Lacticum acidum (Lac-ac) w C3H6O3/= Milchsäure/= E 270
Schwäche ohne Irritation +
Thema: Verantwortung; Lösung: Ewiges Mädchen;
Lacticum acidum seems to be the eternal child;
Negativ: A. Mager, B. Fröstelt;
Will keine Verantwortung tragen, will nicht unabhängig + nicht als kleines Mädchen behandelt sein, mürrisch/nachtragend, konsequent/rachesüchtig, Kindfrau/hohe
Stimme/braucht Anweisungen + Lob, sarkastisch/entmutigt/schwach/mager; scheut Arbeit/Körperübungen, Speichelfluss/Sodbrennen, DURST/AppeTIT + Abmagerung
+ oft URIN/übel morgens + brennen + essen, Schweiß (sauer/nicht Fußschweiß), Hypoglycaemia/Diabetes + Rheuma/Gicht, Gelenken/Brüsten, < 17 h;
Lacticum acidum (Lactic acid)
Morning sickness, diabetes, and rheuma.
Pain in breasts, with enlargement of axillary glands, and pain extends into hand.
Locally, in the tuberculous ulceration of vocal cords.
Tongue dry, parched.
Thirst; voracious hunger.
Canker, copious salivation and water-brash. Nausea; morning sickness (pale anaemic women).
Hot, acrid eructation.
Nausea; > eating.
Burning, hot gas from stomach to throat, causing profuse secretion of tenacious mucus, < smoking.
Diabetes with marked polyuria.
The remedy is interesting to study in its action, because we know that the muscles which while working products lactic acid while they become tired, rather Sarcolactic acid which does not differ from real Lactic acid but by its polarimetric rotation. This the game which is chased than the muscles very stiff because of the formation of Sarcolatic acid. This fact denotes in Homoeopathy great muscular weakness some types of influenza.
Useful in some cases of dyspeptic conditions with copious salivation, nausea, > eating acid eructations or still in rheumatising condition with weakness and trembling by the last effort. Naturally it will suit to diabetics who will have the above symptoms.
One interesting fact that I learned from Anshutze about Lactic acid was in a case of acute arthritic rheumatism. We all know from our knowledge of Materia Medica
that lactic acid is a very good remedy for soft tissue rheumatism as well as rheumatism where articular surfaces are concerned,
but there are certain very useful confirmations that I have made after reading
Anshutze’s book, the most important one is the ‘shifting pain Lac-ac.’. Like Am-m. Kali-s. Lac-c. Puls.
Lac-ac. has got what is known as a wandering or shifting type of rheuma and the most important joints that is affected are the elbows, the knees, the shoulders
and the wrist. These are the main joints which can be affected and within that the most important modality is motion.
Motion in any form < rheuma. The sensation could be very sore and bruised kind of feeling. In the background, usually you will find diabetes in such patients
and they will have profuse and sour perspiration (hands and feet) which can resemble Calc.
Initially, when I used to read the cases given in Anshutze’s lactic acid, I could nor believe that this remedy could really cure an acute arthritis (patients totally bed-ridden
and those who cannot move at all, I always wondered that how a simple remedy like lactic acid can make these patients walk and make them normal till I started using
it myself. But I did not use simply on the name of the disease, but as I mentioned earlier, I wanted to look for the symptoms.
Another very important thing that I saw in lactic acid is that, the patients who required lactic acid for articular rheuma always had a stomach disorder (Chronic indigestion)
and this disorder of stomach is a good concomitant for lactic acid. Usually love buttermilk and sweets (>).
Morning sickness, diabetes, and rheuma. Troubles in the breasts. Locally (tuberculous ulceration of vocal cords).
Stomach: Tongue dry, parched. Thirst; voracious hunger. Canker, copious salivation and water-brash. Nausea; morning sickness (pale anæmic women).
Hot, acrid eructation.
Nausea: > eating. Burning, hot gas from stomach to throat, causing profuse secretion of tenacious mucus, < smoking.
Throat: Fullness or lump like a puff ball. Keeps swallowing. Constricted low down.
Chest: Pain in breasts, with enlargement of axillary glands, and pain extends into hand.
Extremities: Rheumatic pain in joints and shoulders, wrists, knees, with much weakness. Trembling of whole body while walking. Limbs feel chilly.
Urine: Large quantities passed, frequently. Saccharine;
‡ Reaktionsmangel./blass/Temp. niedrig ‡;
Ursache: Immer wenn Selbstständigkeit + Verantwortung gefordert ist (Pubertät/Studieren/heiraten);
[Fred Acree Jr./R.B. Turner/H.K. Gouck/Morton Beroza/Nelson Smith]
L-Lactic acid was the major component in material isolated from humans that was active as an attractant for female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.).
The L(+)-isomer was several times as attractive as the D-isomer. Good correlation was found between the attractiveness of an individual to mosquitoes and the
quantity of lactic acid present in an acetone washing of his hand.
Gemüt: Abhängig von anderen
< nach Aktivität
Angst [nachts (erwachend)/vor Husten]/Furcht (Fehler zu machen/grundlos/vor Trennung der Eltern)
< Denken/nach Einswerden, Vereinigung, Unio/Geschäft
Empfindlich (gegen Geräusche)
Erschöpft geistig/exzentrisch, überspannt
Macht Fehler [schreibend (lässt Worte aus)/sprechend (Buchstabierend)]
Gedächtnisschwäche/Gedächtnis gut, aktiv/Gedanken quälend
Reichtum an Ideen, Einfälle, Klarheit des Geistes
Liebevoll, voller Zuneigung, herzlich
Milde (bei Kindern)
< geschmeichelt werden
Schreien [nachts (Mitternacht)]
Mangel an Selbstvertrauen (möchte Unterstützung, Zuwendung)
Spotten Sarkasmus, beißender Spott/Lust an Satire
„Wie verlassen zu sein“/“Wie isoliert“
Verwirrt geistig (nachmittags)
Wahnideen (sei lange Strecke gegangen/würde kritisiert/würde auf rauer See hin und her geworfen/habe nicht genug geschlafen/würde sich in Urin verwandeln/
i.B. zu Weiblichkeit)
Weinen [tagsüber/essend (bei Kindern)]
Schwindel: im Allgemeinen
Morgens (6 - 9 h) < Aufstehen/nachts (22 - 6 h)
<: Aufstehen/< schnelle Kopfbewegung/durch Blutandrang/Bücken/wenn nüchtern;
Kopf schnell drehend o. bewegend
> nach Essen
„Als ob schwebend“
Kopf: „Als ob Scheitel abhebt“
Blutandrang (morgens/+ Pulsieren der Blutgefäße des äußeren Halses/“Als ob Nasenbluten einsetzen würde“/< Sitzen/in Stirn)
Geräusche im Kopf „Wie Flattern und Flügelschlagen“
Hautausschläge - Pickel am Hinterkopf
Pulsieren (abends/in Schläfen)
Schmerz [nachmittags - 13 h - 13 - 17 h/abends (20 h)/nachts (erwachend)/> Baden/berstend/diagonal/dumpf/> erbrechend/mit Frösteln/< Hustend (berstend)/wund schmerzend/Hinterkopf (< Bewegung/erstr. Scheitel)/Scheitel [vormittags - 10 h/nachmittags/berstend/drückend nach außen/wund schmerzend/quer darüber (schießend)/
in Schläfen abends/in Schläfen < nach Aufstehen/l./Stirn (morgens erwachend/abends/nachts/# Schmerz im Hinterkopf/< im warmen Zimmer/erstr. Auge/über den Augen (erstr. Augen/erstr. Ohr)]
Schweregefühl (im Hinterkopf)
Völlegefühl (vormittags - 10 - 22 h/nachmittags/< Bücken/bei Schwindel/in Scheitel/im Stirn)
Zusammenschnürung (im Stirn)
Auge: Hyperästhesie des Netzhautes
Schmerz [abends - 20 h/berstend/bückend (berstend)/< Kopf drehen (berstend)/drückend/< lesend/< durch Tageslicht/< Augen schließen/erstr. quer über Stirn]
Sehen: dunkele Wolken vor den Augen
Nebelig (dunkle Wolken ziehen vorüber/< im Zimmer)
Verlust des Sehvermögens
Ohr: Geräusche im Ohr, Ohrgeräusche mehrere
Kälte über den Ohren
Nase: Absonderung - dick/gelb/klar/reichlich/schaumig/weiß/zäh/aus Choanen
rot - erysipelatös l.
Nasenbluten (morgens)/“Wie Nasenbluten“
Schmerz in Choanen (roh, „Wie wund“)
Verstopft/“Wie verstopft“ in Choanen
Hautausschläge (Bläschen auf Lippen/Bläschen auf Nase)
Hitze während Kopfschmerz
Schmerz in Parotis (erstr. Ohr)
Innerer Hals: Entzündet (l.)
„Wie Klumpen“ [nicht > durch Schlucken/oberer Hals/Ösophagus (nach dem Essen)]
Schlucken - schwierig (feste Speisen)/unmöglich durch Lähmung/ständige Neigung zu
Schlucken (durch einen Klumpen im Hals/durch Speichel/durch Völle im Hals)
Schmerz [nach Aufstoßen/brennend/drückend/roh, „Wie wund“/wund schmerzend/in Ösophagus (< Aufstoßen/brennend)]
Geschwollen ödematös/“Als ob Speisen im Hals stecken bleiben“ in Ösophagus
Äußerer Hals: Pulsieren in Karotiden/seitlich
Äußerer Hals und Nacken: Pulsieren in Blutgefäße: Aphthen (bei Kindern/Zunge)
Zunge blutend/“Wie vergrößert“/Zunge - gelb/rot/weiß (dicker Belag)/klebrig, zäh
Hautausschläge - Bläschen auf Zunge
Schleimhaut - Exkoriation, Wundheit
Schmerz [wund schmerzend/ Gaumen („Wie verbrannt“/in Zunge (brennend/„Wie verbrannt“/wund schmerzend)
Skorbut des Zahnfleisches
Speichel etwas salzig
Speichelfluss (morgens/+ übel/reichlich/im Schlaf/< während Schwangerschaft)
Trocken [Gaumen/Zunge (seitlich)
Geschmack - faulig/nach Kupfer/metallisch/etwas salzig/sauer (< während Schwangerschaft)/scharf/schlecht
Geschwüre - Aphthen
Stomatitis ulcerosa, Stomakaze
Magen: Appetit - Heißhunger/vermehrt/vermindert
Aufstoßen (< Rauchen)/Art des Aufstoßens: brennend/von Flüssigkeit/heiß (< Rauchen)/sauer/scharf/schmeckt nach Speisen/Hochsteigen von
Wasser in den Mund (< während Schwangerschaft)
Schmerz [brennend/drückend/stechend/< nach Trinken/erstr. innerer Hals (brennend)]
Sodbrennen (+ Übelkeit/< während Schwangerschaft)
Übel [morgens (< Aufstehen/erwachend)/vormittags - 11 h/anhaltend/< Bewegung/> Essen/> essend/< nach Essen/> nach Frühstück/< Hochräuspern von Schleim/
< wenn nüchtern/während Schwangerschaft/Seekrankheit]
Völlegefühl < nach Essen
Würgen (< nach Essen)
Erbricht (heftig + reichlichem Speichelfluss/< während Schwangerschaft/Art des Erbrochenen: ziehend/sauer/Wasser
Bauch: Beschwerden erstr. nach oben
Entzündet - Gastroenteritis
Schmerz [abwärts drängend, zerrend/in Hypogastrium (< während Menses/“Wie durch Menses“/wenn Harndrang nicht nachgekommen wird)/in Leistengegend l.
(wenn Harndrang nicht nachgekommen wird)/in Nabelgegend/seitlich erstr. Samenstränge (stechend)]
Rektum: Blutung aus dem Anus
Durchfall (chronisch/während Schwangerschaft)
Schmerz (Tenesmus/wund schmerzend)
Stuhl: Breiig, weich/mit Flatus/riecht sauer/geruchlos/gewaltsam, plötzlich, in einem Schwall/grün/hart/scharf, wund fressend/schwarz/teigig, breiig/dünn, flüssig/
gelb - grünlich/wässrig/weich
Nieren: Schmerz (in Nierengegend)
Blase: Schmerz [wenn Harndrang nicht nachgekommen wird/wund schmerzend (in Blasenhals/drückend)/Harndrang häufig/Wasser lassen häufig (tagsüber und nachts)]
Urin: blass/dunkel/gelb/zitronengelb/rot/braunrot/weiß (morgens)
Ein Häutchen bildet sich auf der Oberfläche
Reichlich (mehr als getrunken hat)
Sediment - rot
Männliche Genitalien: Erektionen - morgens/mit erotischen Träumen
rote Flecken auf Skrotum
Jucken auf Skrotum
Pollutionen (nachts mehrere)
Weibliche Genitalien: Fluor (gelb)
Jucken (< während Menses)
Menses - nachts - 23 h - Einsetzen des Ausflusses/blass/dunkel/geronnen/2 Tage zu früh/alle 2 Wochen/intermittierend/reichlich/spärlich/zu spät (17 Tage)
Schmerz in Ovarien [r./< schnell gehend/Wehtun)
(Beschwerden während) Schwangerschaft
Kehlkopf und Trachea: Kehlkopf empfindlich gegen kalte Luft
Laryngismus stridulus (< im Schlaf)
Schmerz in Kehlkopf (brennend/reißend/„Wie roh“)
Stimme - flüsternd/heiser, Heiserkeit (schmerzhaft)/höher/krächzend/quiekend, piepsig/tief/verloren
Ulzeration der Stimmbänder - tuberkulös
Atmung: Atemnot, Dyspnoe, erschwertes Atmen + Schwindel/+ Übelkeit
< Erregung/bei Herzklopfen
Rauh - sägend/seufzend
Husten: Nachts (22 - 6 h)
Aufstoßen erregt Husten
Hustenreiz im Kehlkopf
< Frühling (und Herbst)/< im Herbst
Husten < kalte Luft
Krampfhaft, spasmodisch (< Rauchen (von Tabak)
< Rauchen (von Tabak)
Auswurf: Morgens (6 - 9 h)
Brust: Empfindungslose Brustwarzen
Hautausschläge - Ekzem unter Mammae
Hühnerbrust, Pectus carinatum
Zusammenschnürung im Herzen (> Brust nach vorne Beugen)/Beklemmung (mit erschwerter Atmung/in Brustbein nach dem Essen)
Liegen mit Armen dicht an der Brust
Schweiß in Achselhöhlen
Geschwollene Achseldrüsen + Schmerz in Mammae/Geschwollen Mammae [vor Menses/stillend/Brustwarzen (vor Menses)]
Tb. im engeren Sinne
Beschwerden der Achseldrüsen/Beschwerden der Mammae (erstr. Kopf)
Rücken: Hautausschläge - Urtikaria
Schmerz [während Frost/< Gehen/Wehtun/in Schulterblätter rheumatisch/unter l. Schulterblatt (stechend)/in Lumbalregion (morgens/Wehtun/vormittags - 11 h/nachts
(< im Bett/Wehtun/Bücken/stechend/< während Menses/erstr. Schultern)/Wirbelsäule (Wehtun/am Gehirnbasis erstr. Steißbein (Wehtun)/in Zervikalregion < Bücken]
Schweiß < Gehen
Glieder: Ameisenlaufen in Hände (abends)/in Unterschenkel (abends)
Entzündete Ellbogen/Gelenke (nachts/chronisch)/Knie
Arme - rote Flecken/Hüfte rot (Flecken)/rote Knie/rote Knöchel
Ober-/Unterschenkel mit entzündeten Flecken
Hitze [in Hände (abends)/Handgelenke]
Kälte - Füße/Hände (r. mit Wärme der l. Hand)/Ober-/Unterschenkel
Krämpfe in Waden [morgens < Aufstehen/morgens < im Bett]
Schmerz <(<(<( viele )>)>)>
Schwäche - Knie (< Heruntergehen von Treppen/Oberschenkel
Schweiß [Füße (nachmittags/reichlich)/Hände (mittags bis abends täglich)]
Zittern (mit allgemeiner Schwäche)
Fieber: Nachmittags (13 - 18 h) - 13 h - 13 - 16 h [mit KopfSCHMERZ]/abends (18 - 22 h) - 18 h
Frost: Mittags (12 - 13 h)
Frösteln (mittags/während Kopfschmerz)
Schlaflos (durch Schmerz im Rücken/wegen Schwindel)/schläfrig (und stumpf)
Träume: Abgrund/erotisch (mit Erektionen)/Koitus/Erektionen ohne Ejakulation/Viele
Komplementär: Bry. Psor.
Schweiß: im Allgemeinen/riecht sauer/kalt/reichlich/scharf
Haut: Hautausschläge (Erythem)
Jucken < kalte Luft
Wundliegen bei Kindern
Allgemeines: r./l./7 h/9 h/13 h/morgens/nachmittags (13 - 18 h) - 17 h
< Aufstehen/< Bewegung/> Aufstoßen
Diabetes insipidus/Diabetes mellitus (+ Gicht/+ Heißhunger/+ rheumatischem Schmerz/+ flauem Gefühl im Magen/hepatische Form)
Entzündete Gelenke (rheumatoide Arthritis)/entzündet Knochen/entzündete serösen Häute
> essend/> nach Essen/< wenn nüchtern/> im Freien
„Wie Hitze“/Hitzewallungen/Lebenswärmemangel/Hitze in erkrankte Teile l.
< Wärme/< warme Luft/< bewölktes Wetter/< frostiges Wetter/< nasses Wetter/> Wind
Hypotonus (einschließlich arterieller Hypotonie)
< Kälte/< kalte Luft
Beschwerden i.B. Laktation
Schmerz [beißend/rheumatisch/stechend/äußerlich (brennend)/innerlich (brennend)/Gelenke (stechend)]
Speisen und Getränke: Abgeneigt: Gewürze, Würzmittel/Milch/Muttermilch/saure Speisen, Säuren/Süßigkeiten/warme Getränke/warme Speisen;
Verlangt: Alkohol/Brausegetränk/Buttermilch/Fisch/Getränke/Milch/Haferbrei, Haferschleim/Salz/saure Speisen, Säuren/Süßigkeiten;
Müde (morgens). <: Essig/Kaffee/Milch/Obst/saure Speisen, Säuren/Süßigkeiten; >: Süßigkeiten;
< Einatmen von Rauch
Schwäche [morgens (< Aufstehen)/bei Diabetes mellitus/erwachend]
Geschwollene Gelenke/geschwollen Knochen
empfindlich gegen Tabaksrauch/< Tabak
Tumoren - Atherom
Zittern äußerlich (< Gehen)
Beschwerden der serösen Häute
Gut gefolgt von: Tub. (wenn Lac-ac. versagt).
Vergleich: Enthalten in Lacs + Lentinus edodes + Miel + Sol-t; Lac-c. Sycotic-co.
Geuze/Lambic (belgisch) enthält Aethyl + Lac-ac. + Hord-vg. + Trit-vg.
Sacch-l. (wird gespalten in Lac-ac + But-ac).
Culx. (angezogen von moisture/Lac-ac./Carb-diox./body heat/movement). Spiru (verwertet Kohlendioxid).
Lactit = E 966/hergestellt aus Milch/= Zuckeraustauschstoff.
Nisin = E 234/= Protein/erzeugt durch Milchsäurebakterien/= Konservierungsmittel.
Spenglersan: Lactococcus comp.-Om zur Behandlung von Lebensmittelallergien, vor allem Milcheiweissallergie. Ausserdem wird es zur Mesenchymentgiftung eingesetzt.
SymbioLact® (erzeugt Milchsäurebakterien).
Lac-ac (Muscle contractions of all kinds) ↔ Sol ↔ Rhus-t (movements/retractions)
Ip (Übel) + Nat-m (verschlossen/enttäuscht) + Arg-met (sensitiv) = Lac-ac.
Nat-p. Exzess Lac-ac./setzt Lac-ac um
Puls. = Phos - Großzügigkeit/= Ign - intensiv/= Calc - pragmatisch + emotionell/‡ = Adon + Unterleibbeschwerden ‡;
Sarcol-ac. = rechtsdrehender Lac-ac/= Ars-ähnlich + MÜDE
Syc. produziert Lac-ac
Unverträglich: Coff. Kaffee/ Beschwerden, Reife Persönlichkeit
Antidotiert: Apis. Art-v. Arum-t. Podo. Psor.
Antidotiert von: Ars. Bry. Nat-p (zu viel Lac-ac)
Allerlei: entsteht in Verdauungstrakt, Lactobacillae stellen Lac-ac aus Kohlenhydraten her (tierischer/pflanzlicher Nahrung), sie kommen vor in Mund/Vagina/Gedärm,
Schock verursacht Anhäufung von Lac-ac. in Zellen + lässt die Zellen absterben, Lac-ac. kontrolliert Pilzbefall im Körper,
Laktosegehalt von Lebensmitteln (in 100 Gramm Lebensmittel):
Konsummilch (Frischmilch, H-Milch) 4,8 - 5,0
Joghurt 3,7 - 5,6
Kefir 3,5 - 6,0
Buttermilch 3,5 - 4,0
Sahne 2,8 - 3,6
Crème fraîche 2,0 - 3,6
Butter 0,6 - 1,7
Eiscreme (Milch/Frucht/Joghurt) 5,1 - 6,9
Schmelzkäse 2,8 - 3,6
Hart-, Schnitt- und Weichkäse praktisch laktosefrei
Wirkung: lithämisch/choleirisch/rheumatisch ‡ l.seitig ‡
Lactic Acid Bacteria and its Antimicrobial Properties: A ReviewP. Saranraj1*, M.A. Naidu2 and P. Sivasakthivelan Department of Microbiology, Annamalai University, Chidambaram – 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India21.
INTRODUCTION Lactic acid bacteria have been used for thousands of years in food and alcoholic fermentations. Lactic acid bacteria produce various compounds such as organic acids, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocin or bactericidal proteins during lactic fermentations. The bacteriocins from the lactic acid bacterial isolates generally recognized as safe (GRAS) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have arisen a great deal of attention as a novel approach to control pathogens in food-stuffs. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteinaceous compounds that are inhibitory towards sensitive strains and are produced by both Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria. The antimicrobial effect of lactic acid bacteria has been appreciated by man for more than 10000 years and has enabled him to extend the shelf life of many foods through fermentation processesDepartment of Pharmaceutics, Mandsaur Institute of Pharmacy, Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, IndiaReceived 12 Aug 2013; Revised 17 Nov 2013; Accepted 02 Dec 2013ABSTRACTFermented food products being rich source of nutrients for human, can also serve as a good medium for the growth and multiplication of microorganisms. The most lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inhibit pathogenic, non-pathogenic and spoilage organism in fermenting foods and beverages. Bioactive compounds from plant by-products act as good preservatives. Antioxidants poly phenolic fraction from plant by-product are possible alternatives to synthetic antimicrobial agent can be easily degraded by living organisms. They are based on renewable raw materials (Protein, oils) and constitute eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic antimicrobial surfactants. Some of the microbes are best sources of bio-active compounds as they synthesize as secondary metabolites for their self defense against other competitive microorganisms.Lactic acid bacteria have been used successfully in all fermented food products. The literature shows that the “Microbial fermentation and production of fermented food products” are briefly reviewed in this paper. Key words:Lactic acid bacteria, Fermentation, Bacteriocins and Antimicrobial activity. Lactic acid bacteria have been used in food fermentations for more than 4000 years. It is important to acknowledge that the widespread term “Lactic acid bacteria” have no official status in taxonomy and is only a general term of convenience used to describe the group of functionally and genetically related bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria consist of bacterial genera within the Firmicutes comprised of about 20 genera. The main members of the Lactic acid bacteria are genera Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Carnobacterium, Aerococcus, Enterococcus, Oenococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus and Weisella. Lactobacillus is the largest genus of this group, comprising around 80 recognized species. Lactic acid bacteria have a long history of use in a variety of cereal fermentations, especially in the manufacture of baked goods. It has been reported that around 50 different species of Lactic acid bacteria have been isolated from sourdough. Lactobacillus strains are the most frequently observed bacteria in this matrix, but the species belonging to the genera Leuconostoc, Weissella, Pediococcus, Lactococcus or Enterococcus have been isolated as well . [2, 3]The ability of the Lactic acid bacteria to prevent and cure a variety of diseases has lead to the coining of the term probiotics or pro-life. The most important role of lactic acid bacteria is its protective role against infections and colonization
P. Saranrajet al ./ Lactic Acid Bacteria and its Antimicrobial properties: A Review1125© 2010, IJPBA. All Rights Reserved. of pathogenic microorganisms in the digestive track. In most of the cases inoculums passively transits the gastrointestinal track. The probiotics can influence the unspecific immunity, which consists of T- lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes. The increase in the specific immune response corresponds with the activity of B and T-lymphocytes, which leads to an increase of interleukin and the level of circulating antibodiesA major development in the distribution and storage of food came in 1940 with the availability of low cost home refrigerator and freezers. Other development includes the artificial; drying, vacuum packing, ionizing radiation, chemical preservation etc. nowadays consumers are concerned about the synthetic chemicals used as preservative in food. Moreover the side effects like cancer, cardiovascular diseases and aging pore a major threat to consumers. Despites, improved manufacturing facilities and implementations of effective process control procedures such as HACCP (Hazards Analysis and Critical Control Point) in the food industries, these number of food borne illness is in increased trend. Modern day consumers are more favorable to preservatives of natural origin than that of chemical origin . Members of these genera Lactobacillus plays an essential role in the fermentation of food and feed. The most important characteristics of the lactic acid bacteria are their ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. This may desirable in making products and these organisms have been isolated and screened by using fermented foods such as curd, buttermilk, cheese and yoghurt. Different antimicrobials such as lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, carbon-di-oxide and bacteriocins produced by these bacteria can inhibit pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms extending the shelf-life and enhancing the safety of food products.There are many potential applications of protective cultures in various food systems. These organisms have been isolated from grains, dairy and meat products, fermenting vegetables and the mucosal surface of animals. The lactic acid bacteria not only have their effect on food and flavor but they are also known to produce and excrete compounds with antimicrobial activity, such as bacteriocins. Bacteriocins of LAB are considered as safe natural preservatives or biopreservatives as it is assumed that they are degraded by the proteases in gastrointestinal tract. Bacteriocins are generally defined as extracellular released peptide or protein that shows a bactericidal activity against more distantly related species. The inhibitory spectrum of some bacteriocins also include food spoilage and for food borne pathogenic microorganisms. The discovery of nisin, the first bacteriocin used on a commercial scale as a food preservative dates back of to the first half of last century but research on bacteriocin of lactic acid bacteria has expanded in the last two decades, searching for novel bacteriocin producing strains from dairy, meat and plant products, as well as traditional fermented products. Among the Gram positive bacteria, bacteriocins produced by many lactic acid bacteria used in food fermentation and dairy products, including strains in the genera Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc. 2. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA Lactic acid bacteria were first discovered by Scheele . The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprise a clade of Gram positive, acid tolerant, non-sporulation, non-respiring rod or cocci that are associated by their common metabolic and physiological characteristics. These bacteria are usually found in decomposing plants and lactic products, produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation. This trait has historically linked LAB with food fermentation as acidification inhibits the growth of spoilage agents. The LAB group comprises the genera Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Lactococus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Aerococcus, Alloicoccus, Dolosigranulum, Enterococcus, Globicatella, Lactospaera, Oenococcus, Carnobacterium, Tetragenococcus, Vagoccus andWeissella. Historically, the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcusform the core of the LAB group.  from sour milk. Pasteur discovered in 1857, that the souring of milk was caused by the microorganisms. Lactic acid was first produced commercially by M/s Clinton processing company, USA. Lactic acid bacteria have been widely used for the fermentation of many fermented product such as cheese, sourdough, buttermilk, brined vegetables, yoghurt and sauerkraut Lactic acid bacteria are widespread in nature and predominant microflora of milk and its products. Lactic acid bacteria are one of the important groups of microorganisms in food fermentation. A wide variety of strains are routinely used as starter cultures to manufacture dairy products such as . IJPBA, Nov-Dec, 2013, Vol. 4, Issue, 6
curd, cheese, whey and yoghurt [6, 7]. These bacteria produce organic acid hydrogen peroxide and several enzymes during fermentation [8-10]. These compounds not only contribute to desirable effect on food flavor and texture, but also inhibit undesirable microflora and extending shelf life of products . Growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in the fermented foods were inhibited due to the production of antimicrobial substances by lactic acid bacteria as their competition for nutrients The homofermentative rod shaped lactic acid bacteria with optimum temperature around 40°C (104°F) as thermobacterium, where as those with optimum temperature near 30°C (86°F) were Streptobacteria. 3. FERMENTATION BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA – HOMOFERMENTATION & HETEROFEREMNTATION. Homofermentative bacteria such as Lactococcus and Streptococcus yield two lactates from one glucose molecule where as heterofermentative (Leuconostoc and Wiessella) transform a glucose molecule into lactate, ethanol and carbondioxide . Toshinobs reported that homofermentative they produced appreciable amounts of volatile products including alcohol, in addition to lactic acid. The homofermentative Lactobacillus with optimal temperature of 35°C or above include Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helviticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus thermophilusand Lactobacillusfermentum is the chief of a heterofermented Lactobacillus growing well at high temperature.4. TAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA Lactic acid bacteria consist of a number of bacterial genera within the phylum fumicutes. The genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Lactosphera, Leuconostoc, Milissococcus, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus and Weissella are recognized as lactic acid bacteria . Lactic acid bacteria is a non sporulating, catalase negative dvoid of cytochromes, but aerotolerent, fastidious, acid tolerant and ferment carbohydrates into energy and lactic acid depending on the organism, metabolic pathways differ when glucose is the main carbon sourceThe characteristics of Lactobacillus are rods, usually long and slender, that forms chains in most species. They are microaerophilic, but some are strict anaerobe is knowing, catalase-negative and Gram positive, and they ferments sugars to yield lactic acid as the main product. They ferment sugars chiefly to lactic acid if they are homofermentative, with small amount of acetic acid, carbon-di-oxide and trace products, if they are heterofermentative, they produce appreciable amounts of volatile products, including alcohol, in addition to lactic acid. Most species of this non spore forming bacterium ferment glucose into lactate hence the name Lactobacillus is industrial production of fermented food production of fermented food products . 5. GENERAL POSITION OF SPECIFIC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA 5.1. Lactobacillus. 5.2. StreptococcusThe characteristics of cocci occur in pairs, short chains or in long chain, depending upon the species and the conditions of growth and all are homofermentative. Streptococcus lactic grows well in milk and ferment the lactose to 0.8 to 1.0 percent acid of which L(+) lactic acid constitutes nearly all of the acid formed, although traces of acetic and propionic acid may be present. Optimum temperature of 30°C and a temperature range of 10°C to 40°C were required . 5.3. PediococcusThe characteristics of cocci occur in single, in pairs or in short chains or in tetrads and are Gram positive, catalase - negative and microaerophilic. They are homofermentative, fermenting sugars to yield 0.5 to 0.9 percent acid, mostly lactic and they grow fairly well in salt brines upto 5.5 percent and poorly in concentrations of salt upto about ten percent. They grow in the temperature 45°C but the best in 32°C. Pediococcus have been found growing, during the fermentation of brined vegetables Lactic acid bacteria was first isolated from milk . 6. OCCURRENCE OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA IN NATURE[21-24] had isolated lactic acid bacteria from curd which were tested for inhibitory activity against psychrophilic pathogens via, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus plantarumhad been isolated from various habitats via., cheese and milk[25, 26]. Wild lactic acid bacteria strains were isolated from Egyptian raw milk and were screened based on their yield of biomass production during fermentation process. Eight stains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from brukino faso fermented milk sample IJPBA, Nov-Dec, 2013, Vol. 4, Issue, 6. The isolated Lactobacillusplantarum strain from boza,
P. Saranrajet al ./ Lactic Acid Bacteria and its Antimicrobial properties: A Review1127© 2010, IJPBA. All Rights Reserved. a traditional drink produced by fermentation of different cereals with yeast and lactic acid bacteria . Salim Ammor et al. Tag et al. reported the occurrence of lactic acid bacteria (36 Lactobacillus sake, 22 Enterococcusfaecium, 16 Lactobacillusgraviae, 11 Vagococcuscaniphilusand 2 Enterococus sp.). 7. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA  reported that the difference in the spectrum of inhibition of pathogenic microorganism by the cell free culture supernatants of the Lactobacillus isolates might be due to the activity of particular antibacterial substance synthesized by the organism and partly due to the presence of appropriate receptor sites in the cell wall of the susceptible organisms. The Lactobacillus culture filtrates showed an increased trend in inhibition of all the test organisms, from 24 to 72 hours of incubation. The antimicrobial activity of all the Lactobacillus was found to decrease significantly at 96 hours incubation against the test organism Staphylococcusaureus[32, 33]. The most bacteriocins produced by LAB appear to have relatively narrow inhibitory spectrum. Some bacteriocins such as nisin and pediocin are active against a wide range of bacterial spectra. In general, bacteriocins are sub-divided into 3 classes based on their mode of action and their structure. Class I bacteriocins including lanthionine as such in nisin, class II bacteriocins of small, heat-stable, non-lanthionine containing peptides and Class III bacteriocins of relatively large molecular weight and heat stability was suggested . The antimicrobial effect by lactic acid bacteria was the production of lactic acid and reduction of pH. In addition of lactic acid produced, various antimicrobial compounds which can be classified as low molecular mass (LMM) compounds such as hydrogen peroxide, carbon-di-oxide, di-acety (2,3-butanoide), uncharacterized compounds like bacteriocins are produced by lactic acid bacteria was reported . Gilliland and Walker Blazeka Suskovic and Matosic reported the factors that have to be considered when selecting a culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a probiotic several criteria include biosafety aspects, the methods of administering the probiotic, the location in the body where the microorganisms of the probiotic product must be active, survival and colonization in the host and the tolerance for bile. reported that nine strains lactic acid bacteria are commonly used as started cultures for the dairy industry and ensiling six Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcusfaecium had antimicrobial activity. The most sensitive strains are Staphylococcusaureus was used as a target microorganism. The cultures of Streptococcus faeciumand Lactobacillus plantarum gave the most intense antimicrobial activity by adding CaCO3 to the medium (to bind accumulated lactic acid) increased the antibiotic activity of the lactic acid bacteria.Biswas et al.  proved that Lactococcin produced by Lactococcuslactis reached a maximum activity at early stationary phase. The highest production was obtained in MRS broth at 6.5-7.0 initial pH values, 30°C temperature and 18-24 hours incubation time. Mortvedt et al. demonstrated the purification and amino acid sequence of lactocin S, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake L45. It has been purified by ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, reverse phase chromatography and gel filtration. Lactocin S contained approximately 33 amino acid residues, of which about 50% were non polar amino acids alanine, valine and leucine. Bacteriocin producers have attracted considerable interest in recent years and several works have focused on the isolation and development of new strains of bacteriocin-producing bacteria. The detection rate of bacteriocin producing strains from LAB isolates can be as low as 0.2% and therefore needs a large number of isolates from food sources. Chauviere et al. Marie Helene Cocoonier et al. studied the antibacterial effect of the adhering human Lactobacillusacidophilus strain. The strain produces an antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram negative and Gram positive pathogens. In contrast, it did not inhibit Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria.  observed the antimicrobial effect of the adhering human Lactobacillusacidophilus strain against a wide range of Gram negative and Gram positive pathogen like Staphylococcusaureus, Salmonellatyphimurium, Shigellaflexneri, Escherichiacoli, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Bacilluscereus, Pseudomonasaeruginosa. Farida Khalid et al. IJPBA, Nov-Dec, 2013, Vol. 4, Issue, 6isolated a new bacteriocin, lactocin LC-90, isolated from a clinical sample was inhibitory against many species of Lactobacilli and other
Gram positive bacteria. The bacteriocin was inactivated by protease treatment. Curing of LC-90 with acridine orange, ethidium bromide and by elevated temperature resulted in mutants defective in bacteriocin production. Rongguang Yang and Yanling Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of catalase negative, Gram positive bacteria which have played a very important role in fermentation of food. They often produce a variety of antimicrobial compounds including lactic acid and acetic acids, alcohol, aldehyde and bacteriocins. Among them, bacteriocins have attracted a great interest in food industry due to their potentiality in food preservation reported the cell growth of Lactobacillusacidophilus was higher than Pediococcusacidilacticiin dairy based media and the low level of multiplication of Pediococcusacidilacticiwas due to inability or poor ability to utilize lactose. Lactobacillusacidophilus is lactose fermenters. Maximum production of bacteriocin was observed after 8 hours of incubation for both Lactobacillusacidophilusand Pediococcusacidilactici, Lactobacillusacidophilusshowed maximum bacteriocin activity than the Pediococcusacidilactici. . Elilzete de Raque et al. performed the isolation, identification and physiological study of Lactobacillus ferment for use as probiotic in chickens. Selection of strains included various criteria such as agreement with bio safety, viability during storage, tolerance to low pH/gastric juice, bile and antimicrobial activity. Cleveland et al.  discovered nisin, the first bacteriocin used on a commercial scale as a food preservative. Research on bacteriocins of LAB has expanded in the last two decades, searching for novel bacteriocin producing strains from dairy, meat and plant products as well as traditional fermented products.Many bacteriocins of LAB are safe and effective natural inhibitors of pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria. Nisin is the classical example of a commercially successful, naturally produced inhibitory agent . Adesogan et al.  studied the effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides inoculants or a chemical additive on the fermentation, aerobic stability and nutritive value of crimped wheat grains. The ability of the inoculants was compared and in conclusion, bacterial inoculants containing Lactobacillusbuchneri are promising preservatives for crimped wheat grains.Yukio Yamamoto et al.  demonstrated the purification of bacteriocin produced by Enterococcusfaecalis. LAB Enterococcusfaecalis isolated from rice bran exhibited a wide spectrum of growth inhibition in various Gram positive bacteria. A bacteriocin purified from culture fluid was heat stable and was not sensitive to acid and alkali, but it was sensitive to several proteolytic enzymes. Girum Tadesse et al. Lactobacilli isolates were separately grown in MRS and LAPTg (Lactose propyl thiogalactosidase) broth and their antimicrobial activity was tested against the test strains using the well diffusion method. All isolated, except Escherichiacoli showed additional 3 to 4 mm of inhibition zone. This was <3 mm for Escherichiacoli. Lactobacillus isolates were the inhibitor to the test strains followed by Pediococcus, Streptococcus and Leuconostoc. Eshcerichiacoliwas the least sensitive in all cases.Nowroozi et al.  reported that lactic acid bacteria isolated from sausage had antibacterial activity and it was done by an agar spot, well diffusion and blank disc method. The antibacterial activity was stable at 100°C for 10 minutes and at 56°C for 30 minutes but actively was lost after autoclaving. The maximum production of plantaricin was obtained at 25 - 30°C at pH 6.5.Anne Vaughan et al.  investigated the antimicrobial efficacy of a bacteriocin for the development of microbiologically stable beer. Lactococcuslactis was shown to produce the antimicrobial activity during growth under specific conditions. The capacity of the bacteriocin to prevent microbial spoilage of bacteriocin containing beer at 30°C or room temperature resulted in antimicrobial activity. Aly Savadogo et al. Eva Rodriguez et al. isolated eighty strains of lactic acid bacteria producing bacteriocin were isolated from Burkina Faso fermented milk samples. These strains were identified to species Lactobacillus fermentum, Pediococcus sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactococcus.Isolated bacteriocin exhibited antibacterial activity against Enterococcusfaecalis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcusaureus, and Escherichia coliusing the agar drop diffusion test. The inhibition diameters obtained with bacteriocin are between 8 mm and 12 mm. Gram positive indicator bacteria were most inhibited.IJPBA, Nov-Dec, 2013, Vol. 4, Issue, 6 demonstrated the combined effect of high pressure treatments and bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria on inactivation of Escherichiacoli in raw milk
cheese, pasteurization and addition of bacteriocin such as nisin, enterocin produced by LAB completely inactivated Escherichiacoli. Strompfova et al. Dickson et al. studied the effect of probiotic strain Lactobacillusfermentum on Japanese quail. The results demonstrated that the 4 day application of this strain significantly increased the population of lactic acid bacteria like Lactobacilli and Enterococci and decreased the counts of Escherichiacoli in faeces. The index of phagocytic activity of leucocytes was significantly improved. developed a species – specific PCR assay for identifying Lactobacillusfermentum. PCR primers specific for Lactobacillus were identified by alignment of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and selection of sequences specific for Lactobacillusfermentum at their 3 ́ ends. This PCR assay provides a more rapid, specific and sensitive alternative to conventional culture methods for the identification of Lactobacillus fermentum.Padmanabha Reddy et al.  selected the Lactobacillusacidophiluscultures based on their antibacterial activity against Shigelladysenteriae, Escherichiacoli, Salmonellatyphi, Yersiniaenterocolitica using agar well assay technique for determining their possible use as dietary adjutants in probiotics dairy products.Ogunshe et al. Lue De Vuyst and Frederic Leroy isolated 50 bacteriocin producing Lactobacillusstrains from some Nigerian indigenous fermented foods and beverages and characterized as Lactobacillusacidophilus, Lactobacilluscasei, Lactobacillusfermentum, Lactobacilluslactis and Lactobacillusplantarum were screened for these inhibitory potentials against food borne pathogenic from the same or similar to fermented food sources and against clinical indicator bacterial isolates. The survival rates of the pathogenic indicator bacteria in the fermented food sources were between 8 and 14 days while the clinical isolates survived in simulated fermented food samples between 5 and 9 days. described the production, purification and food applications of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria. In fermented foods, lactic acid bacteria display numerous antimicrobial activities due to the production of organic acids and other compounds such as bacteriocins. Michael Baker Diop et al. evaluated that bacteriocin produced by Lactobacilluslactis and Enterococcusfaeciumshow antimicrobial activity against Listeriamonocytogenes and Bacilluscoagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcuslactis has an activity against Bacilluscereus. Bacteriocin producing Lactococcuslactis strains were found in variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment and has been selected for application in food preservation.Adetunji and Adegoke demonstrated bacteriocin and cellulose production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from West African soft cheese. All the LAB used in this study produced cellulose. The correlation between cellulose productions and bacterial growth was highly significant after 72 hours of incubation. The bacteriocin produced by the strains could be good for biopreservation.Mechai Adbelbasset and Kirane Djamila isolated twenty samples of traditional milk “Raib” were collected in eastern Algeria from individual household. From 13 of these samples 52 strains of Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and shown to exhibit inhibitory activity against the indicator strain Listeriamonocytogenes. Adesokan et al.  isolated seven species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) namely Lactobacillusfermentum, Lactobacilluscasei, Lactobacillusdelbureckii, Lactobacillusacidophilus, Lactobacillusplantarum, Lactobacillusbrevis and Leuconostocmesenteroides were isolated from ogi, burukutu and retted cassava. The isolates were screened for quantitative production of lactic acid using normal MRS broth and modified MRS broth under varying conditions of growth such as temperature and pH and influence of carbon and nitrogen sources. It was observed that all the test isolates best utilized glucose and yeast extract at concentrations of 20g/lit and 5g/lit respectively for production of 30°C and pH 5.5. Lactobacillusplantarum produced the highest quantity of lactic acid production. Rowaida Khalil et al. 1.Orberg P.K and W.E. Sandline. 1985. Survey of antimicrobial resistance in lactic Streptococci. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 49: 538 - 542. reported the isolation and characterization of a bacteriocin produced by a newly isolated Bacillusmegaterium19 strains. The strain isolated from a fermented vegetable wastes produced a bacteriocin that displayed a wide spectrum antimicrobial activity against food spoilage microorganisms and possessed a bactericidal mode of action.