Hämoglobin = Hb


Red blood cells (erythrocytes) (in human blood) get their red color from haemoglobin. Other types of blood use different pigments and come in a variety of colors (green/blue).

Remarkable feature of blood is its high capacity for carrying O. This is possible by a metal-containing pigment, which is attached to the blood's protein. The pigment combines

reversibly with O, picking it up in lung/a gill and carrying it to the cells before letting it go. This process works because the pigment combines with O at high partial pressure in

the organism's respiratory organ, then releases it at the comparatively low pressure within cells (Ferr-met. works in 3 functional realms:

1. as healer and strengthener of nervous tissue,

2. relates to the biliary system, restraining the overexuberance,

3. working in the rhythmic cycles/the to and fro of taking up and giving up O by the haemoglobin is an example of this rhythmic activity of iron).

The most widely-distributed is Hb, a molecule consisting of a porphyrin ring with a central iron atom hooked to a clump of protein called globin.

Hemoglobin is found in all vertebrates (except a few Antarctic fish)/in the circulatory fluids of many invertebrates (annelid worms/many arthropods/some echinoderms/


Other pigments = oxygen-transporters:

Chlorocruorin: in tubular annelids (Polychaeta)/Solutions of this iron-based pigment are green when dilute, but vivid red at higher concentrations.

The blood of one species, Serpula vermicularis (= Bunter Kalkröhrenwurm), is remarkable in that it uses a dual hemoglobin/chlorocruorin system.

Hemerythrin: in marine worms/some nematodes/annelids/brachiopods. Blood containing this pigment is bright pink or violet when oxygenated, but colorless by the time it

reaches the veins.

Vanadium chromagen: sea squirts/ascidians/tunicates. Usually makes blood apple-green, though this may change to blue or orange in the presence of different vanadium oxides.

Pinnaglobin: brown manganese-based porphyrin, in Pinna squamosa

Vitamin B12: a cobalt-based porphyrin. Coboglobin blood would be colorless or slightly pink when oxygen-enriched, but dark yellow or deep amber in the veins.

(Like hemocyanin, hemerythrin and coboglobin are not destroyed by carbon monoxide as is hemoglobin)


Vergleich: Bilurubin = Abbauprodukt von Hämoglobin (Säuglinge.)/= Farbstoff in Galle.). Bilirubinstein (enthält Biliburin)

Arenicola marina. dessen extracellular hemoglobin = a new promising blood substitute

Chlrpl. = Hämoglobin-ähnLICH/hat Mg statt Fe als Zentralatom

Hämocyanin (hat Cu. statt Fe/transportiert O in Krebse./Muscheln./Schnecken./Tintenfisch)

Helx-p. The blood system is open, with blood spaces and no veins. The pigment is colorless, and is called haemocyanin, which contains copper

Helod-c. The blood of the worm = simiLAR to human blood/has same function of carrying oxygen/has iron-rich hemoglobin as its base


Pinnaglobin (bindet O mit Mn. in Pinna squamosa) Molluscae

Siehe: Blutgruppe + Ferrum metallicum + Geburtsgruppe

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