Geschichten aus der Homöopathie


Zur Bedeutung der Geschichte der Materia Medica für die zeitgenössiche Homöopathie.  (Cand. med. André Röper)


[Farokh Master]

Editorial November 2013

Drug proving was one of the fundamental principal of Dr. Hahnemann, but unfortunately the credit for the first person to introduce this cannot go to him, it is mentioned in history that as early as 200 BC Shen Nung emperor of China tested herbs upon himself for eliciting therapeutical efficacy.

Later, in the 16th century, Paracelsus, the veritable Luther of Medicine preferred medicines that he had tried on himself and the Zurich doctor, Conrad Gessner actually experimented

drugs, usually derived from plants, on himself. Albrecht von Haller recommended this procedure but mostly for his work in physiology. Another person of note was the Viennese Anton

Stoerck who tried the drugs first on animals, and then on him.

It is felt by many historians that Hahnemann, as a former Vienna student, may have got the idea from Stoerck.

Hahnemann was the first person to provide a precise scientific basis for these desperate investigations, and bring them into a comprehensive therapeutic context. In his study of Cinchona

Bark, which he carried out on himself in 1790 he observed that this drug produced the typical symptoms of Malaria. His experiments on Cinchona Bark led him to his formulate Law of

Similars, and also marked the beginning of the systematic performance of homoeopathic drug proving.


[Natalie Robins]: the gruesome practice of medicine in Europe and America at the time H. became a doctor.

“The knives that were once used by doctors to drain blood from the bodies of men, women, and children were folding triple-bladed instruments with bone handles and highly polished sheaths…

Always nearby was a shallow bowl - plain or ornate with delicate flowers or birds - to catch the cascading blood as it flowed from the diseased bodies. The pain of multiple incisions in the scalp, neck, wrists, ankles, back, penis, vagina, and forty other sites was invariably excruciating. Just as often, the bites of leeches were used as an alternative to knives. Those who survived their bloodletting sometimes got better…

“And if the removal of enough blood to cause the patient to lose consciousness - sometimes as much as 70% of the person’s blood - didn’t bring about a cure, there was also mercury, arsenic, or lead, which purged the body of its excesses if they didn’t first poison the patient, or blistering, pulling teeth, sweating, ice, starvation, darkness, and silence. Illness was always dreaded; the popular treatments for it were hell on earth. Even babies were bled“.

Remedies could be nearly as bizarre as they were brutal. Lethargy often was treated with massive doses of whiskey, wine, opium, or roast beef. The words of the 17th century playwright Moliere were almost as true in the 18th and 19th centuries. “Nearly all men die of their remedies and not of their illnesses“.

In 1792, Austrian Emperor Leopold II was bled to death by his doctors, who sliced open his veins four times in 24 hours. H. was withering in his contempt for Leopold’s doctors. “Science pales before this!” he wrote in an article published in Germany.

George Washington met a similar fate seven years later. After developing a severe sore throat and cold, he was bled four times. One young doctor recommended a new procedure, a tracheotomy, which had been successfully used in Europe. It probably would have saved Washington’s life. But Washington’s senior physicians opted for the conventional treatment, reportedly with Washington’s consent.

By this time, H. had given up medicine in disgust. He believed that a good diet, good hygiene, and good living conditions were essential for good health. He believed patients often recovered on their own. His beliefs were ignored and ridiculed. So he made a living as a translator and chemist.

Then came H.’s first “Eureka!” moment. Translating a medical treatise written by William Cullen, a medical professor at the University of Edinburgh, H. read about the use of Peruvian bark, also called cinchona or china, for the treatment of malaria. Quinine, which became the wonder drug of the 19th century, was derived from cinchona. Experimenting on himself, H. took a dose of cinchona.

And quickly began to develop malaria symptoms. So cinchona could cure people who were sick with malaria. And it could produce malaria symptoms in healthy people.

Aha! Well, actually, I’m not sure most people, even those as brilliant as H., could invent an entire new school of medicine from such a small discovery.

But he did. It was based on the Law of Similars: “A substance that causes, in a healthy person, symptoms similar to those of a disease state, can cure a sick person of that disease or - “Let Likes Be Cured By Likes“.

In some respects, H. wasn’t reinventing the wheel. Hippocrates hypothesized that cures could result from the actions of either similars or opposites. A smallpox vaccine had been invented in England in 1776. Vaccines, which used a small amount of the virus to produce immunity to the full-fledged disease caused by the virus, fit snugly within the parameters of “Like Cures Like“.

So do modern treatments for allergies, which utilize small doses of the allergens to build up a person’s immunity to them.

But H. took his theory to the extreme. You might even say he ran right off a cliff with it. H.’s sole focus was on the patient’s symptoms. He couldn’t care less about the cause of an illness. Causation was simply irrelevant to the theory of “Like Cures Like“. The cure would always be found by matching the symptoms induced by a particular remedy in a healthy person with the symptoms displayed by the patient.

H. approached a patient like a jailor carrying a massive key chain. One key - and only one key - would turn the lock and free the patient from the jail cell of his illness.

And whenever he encountered a patient with different symptoms, he needed to find a different key in order to unlock the door.

Ingesting small amounts of diluted herbs, plants, minerals, and animals, H. and some volunteers continued to experiment on themselves, monitoring the symptoms produced by each substance. The results of about 120 of these “provings,” as H. called his experiments, were collected in a book, the Materia Medica.

H. also included information from written accounts of accidental poisonings. It was particularly appropriate to do so, since many of the provings involved poisonous substances such as arsenic and belladonna. But H. believed nothing was toxic if taken in small doses.

This belief led H. to another “Eureka!” moment. Poisons had to be diluted in order to take them safely. H. began to dilute all of his remedies. Then he began to “succuss” them, shaking the diluted substance vigorously. H. believed that homeopathic remedies work by triggering the Vital Spark or Vital Force in the patient, which heals by restoring balance to the body. The shaking of the remedies was aimed at awaking the “slumbering hidden dynamic powers” contained in the remedy.

Weird? You ain’t heard nothing yet. H. believed that remedies become more potent with successive dilutions. Under his theory of “potentization,” the “weaker” the remedy, the more powerful it becomes. Remedies often were diluted to the extent that not even a single molecule of the substance remained in the dilution.

As Natalie Robins writes in Copeland’s Cure, “Homeopaths believed that the very shadows - or memory - of the original substance was enough to effect healing…potentization enabled remedies to touch and effect the energetic realm of the Vital Force - the place where disease arises and cure must take place“. In addition, H. speculated that long-term diseases were caused by a “psora,” which he defined as an itch produced by a negative spirit.

At this point, critics of homeopathy, not to mention proponents of logic, pull the cord and get off the bus. Invisible remedies? Diluted water that “remembers” what was in it? Who could possibly believe such nonsense? Millions of people, as it turned out, who were sickened, literally and figuratively, by the conventional medicine of the time. By the early 1800’s, H. was practicing homeopathy, railing against “old school medicine“.

In 1810, he published the “Organon Of The Medical Art”, a textbook on homeopathy. The medical establishment called him a “daring revolutionist” and an “eccentric troublemaker”.

The typhoid fever epidemic of 1813 cemented H.’s reputation as a guru of alternative medicine. As thousands perished around the city of Leipzig, H. treated 180 patients with homeopathic remedies and lost just two of them. A star was born. The medical establishment fought back. Doctors and druggists harassed H.. He was charged with selling illegal remedies in 1820 and cast out of the big city. H. fled to a small town in eastern Germany. But his fame grew and doctors, students, and patients from around Europe flocked to see him.

H. was the equivalent of a rock star, an anti-establishment bad boy. Amy Lansky in Impossible Cure: In the evening, a circle of disciples would gather at H.’s feet.

Dressed in a gaudy dressing gown, yellow stockings, and a black velvet cap, H. would puff on a long Turkish pipe and dispense pearls of wisdom to his devotees.

His made-for-the-movies life featured a particularly happy ending. In 1830, when H. was 75, his wife died. 4 years later, Melanie d’Hervilly, beautiful, wealthy, socially prominent artist and poet journeyed from Paris for treatment from H. after reading the “Organon of the Medical Art”. She then became his student and much more. The 34-year-old artist and the 79-year-old doctor fell head over heels in love. H. and d’Hervilly married, moved to Paris, and established a thriving homeopathic clinic, treating luminaries such as Paginini and Balzac.

H. died in 1843, but his reputation was just beginning to blow up in the U.S. In 1844, the American Institute of Homeopathy was founded. Partly in response to the growing popularity of homeopathy, the American Medical Association was established in 1847.

The AMA wasted little time in going after the upstart. It branded homeopathy as “alien” and as a “delusion,” a form of medicine practiced by imposters who believed in miracles. It also mounted campaigns against other forms of alternative medicine, including naturopaths, chiropractors, and osteopaths.

But the AMA’s campaign didn’t stop millions of Americans from flocking to homeopathic practitioners. Clergymen recommended homeopathy from their pulpits. Women and children loved the “sugar doctor“. (Homeopathic remedies were usually absorbed into sugar water and taken in the form of sugar pellets.) And why wouldn’t they? It was a no-brainer. Do I want a doctor to slice open my child’s veins and splash his blood into a basin? Or do I want to give little Susie or Timmy a sugar pellet?

Homeopathy became known as the “people’s medicine“. It was readily available and it was inexpensive. As Robins describes it, homeopathy was “the first worldwide, systematic option to bloodletting. Because of its painlessness, lack of side effects, and relative simplicity, homeopathy caught on like wildfire in America“.

By 1900, there were 22 homeopathic colleges and 14.000 homeopathic doctors in America. The war between the medical establishment and the rebels waxed and waned in intensity, but never ceased. Prominent Americans took sides. Oliver Wendell Holmes denounced provings as random experiments devoid of scientific validity.

Mark Twain: “Homeopathy forced the old school doctor to stir around and learn something of a rational nature about their business…” Twain was “grateful that homeopathy survived the attempts of allopaths [conventional doctors] to destroy it“.

President William McKinley: who used homeopathic doctors, was instrumental in the erection of a statue of H. within viewing distance of the White House.

One of the most influential advocates of homeopathy was Royal Copeland (1868-1938), the hero of Copeland’s Cure. An eye surgeon who became fascinated by homeopathy after travelling to Europe, Copeland became the Health Commissioner of New York City. He cemented his reputation as a healer during the flu epidemic of 1918, which ravaged other cities far more severely than New York. He achieved nationwide celebrity status by penning a syndicated newspaper column called “Your Health,” which attracted 11 million readers. In 1922, he was elected to the U.S. Senate.

Copeland was a subtle proponent of homeopathy, a skilled politician who walked a tightrope between those who extolled and those who excoriated the practice. He described homeopathy as “one of many methods of treating sickness“. Copeland attempted to position it as a medical specialty rather than a distinct and separate practice of healing that had little in common with conventional medicine.

And he was a harsh critic of some practitioners of alternative medicine, branding chiropractors as a “public menace and peril” to both patients and the community at large after some chiropractors “treated” typhoid fever and tuberculosis victims with chiropractic methods, thus exhibiting little or no understanding that such communicable diseases were spread by germs.

Copeland’s crowning political achievement was his sponsorship of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938. The bill was sparked by the death of 100 people who had taken a strep throat medication containing diethylene glycol, an ingredient used in antifreeze. Copeland persuaded his Senate colleagues to pass the first bill requiring drug companies to disclose active ingredients and post warning labels on their products.

Homeopathic remedies were treated as the equivalent of drugs under the Act, which gave homeopathy a certain stamp of legitimacy. The Act, a forerunner of the modern FDA, remains Copeland’s enduring legacy.

But the heyday of homeopathy was drawing to a close. Conventional medicine was advancing with giant strides. Homeopathic and other of alternative medicine practitioners continued to be besieged by the AMA and other establishment figures, branded as “pseudo scientists,” “freaks,” “unconscionable quacks,” and “fakers“.

The conduct of snake oil salesman within the ranks of alternative medicine also undercut its credibility. Some naturopaths claimed that they could cure cancer “by natural processes without medicine or surgery“.

Some homeopaths in New York recommended “autotherapy” - the use of remedies made from bodily fluids ranging from diluted blood to pus to spit to tears, to ear gook.

Homeopaths splintered into competing camps. Unicists, an orthodox sect, preached the original gospel of H., who insisted on using only one remedy at a time.

Kentians: a reform group, recommended one high potency remedy for mental and emotional symptoms and one low potency remedy for physical symptoms.

Pluralists prescribed taking several remedies in a precise order.

Complexists prescribed taking several remedies at the same time.

By the middle of the 20th century, homeopathy had almost disappeared in America, although it continued to attract practitioners and patients in other parts of the world.

(England has always been a homeopathic bastion, in large part because the Royal Family has employed a homeopathic physician for generations.)

While the 60’s brought a renewed interest in alternative medicine, for better and for worse -Robins writes that “offbeat, unconventional care became increasingly faddish”- homeopathy lingered in the shadows.

A watershed moment for homeopathy occurred in 1985, creating reverberations that continue to this day. French research scientist Jacques Benveniste claimed to have proof that highly diluted homeopathic remedies -so high that not a single detectable molecule of the substance remained- left a “memory” in the diluted water that measurably changed the molecular composition of the water.

His findings were written up in the respected journal Nature, and they created a furor. When investigators from Nature tried and failed to replicate the results claimed by Benveniste, it left homeopathy with a black eye that remains visible.

And it separated the True Believers in homeopathy and the Contemptuous Critics of homeopathy into fiercely antagonistic camps. Call it an ugly fight between the Counterculture and the Establishment. Or, if you’ll indulge me in a bit of hyperbole, a bitter feud between the Hippies and the Squares.

Dr. Murray Gell-Mann, winner of the Nobel Prize in 1969 for his discovery of quarks, says it is “garbage physics” to claim there is a “memory” left in water that no longer contains a single molecule of a homeopathic remedy.

True Believes such as Amy Lanksy, author of Impossible Cure, cites Benveniste’s experiments as proof of the scientific validity of homeopathy. But the True Believers of homeopathy continued to lose ground. By 2001, insurers were covering chiropractic care in 50 states, acupuncture in seven, and naturopathic treatments in two. Homeopathy wasn’t covered by insurers in a single state. It still isn’t.

Despite the grudging acceptance of some types of alternative treatments, conventional medicine is still spooked by and suspicious of alternative medicine in general. In 2002, Jonathan Quick, director of drug and medicine policy at the World Health Organization, which was described by the New York Times as the “global watchdog over unconventional medicine,” pleaded for a truce between “uninformed skeptics who don’t believe in anything, and uncritical enthusiasts who don’t care about the data.

We want to convince the skeptics that some things work, and make the enthusiasts more cautious because it can kill them“.

Makes sense. Yet in many cases the Hippies and Squares continue to view each other with fear and loathing. Consider the flap over the appointment of Dr. James Gordon in 2000 to lead Bill Clinton’s White House Commission on Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The purpose of the commission, the first of its kind, was to evaluate “the great potential and possible perils associated with the use of CAM“.

Gordon is a psychiatrist who founded the Center for Mind/Body Medicine in Washington D.C. He’s a faculty member at Georgetown Medical School and the author of 10 books about alternative medicine. But his appointment to head the White House commission sent the Squares into a hissy fit. Steven Barrett’s blasted Gordon for volunteering at the Haight-Ashbury Free Clinic in the 60’s - “helping ease young seekers through their experimentation with drugs“. If cavorting with actual hippies wasn’t bad enough, Gordon was also criticized for his interest in dynamic meditation,

a form of dance involving whirling and spinning, and his fascination with U.F.O.s.

An exasperated Gordon fired back at the Squares, accusing CAM opponents of possessing “a McCarthyite mindset - the inquisitioner’s mind, not the scientific mind.

There’s a lack of thoughtfulness in that approach - knee-jerk is the right word“.

Gordon may be right regarding the reaction of the Squares to alternative medicine in general. But the old school docs have sound reasons to question the validity of homeopathy, with its weird theories and oddball practitioners. H. completed the 6th edition of the Organon Of The Medical Art way back in 1842. It is, writes Amy Lansky, “still the most comprehensive text on the principles of homeopathy to this day“.

Is that something to brag about? Imagine if an M.D. pulled out a 160-year-old text to diagnose and treat a patient who complained of stomach pains or a lump in his armpit. He’d be laughed out of the profession. “Hey doc, haven’t you learned anything in the last century or two? Sure, give me some of those leeches you’ve got in that jar. And slice open a vein or two while you’re at it“.

Lansky claims that H. was a “scientist in the truest sense of the word“.

Maybe in his own time. But today his teachings appear to be the work of a mad scientist. Homeopathy seems mired in the past, lost in a bygone era, suffused with ignorance, superstition and mysticism. And yet. 15.000.000 Americans use homeopathic remedies. The global popularity of homeopathy is steadily rising, particularly in Europe and Asia.

Why? For a very practical reason--many remedies work. Clinical trials in Europe in the 1980’s indicated that homeopathy was at least mildly effective for conditions ranging from arthritis to flu to hay fever to gall bladder problems, to fibromyalgia.

You can buy homeopathic remedies at health food stores, of course, but also at Safeway and Walgreens.


Geschichte der Potenzabstufungen Posologie


Apis: This article appeared in 1866 in The Elements of a New Materia Medica and Therapeutics.

A lad, aged about 12 years, had been afflicted for several months with ascites [accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity] and hydrothorax [accumulation of fluid in the lung cavity].

He had been treated for some three months by allopathic physicians first for dysentery, followed by ascites, and afterwards for several months by a homeopathic physician. No permanent benefit resulted from either mode of medication, and the symptoms finally became so urgent that I was called in consultation, and tapping was at once resorted to in order to save the patient from imminent danger. Appropriate homeopathic remedies were again prescribed, but without arresting the onward course of the malady. The patient commenced to fill up again with great rapidity.

The secretion of urine was nearly suspended, the skin was dry and hot, pulse rapid and weak, respiration short and difficult, great tenderness of the abdomen, dryness of the mouth and throat, thirst, excessive restlessness and anxiety, short, irritating cough, and an almost entire inability to sleep.

At this stage of the case a wandering Indian woman - one of the few survivors of the Narragansett tribe - suggested to the family the use of a honey-bee every night and morning.

She enclosed the bees in a covered tin pail, and placed them in a heated oven until they were killed, and then after powdering them, administered one in syrup every night and morning.

After the lapse of about twenty-four hours the skin became softer and less hot, the respiration less difficult and more free, the pulse slower and more developed, and there was a decided increase in the quantity of urine. From this time the symptoms continued steadily to improve, the dropsical effusion diminished day by day, until at the expiration of a few weeks, the patient was entirely cured.

This is the first cure of dropsy by Apis which was ever reported … From this empirical fact - this usu in morbus - I perceived that the profession was as yet unacquainted with a powerful remedial agent, and accordingly commenced a series of provings and of clinical trials with it …





Caust is most challenging. I [John Morgan] have made this remedy 5x in the last 11 yrs with 3 successes and 2 complete failures. It is by far the most complicated and involved process of all H.’s special remedies, involving hazardous chemical reactions and distillation apparatus which needs constant care and attention. It is also the one remedy for which the final chemical composition has been the subject of debate and it is still not known what Causticum actually is. Even before H.’s death it was controversial. In 1835 a chemist called Griesselich followed H.’s instructions to the letter but failed to reproduce the remedy concluding that there was no such thing as Causticum. He offered a prize of 12 ducats to anyone who could clarify its chemical nature - an offer which was not taken up by anyone. The recorded attempts of other chemists, during H.’s lifetime, and the analysis of different preparations from different manufacturers, more recently, has revealed variable and inconclusive results. Also chemically there are good reasons why it should be nothing other than distilled water which was what Griesselich’s experiments mostly produced.

To try and unravel this mystery we must look at the preparation in detail, in the Causticum monograph in Chronic Diseases. I will go through it step by step to explain the chemical changes.

Lime, in the state of marble, owes its insolubility in water and its mildness to an acid of the lowest order which is combined with it; when heated to red heat the marble allows this acid to escape as a gas. H. is describing the liberation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from marble when it is heated and its transformation from a hard insoluble form into a soft and water soluble substance which is calcium oxide (CaO). His use of the word 'lime' to describe marble relates to limestone, from which marble is derived and not to the modern chemical definition of 'lime' or 'quicklime' which is calcium oxide. Carbon dioxide an acidic gas and will make carbonic acid (H2CO3) when dissolved in water.

During this process the marble, as burned lime, has received (besides the latent heat) another substance into its composition, which substance, unknown to chemistry, gives to it its caustic property as well as its solubility in the water, whereby we obtain lime-water.

From this statement is seems that H. did not know the chemical composition of calcium oxide which is formed after heating marble or any other calcium carbonate such as egg or oyster shells.

Calcium oxide is caustic, can create burns on the skin and reacts quite violently with water giving off much heat creating lime water, a solution of calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2, which has alkaline properties.

This substance, though not itself an acid, gives to it its caustic virtue, and by adding a fluid acid (which will endure fire) which then combines with the lime by its closer affinity, the watery caustic (Hydras caustici) is separated by distillation.

This passage describes the reaction of the alkaline quicklime with a heated acid to create the watery Causticum which is recovered by distillation.

Two pounds of white marble has to be heated to red heat to effect the necessary chemical change by driving off the carbon dioxide as follows:

CaCO3 + fire (heat) = CaO + CO2 dip this piece into a vessel of distilled water for about one minute, then lay it in a dry dish, in which it will soon turn into powder with the

development of much heat and its peculiar odour called lime vapour.

When the burnt marble, now quicklime CaO, is put into water it fizzes quite dramatically giving off heat and hydrating to form calcium hydroxide some of which, in solution, steams to create the vapour H. mentions. The formula is as follows: CaO + H2O = Ca(OH) 2 + heat of this fine powder take two ounces and mix with it in a warmed porcelain triturating bowl a solution of two ounces of bisulphate of potash, (potassium bisulphate KHSO4) which has been heated to red heat, melted, cooled again and then pulverised and dissolved in two ounces of boiling hot water.

Potassium bisulphate is an acid salt with some water in its crystals. Just why H. melts it to red heat and cools it again is unclear. Perhaps in his day it was only available in hard lump form instead of the modern fine crystals and needed this treatment to make it a quickly dissolving powder. It melts easily at red heat, is dried by this heating and easily dissolves in hot water. Another possible reason for heating is to bake the crystals so ensuring that no more than two ounces of water and two ounces of the two solids are present in the final mixture so that all of it can react completely as per the following formula: Ca(OH)2+ KHSO4 + H2O = KOH + CaSO4 + 2H2O        

The thick, white paste formed by this mixture of components is just fluid enough to be pourable though needs a spatula to put it all in the retort. The hydrated calcium sulphate so formed is commonly known as Plaster of Paris hence its insoluble pasty quality and the potassium hydroxide formed is in the solution which binds the mass.

This thickish mixture is put into a small glass retort, to which the helm is attached with a wet bladder; into the tube of the helm is inserted a receiver half submerged in water; the retort is warmed by the gradual approach of a charcoal fire below and all the fluid is then distilled over by applying the suitable heat.

The glass apparatus H. used was the well known distillation retort known as the alembic. They are difficult to find these days but are commonly seen in old chemistry or alchemical books. A glass bulb elongates into the conical helm which ends in a small spout. The absence of modern water cooled glass condensers in the early 1800's gave rise to the use of a pigs bladder full of water to cool and condense the distillate vapour as it rose from the heated glass bulb. The receiving bottle is attatched to the helm, with a moistened pig's bladder, to create a porous seal and is also cooled to complete the liquefaction of any uncondensed vapour.

Using gradual heat, as the charcoal fire infers, it takes many hours (4-6) to completely distil all the liquid and it is important that it is heated to dryness. My experience up to now has been with the use of modern distillation equipment, rather than the alembic, which I feel physically mimics the properties of the original adequately although cannot replace the authentic ritual of the real thing with all its beautiful subtleties. I'm sure that I will have more experiences of this remedy preparation each time getting even closer to the impossible goal of perfectly repeating H.'s own remedy.

The distilled fluid will be about an ounce and a half of watery clearness, containing in concentrated form the substance mentioned above, i.e. Causticum;

It smells like the lye of caustic potash. On the back part of the tongue the caustic tastes very astringent, and in the throat burning; it freezes only in a lower degree

of cold than water, and it hastens the putrefaction of animal substances immersed in it.

When muriate of Baryta is added, the Causticum shows no sign of sulphuric acid, and on adding oxalate of ammonia it shows no trace of lime.

A dictionary definition of 'lye' is ' the technical term for the alkaline liquor obtained by leaching wood ashes with water commonly used for washing and in soap making; more generally the common name for any strong alkaline solution or solid such as sodium or potassium hydroxides.' The chemical tests mentioned at the end, using barium chloride, shows there is no presence of sulphate ions and

ammonium oxalate shows there are no calcium ions present in Causticum. The physical properties mentioned, of freezing point and putrefaction, are common characteristics of caustic alkalis.

The Preparation

Take a piece of freshly burned lime of about two pounds,
Two pounds of white marble has to be heated to red heat to effect the necessary chemical change by driving off the carbon dioxide as follows:
CaCO3 + fire (heat) = CaO + CO2 dip this piece into a vessel of distilled water for about one minute, then lay it in a dry dish, in which it will soon turn into powder with the development of much heat and its peculiar odour called lime vapour. When the burnt marble, now quicklime CaO, is put into water it fizzes quite dramatically giving off heat and hydrating to form calcium hydroxide some of which, in solution, steams to create the vapour H. mentions. The formula is as follows:
CaO + H2O = Ca(OH) 2 + heat
Of this fine powder take two ounces and mix with it in a warmed porcelain triturating bowl a solution of two ounces of bisulphate of potash, (potassium bisulphate KHSO4) which has been heated to red heat, melted, cooled again and then pulverised and dissolved in two ounces of boiling hot water.

Potassium bisulphate is an acid salt with some water in its crystals. Just why H. melts it to red heat and cools it again is unclear. Perhaps in his day it was only available in hard lump form instead of the modern fine crystals and needed this treatment to make it a quickly dissolving powder. It melts easily at red heat, is dried by this heating and easily dissolves in hot water. Another possible reason for heating is to bake the crystals so ensuring that no more than two ounces of water and two ounces of the two solids are present in the final mixture so that all of it can react completely as per the following formula:
Ca(OH)2+ KHSO4 + H2O = KOH + CaSO4 + 2H2O

The thick, white paste formed by this mixture of components is just fluid enough to be pourable though needs a spatula to put it all in the retort. The hydrated calcium sulphate so formed is commonly known as Plaster of Paris hence its insoluble pasty quality and the potassium hydroxide formed is in the solution which binds the mass.
This thickish mixture is put into a small glass retort, to which the helm is attached with a wet bladder; into the tube of the helm is inserted a receiver half submerged in water; the retort is warmed by the gradual approach of a charcoal fire below and all the fluid is then distilled over by applying the suitable heat.
The distilled fluid will be about an ounce and a half of watery clearness, containing in concentrated form the substance mentioned above, i.e. Causticum;
It smells like the lye of caustic potash. On the back part of the tongue the caustic tastes very astringent, and in the throat burning; it freezes only in a lower degree of cold than water, and it hastens the putrefaction of animal substances immersed in it.
When muriate of Baryta is added, the Causticum shows no sign of sulphuric acid, and on adding oxalate of ammonia it shows no trace of lime.
A dictionary definition of ‘lye:
‘the technical term for the alkaline liquor obtained by leaching wood ashes with water commonly used for washing and in soap making; more generally the common name for any strong alkaline solution or solid such as sodium or potassium hydroxides.’
The chemical tests mentioned at the end, using barium chloride, shows there is no presence of sulphate ions and ammonium oxalate shows there are no calcium ions present in Causticum. The physical properties mentioned, of freezing point and putrefaction, are common characteristics of caustic alkalis.
Modern Documentation
One of the drawbacks to the industrialisation of remedy preparations by large homoeopathic manufacturers, over the years, is the imposition of allopathic methods of quality control and analysis on raw materials in order to licence remedies as medicines for retail sale. This can impose strict testing of original remedy materials to prove identity, quality and the validation of potentisation methods which, of course, is a good thing. When pure sources of elements and compounds are used there is no problem achieving this, but when the starting point is already an impure source this can cause difficulties. For example it is impossible to know the exact analysis of the marble H. used for the original remedy/not documented from where the sample was obtained. Also uncertainty as to the exact composition of the finished Causticum, and the many trace elements it may contain, would mean very involved analytical discussions about criteria and tests. Pharmacopoeias over the years have avoided this issue by substituting 2 pounds of marble with 2 pounds of burned lime, without indicating a source, to avoid having to introduce such a variable. This means pure industrially prepared 99.9% calcium oxide is put forward as the starting point. Caust is not found in either the French or German homoeopathic pharmacopoeia (GHP) which are both widely used in the UK and Europe. The recent British homoeopathic pharmacopoeia, brought in to preserve some of the remedies not found in the GHP, has an entry with testing for the absence of sulphates, calcium and heavy metals. Neatby & Stonham’s book describes Causticum as being ‘of somewhat uncertain nature’ and that ‘the modern liquor potassium hydrate (= KOH) often dispensed as a substitute’. Understandably the variables possible with different marble qualities would make standardisation, via the pharmacopoeia, very difficult to reproduce by manufacturers. However this sacrifice to analysis looses certain important subtleties just as making Calc from pure chalk would be slightly different from that prepared from the oyster shell. My first experiences making Caust used pure calcium oxide, instead of marble, I have to say the end product passed all the organoleptic (taste and smell) and chemical tests given by H. and has undoubtedly worked well as a remedy. The quality of remedy potencies reflects perfectly the original so if an oyster shell is 99.5% calcium carbonate and 0.5% ?impurities? then using 99.99% pure chalk would still be 99.5% of the Calc. picture?, perhaps in most cases enough similarity to cure and not significant, we do not know - but H.’s voice rings out again “....... but follow me well”! That 0.5% missing may have provided the essential part of the resonant stimulus needed to cover the similimum fully and thus cure the patient in front of us.
Causticum Raasay Quelle: Helios UK
My interest in Causticum was rekindled when on a visit to the Burren school in Galway, Eire. Back in the lab, some months later, the initial problem of how to heat an entire two pounds of marble to red heat soon arose. Large flame bunsens, and gas fires take ages to do it and by the time you have got to one end, of the marble block, the other end has taken up moisture again reducing the calcium oxide content. Just how did H. do it?  Visions of blacksmiths forges appeared so I tried burning it on glowing hot coals for a few hours. It works very well but contaminates the marble with sulphur fumes from the coal. So the first marble sourced remedy was a long day of burning and scraping marble until two ounce of the transformed marble was available. Still a long way from the two pound burned lump ready to dunk into water. Possibly the best method is to bake it in a pottery kiln, although I am told this can be very dangerous due to risk of explosions from possible water pockets embedded in the stone, but perhaps this will be one for the future.

However as the years go by I am more and more convinced that remedies themselves choose when to be made and the timing must be right to create the perfect conditions. Esp. true for new proving remedies, a good example being the coincidental major astrological movements of Pluto at the start of the Plutonium proving previously unknown by the proving team.

The conditions for a superb Causticum firing came together one night last June at Jeremy Sherr’s summer school on Raasay island off the Isle of Skye. The Dynamis school has been holding summer gatherings there for many years and presence of twenty or so homoeopaths together supported the event beautifully. The idea came to have a wood fire on the beach so the marble was placed on a large stone while group participation gathering wood, and passing the Jamesons (= whiskey), soon had everything prepared. Duncan, one of the local seafarers who regularly visited Raasay, was also with us.

He was very keen to join the event because he had been cured of a very serious condition with Causticum. It was his remedy and he set himself the task of feeding the fire with great enthusiasm as the blaze grew and the marble got redder. The weather conditions were also special with the first cloudless starry night of the week giving a clear view of the north star, Polaris, the telescopically focused light of which we were all proving at the time - just to add another dimension to it all. As the time moved on we all wandered back to bed in the early hours, leaving Duncan tending the fire, which he did until 3 h. Early next morning it was sunny and I walked down to the beach to collect the burnt offering. To my amazement it was lying clean, white and exposed on the stone with not a speck of wood ash around it. I assumed Duncan had cleaned up before he retired for the night but no he had not - the highland wind had blown any remnants of the fire away and the marble was completely burned and ready. That evening it was distilled following H.s directions as closely as possible, in an atmosphere of collective support and wonder resulting in a superb liquor which is without doubt the best quality Causticum I have made to date.

Not found yet is a satisfactory answer to why H. went to so much trouble to make this remedy/his intentions. If the goal was to make potassium hydroxide (KOH) this method is not very efficient and apparently unnecessary. Chronic diseases describes the smell of Causticum like the 'lye' of caustic potash (KOH) so it was obviously already available and known to him so why bother?

Andreas Grimm, who reproduced the original method exactly in 1989, speculates that H. was trying to isolate and distil the 'caustic principle' i.e. the OH-ion which is, unknown to him, a fruitless task using this crude method. Perhaps we will never know the truth but the combination of so many alchemical elements seriously leans towards an experiment with another dimension. The use of the great transforming fire, the meeting of the two principles masculine (acid) and feminine (base) in equal measure, the hermetically sealed unit and the final distillation in the alembic are all well known alchemical

processes. Whatever the true reason the result is undeniably one of the most important remedies in the materia medica and it is important to be clear as to its composition and reproducibility.

Chemical Possibilities

According to the formulas the thickish mixture in the flask contains only three components KOH + CaSO4 + 2H2O. i.e. Potassium hydroxide, calcium sulphate and water. There are actually no volatile gases or products which would pass over during distillation except water. Potassium hydroxide dissolves in water but remains behind as the water boils off. Calcium sulphate is insoluble and remains behind as a white hard mass. So how is the final product alkaline at all. Many years it was thought that the alkalinity was due to ammonia which is created when elemental calcium metal reacts with nitrogen 3Ca + N2 = Ca3N2 and the resulting calcium nitride reacts with water to form ammonia gas. Ca3N2 + 6H2O = 2NH3↑ + 3Ca(OH)2 This gas then forms ammonium hydroxide (amm-caus), when it contacts water. NH3 + H2O = NH4OH.

Scholten states in his recent book that Causticum contains ammonia but is different from ammonium causticum.

However reactive elemental calcium metal is not present in our process and calcium oxide, which is, does not form this liaison with nitrogen and thus ammonia is not formed. It is possible for ammonia to be formed if potassium hydroxide comes into contact with the protein of the pigs bladder but this is very remote. So how is the potassium hydroxide present in Causticum?

Grimm gives, what I believe, is the most likely explanation. At 350 - 400o C, temperatures, created by the charcoal fire, potassium hydroxide sublimates without decomposing. Sublimation means that the solid vaporises into the condenser and is carried over into the receiving vessel by water vapour thus resulting in a weak solution. Grimm also suggests that bumping may also occur, which is common with alkalis, creating a spitting effect up the tube. Thus Causticum is a weak solution of potassium hydroxide by these effects. If there are traces of unfired calcium carbonate in the calcium oxide then the addition of the acid may liberate carbon dioxide gas which may be present as a trace as in CaCO3 + KHSO4 = CaSO4 + KOH +CO2. However there is also another subtle dimension which must also be remembered. The starting point was an impure marble which could have had trace elements of many different elements. Ornamental marble gains it colours from the presence of impurities such as iron creating red, chlorites the greens and graphites the blues. Quartz (silica) is also often found as an impurity in marble, so there are still many possible trace elements which are unknown and may be present.

The Kali Element

Causticum theme: sympathetic/serious/intense/sensitive type who can become a social activist, working on behalf of others, to overcome injustice can be seen as being made up of the 3 elements KOH.

Scholten describes the potassium element themes as:

Doing their work and duty without thinking. Steady plodding conscientiousness to get the job done. Have and need fixed rules and like to stick to them. Have strong principles and can be depended upon to fulfil their responsibility. Often work alone and decide for themselves how to do it. Don’t like interference. Can even turn away from the family. Fixed attention to principles and duty leads to an inability to identify with their action. Loose their sense of self. Brainwashed. Are naive. Over control suppresses free thinking. Are not open to debate and become closed, dogmatic, moralistic.

Siehe Causticum.


At present Causticum holds secrets and speculation and attempts to use materia medica to decipher constituents is very inexact because of the differences in numbers of rubrics between

the remedies in the repertories. Perhaps continued chemical analysis of preparations in the future, ideally by many companies, will give rise to some definitive answers as to what Causticum is.

Up to now the documented variations have been inconsistent and more samples, willingness and time is needed to standardise this remedy correctly. I am sure it is a Kali salt, and should be

thought of as one, but alchemy is a mysterious thing and I'm sure this wonderful substance will still keep some of its secrets hidden for some time to come.

If any of you have any comments or information which can shed more light on the subject I would be very grateful to receive it.


Quelle: Helios pharmacy UK


H. und die Choleraepidemie:

Die in der amerikanischen Literatur erwähnten Hauptmittel für die Epidemiebehandlung waren Ars., Bry. und Gels., wobei ersteres bei einer Nachrepertorisation der Leitsymptome wie schon bei Shepherd im Vordergrund steht. Es wurden aber auch Merc-cy., Phos., Lach., Rhus-t. und andere Mittel mit gutem Erfolg eingesetzt. Eine europäische Sonderposition nimmt der bedeutende Schweizer Homöopath Dr. Antoine Nebel (1870–1954) ein, der Eupat-per. wichtigstes Pandemiemittel bestimmte.

Ein international koordiniertes, einheitliches Konzept fehlte bei dieser Pandemie. Die homöopathische Bewegung war trotz ihrer Qualifikation zu sehr zersplittert und ohne genügend klare wissenschaftliche und organisatorische Führung, was sicher auch einer der Gründe für ihren Krebsgang in den nachfolgenden Jahrzehnten war. Und wie sieht es heute aus, etwa 3 Jahrzehnte nach einem erneuten Aufschwung der Homöopathie in Europa und USA und bei erneutem Aufflackern einer H1N1-Pandemie?

Im Internet waren trotz optimaler Kommunikationsmöglichkeit zu meinem großen Erstaunen auch einige Wochen nach den ersten beunruhigenden Nachrichten aus Mexiko nur einige Gemeinplätze zur Influenzabehandlung und ein paar esoterische Spekulationen, aber keinerlei verwertbare homöopathische Daten zur aktuellen Epidemie zu finden.

Wie anders hatte doch der bereits 76-jährige H. reagiert, als 1831 die ersten Berichte über eine an der Ostgrenze der K.u.k.-Monarchie neu aufgetretene und potenziell sehr gefährliche Seuche eintrafen!

Er ließ sich von der um sich greifenden lähmenden Panik und Ratlosigkeit nicht anstecken, geschweige denn, dass er sich auf anderweitige Autoritäten verlassen hätte: Er befolgte die altbewährte taktische Regel, dass man einen angreifenden Gegner nicht einfach in Verteidigungsstellung erwarten, sondern wenn immer möglich schon im Aufmarschraum attackieren sollte, und ließ sich durch einen homöopathischen Kollegen im polnischen Galizien umgehend über sämtliche Krankheitsaspekte der sich schnell zur Pandemie ausweitenden Cholera informieren. Nach einer in Anbetracht der damaligen Postkutschenkommunikation und langsamen mechanischen Drucktechnik sehr kurzen Zeit konnte H. nach sorgfältiger Fernrepertorisation schon einen schriftlichen Epidemieplan zirkulieren lassen.

Dieser erwies sich schon beim ersten Einsatz in Osteuropa als der damaligen Schulmedizin deutlich überlegen

Und sollte der Homöopathie schließlich auch gesundheitspolitisch mehr Gewinn bringen als vermutlich alle Individualbehandlungen zusammen.


[Thomas Mickler]

Viele Homöopathen sind im Laufe der Zeit durch eigene Erlebnisse zur Homöopathie gekommen.

Der 2003 verstorbene Homöopath Willibald Gawlik wurde während fast 6 Jahren Kriegsgefangenschaft in Rußland durch einen deutschen homöopathischen Arzt von Fleckfieber geheilt, an welchem damals viele starben. Das heilende Mittel war potenziertes Opium. Das bewegte Gawlik nach dem Krieg dazu, die Homöopathie selbst zu erlernen, die er dann mehr als 50 Jahre praktizierte.

Clemens von Bönninghausen (1785-1864), ein geachteter Jurist und Botaniker, schrieb 1828 einen Abschiedsbrief an seinen ärztlichen Botanikerfreund Dr. med. August Weihe, dass er keine Hoffnung auf Genesung mehr haben könne und nun an Tuberkulose sterben müsse. Er wusste nichts davon, dass Weihe sich mit der Homöopathie vertraut gemacht hatte, da sich die Korrespondenz sonst nur um botanische Themen drehte. Dieser rettete ihn mit einer Gabe Puls. C30, der er 4 Wochen später eine Gabe Sulph. C30 folgen ließ. Mehr war zur Genesung nicht nötig. Bönninghausen widmete in einer ausgedehnten Praxis den überwiegenden Teil seines restlichen Lebens der Homöopathie. Er behandelte über lange Zeit auch die Schriftstellerin Annette von Droste-Hülshoff, die man bis zur Einführung des Euro auf unserem 20DM-Schein finden konnte.

Als Hahnemann noch an der Universität von Leipzig lehren durfte, sollte der Medizinstudent Konstantin Hering im Auftrag anderer Professoren diese neue Lehre erlernen und quasi von innen ihre Unwirksamkeit belegen. Es kam nie zur gewünschten Widerlegung, da seine Erfahrungen mit der Homöopathie, u. a. seine eigene Heilung von einer Sektionsverletzung, die ihn vor der Amputation eines Fingers bewahrte, ihn eines anderen belehrte. Er wurde nun wirklich zum Schüler Hahnemanns und später ein bekannter homöopathischer Arzt. Diese Beispiele ließen sich beliebig vermehren.

Die Erfahrung, so man sie einmal selbst gemacht hat, lässt sich durch nichts wegdiskutieren - selbst wenn es dem wissenschaftlich geschulten Geist zuwider läuft und man heute immer noch nicht genau weiß, auf welche Weise potenzierte Arzneien (bei richtiger Anwendung) heilen können.

Diskussionen um die Wirksamkeit

Am Thema der Potenzierung entzünden sich die Gemüter schon seit deren Entstehung im 19. Jahrhundert. Die Diskussion darüber wird meist sehr emotional und ohne die eigentlich gebotene nüchterne Wissenschaftlichkeit geführt - verständlich nur insofern, als es auf den ersten Blick nicht besonders plausibel erscheint, dass funktionieren könnte, was die Homöopathie von der Potenzierung behauptet.

Adolph Lippe hat um 1850 zu den Hochpotenzen einen 4-teiligen Artikel in der auch heute noch bestehenden Allgemeinen Homöopathischen Zeitung veröffentlicht. Sie können diesen Artikel hier lesen und als PDF herunterladen. Der Streit um die Potenzierung von Arzneien ist kein neuer Streit, sondern fast so alt wie die Homöopathie selbst.

Adolph Lippe über Hochpotenzen (Artikel in 4 Fortsetzungen)

 Lac owleum.: Im Juli 1996 hatte J. Wichmann mit ein paar Kollegen ein „amüsantes“ Gespräch bei einem Seminar-Mittagessen in Augsburg, wobei über besonders skurrile Mittelverordnungen Witze gemacht wurden. Dabei wurde die Idee aufgebracht, einen Artikel über ein erfundenes Mittel zu schreiben und schlug als offensichtlich absurd die „Eulenmilch“ vor (Till. Eulenspiegel lässt grüßen/


Lachesis.: C. Hering hatte gehört von der Giftigkeit der Lachesisschlange. Er nam sich vor sich das Gift zu besorgen. So gesagt, so getan!

Er fuhr mit seiner Frau mit einem Segelschiff nach Mittelamerika (Surinam). Da brauchte er Träger, die die beiden zu Fuß in einem Gebiet brachten, wo Lachesisschlangen vorkamen. Da fanden sie erst mal keinen Person, der eine Lachesisschlange fangen wollte. VIEL zu giftig und zu gefährlich. Nach dem Versprechen immer größere Belohnungen wurden die Beiden eine Lachesisschlange gebracht. Die Fänger flüchteten!! Dr. Hering entnahm die Schlange persönlich das Gift und fiel in ein Delirium. Seine Frau notierte fein säuberlich, was ihren Mann während dieses Deliriums sagte, tat und zeigte.

Das war die erste Lachesisprüfung!!!

After this homeopathy entered a Tubercular period [Mind - restless, Mind - travel, desire for] following Hering's graduation from Leipzig, with his excursion to Surinam and subsequently to Pennsylvania.

Extending beyond the medicaments of "old-school" medicine and the medicines of the European botanical traditions, Hering introduced native substances of South America and the Carribean,

[Lachesis, Theridion (the orange widow spider of the island of Curaçoa), and plants such as Jatropha].

His friend and student George Henry Bute returned to Pennsylvania from Surinam, and proved the local Sanguinaria (bloodroot) so prevalent in the Pennsylvania spring-time woods.

Hering followed Bute to Pennsylvania "where the land is like Germany and the people are free."


The Story of Oscillococcinum. [freely adapted from Jan Willem Nienhuys]



H.’s description of the substance used indicates that it was not a refined substance but simply crude petroleum taken from the ground: “This product of the interior of the earth is extremely strong in smell,

taste and medicinal effect. For medicinal use it ought to be very fluid and of light - yellow colour. If it is very fluid it is not very likely that it has been adulterated with fat vegetable oils.”

In H.’s day, oil distillation had not been developed, the first instance of it being in 1853, 10 years after his death, and fractional distillation had not been developed as a laboratory or commercial tool until 1864.

In 1853 the first actual distillation of crude petroleum into kerosene (paraffin oil) was performed and the first modern “rock oil” mine was created in southern Poland in the following year. While H. was alive, therefore, the practice of refining crude “rock oil” had not been developed and what he worked with would have been the liquid portion of the unrefined substance. From his description as above, this would have been a mixture of some of the lighter liquid elements of the hydrocarbon mix that make up petroleum.

T. F. Allen’s Encyclopedia (1878 edition) states that oil from Rangoon, Burma should be used and the American Pharmacopoeia of 1883 states that H. used a crude oil from Rangoon. It isn’t clear from H.s own description in Chronic Diseases that this was his source for “petroleum” but would likely have been one of the commercially available medicinal products being sold at the time.

‘Accidental’ oil fields in America were becoming commercially exploited for supposed medicinal qualities of the rock oil. These bottled wonders were being sold throughout America/Europe from the 1830’s and it was possibly this that H. used, as even the commercial development of oil from Burma only began after his death. Because of the lack of knowledge of the source and the huge variation in the composition of oil extracted from different locations, as well as the tendency of the lighter elements of the petroleum mix to evaporate and the lack of control and standardisation in the collection methods, what H.’s Petroleum was could not even be broadly guessed at with any accuracy.

H.’s expressed concern was whether the product was exclusively rock oil or had been adulterated with vegetable oils, chiefly suspecting oil of turpentine. He proposed tests, one using sulphuric acid and a simpler one of evaporation on writing paper, to determine if such oils were present. He then advised a means of removing any such oils, if found, using alcohol and filtration. (Chronic Diseases)

So we are forced to accept that H.’s Petroleum is from the liquid portion of crude petroleum of unknown composition and from an undefined source.

At some point later in the development of homoeopathic literature, we find homeopathic Petroleum identified with kerosene (paraffin oil). For instance Clarke’s Materia Medica (1900) states:

“Commercial ‘Petroleum’ and commercial ‘paraffin oil’ are one and the same. The Petrol. of homoeopathy is this substance purified and rectified.”

The most recent Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the U.S. monograph for Petroleum (1992) states explicitly that the product is Kerosene but then incorrectly gives alternative names: Rock Oil, Oleum Petrae, Oleum terrae - which should be reserved for the crude material. It also includes the correct name: coal oil (as kerosene can be extracted from coal), but to this should be added for clarity: paraffin, paraffin oil, lamp oil, mineral oil.

The adoption of kerosene/paraffin oil as a more defined homoeopathic “Petroleum” has its justification in that it closely matches H.’s description and that, as a specified fractional distillate of crude oil, it can now be standardised - which is essential to the reliance on a remedy that is being prescribed in accordance to a proving. According to the 26th edition of the Martindale Extra Pharmacopoeia, kerosene is “a mixture of hydrocarbons, chiefly of the methane series, distilled from petroleum.

It is a colourless or pale yellow mobile oily liquid with a characteristic odour. B.P. 150 to 300. Wt. per ml about 0.8g . . . Insoluble in water; soluble 1 in 2.5 of alcohol.”


Sepia.The Proving of Sepia

Ernest Farrington chronicled for us the fortuitous initial proving of Sepia, in his Clinical Materia Medica:

"It is stated on the authority of Dr. Hering that an intimate friend and patient of H., an artist, was in the habit of wetting his brush, containing India ink, with his saliva. Failing to cure him of his chronic ailments, H. suggested the ink as the probable cause of his persistent symptoms.

The artist doubted this, but nevertheless modified his custom by covering the lips with a thin layer of sponge moistened with water, the mouth being protected by an impervious though pliable shield, and his obscure illness shortly passed away. H. then instituted provings with Sepiae succus."



Robert Müntz: Ausgangspunkt und Motor für die Herstellung neuer radioaktiver Arzneien war Jan Scholten radioaktive Salze der Actinoidenreihe zu potenzieren.

Die Herstellung radioaktiver homöopathischer Arzneien bringt neben der herkömmlichen Arbeit der Potenzierung (Lösungsvorschrift o. Trituration) zusätzliche rechtliche Fragen des Strahlungsschutzes mit sich, die vor Beginn der Arbeit geklärt sein müssen. Nach Gesprächen mit den Verantwortlichen des Austria Research Centers (ARC) in Seibersdorf und des Gesundheitsministeriums wurde kein Einwand gegen die Anfertigung entsprechender Centesimalpotenzen gegeben. Das ARC zeigte sich höchst verständnisvoll für mein Anliegen, radioaktive Stoffe im Forschungszentrum zu potenzieren/unterstützte mich großartig bei der praktischen Durchführung.
Zu erwähnen ist, dass mit dieser Potenzierung Thorium als drittes natürlich vorkommendes Element der Actinoiden erstmals der Homöopathie zugänglich gemacht wurde. Potenzierung steht aus von Protactinium und Neptunium als letzten Vertreter der 5 natürlich vorkommenden Actinoiden.

Durchgeführt wurde die Arbeit im Sicherheitstrakt des ARC in Seibersdorf unter entsprechenden Vorsichtsmassnahmen: Schutzkleidung/Schutzhandschuhe/Chemieabzug/Zählrohr zur Messung der Strahlung vor und nach dem Potenzieren.
Die Potenzierung erfolgte aus pragmatischen Gründen gemäß HV 5a, der Lösungsvorschrift des HAB 2003. Die Trituration wäre zwar aus der Sicht der Arzneiwirksamkeit vorteilhafter gewesen, ließ sich aber auch aus Zeitgründen nicht durchführen, zumal sie mehrere Stunden dauert und der Zeitaufwand gegenüber der Leitung des Forschungszentrums nicht vertretbar gewesen wäre. Außerdem wäre die Kontamination mit radioaktivem Staub, der bei der Trituration entsteht, nicht auszuschließen gewesen.
Die Lösung der Stoffe erfolgte im Verhältnis 1:100 mit Ethanol 43 % und war unproblematisch, lediglich Uranylacetat brauchte zur Lösung etwa 15 Minuten. Danach wurde nach der H.schen Mehrglasmethode gemäß HAB 2002 10x kräftig auf eine elastische Unterlage geschlagen und in das nächste Fläschchen im Centesimalverhältnis verdünnt.
Wesentlich für die Genehmigung der Herstellung durch die Behörden war, dass die Verdünnungsschritte deutlich über die Avogadrosche Konstante hinaus zu erfolgen hatten. Es wurde daher die Potenzierung bis zur C15 in der Mehrglasmethode durchgeführt, eine Verdünnung, die eine Million mal höher ist als jene Konzentration, bei der statistisch gerade noch ein Molekül des Ausgangsstoffes anzutreffen ist. Die Mehrglasmethode, also die Verwendung eines neuen Fläschchens bei jedem Potenzierungsschritt, ließ auch Adsorptionsphänomene mit Sicherheit ausschließen. Als reine Vorsichtsmassnahme wurde nach Beendigung der Potenzierreihe mit einem Geigerzähler nochmals überprüft, ob die C15 Lösung auch tatsächlich strahlungsfrei war. Danach wurde sämtliches Arzneimaterial und sämtliche Hilfsmittel wie Flaschenladen, Faserschreiber etc. zur Vernichtung im ARC zurückgelassen, lediglich die C15 Lösungen von Thoriumnitrat, Uranylacetat und Uranylnitrat wurde zur weiteren Verarbeitung in unser Labor nach Eisenstadt gebracht. Die Vernichtung des strahlenden Abfalles erfolgt durch Einbringen in flüssigen Beton, der in 100 Liter Endlagerungsfässer gegossen und nach Aushärtung in ein Endlager gebracht wird.



Historical Provings

H.'s provers' group provided us with a large number of remedy provings, but there have been other highly productive proving groups as well. Johann Christian Gottfried Jorg, an "old-school" physician in Leipzich during H.'s tenure at the University, instituted a number of provings with the express purpose of disproving the principle of similars.

His provers' group conducted provings of 15 remedies, including Arnica, Laurocerasus, Opium, Digitalis and Valerian, which H. subsequently adopted as some of the most thorough and productive provings in his collection - clearly supporting, and not discrediting, the practice of homeopathy. These were published by Jorg in 1825, in his Materialien zu einer kunftigen Heilmittellehre durch Versuche des Arzneyen an gesunden Menschen.

Between 1842 and 1848, the Austrian Provers' Union conducted a series of re-provings of remedies introduced by H., which generally supported, and in many cases extended our knowledge of these remedies. Most of these provings were done in both crude and potentized doses. 


[Homeopathy 4 Health]

The Law of Potentisation

The initial provings were done using mother tincture but as most remedies were poisons a way had to be found to obviate the toxic element whilst at the same time maintaining the curative properties. In other words Hahnemann next needed to establish dose rate for each drug..

The attenuation (detoxification) of the drug was achieved readily enough through a process of serial dilution. However dilution itself was not the full answer because although it eliminated the toxic effect it apparently also eliminated the curative effect obtained from small dosages which was the corner stone of the Law of Similars. Apparently the drug had now became too dilute to cure in small dosages.


There are many romantic stories surrounding how Hahnemann evolved the practice of succession as the solution to the problem. One such tale is that the great man became thoroughly frustrated

at his inability to produce a curative effect from a dilute solution. In his anger he railed against God saying that although he had been allowed to progress his discoveries so far the ultimate secret

was denied him. As a means of venting his pent up emotions he struck the dilution vial he was holding in his hand several times hard against a large tone of the Bible. He was pleasantly surprised when upon later administration of small doses to a patient he obtained a very rapid cure and thus was born the concept of succession.

Glamourous as the story is I suspect however that the idea of succussion arose from something Hahnemann had read during his translation work or as a result of some hint or suggestion he had

come across elsewhere. It seems scarcely credible, at least to me, that he discovered that succussion works better than no succussion as a result of chance. The fact that he never claims any personal credit for the technique also suggests that he originally obtained it somewhere else.

What is Succussion?

By Succussion is meant the vigourous shaking and impact of a dilurtion in a bottle on a hard resilient surface a process which reverses the polarity of the drug such that it becomes curative in effect rather than causative

The Definition of Potentisation

We are now at the point where we can define potentisation as:

The process of minimizing or negating the toxic effects of a mother tincture by Serial Dilution or Trituration and at the same time increasing its dynamic curative properties by Succussion

Dilution Methods

i) Hahnemannian Method

This is still the main method used today and consists of diluting a measured aliquot of the mother tincture in a separate vial with 9 parts of alcohol/water. followed by succussion. In this method

the 1 part is volumetrically measured into a new vial for each dilution/succession sequence. (Sometimes an H is added at the end of the remedy nomenclature to indicate use of the Hahnemannian method of dilution. Thus 30CH means the remedy has been potentised to 30 centesimal dilutions using the Hahnemanian method).

Hahnemannian method of dilution

ii) Korsakovian Method

Similar to the Hahnemannian method except that the mother liquor is not strictly measured out. The dilution vial is just emptied out and a further 9 parts of alcohol added. It is assumed that the residue sticking to the side of the empty vial is adequate. Succussion after each dilution is as before. This method is therefore much quicker and uses only a single diluting vial. (Sometimes a K

is added at the end of the remedy nomenclature to indicate use of the Kosakovian method of dilution. Thus 20CK means the remedy has been potentised to 200 centesimal dilutions using the Kosakovian method).

Dilution Hahnemannian Method

What is trituration?

Trituration is used for those drugs that are not soluble in liquid media. In this case they are thoroughly ground with lactose in 10% increments up to 7X by which time the drug will be of a

sufficiently small particle size as to be solubilised. There is no separate succussion during trituration. The grinding of the particles during each stage is generally considered sufficient.

Subsequent potencies from 8X upwards are then executed on a serial dilution and succussion basis. .

Homeopathic Remedy Preparation and Nomenclature

Serial Dilution refers to dissolving the drug in water or alcohol followed by its dilution in a predetermined manner. Generally dilution is done sequentially in 10% or 1% increments. Thus a pure mother tincture which has been diluted to 10% of its original concentration would be called 1X. Similarly a further dilution of the 1X solution to !0% of its concentration would be called 2X.

This process could be carried out to 30X or more and is known as the Decimal series. When the pure mother tincture is diluted in increments of 1% each dilution are similarly termed 1C and 2C

a process which may be continued likewise to 30C or more and is known as the Centesimal series.

i) The Decimal Range (X or D) - In this system 1 part of mother tincture is diluted with 9 parts (ie a ratio of 1:9) of alcohol/water (giving a total parts ratio of 1+9 = 10). Because the total number

of parts adds up to 10 the range is called the "Decimal System". and is denoted by a letter "X" which stands for number 10 in Latin

ii) The Centesimal Range (C) -  In this system 1 part of mother tincture is diluted with 99 parts (ie a ratio of 1:99) of alcohol/water (giving a total parts ratio of 1+99 = 100). Because the total

number of parts adds up to 100 the range is called the "Centesimal System" and is denoted by a letter "C" which stands for the number 100 in Latin.

For full details use the link below

iii) The Fifty Milesimal Range (LM) - Throughout his life Hahnemanns sole aim was to develop a system of medicine which would cure rapidly and at the same time avoid aggravations.

However he often found that when using the Decimal (X) range many cases remained unresolved whilst a change to the Centesimal (C) range would produce an aggravation. There therefore

had to be a better way to obtain his life long objective of a quick, safe, permanent and gentle cure.

He decided therefore after 36 years of raising potencies to raise the ratio of dilution instead. Leaving the 1/100 dilution ratio of the centesimals to one side he started searching for a potency that would fill this role in homoeopathic therapeutics. He hit upon the 1/50,000 dilution ratio. Thus the 50 Millesimal potency or LM range was created. This new LM potency with its much larger

dilution ratio significantly transformed homeopathic prescription.

For more information on LM potencies use the link below



Homeopathic potencies can vary from tinctures at O right through to very high constitutional CM potencies. The following table provides a general descriptive framework


Posology Descriptions

Description             Potency

Tincture          0


2X, 6X, 12X, 6C, to 24X


30X, 30C, 200X


200C, 1M

Constitutional             10M, 50M, CM


Leon Vannier's Posology Protocol

Drainage/ Detox             6X

Lesional          6C

Functional      30C

Constitutional             >200C


For more detailed information on  posology use linl below


Validation of the Law of Potentisation

Arndt & Schultz in 1888 (some 77 years after Hahnemann first published his results in 1811) were the first to demonstrate scientifically the effect of potentisation using yeast as a medium. What became known as The Arndt-Shultz Law summarised experiments which measured the physiological response of living organism to a stimulus. It says a small amount of a chemical or electrical or laser or other stimulus will increase physiological activity, a large amount of the same stimulus will kill cells of the organism, whilst an intermediate amount will inhibit physiological activity. In brief: the physiological response reverses direction when the stimulus changes from small (weak) to large (strong), and vice-versa.


Arndt & Schultz Curve

A more recent example of the Arndt-Shultz Law in action is the 1944 observation that a large dose of penicillin will kill a Staphylococcus infection, while a small dose will stimulate its growth.

There is one drawback to the universal application of the Arndt & Schultz Law in that it was carried out using dilutions of less than 1023 the limit set by Avogadro.




Avogadros Hypothesis

There is no greater criticism of Homeopathy by allopathy than that concerning Avogadros Hypothesis. The Italian physicist Avogadro in 1811 (the same year as Hahnemann published his findings on potentisation) postulated that equal volumes of substances given the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules.


vogadro's Hypothesis


 He produced a mathematical model to show that the number of molecules in a mole of any substance is approx 6.4 x 1023 Theoretically therefore any potency above 23X with an incremental dilution from the mother tincture of 10% cannot contain any molecules. Thus potencies of 24X or 12C and above do not contain any physical medicament.


Avogadros and Homeopathy


Limitation of Arndt & Schultz

There is one drawback to the universal application of the Arndt & Schultz Law in that it was carried out using dilutions of less than 1023 the limit set by Avogadro.


Reply to Criticism based on Avogadros Hypothesis

For many years the Avogadro criticism could not be answered by Homeopaths in scientific terms. Worldwide empirical data existed to disprove the criticism but good as that was no irrefutable scientific evidence existed until that is 1900.when Max Planck from the University of Kiel concerned himself with observations of the radiation of heated materials from which he propounded the Quantum theory which simply stated is:


Quantum Theory

Matter is composed of energy (quanta)

in the form of waves

at discrete vibrations and frequencies.


This Quantum theory was in exact counterpoint to the conventional thinking of the day which was that matter was composed of molecules


Later in 1905 Einstein further refined the energy story by defining how it could be calculated in his formulae


Einstein's Energy Equation

E= MC2

where E= energy,

M = mass and

C= the speed of light


Finally in 1924 Louis de Broglie proposed that there is no fundamental difference in the makeup and behavior of energy and matter.


Louis de Broglie Postulation

Elementary particles of both energy and matter

behave like either molecular particles or energy waves

depending on the conditions.


Thus science has now moved towards the position that possibly the process of Homeopathic potentisation provides the conditions necessary for the transfer of the remedys molecular particles into quantum energy waves with each remedy having its own unique vibration and frequency.




Kirlian Photography

Every living thing discharges energy. In humans we call this energy field aura. These energy waves can be captured on film known as Kirlian photos after the Russian man who in 1939 discovered the process.

Kirlian believed In living things we see signals of the inner state of the organism reflected in the brightness, dimness and colour of the flares. The inner life activities of the human being are written in these light hieroglyphs and can show several factors such as stress, and the state of the mind and emotions.


Interpretation of the colours and flares is based on the 7 seven chakras as outlined below


Kirling chackra colours


Vergleich: Siehe: H. + Dunham + Anhang. (Darwin)



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