorrhinum is the father of all of the “itis” conditions – sinusitis, urethritis, vaginitis, tonsilitis, etc. and other inflammatory complaints.


[Edward Peter Phahamane]

The sensation is perceived as permanent but is not destructive. The reaction is one of acceptance, avoiding and hiding or covering up. The person cannot do anything about the situation and tries to hide their incapacity from others (Sankaran, 2005b:272). “Fixidity”.

There’s an overall feeling of being submerged under a fixed, untreatable flaw within self. An attempt of living with the flaw is made, and it is hidden away where curiosity of the eyes cannot reach. Safety is attained as long as the weakness is covered up so there is a tendency to being secretive. The fear of being exposed is high and this is also substantiated by fear of reprimand and open criticism. Delusion of being thin, fragile and being made of glass is dominant as if their weakness can be seen no matter how hard they compensate to hide it. Key words: fixed, guilt, hide, secretive, warts, tumours, weakness, gonorrhoea (Sankaran 2002).

Tubercular miasm.: between Sycosis and Syphillis. There is a feeling of oppression and that time is short, so my responses need to be hectic. Abrot. an remedy from the Compositae. From ‘An Insight into Plants’ Sankaran gives the feeling as: “Oppressed and suffocated by injury, hurt and insult”. Keyword: hectic, intense, suffocation, trapped.

Tuberculosis                        early winter                        Dominant (restlessness-desire to change)

Keynote: restlessness

*‘Change is as good as a rest’

*They may change jobs/houses more often than most.

*Desire for travel. 􀀁

*Never better than when planning trip/renovation/change.

*Frustrated if no change, can become malicious

*’Angel child/Devil child’


*Flashy, stylish clothing

*OCD (= Obsessive–compulsive disorder -like behaviour)

*Feel suffocated, need to break free


 [Edward Peter Phahamane]

Cancer miasm.: The general expression is that I need to apply superhuman efforts to maintain control and prevent chaos. From the Compositae there is Bellis perennis.

Its expression could be: To prevent injury, hurt and insult I need to exert superhuman effort.

Keywords: control vs chaos, perfectionist, beyond one’s capacity.

Cancer                        late spring                        Recessiv (resignation)

Keynote: Resignation

            Abscesses. Acne. Allergies. Asthma. Chronic fatigue syndrome. Colitis. Constipation. Coughs.

Developmental delays. Diabetes. Painful menses. Headaches.

Immune deficiencies. Insomnia.

Moles. Birthmarks. Ovarian cysts. Premenstrual syndrome.

Rectal prolapse. Respiratory illnesses. Sinusitis. Tics.

Passionate and longing patients who over-extend themselves on many levels.

Women (or men) who volunteer at their child’s school, or the church, or the hospital.

They take care of everyone, run the house, prepare the meals, do all of the laundry, make sure everything is wonderful for their family –

But they neglect to take care of themselves, to do things that feed their own soul, and make use of their generative and creative energy – so that energy

goes toward making tumours instead.

Dancing and music are one of their passions, and are an outlet for them.

Love the excitement and powerful energy of thunderstorms.

Very sympathetic people. They can be timid.

Fears about their health and cancer. They also have worries about school examinations, and don’t like crowds.

They have a lot of worries and anticipatory fears.


[Edward Peter Phahamane]

This miasm is situated between the Sycotic and Syphilitic miasm. There is the fixed nature of Sycosis together with the destructive nature of

the Syphilitic. There is chaos which has to be controlled by a superhuman effort as there are limited resources (Sankaran, 2005b:278).

A sensation of being suffocated or trapped resulting in hectic activity to escape the oppression and break free, but with little hope as destruction is imminent (Sankaran, 2005b:279).

Weakness and incapacity within, and the need to perform exceedingly well and live up to very high expectations. The reaction is a superhuman effort, stretching himself beyond the limits of his capacity.

It is continuous, prolonged struggle which seems to have no end. Survival depends on it, for failure would mean death and destruction. control; perfection; fastidious; superhuman; cancer; expectation; capacity; chaos;

“Perfection”. Goals are set very high, may not be reachable via higher means but only by extremely higher means. In order to achieve these goals, they are constantly active and in control of everything in

order to achieve a high set goal. These demands far beyond their capacity and so a superhuman is created. Key words: control, intense activity, order, perfection and fastidiousness (Sankaran 2002).

Leprosy miasm.: I am a disgusting outcaste, I should isolate myself. Lappa is an example from the Compositae. “Isolated, scorned and disgusted by injury and hurt” is Sankaran’s suggestion.

Keywords: disgust, contempt, isolation, mutilation etc.

[Edward Peter Phahamane]

.: A sense of destruction, desperation and hopelessness as seen in the Syphilitic miasm, combined with the desperation and intensity. The feeling is of intense oppression, intense hopelessness, isolation and an intense desire for change. disgust; contempt; isolation; leprosy; mutilation; hopeless; oppression; dirty; despair; outcast; sadism; repulsion.

“Isolation”. There is a deep, intense feeling of isolation, worthlessness, hopelessness, of being an ultimate outcast, of being a dirty rag. Contact with people is avoided due to dominant delusions being hunted down to be killed, poisoned and destroyed. Suicidal and homicidal tendencies arise whilst in this state. Key words: despair, isolation, dirty, outcast, mutilation, leprosy, oppression (Sankaran 2002).

Nit-ac.: Katalysator an der Schwelle der Syphilinie zur Sykose

Syphillis miasm.: destruction/decay/deep seated/degenerative; ‘The task is hopeless, so my only response is to do or die’. Echinacea is the Compositae representative which specific expression could be: “Destroyed by injury and hurt. Death by from injury” (Sankaran’s Insight into Plants, Vol 1)1). Keywords: Destruction, homicide, suicide, ulcers, despair, psychosis are major.

Syphilis                        early summer                        Dominant (feeling trapped, locked in)

Keynote: Selfdestruction/Destruction

            Abscesses. Acne. Alcoholism.

Hair loss (sometimes entire body). Aneurysm. Anxiety.

Bone pains. Compulsive disorder. Headaches. Insomnia. Vaginal discharge (often staining or burning).

Malignancy. Mouth ulcers. Neuralgia. Psoriasis. Scoliosis.

Skin ulcer. Astigmatism. "Growing" pains.

In this miasm there is destruction that either manifests internally or externally.

Emotionally the person can let everything in their life crash down around them, and mentally they can go further, into insanity.

There is not a strong connection with family or others, and a family history of alcoholism is one sign that this miasm is present.

Physically there is erosion of the bones, dissolving of muscles, and bone pains (at night) sometimes names “growing pains.”

The discharges tend to dissolve tissue, the wounds tend to ulcerate, and the skin dissolves so it is harder to heal.

< at night, they can dread the night, because their symptoms are so much worse once the sun sets, until morning.

You may see asymmetrical features, the face can be distorted, ears at different heights or of a strange shape, pointed teeth that get caries at the gum line.

Birth defects.

They use drugs to more of an extreme than Sycosis, and use the more serious drugs.

Where Sycosis might sink into a depression and threaten suicide, Syphilis will go through with it.

The Syphlinum patient may wash his hands literally 100x daily. Every time he touches a public doorknob, every time he handles money, every time he shakes

somebody's hand, he is taken by an irresistible desire to wash. The patient may be aware that their behaviours are strange, but are not able to stop them, and then they

fear a downward slide into insanity.

Their self-destructiveness may appear in eating disorders (anorexia or bulimia), or cutting themselves. They may have multiple piercings, many tattoos, and

enjoy the mutilation of their bodies.


[Edward Peter Phahamane]

Sensation is deep, permanent and destructive. The situation is perceived as hopeless and destructive. The reaction is usually desperate and extreme, often violent or drastic like suicidal or homicidal impulses. There is a feeling of complete isolation and hopelessness (Sankaran, 2005b:273). A situation beyond salvage, leading to complete hopelessness and despair. In a desperate effort, he tries to change the situation and the result is usually destruction. syphilis; ulcers; impossible; psychosis; devastation            

“Destruction”. This miasm is defined by destruction at all levels. Intense feeling of being surrounded by enemies who are out to cause harm and or destruction.

The same suspicion high-lights their lack of trust of anyone and impulse to kill anyone daring to contradict them even those close to them. Having lack of trust for anyone and

living under this intense suspicion causes them to despair, become suicidal, controlling, antisocial, indifferent and these features may be present with violence.

Key words: suicide, impossible, ulcers, homicides, psychosis, destruction (Sankaran 2002).

Lyme Miasm

Lyme                                    late summer                        Recessiv (withdrawal)

Keynote: Denial/withdrawal from society

All we can go on are the current chronic and acute states – and they make one think of the following conditions that we might expect if you went back in the family history:

Arthritis. Fibromylagia. Chronic Fatigue. Degerative skin conditions. Neurological symptoms. Eye problems.

Kidney and liver problems. Meniere’s syndrome. Paralysis.

Austism Spectrum Diseases. Modern neuropathies – Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s Disease, etc.

“Like other spirochetes, such as those that cause syphilis, the Lyme spirochete can remain in the human body for years in a non metabolic state. It is essentially in

suspended animation, and since it does not metabolise in this state, antibiotics are not absorbed or effective. When the conditions are right, those bacteria that

survive can seed back into the blood stream and initiate a relapse.” (like acute Malaria)

NOTE: While it was first thought that B. burgdorferi was the only species causing Lyme disease, it has since been determined that any number of the different species in

the genus Borrelia might be capable of this feat.


Syphilis was known as the “great imitator” because its multiple manifestations mimicked other known diseases.

Lyme borreliosis, likewise, has now entered the stage as “the new great imitator.”

Homoeopathy knows the major syphilitic remedy, Mercurius, as the “great masquerader.” Judging by the close family connection between both spirochetes, it does not come

as a surprise that one of very first cases of borreliosis, in 1922 in France, had a weakly positive syphilis test and thus was treated with arsenicals, the then current treatment

for syphilis.

There are a wide range of symptoms associated with Lyme borreliosis. Symptoms vary greatly, one or more systems may be involved, and new manifestations continue to

be described. Like syphilis, Lyme borreliosis may remain latent and asymptomatic for a long period of time; progress for many years through successive stages; or

fluctuate dramatically and unpredictably.

Many Lyme patients were first diagnosed with other illnesses such as arthritis, juvenile arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, MS, lupus,

early ALS (= amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), early Alzheimer’s disease, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome and various other more nondescript illnesses.



[Edward Peter Phahamane]



Vaccinosis. a variant of sycosis [growths of all types (cysts/polyps/warts/tumors/cancer)/skin affections/lymphatic system/immune system/susceptible to fungal infections/susceptible to cold, damp weather/arthritis/affections of the blood etc.]



Cadmium. is to cancer what Thuja is to Sycosis and Mercury is to the Syphilitic miasm



In order to comprehensively discuss Protea cynaroides as a homoeopathic remedy, it is important to include a discussion on the miasmatic affinity of the remedy illustrated through the proving process.

Hahnemann (1995), through careful observation of the diseases presented by his patients, observed that although the illnesses were removed through the administration of medication, new diseases appear to replace those removed. This led him to conclude that the new disease is but a new manifestation of the old disease. The root of the disease, termed miasm, is a disorganisation of the vital force that could be acquired and transmitted genetically. These are responsible for all the diseases of mankind and are the roots of suffering (Norland, 2003b: 225). It is an inherited predisposition to develop certain disease symptoms due to the individual‘s susceptibility to those disease conditions (Norland, 2003b; Vithoulkas, 1998).

Based on his observations of the diseases plaguing modern society, Sankaran (1999) added:

 the Typhoid, Ringworm, Malarial, Cancerinic, Tubercular and Leprosy miasms. The Typhoid miasm lies between the Acute and Psora miasms and is characterised by an intense struggle against disease which will, if handled properly, result in total recovery (Sankaran, 2000: 450).

The Ringworm and Malarial miasms lie between Psora and Sycosis. In the Ringworm miasm periods of struggle and anxiety about success # periods of despair is observable (Sankaran, 2000). Intermittent, acute manifestations are characteristic of the Malarial miasm. These manifestations are followed by periods of quiescence (Sankaran, 2000: 451). This is not only a European notion. African philosophy also hold the widespread belief that Motho ke motho ka Batho - a person is a person through other persons (Augusto, 2007).

Although no literature was available on the medicinal uses of Protea cynaroides, Protea repens has been used traditionally as an ingredient of cough syrups (Van Wyk & Gericke, 2007). It is the researcher‘s opinion that perhaps, because of Protea cynaroides’ ancient relationship to the African continent, it may hold the answers we need to

the medical questions prevalent on this continent. In response to this insight, Hahnemann (1995) formulated the first three miasms, Psora, Sycosis and Syphilis, based on

the venereal and non-venereal disease patterns observed in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The non-venereal psoric miasm is characterised by a cutaneous eruption, accompanied by intolerable itching (Hahnemann, 1999). Hahnemann viewed Psora as the fundamental cause of all other diseases (Hahnemann, 1999: 167).

The venereal miasms, Sycosis and Syphilis, each exhibit characteristics unique to the respective miasms. The sycotic miasm is characterised by cauliflower-like growths where there is a hypertrophy of tissues, whilst the syphilitic miasm exhibits a venereal chancre and tissue destruction (Hahnemann, 1999: 167). Where Psora is characterised by feelings of neglect and abandonment, Sycosis exhibits themes around attachment and Syphilis destruction (Norland, 2003b).

Based on his observations of the diseases plaguing modern society, Sankaran (1999) added the Typhoid, Ringworm, Malarial, Cancerinic, Tubercular and Leprosy miasms.

The Typhoid miasm lies between the Acute and Psora miasms and is characterised by an intense struggle against disease which will, if handled properly, result in total recovery (Sankaran, 2000: 450).

The Ringworm and Malarial miasms lie between Psora and Sycosis. In the Ringworm miasm periods of struggle and anxiety about success alternating with periods of despair is observable (Sankaran, 2000). Intermittent, acute manifestations are characteristic of the Malarial miasm. These manifestations are followed by periods of quiescence (Sankaran, 2000: 451).

Between Sycosis and Syphilis lie the Tubercular, Cancerinic and Leprosy miasms. The Tubercular miasm is characterised by a feeling of oppression coupled with a desire for change in order to break free from the oppression.

A desire to attain perfection marks the Cancerinic miasm. This desire is in reaction to a feeling of incapacity which results in a drive to perform beyond the limits of one‘s capacity. The Leprosy miasm is characterised by a feeling of oppression, coupled with intense hopelessness (Sankaran, 2000).

It seems that the more modern miasmatic classifications described by Sankaran (2000) could be interpreted as an attempt to find answers to the disease manifestations predominant in the 21st century lifestyle. In the researcher‘s opinion, these cater for both first and third world societies - developed and developing countries. Hahnemann, however, strove to classify diseases into three basic categories to facilitate the understanding of disease processes and to assist in disease prognosis. The addition of more miasms, however, complicates the classification and is, in effect, counterproductive. They do reflect the complexity of living in the 21st century globalisation, where,

(S. Africa), a practitioner would encounter both first and third world patients within the same practice on any given day.

Fraser (2002) observed that many of the important themes of modern day provings reflect the general issues of society. These provings contain a large number of common elements, containing themes that overlap with those that emerged from the proving of the AIDS nosode. This encouraged Fraser (2002) to develop the AIDS miasm as an expression of the disease tendency in modern society.

The main themes of the AIDS miasm are as follows (Fraser, 2002: 73-4; Norland, 2003b: 158):

Connection - with the divine and with other people, evident in symptoms such as being sympathetic and sensitive, with nature and a feeling of expansion

Responsibility - Responsible for the welfare of others (children)

Disconnection - A feeling of not belonging, being isolated or detached or experiencing the need to be alone. “As if in a dream or on drugs”. The individuals are slow,

passive and dull, feeling rejected, betrayed or persecuted with resultant suspicion and loss of identity

Indifference - Feelings of apathy, despair, selfishness and cruelty

Dispersion - Sensation of things coming out, of growth. Themes of water, waves, thirst and dryness, of circles and clouds. A sensation of lack of substance, emptiness, floating and flying; of hearing music or of travelling through space. Also thoughts of travel, but rushing around

Instability - Oversensitivity to all stimuli and childishness. Themes of chaos and order and the loss of structure

Extremes - Themes of tallness, nobility, strength and hardness, excess and extravagance and changes in appetite

Confusion - Confusion of senses, vanishing of thoughts, forgetfulness, confusion of identity, confusion about time, confusion about words with difficulty concentrating

Femininisation - Feminine themes of left sidedness, motherhood and pregnancy and sexuality

Vulnerability - Images of babies and children, danger and violence, rape, abuse, fear and paranoia. There is a need for privacy and secrecy. They feel trapped, fragile, weak

and dependent, as if they can‘t cope. The opposite is also true with feelings of invulnerability and recklessness

Discontent - They feel restless, frustrated and irritable. They are easily offended, reacting violently with a desire to kill

Infection - Symptoms like influenza, coupled with themes of dirt, worms and vermin. They feel contaminated or fear that they will contaminate others

Confidence - Lack of confidence, where they feel old, ugly and shy. There are feelings of shame and humiliation, resulting in self hatred and self harm.

On the other side there is confidence where they feel relaxed, serene, content and elated

Boundaries and Obstruction - Obstruction of senses with images of houses, portals and death. There are issues around the skin and touch. There is also a loss of protection

or shell or wall, leaving them feeling exposed

Childhood - Thoughts of a remembered childhood and feelings of playfulness

Dream themes - Themes of houses (ornate or ramshackle), staircases, teeth, snow, septic state, children, transport, travelling, wood, metal and water. The colour red is prominent. Themes of violence, with feelings of panic, responsibility, anger, irritability, fear, rushing and of being busy

A comparison of the materia medica of Protea cynaroides and the common themes listed above would reveal whether the remedy falls within these parameters. It would give an indication whether Fraser‘s (2002) observations are globally applicable or only evident in the developed countries his observations were based on.

The general theme in the extended miasm model is that more of a related continuum: going from Hopeful (psora) to totally desperate (Syphillis). Dr. Ashley Ross describes

it as like a train line, with the miasms the railway stations on the track of desperation.

What is the utility of all the miasms? In depth case taking (sensation level) we may come up with a sensitive patient (plant Kingdom) who has expressions of injured, hurt, insulted (Compositae Sub-kingdom). This a large remedy group, which to use? Observing the miasm, nature and extent of the family expression helps nail down the remedy (small remedy).

To reiterate the miasm is not seperate from the remedy. It is just a way of classifying remedies. It is like an adjective describing a noun e.g. a short boy. Both elements are needed to accurately describe the subject. Short by itself is meaningless and boy by itself is too general.

It does take time to recognize the miasm in the remedy. Reading cured cases helps, watching video cases is even better. It is important to study the keywords and maps of

the model as well.


[Carola und Ravi Roy]

Der Begriff Miasma wird außer in der Homöopathie in der medizinischen Welt nicht mehr benutzt. Interessanterweise taucht in der englischsprachigen nicht-medizinischen Literatur

der letzten zehn Jahre gelegentlich dieses Wort wieder auf. Vor 150 Jahren war es noch geläufig und drückte das „unfassbar Krankmachende" aus. Im medizinischen Sprachgebrauch

bedeutet es „das Verunreinigende". Miasma ist ein griechisches Wort, das unverändert übernommen wurde und auch „beflecken" heißt. In der Medizin wurde seit jeher geglaubt, dass

ein Miasma direkt krankmachend auf die Lebenskraft wirkt. Hahnemann war aber der erste, der die chronischen Miasmen richtig definierte und sie als die Grundursache aller

Krankheiten darstellte. Die Miasmen waren nach damaliger Meinung umstimmende Kräfte, welche, wenn sie einmal die Lebenskraft in ihren Bann gezogen hatten, nicht mehr mit den

„normalen", d.h. materiellen Methoden (Medikamente etc.) zu beseitigen waren.

Dazu muss auf einer ähnlichen Ebene der Lebenskraft gearbeitet werden, z.B. mit der Alchemie und der Homöopathie.

Doch wie immer manifestieren sich in der materiellen Welt nach der Entdeckung eines geistigen Prinzips die gegnerischen Kräfte. Dies hält die Ungläubigen im Bann der Materie.

Im Jahre 1828 veröffentlichte Hahnemann seine Miasmentheorie und stellte die These auf, dass die Psora, deren Grundlage die Krätze ist, die Ursache aller Krankheiten ist.

Bereits zwei Jahre später, 1830, wurde die Milbe Acarus scabiei als Erreger der Krätze (Psora) entdeckt. Für materialistisch Denkende bedeutete dies den Todesstoß der Miasmentheorie.

H. Auf Seite 8 der „Chronischen Krankheiten" „Nach und nach lernte ich hilfreichere Mittel gegen das Ur-Übel, welche so viele Leiden erzeugt, zu finden".

Dieses Ur-Übel nannte Hahnemann die Psora, die innere Krätzekrankheit mit oder ohne Hautausschlag. Mit der Entdeckung von Bakterien kam die Mehrheit der Menschen noch mehr

zu einer materiellen Betrachtung von Krankheiten. Die Seele, die Lebenskraft, als die waltende Kraft über unser Leben und Wohlbefinden verlor immer mehr an Bedeutung.

Das ist der Grund, warum die Homöopathie es so schwer hat und die Miasmentheorie noch viel schwerer.

Die Homöopathie sieht den Menschen als eine Einheit von Körper, Geist und Seele, die sein Wesen ausmacht. Die Miasmentheorie sucht den nicht-materiellen Ursprung der Krankheit

in eben diesem Wesen des Menschen.

Trotz aller Gegner im eigenen Lager gab es natürlich auch immer wieder Homöopathen, welche die Ideen und das System Hahnemanns erweiterten und ausbauten.

 Hahnemann entdeckte drei Miasmen - Psora, Sykose und Syphilis, wobei er ausführlich nur über das erste Miasma, die Psora, schreibt. Es stand daher noch sehr viel Arbeit und Forschung

über die weiteren Miasmen an. Nach und nach erkannten manche Homöopathen, dass nicht alle Krankheitsphänomene den drei Miasmen zugeordnet werden können.

Weiterentwicklung der sieben Miasmen

Als erstes wurde klar, dass die Krankheit Tuberkulose ein eigenständiges Miasma -die Tuberculose- sein muss und ihrer eigenen homöopathischen Erforschung bedarf.

Nach und nach wurde dann auch Krebs als ein eigenständiges Miasma -die Carcinose- eingeführt. Jedoch gab es in der Homöopathie viele Jahre keine Literatur über die neu erkannten

Miasmen sowie kaum neue Erkenntnisse über Hahnemanns Miasmenwerk.

Erst Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts veröffentlichte J. H. Allen sein Werk „Die chronischen Miasmen - Psora, Pseudopsora und Sykose". Er hatte jahrzehntelang, anfänglich mit seinem

Lehrer H.C. Allen und später alleine, über die Miasmen recherchiert. Sein früher Tod verhinderte jedoch die Veröffentlichung seiner Forschungen über die anderen Miasmen. In seinem Buch

erwähnt er erstmalig die Existenz von sieben Miasmen J.H. Allen war auch der Erste, der den geistigen Hintergrund der Miasmen darstellte, ohne dabei im geringsten H.s Verdienste zu

schmälern. Im Gegenteil, mit eindeutigen Worten verwies er immer wieder auf den Vater der Miasmenlehre, Samuel Hahnemann. Anscheinend hatte J.H. Allen das Miasma der Syphilis

schon gründlich ausgearbeitet, da er angefangen hatte, zu diesem Thema für eine homöopathische Fachzeitschrift Artikel zu schreiben. Nach der ersten Veröffentlichung starb er leider.

Es gibt in der allgemeinen medizinischen und homöopathischen Fachliteratur sehr viele Veröffentlichungen über die Syphilis, die ich mir aus einigen Teilen der Welt über viele Jahre

zusammengesucht habe. Ähnlich musste ich bei der Bearbeitung der Tuberculose und Carcinose recherchieren. Dies blieb der Stand der Dinge bis fast zum Ende des Jahrtausends.

Die Syphilis, das dritte Miasma von Hahnemann, war zwar allgemein und homöopathisch gut erforscht, die Abhandlungen darüber lagen jedoch weit verstreut in aller Welt, und es gab noch

keine sinnvolle Zusammenstellung des gesamten Wissens. Das Informationsmaterial über die letzten beiden Miasmen jedoch lag noch lange brach. Da es nicht einmal richtige Namen für sie

gab, nannte ich sie erst Pseudo-Sykose und Pseudo-Syphilis. Später änderte ich die Bezeichnungen in Ambrosis und Lyssinus. Unser Sohn Aron prägte den Begriff „Lyssinus", der sich von

Tollwut ableitet. Außer Allen gab es damals keinen Homöopathen, der ihre mögliche Existenz erwähnte. Rein logisch betrachtet mussten sie existieren. Aber was war ihre Natur?

Dies ließ mich all die Jahre nicht los, bis nach und nach auch diese versteckten Miasmen ans Licht kamen. Das Problem lag darin, dass H. alle Symptome und Krankheiten unter den ersten

drei Miasmen eingeordnet hatte. Dies ist auch verständlich, denn er war ein ordnungsliebender Geist, der alles strukturiert haben wollte.

Darüber hinaus hatte er sieben Achtel der gesamten Krankheitsäußerungen der Psora zugeordnet, da er sie für die Mutter aller Krankheiten hielt. Der Gedanke, dass sie die Mutter aller

Krankheiten sei und deswegen alles, was sie gebärt, auch psorisch sei, scheint auf den ersten Blick logisch, doch letztendlich würde das die Sykose und die Syphilis mit der Psora gleichsetzen.

H. ist der Ansicht, dass die Sykose und Syphilis nicht hätten entstehen können, wenn es die Psora nicht gegeben hätte.


[Suraj Vishal Kasiparsad]

Miasm: Originates from the Greek word miasma, which means polluting exhalations. These are dynamic entities which stain and pollute the human organism with unhealthy tendencies (, 2010).

[R. Schule]

Der alte griechische Begriff „Miasma“ klingt heute sehr antiquiert. Selbst die medizinische Fachsprache verwendet diesen Ausdruck nicht mehr. Ganz anders dagegen zu Hahnemanns Zeiten:

Selbst seine so geschmähten „Allopathen“ konnten mit der Bezeichnung „Miasma“ etwas anfangen.

Zu Hahnemanns Zeiten war der Begriff „Miasma“ in der Medizin eine allseits eingeführte Bezeichnung für Verunreinigungen, Sumpf, Ursache für Ansteckungen, Quelle von Erkrankungen.

Als akute Miasmen galten die epidemischen Infektionskrankheiten, auch die sogenannten „Kinderkrankheiten“, die der Mensch entweder mit lebenslanger Immunität übersteht oder die sein

Leben beenden. Dagegen verlaufen die chronischen Miasmen schleichend, mit fortlaufender Verschlechterung und jahrelangem Siechtum. Die Veranlagung zu einem bestimmten Miasma erfolgt durch Vererbung über Generationen und durch Erwerbung im eigenen Leben.



                                                                         Alone + abandonment

                                                             Underfunction - Introspection

                        Sycosis                                                                                                                        Syphillis

            Expansion more and more                                                                                                Destruction - less and less

Hyperexpansion (excessive life/greed)                                                                                    Hypercontraction (excessive death wish/hatred)


                                                                                    Psora + Syphillis

                                                            Seperation - abandonment            Destruction > homelessness



                                                                                    Sycosis + Syphillis

                                                             Expansion more and more - Destruction - less and less




                                                                                     Syphillis Psora

                                                 Violation and destruction of boundaries of self

Immunesystem breaks down - Isolation, enstrangement


Keywords utilized according to Sankaran’s (2005:7) miasmatic model


The term „miasm‟ comes from the Greek, meaning “pollution or taint”, and was used in relation to various unknown causes of illness from the time of Hippocrates, through the Middle Ages, and into the 18th century.

Hahnemann eventually used the term in his great theory of the origins of chronic disease (de Schepper, 2001: 355). While pondering for years on the reason why some patients would improve with the help of a homoeopathic remedy only to return later with a recurrence of their former disease state that responded less effectively to repetitions of the same remedy, Hahnemann realized that diseases which were not acute infections had to be of a chronic, deep-seated nature (Sankaran, 2000, 449). Through tireless work studying these patients‟ cases, he found patterns of diseases in the patients and their family histories which he felt explained the true basis of chronic disease. He called these patterns „miasms‟ (de Scheeper, 2001: 355) and classified diseases as venereal (sycosis and syphilis) and non-venereal (psora or scabies), and proposed that all disease states had their origin in these „miasms‟ (Sankaran, 2000: 449). Hahnemann therefore proposed that underlying the symptoms of all diseases is an all pervasive miasm or tendency to react in an identifiable set of ways (Hahnemann 1996: 190).

As mentioned earlier, this also began the tendency to systematize the prescription of homoeopathic remedies.


Hahnemann’s original theory of miasms was published in Chronic Diseases (1828) and outlined 3 miasms: psora, sycosis and syphilis. Later homoeopaths defined the tubercular miasm (a combination of psoric and syphilitic) and the cancer miasm (based on a mixture of at least 2, often 3 or even all 4 of the other miasms) (de Scheeper, 2001). De Scheeper (2001) describes psora as „the sensitizing miasm‟, sycosis as „the miasm of excess and overgrowth‟ and syphilis as „the destructive miasm‟. He also refers to the tubercular miasm as „the reactive/responsive miasm‟ and the cancer miasm as „the mixed miasm‟.

Miasmen und Impfungen im Zusammenhang mit Kinderkrankheiten

Absolute Gesundheit ist - homöopathisch gesehen - gleichbedeutend mit „frei von Miasmen“

Wer also kann sich so glücklich schätzen und von absoluter Gesundheit sprechen ? Die meisten von uns haben irgend eine latente chronische Grundkrankheit geerbt o. erworben. Die Voraussetzung jeglicher Erkrankung ist demnach das Vorhandensein einer Schwäche. Die natürliche Immunität beruht nicht nur auf dem Vorhandensein von Antikörpern, sondern einer ganzen Reihe von generellen und lokalen Abwehrkräften. Ein Gesunder wird nicht krank

Wenn nun ein Kind an einer Kinderkrankheit erkrankt, so ist dies als positiver Versuch der Natur zu sehen, sich von einem dieser ererbten chronischen Miasmen vorübergehend -für vielleicht fünf bis zehn Jahre- zu befreien. Erinnern wir uns daran, dass alles Chronische auf nur drei, bzw. vier chronische Grundkrankheiten, die so genannten Miasmen (Psora, Syphilline, Sykosis, Tuberkulinie) zurückgeht.

So gesehen können wir auch besser verstehen, warum nicht jedes Kind jede Kinderkrankheit durchmacht. Der Organismus braucht diese Krankheit für seine Entwicklung Und das nicht nur auf organischer Ebene.

Viele von uns werden schon festgestellt haben, dass ihr Kind nach einer durchgemachten Kinderkrankheit nicht nur körperlich stabiler geworden ist, sondern auch geistig reifer und verständiger.

In jeder Kinderkrankheit findet also ein Reifungsprozess statt, der für die menschliche Entwicklung notwendig ist.

Dies gilt aber nur dann, wenn die Krankheit in Ruhe gelassen wird. Eine Behandlung mit fiebersenkenden Mitteln, Antibiotika, Cortison o. anderen unterdrückenden Methoden hat strengstens zu unterbleiben. Dadurch würde der Organismus in seinen ausleitenden Funktionen massiv behindert werden. Auch bei jeglicher Form lokaler Anwendungen ist Vorsicht geboten, denn der Krankheitsprozess ist ja bekanntlich energetischer Natur und nicht materieller.

A miasm is a condition which may be acquired or inherited. An underlying chronic or recurrent disease state (Gaier, 1991:342).

A repertory is a source used in case analysis to identify the medicine indicated for the patient. This process is called repertorisation. A repertory is a systemic cross reference of symptoms and disorders to the homoeopathic medicines in whose therapeutic repertoire (Materia Medica) they occur. The strength or degree of the association between the two is indicated by the type in which the medicine name is printed (Swayne, 2000:183). 


Sankaran’s Extended Miasmatic Model

Acute. ----à Typhoid. ---à Malaria. ----à Ringworm. ----à Psora. -----à Sycosis. ----à Cancer. ----à Tubercular. ----à Leprosy. ----à Syphilis. 
(Panic)              (Critical) (Persecuted) (Trying)              (Struggle)              (Fixed) (Perfection) (Change) (Persecuted) (Destruction)


Upper man: Intellectual/Thought/Attitude (astralische Leib/Ich-Leib)           

Psora                         = Itch           

Tuberkulose = Search

Sykose              = Excessiveness

Syphillis = Degeneration

             Nether man: Physical experience/Activity (physische Leib/ätherische Leib)

Malaria = Victimization

Ringworm = Persecution

Cancer              = Sacrifice

Lyme              = Isolation (= Lepra das Bessere?)


Die Miasmen können sich demzufolge in eine immer höhere bzw. gravierendere Ebene entwickeln:

Die Psora kann wechseln in die Tuberkulinie o. in die Parasitose o. direkt in die Carcinogenie.

Die Tuberkulinie (syphilitische o. sykotische) kann wechseln in die Sykose o. Syphilinie.

Die Sykose kann wechseln in die Syphilinie und Carcinogenie.

Die Syphilinie kann wechseln in die Carcinogenie.

Die Carcinogenie stellt die höchste Ebene dar.

Der Wechsel von einer Ebene in die Andere kann auch als Heilungsversuch verstanden werden:

Die Tuberkulinie kann versuchen sich über die Psora zu heilen.

Die Sykose versucht sich über die Tuberkulinie zu heilen.

Die Syphilinie kann versuchen sich über die Sykose zu heilen o. über die Parasitose, die sich wiederum über die Psora zu heilen versucht.

Die Syphilinie kann als Spiegelmiasma zur Tuberkulinie, übergehen.

Dies kann bedeuten, dass unter Aktivierung der Tuberkulinie automatisch die Syphilinie aktiviert wird und umgekehrt.


Hahnemann introduced a threefold miasmatic classification of chronic disease: Psora, sycosis and syphilis.

Sankaran: Another parallel of miasms and stages, the miasm can be seen on every level of a case. has elaborated on these and differentiated ten miasms. He sees them as specific

attitudes or reactions towards typical forms of disease, with a progressing depth or intensity

of desperation. He grouped them in horizontal succession. There is high hope in the miasms to the left and dejection and desperation to the right, ending with syphilis.

This clearly corresponds to Scholten’s stages. ’Acute miasm’ is stage 1, ’ringworm’ is stage 3, ’malaria’ in stage 5, ’sycosis’ spans stage 6-12 with a peak in stage 10 ’leprosy’ is

stage 16 and ‘syphilis’ is stage 17. In Scholten’s theory, the stages are common to all series. But these authors interpret ‘level’ and ’series’ quite differently.                                                           


Vergleich: Stages of consciousness

Sykose (Übermaß/alternierend) Cars (schleichend/geheim/Angst anjagend). Syphillinum (reinLICH/peniBEL/ANGST)


Psora (Haut/hoffnungslos) Ringwormoid (Beschwerden = nicht auflösbar)/Tub (Kerzen brennt an beide Enden/UNRUHE). Sykose (Übermaß/alternierend)


Vaccinosis (Sykosis Vaccinosis Carsinosinum)



Aids Miasm



The AIDS Miasm

Highly relevant to the study of drug remedies is the contemporary miasm which reflects the predominant pandemic of our modern era –the AIDS miasm. Fraser (2002) refers to our modern era

as the Electronic Age and argues that shifts in our understanding of our world have caused shifts in our understanding and view of ourselves. Fraser (2002:1522) proposes that having viewed the earth from space has caused a shift in our understanding and “a feeling for the smallness and fragility of the planet, a feeling that is central to the AIDS miasm”.

Fraser (2002: 43) differentiates the miasms as follows: “

The Psoric miasm about struggle,

the Sycotic about covering up,

the Syphilitic is about destruction and

the AIDS miasm is about losing boundaries”.

In today’s Electronic Age communication is instantaneous and there are no longer boundaries in terms of space and time. As Fraser (2002: 25) says,

“Electronic communication is instantaneous. Sender, receiver and all the people and places in between become a single unified point in space and time”. Yet despite, or perhaps because of, this loss of boundaries the Electronic Age is marked by a profound feeling of isolation and separation from the world (Fraser, 2002: 72). This lack of boundaries coupled with a sense of isolation and separation is what marks the AIDS miasm and is reflected in its symptoms and themes which, according to Fraser (2002.72), include:











Lack of confidence













Thirst and Dryness

Chaos and order


An understanding of the AIDS miasm helps one understand the contemporary epidemic of drug use and abuse, and Fraser (2002: 23) highlights the importance of drugs in the Electronic

Age, saying “The body creates its own internal defences against the overwhelming nature of the unbounded modern world in the form of detachment, numbness and isolation. It also seeks out external forces that will help create these states and recreational drugs are undoubtedly the most powerful way of doing this”. In her research into the synthetic recreational drug isolate group, Chhiba (2013: 165) found this group shared similarities with the AIDS miasm (fear, anxiety, rage, anger, violence, numbness, indifference, separation and dryness).

Suggested remedies: Adam. Agar. Agath-a. Agn. Aids. Ambr. Anac Anan Androc. Ang. Anh. Ara-maca. Ars. Berlin-w. Buteo-j. Cact. Cann-i. Carb-dioxid. Carieg-g. Castm. Cath-a. Cere-b.

Choc. Coca. Coca-c. Cocain. Colum-p. Conv-a. Corian-s. Corv-cor. Cur. Cygn-b. Cygn-s. Dream-p. Falco-pe. Galeoc-c-h (= Tiger Shark Liver). Galla-q-r. Germ-met. Gink-b. Haliae-lc. Helodr-cal.

Helo-h. Helo-s. Heroin. Hir. Hydrog. Ignis-alc. Ipom-p. Irid-met. Jug-c. Lac. Lac-cp. Lac-del. Lac-e. Lac-f. Lac-h. Lac-leo. Lac-lox-a. Lac-lup. Lars-arg. Latex. Lepd-s (= Lepidoptera saturniidae).

Limen-bc (= Limenitis bredowii californica). LSD. Lumbr-t. Maias-l. (= Maiasaura lapidea = Fossilized Bone of a Maiasaura Dinosaur). Meph. Mosch. Musca-d. Neon. Nux-m. Oncor-t. Opun-v.

Osm. Oxyg. Ozon. Phasco-ci (= Australian Koala): Phos. Pip-m. Plac. Plat-met. Plut-n. Polys (= Polystyrenum). Postr (= Antimatter): Propl. Ptel. Ptel. Pyrus. Querc-r. Rhus-g. Rhus-t. Sal-fr.

Sanguis-s. (= Blood of the Rat). Sel. Seq-s. Syph. Tax. Tax-br. Tell. Tung-met. Uro-h (= Urolophus halleri). Vacum. Visc. Xan.


Vergleich: AIDS = einen neuen Varianten/Nachfolger von Syphillis.



Atrophy miasm suggested by Jan Scholten. The clinical picture of atrophy is clearly depicted by his concept of stage 14 (drained, empty shell, lifeless mask)


Physischer Leib - skleroseartig / Ich - lähmungsbedingt


Vergleich: Siehe: Theorien           





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