Hämoglobin = Hb
Red blood cells (erythrocytes) (in human blood) get their red color from haemoglobin. Other types of blood use different pigments and come in a variety of colors (green/blue).
Remarkable feature of blood is its high capacity for carrying O. This is possible by a metal-containing pigment, which is attached to the blood's protein. The pigment combines
reversibly with O, picking it up in lung/a gill and carrying it to the cells before letting it go. This process works because the pigment combines with O at high partial pressure in
the organism's respiratory organ, then releases it at the comparatively low pressure within cells (Ferr-met. works in 3 functional realms:
1. as healer and strengthener of nervous tissue,
2. relates to the biliary system, restraining the overexuberance,
3. working in the rhythmic cycles/the to and fro of taking up and giving up O by the haemoglobin is an example of this rhythmic activity of iron).
The most widely-distributed is Hb, a molecule consisting of a porphyrin ring with a central iron atom hooked to a clump of protein called globin.
Hemoglobin is found in all vertebrates (except a few Antarctic fish)/in the circulatory fluids of many invertebrates (annelid worms/many arthropods/some echinoderms/
Other pigments = oxygen-transporters:
Chlorocruorin: in tubular annelids (Polychaeta)/Solutions of this iron-based pigment are green when dilute, but vivid red at higher concentrations.
The blood of one species, Serpula vermicularis (= Bunter Kalkröhrenwurm), is remarkable in that it uses a dual hemoglobin/chlorocruorin system.
Hemerythrin: in marine worms/some nematodes/annelids/brachiopods. Blood containing this pigment is bright pink or violet when oxygenated, but colorless by the time it
reaches the veins.
Vanadium chromagen: sea squirts/ascidians/tunicates. Usually makes blood apple-green, though this may change to blue or orange in the presence of different vanadium oxides.
Pinnaglobin: brown manganese-based porphyrin, in Pinna squamosa
Vitamin B12: a cobalt-based porphyrin. Coboglobin blood would be colorless or slightly pink when oxygen-enriched, but dark yellow or deep amber in the veins.
(Like hemocyanin, hemerythrin and coboglobin are not destroyed by carbon monoxide as is hemoglobin)
Arenicola marina. dessen extracellular hemoglobin = a new promising blood substitute
Chlrpl. = Hämoglobin-ähnLICH/hat Mg statt Fe als Zentralatom
Helod-c. The blood of the worm = simiLAR to human blood/has same function of carrying oxygen/has iron-rich hemoglobin as its base