Panax quinquefolius L./= Aralia quinquefolia (L.) Decne. & Planch./= Panax americanus Raf./= Aralia ginseng/= American ginseng/= Panax ginseng C.A. Mey/
= Panax schinseng T. Nees/= Chinese ginseng/= Asian ginseng/= Korean ginseng.
Gebrauch: Blutdruck steigt/Schlafbeschwerden;
Negativ: Weinerlich/ungeduldig/Furcht (Zukunft/Unfällen/Dunkel), denken schwierig, trockner Mund/Lippen/ Rachen, Verdauungsbeschwerden + Schluckauf, Kreuz-Hüften-Beinbereich, Gelenke knacken, schläfrig (wacht mit Mühe auf/schrickt auf), << Kälte;
Native range: Eastern North America. Habitat: Rich, shady hardwood forests.
Herbaceous perennial with spindle-shaped rootstock and round, smooth, green stems, often with a tinge of red, 20–50 cm high.
Leaves born in whorls, 3–4, palmately compound; leaflets 5/long-stalked, obovate, sharply serrate, acuminate, smooth on both sides, with scattered bristles on the veins above.
Flowers small, yellowish-green, in single terminal umbel.
Fruit a bright-scarlet drupe, ca. 1.2 cm in diameter, with 2–3 semicircular, white seeds.
Outermost florets ripen first and their fruits often obtain their full size before the central ones are expanded; the central florets are frequently abortive.
Herbaceous perennial, 30–60 cm high, thick, fusiform roots and simple stems.
Native range: Korea and northern China.
Habitat: Deciduous broad-leaved forests; extremely rare in the wild; mostly cultivated.
Leaves borne in whorls, 3–6, palmately compound; leaflets 3–5, long-stalked, obovate, 7–20 cm long, serrate.
Flowers small, yellowish-green, in single terminal umbel.
Fruit a bright red drupe, globose, about 1.5 cm in diameter, with 2 flat, yellow seeds.
Outermost florets ripen first and their fruits often obtain their full size before the central ones are expanded; the central florets are frequently abortive.
‘Ginseng is perhaps the most widely recognised plant used in traditional medicine and now plays a major role in the herbal health care market. For more than 2.000 years, various forms have been
used in medicine. The name Panax derives from the Greek word for “all healing” and its properties have been no less touted. Ginseng root’s man-shaped figure [shen-seng means “man-root”] led proponents of the Doctrine of Signatures, an ancient philosophy, to believe that the root could strengthen any part of the body. Through the ages, the root has been used in the treatment of asthenia
[loss of strength], atherosclerosis, blood and bleeding disorders, colitis and to relieve the symptoms of ageing, cancer and senility.
‘Ginseng is popularly used for its adaptogenic, anti-neoplastic, immuno-modulatory, cardiovascular, CNS, endocrine and ergogenic effects, but these uses have not been confirmed by clinical trials. . . . Note that the profile of particular ginsenosides differs between American and Asian ginseng; however, total ginsenoside content is similar.’ [www.drugs.com]
‘The most common adverse reactions with ginseng are nervousness and excitation. However, there have been reports of diffuse mammary nodularity and vaginal bleeding. A hypoglycaemic effect
has also been documented. Post-marketing surveillance of CVT-E002 [COLD-fX, a patented, proprietary extract containing mainly oligosaccharides and polysaccharides from North American
ginseng] in Canada from 1996 to 2006 led to 100 documented adverse reaction reports, out of over 200 million doses of CVT-E002 sold.
Reactions included: abdominal pain, confusion, diuresis, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, insomnia, joint pain, lowered blood pressure, nausea and vomiting.’ [www.drugs.com]
Chinese or American?
[Allen] American and Chinese species of ginseng are ‘probably identical’. They are not, although they are in the same genus. Chemically they are quite similar, both containing ginsenosides as the major
biologically active constituents. Steven Foster, an authority on Chinese medicine, asserts that ‘American and Asian ginsengs contain some of the same as well as some different ginsenosides, which explains their different actions as expressed in TCM. Mild American ginseng helps to reduce the heat of the respiratory and digestive systems, whereas the stronger Asian ginseng is a heat-raising tonic for the blood and circulatory systems.’ American ginseng is Panax quinquefolius L. and Chinese ginseng is Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.
‘The naturalist Sheng Neng Pen-T’sao introduced around 100 AD an interesting technique to test the authenticity of the ginseng root: “In order to test for the true ginseng, two persons walk together,
one with a piece of ginseng root in his mouth and the other with his mouth empty. If at the end of three to five li [about a mile and a quarter] the one with ginseng in his mouth does not feel himself tired, while the other is out of breath, the ginseng is genuine root.”
Eastern herbalism met Western culture in 1709 AD when Father Petrus Jartoux [1668–1720], a Jesuit missionary, visited Northern China. He published a Western documentation of Panax ginseng in 1713. He noted that ginseng could possibly grow in the mountains and woods of Canada, since they mimic the environment of the Chinese ginseng. ‘This observation describes the North American ginseng and would later be discovered as the “cooling” ginseng, or the yin ginseng, completing the “warming” yang ginseng, native to China. Ginseng was an important part of Native American culture.
Although there is no formal documentation of ginseng usage in Native American herbal remedies, there is evidence of its influence in the Northeast Culture Area tribes. These inhabitants covered the Atlantic coastal area, across the Appalachians to the Mississippi, from the Great Lakes to the Cumberland River in Tennessee. The tribes of this area were not only hunters and fishermen, but also farmers and herb-gatherers. They utilised herbs for ritualistic ceremonies and for practical purposes, such as prevention and cure of illnesses, wound dressing, treatment of female ailments, increase elderly strength, promote fertility, enhance mental activity, stomach upset and the treatment of ear and eye disorders.’
In 1715 Joseph Francois Lafitau [1681–1746], another Jesuit missionary who worked above Montreal in Canada from 1711–1717, read Jartoux’s words, then began a search for ginseng in Canada.
In 1716 Lafitau, strolling in the woods [Gehr 2000] near his cabin, found the red-berried plant. American ginseng [Panax quinque folius] was discovered.
According to TCM, American ginseng is a Yin tonic and cool in nature. Asian ginseng, by contrast, is a Yang tonic and generally warm or even hot in nature. Adopting the concept of cure by opposites, Ron Teeguarden proclaims that ‘American Ginseng is thus useful for people who are hot. In other words, people who tend to have lots of energy, high metabolisms, are aggressive, have high blood
pressure and have ruddy complexions can take American Ginseng for its adaptogenic benefits without fear of overheating.’
One of Panax ginseng’s most common side effects is the inability to sleep. Other adverse effects include dizziness, nausea, diarrhoea, euphoria, headaches, epistaxis, altered blood pressure and breast tenderness. This is a reference to the controversial ‘ginseng abuse syndrome’.
Two Edged Sword
‘The presentation of the mild and beneficial nature of ginseng was turned upside down about two centuries later [after its introduction to Europe in 1704]. Ginseng had become exceedingly rare and costly, and, as a result, it had become an object of abuse. Physicians and herb merchants would promise incredible results from using the rare root [which, at the time, was not cultivated and only obtained
from remote forests in Northeast China and Korea]. Desperate patients and their families would seek it out and then use as much as possible in an attempt to overcome an obviously debilitating or fatal condition. Ginseng was even described as being able to bring back the dead [probably meaning that it would restore health to someone who appeared to be imminently dying].
‘When some of the ailing patients died after taking ginseng, responsibility for the death might be attributed to the ginseng. Hence, ginseng became known as a potentially dangerous herb.
[Zhang Lu, physician of the Qing Dynasty period] “Some people look upon ginseng as poison or a sword [two-edged, able to provide help, but also to destroy] and stubbornly refuse to use it.”
‘Still, its old reputation as a healer for serious conditions and as a preventer of ageing and death was retained. Ginseng eventually became known to the West through the efforts of missionary doctors living in the East. The British doctors Smith and Stuart, working in China at the end of the 19th century, wrote: “Ginseng, with the Chinese, is the medicine par excellence, the dernier resort [last resort] when all other drugs fail; reserved for the use of the Emperor and his household and conferred by Imperial favour upon high and useful officials whenever they have a serious breakdown that does not yield to ordinary treatment, and which threatens to put a period to their lives and usefulness. . . . The ordinary ginseng of the markets has been studied and has not been found to possess any important medicinal properties. But the Chinese describe cases in which the sick have been practically in articulo mortis, when upon the administration of ginseng they were sufficiently restored to transact final items of business. . . . It is prescribed in nearly every kind of disease of a severe character, with few exceptions, but with many reservations as to the stage of the disease in which it may be administered with the greatest benefit and safety.” ’ [Dharmananda 2000]
MATERIA MEDICA [AMERICAN OR CHINESE] GINSENG
1 Proving Jouvé [France], 2 provers, tincture, 1834.
2 Self-experimentation Lembke [Riga], including effects observed on ‘B.’ and ‘Q.’; tincture; 1848.
3 Proving Nancy Herrick [USA], 8 provers [6 females, 2 males]; no further details.
[Proving conducted with the ‘same combination of American and Korean ginseng as had been used in the previous studies.’]
The homeopathic materia medica is arranged under the name Ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, American ginseng. However, it is doubtful whether American ginseng was the source of the remedy
used for the provings, which were done in Europe in the 1830–40s. Dr. M. Jouvé, of Lyon, France, introduced the remedy into homeopathy under the name Ginseng, made from the roots of plants
imported from China. Roth, who arranged the symptoms, called it ‘Ginseng-chinense’! That Dr. James Lembke, of Riga in what was Russia at the time, probably also used Chinese ginseng can
be no more than a likely yet unsubstantiated presumption. In prominent usage in ancient China, Manchuria and other parts of eastern Asia for centuries, Chinese ginseng was introduced into Europe
[Paris] in 1704. The remedy nonetheless received its name after the American species, the reason for which must have been T.F. Allen’s understandable yet incorrect claim in his Encyclopedia:
‘American and Chinese species [are] probably identical.’
Mood quiet and contented, & good courage.
Generally calm mood, yet subject to impatient impulses and fear of accidents, & disposition to weep an anxiety about future.
Forgetful, forgets things that have just taken place.
Increased self-confidence, feels capable. Contented with self. Self-sufficient.
Delusions: Body being enlarged; separated from body; being expanded; being a great person; being powerful; of superiority.
Impatience with conversations, with people, with small talk.
Worn Down by Worries
Vertigo: Dizziness with throbbing in head when rising from reclining posture.
Head: Headache from occiput to frontal bone, < motion; muscles of neck sore.
Frontal headache [6 provers] < motion [2 provers], stooping, cold air [2 provers].
Eyes: Dryness of right eye; twitching of left. Focusing eyes causes pain.
“As if pushed outward²; accommodation diminished.
Mouth: Metallic taste at base of tongue.
Nose: Obstruction nose < cold air [3 provers].
Hals: Right site thyroid sore, painful on pressure.
Swelling right side of throat.
Pressure, tightness, oppression.
Distressing dryness, parts sticking together – mouth, lips, throat; < open air/talking;
Lassitude evoked by coldness.
Weakness 16 – 20 h.
Right side more affected.
Desire for chocolate, meat, red wine. Aversion to flour tortillas.
Stomach: as if heavy.
Legs as if paralysed.
Abdomen: Pain near navel when abdomen is contracted.
Severe stabbing pain in liver.
Male Organs: Burning pain in urethra when urinating [2 provers].
Violent erections during day [4 provers].
Chest: Pain in left chest and left shoulder, especially during deep exhalation.
Burning in chest < deep inhalation.
Limbs: Hands cold with hot fingertips.
Back: Dull aching pain in lumbar region < motion.
Pain in right leg down to knee, posteriorly; muscles on front right thigh sore.
Cramps left calf; soreness right calf.
Skin: sensitive to touch of bedclothes [2 provers].
[W.A. Dewey, Résumé and Therapeutic Field of Ginseng; Hom. Dep. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; June 17, 1905]
‘We find that the drug [Panax quinquefolius, American ginseng] produces a marked physical depression, also a more marked mental depression. Especially does it seem to cause a hypochondriacal state, as is shown by the symptoms of lassitude, restless and unrefreshing sleep; by the irritability and indisposition to mental or physical labour. These, coupled with the marked effect it produced on the sexual organs, stimulating them primarily, weakening them secondarily, should make ginseng a valuable remedy in treating a large class of sexual hypochondriacs. Four out of the nine provers retained, had amorous dreams and six had continual nocturnal emissions. This was so marked a symptom that some of those who commenced the proving become frightened and refused to continue, which in itself shows that it tended to produce a condition of anxiety which is constantly present in all sexual hypochondriacs. This temporary sexual stimulation has been an old use of the drug, and this fact, in connection with the foregoing, should make it a truly homoeopathic and therefore curative remedy in such cases of sexual weakness which especially react upon the mind, causing lassitude, and uneasy mental condition even to fears of approaching impotence.
The digestive symptoms were few and these were of a depressing nature such as loss of appetite, bad taste, foul breath. There seemed to be a desire for something stimulating yet little or no thirst. Three provers, tobacco users, had no desire for tobacco during the time they were under influence of the drug.’
Gemüt: Angst [nach Mittagessen/Zukunft/durch Zusammenschnürung (in der Brust)]/Qualvolle Angst (vor Magenschmerz)/Furcht (ein Auto zu fahren/fahrend im Wagen/vor Unfällen/vor Unglück)
Auf-/Zusammenfahren aus dem Schlaf
< Geistige Anstrengung (unmöglich)
Hast, Eile (in Bewegungen)/Ungeduld
Vorurteile, voreingenommen, parteiisch
Schwindel: im Allgemeinen
Bei Abwärtsbewegung Treppen heruntergehend
< Im Freien
Kopf: Hitze (in Stirn)
Kälte, Frösteln etc. (> Gehen/im Hinterkopf)
Pulsieren < Anstrengung/in Schläfen
Schmerz [nachmittags/nachts/erwachend/ziehend/drückend (tief sitzend)/lanzinierend/stechend/
< (geistige) Anstrengung/< nach Mittagessen/plötzlich „Wie von einem Schlag“/Hinterkopf/Schläfen/Stirn/seitlich (#)/einseitig]
Schweregefühl (< nach Essen/Hinterkopf/Stirn)
„Wie vergrößert“/“Wie geschwollen“/“Wie steif“ im Hinterkopf
Lähmung in l. Oberlid
Schmerz in Lidränder (brennend)
Schweregefühl (in Lider)
Schwach bei Licht
Pupillen zusammengezogen (während Frost)
Sehen: Diplopie, Doppeltsehen (angestrengt blickend)
Farben vor den Augen - schwarz schwebend/weiße Flecken
Trübsichtig, trübes Sehen bei Schwindel
Zusammenlaufen, Ineinanderlaufen von Buchstaben
Nase: rote Nasenflügel r.
Empfindlich gegen eingeatmete Luft
Nasenbluten r./Blut (Eigenschaften) - hellrot
Gesicht: Blutende Lippen
rot # Blässe/Lippen dunkelrot
Hautausschläge - Herpes auf Nase
Schmerz in Jochbein (ziehend)
Mund: Zunge weiß
Speichel grün/Speichelfluss (# Mund trocken)
Trocken < Anstrengung/trocken „Wie Sand darin“
Geschmack - bitter < nach Trinken/Geschmacksverlust/Übelkeit erregend
Innerer Hals: Akut entzündete Tonsillen
rot [(hinten im) Rachen/Uvula]
schabendes, scharrendes Kratzen nachmittags
Schmerz (< Schlucken/stechend)
Trocken (< im Freien)
Magen: Appetit vermehrt zu ungewöhnlicher Zeit
Aufstoßen/Art des Aufstoßens: leer/sauer
Schmerz [drückend/nach Frost/lanzinierend/ziehend]
Erbricht < während Schwangerschaft
Schmerz [r. (erstr nach l./Hypochondrien/Hypogastrium/Leistengegend/drückend/erstr. Beine mit schmerzhaftem Prickeln]
Spannung (in Hypogastrium)
Schmerz [stechend/< nach Stuhlgang (Tenesmus)]
Blase: Wasser lassen - dünner Strahl/unbefriedigend
Urin: dunkel/zitronengelb/reichlich/Sediment (rot)/spärlich
Harnröhre: Jucken - Fossa navicularis/Meatus (wollüstig)
Schmerz (brennend/Fossa navicularis/stechend)
Männliche Genitalien: Erektionen - nachts/anhaltend/fehlend/lästig/ohne/während Pollutionen/(schmerzhaft) < Sitzen/vergeblich
Erregbarkeit der Genitalien
Schmerz [Hoden (drückend/zerquetscht, „Wie zermalmt“)
Weibliche Genitalien: Sexverlangen vermehrt
Kehlkopf und Trachea: Stimme - heiser, Heiserkeit/rau/tief
Atemnot, Dyspnoe, erschwe rtes Atmen (während Frost/< sitzend)
Brust: Hautausschläge - Pickel (juckend)
Zusammenschnürung/Beklemmung > Gehen/< sitzend
Herzklopfen (< Sitzen)
Rücken: Beschwerden unterer Teil Rückenmark
Hautausschläge Pickel in Zervikalregion
Hitze < Wein
Kälte (einschließlich Frost) [erstr. Arme/erstr. Glieder/Wirbelsäule (< Gehen)]
Schmerz [wund schmerzend/lanzinierend/drückend/erstr. Sakrum/Dorsalregion (zwischen den Schulterblättern/in Wirbelsäule (erstr. Sakrum)/Lumbalregion (in Steißbein)]
Schwäche (in Zervikalregion)
Glieder: Ameisenlaufen - Finger/Oberschenkel/große Zehe
Entzündet - (Knie)Gelenke
Finger weiß (bei Kälte)/Fingernägel blau
Gefühllos, taub Finger/Hände
Hautausschläge - (Arme) rot/Oberschenkel
Hitze bei Schauder über den Rücken
Jucken - Beine/Fußsohle
Kälte - Ellbogen/Finger/Hände
Knacken in Gelenken (< Bewegung/Knie/Schultern
Kontraktion von Muskeln und Sehnen - Finger/Krämpfe in Waden
„Wie Leichtigkeit“ (trotz vielen Gehens o. einer schlimmen Nacht)
Schwäche >/< Gehen/fröstelnd/mehrere
Hände „Wie geschwollen“
Steifheit - Gelenke/Oberschenkel
Ungeschickte Hände/Hände „Wie vergrößert“
Zusammenschnürung in Unterarme
Schlaf: Tief (morgens)/verlängert
Erwacht häufig/„Wie durch Schreck“/schwierig
Schläfrig (während Kopfschmerz)
Träume: Angenehm/erinnerlich, bleiben im Gedächtnis/erotisch/lebhaft/Viele
Fieber: Brennende, glühende Hitze < im Schlaf
Hitze beginnt im Schlaf
Trockene Hitze nachts < im Schlaf
Frost: Frösteln < nach Gehen
Allgemeines: 3 h./19 h./r.
Bei alten Menschen/vorzeitiges Altern
Hitzewallungen abends - 19 h/Lebenswärmemangel < nach Gehen
< Kälte/< Steigen
Leistungsfähigkeit erhöht/„Wie Kraft, Durchhaltevermögen“
Schmerz rheumatisch (+ Pollutionen)
Speisen und Getränke: <: Wein; Verlangt: Alkohol/Stimulantia;
Verlangt zu gehen
Schwäche [abends - 19 h/nach jeglichem (Sex)Exzess/< gehend/lähmungsartig/durch Säfteverlust]
< Sexuelle Erregung/Beschwerden nach Sexexzessen
Said to be a stimulant to the secretory glands (salivary). Acts on the lower part of the spinal cord. Lumbago, sciatica/rheumatism. Paralytic weakness. Hiccough. Skin symptoms, itching pimples on neck and chest.
Compare: Aral.; Coca. Hedera - Ivy - mental depression and skin irritation antidoted by Gunpowder.
Vertigo, with gray spots before eyes; semi-lateral headache; occipital; difficult opening of eyelids; objects appear double.
Tonsillitis, just like Bellad, but in dark-complexioned people.
Tense, painful, rumbling
Loud gurgling in ileo-caecal region
Pressure in testicles.
Voluptuous tickling at end of urethra
Weakness of genital organs
Male organs: Rheumatic pains after frequent emissions
Crackling in joints
Stiff, contracted joints, heaviness of lower limbs
Eruption on upper inner thighs
Burning heat in tips of fingers
Bruised pain in small of back and thighs; nightly digging in right lower limb to toes
Coldness in back and spine
Skin feels tight
Hands feel swollen
Stiffness in back.
Vergleich: Enthält: Östrogen (nur wilde?) + (Steroid)saponinen + Mg + Al + P + K + Ca + I + Vn + Mn + Fe + Co + Cu + Ge + As + S; Öestr + Test (Gins fördert herstellen von RNA/DNA/Test. + andere Sexhormonen).
Angelica sinensis. = Ginseng für Frauen
Eleuth. = Adren-ähnlich/‡ = Gins-ähnlich ‡
Glycyrg. = Sapin-ähnlich - Blutung/= Steroid-ähnlich/= weibliches Gins
Gynostemma pentaphyllum. = Jiaogulan/= Kraut der Unsterblichkeit/= Frauenginseng
Hydrc. = Gins-ähnlich
Lepi-meyneni.x = Gins-ähnlich/= Coca-ähnlich
Panax-q. = Gins-ähnlich + cooler + mehr Ying/
Vinc. = Gins-/= Gink-ähnlich/= Asc-c-ähnlich
Visc. = vor vasomotorisches System wie Atro.= vor Nerven/= Gins-ähnlich
Withania. = Gins-ähnlich + intensiv
Unverträglich: ‡ hoher Blutdruck/Fieber/Entzündung/Übergewicht ‡
Antidotiert: Op. Antidotiert von: Camph. Gun.
Wirkung: lymphatisch/aphrodisisch r. seitig
Allerlei: Ursprung: Korea wächst langsam (7 Jahre bis ausgereift)/wächst nur ohne direktes Sonnelicht/wird geerntet im Mondlicht + wenn Schnee schmilzt/Wurzeln haben radioaktive Eigenschaften, stimuliert Drüsen der Sexhormonen/Zentral Nervensystem/ Zuckerhaushalt, tonisiert Herz + Kreislaufsystem, schützt gegen Kälte/Wärme/Radioaktivität/U.V..
Phytologie: TRÄUME/verwirrt sein/stöhnen Verdauung/ (Durchfall)Atemwegen/ Kreislauf/Nerven/Fortpflanzungsorganen (Verletzungen nach Vergewaltigung)
Älteren/Abmagerung/Schwäche/MÜDE/erschöpft/zittern/Schock/Prostatabeschwerden in Biertrinker
more yang as Panax/heat-raising tonic for the blood or circulatory system
Panax quinquefolia = Amerikanische Ginseng/= Allheilkraut./= Aralia quinqefolia/= nordamerikanischer Ginseng/= Panax pseudoginseng
= Gins-ähnlich + kühler + mehr Ying;
Antidotiert: Atomstrahlen. X-Ray.
Allerlei: wird als identisch mit Panax ginseng gesehen
rich/rocky/shaded/cool slopes, Cumberland
Gap region of the southern Appalachian. Harvested in N.Amerika/exported to
Phytologie: elderly/induces childbirth without suffering. (infusion of the boiling leaves)/cures nosebleed, treat shortness of breath/"woman catcher"
infusion of root increases fertility of women. = "man root" harvesting the roots only when the red berries were mature, and before they were ready to drop. The whole fruiting tops were planted in the hole from which the roots were dug, helping to insure long term sustainable harvest. Root as tonic and to strengthen mental powers
reduces heat of the respiratory or digestive systems. Panax ginseng more yang, and is a heat-raising tonic for the blood or circulatory system. American ginseng is preferred in subtropical and tropical regions of Asia, as it is a cold or mild tonic, that will reduce "heat" in the system, while acting as a general tonic. Helps adaptation to dark/high/low temperatures, and work efficiency. Anti-fatigue//skin regeneration and anti-wrinkling effects have been reported. toxic effects of toxins (chlf./amphetamin)
seminal vesicles and prostate glands, and increase sperm counts and pregnancies. may in-/decrease temperature. Small doses a tendency to increase body weight, large doses tendency to decrease body weight.