Mehrere Mittel

 

[Josephina Maier]

Hepatitisviren (HBV und HCV)

Diese beiden Viren rufen eine Entzündung der Leber hervor, die besonders im Fall der Hepatitis C auch völlig ohne Symptome verlaufen kann. Heilt die Infektion nicht aus, steigt das

Risiko für eine Zirrhose, also einen vernarbenden Umbauprozess des Organs, und für Leberkrebs.

Die bisherigen Forschungsergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die Hepatitisviren in den Leberzellen ein Programm außer Kraft setzen, das für den natürlichen Zelltod verantwortlich ist.

 

[Ravi Roy and Carola Lage- Roy]

Hepatitis means "inflammation of the liver"; the yellow coloring of the skin (jaundice) is only a symptom of the disease.

Hepatitis can be caused by worms, yellow fever, malaria, general sepsis, phosphorus poisoning, snake poison, brain injury, acute atrophy of the liver, gallstones, or emotional stress.

In hepatitis A, the beginning is acute. In hepatitis B (serum hepatitis), the disease is usually more serious. Otherwise, both are similar.

Hepatitis A has an incubation period of 15 to 40 days. Infection is seldom transmitted through blood or serum.

Hepatitis B has an incubation period of 40 to 160 days and can be transmitted through blood, nonsterile syringes, or sexual contact.

Course of the Disease

The prodromal stage (two days to three weeks) usually begins with a rapid rise in body temperature to about 102° F (= 39° C) with chills, headache, nausea, sometimes vomiting,

generally diarrhea, rarely constipation, and flatulence.

Some symptoms are similar to a common cold. There are stomachaches, loss of appetite, and aversion to alcohol, nicotine, and fried or fatty foods. There is itchiness and occasionally a

rash. The liver and spleen can be hard and enlarged. Joint and muscle pains can dominate the picture, making one think of rheumatism or arthritis. The fever often disappears after one

or two days. Occasionally there is a second fever for another couple of days. In ten to twenty% of the cases there is no fever at all, and one thinks it is simply an upset stomach.

There is no jaundice in about 50% of all hepatitis cases. Often the disease is diagnosed as the flu or an intestinal infection and not treated correctly. For this reason a strong aversion

to fat should make you suspicious.

At the end of the prodromal phase many patients feel healthy and think the "flu" or their "intestinal infection" is over.

But now the jaundice or full phase begins, lasting two to eight weeks. At first the white of the eyes becomes yellow to yellow-green. The skin can itch in the evenings.

In many cases, the jaundice ends after a few days. The liver remains enlarged for two to three weeks. The spleen is also enlarged in 20 – 30% of the cases. In about 25% of the cases

there is bradycardia, an abnormally slow heartbeat.

Because of the presence of bile in the urine, the patient's urine samples are brown, with yellow foam when shaken. The stools are light and clay colored; occasionally they may be gray

for a few days. The amount of urine is reduced during this phase.

The post-jaundice phase, lasting four weeks, is marked by a sudden excretion of copious urine. The yellow skin becomes paler, and the appetite returns. The stools take on a darker color,

and the urine becomes lighter. The intolerance to fatty foods usually remains. The most dangerous time is at the end of the second phase and the beginning of the third phase.

The patient often feels so much better that he doesn't follow the necessary precautions. He wants to eat and live normally. This increases the danger of a relapse. When there is a relapse,

the jaundice comes on again even more severely, the liver becomes harder, and the general condition is worse than ever. The relapse usually lasts longer than the original sickness (three

to six months and more). Relapses can occur even months after recovery.

Various complications of the liver may arise, including chronic inflammation of the liver, liver cirrhosis, and acute yellow atrophy of the liver.

Hepatitis can occur in a number of forms:

1. In the abortive form, the patient experiences a few days of jaundice with minimal complaints.

2. A form without symptoms occurs primarily in children.

The presence of hepatitis can be established only by laboratory tests. But the absence of jaundice does not mean that the course of the disease has been a light one.

3. During the malignant form, the jaundice becomes more and more intense. The liver's toxicity rises, and there is fetor hepaticus (the bad odor to the breath that is a sign of liver failure),

together with twitching and an increasing clouding of consciousness, which ends in coma hepaticum. This form occurs primarily in elderly patients [hepatitis B (serum hepatitis)].

4. The cholestatic form is marked by signs of impedance of the gallbladder: intense itching, severe jaundice, disappearance of the urobilinogens from the urine, increase of alkaline phosphatase

and cholesterol. Post-hepatitis syndrome can develop from fear, whereby the liver is not inflamed. Tiredness, sleeplessness, digestive disturbances, and an intolerance for fat result.

Rarely, this takes the form of post-hepatic hyperbilirubinemia, with signs of sub icterus and an increase of the indirect bilirubins in the blood without bilirubinuria and disturbance of the liver.

Homeopathic Protection

Generally, protection against hepatitis A is enough for tourists.

A double dose of HEPATITIS A NOSODE 200 works for about six months. For those who come in contact with blood or serum infected by hepatitis B (nurses, doctors, and so forth)

an additional double dose of HEPATITIS B NOSODE 200 is recommended.

Nutrition and Care

Bed rest and diet are critical. Depending on the intensity of the illness and fever, the patient should fast completely or maintain a very light, fat-free diet. Starchy foods, fat, meat, eggs, and

milk should be completely avoided as long as the jaundice ispresent. Especially valuable are sour and sweet-sour fruits and watery vegetables (such as zucchini, pumpkin, and especially

ripe or unripe papaya); later, fat-free natural yogurt can be introduced. Ripe papaya can be eaten as a raw fruit, or the unripe fruit may be cooked like a vegetable and eaten with rice. Other

juicy, ripe fruits are also good. Water and herbal teas are helpful drinks.

Homeopathic Treatment

The basis of homeopathic treatment for hepatitis is not the classification into virus A or B, but the course the disease is taking.

The symptoms and other signs will tell us what we have to deal with. The homeopathic treatment of hepatitis is complex and as with all diseases has to be evaluated individually.

You can help yourself or others with the following two remedies in simpler cases and when you have no other choice. If the symptoms match closely, they will help to cure faster; otherwise,

the case will at least be milder.

CHELIDONIUM

Symptoms indicating this medicine include thirst for warm drinks +/o. below the right shoulder blade a rising from the liver.

Dosage: 5 drops  Ø up to 3x in half a cup of warm water 3x daily.

CARDUUS MARIANUS

> lying on her right side.

Dosage: Give five drops of Ø up to 3x daily in half a cup of water.

The more complex homeopathic treatments of hepatitis are discussed below. The dosage for all of the following remedies for hepatitis is one dose of the 200th potency every two to six

hours, depending on the severity of the illness.

The most important remedies during the beginning stages of hepatitis are ACONITE, FERR-P. BELL., MERC., BRY., and GELS.

Give ACONITE at the onset when there is a sudden high inflammatory fever and intolerable shooting pains near the liver. There is pressure and contraction in the region of the liver and

difficult breathing. The patient moans and thrashes about. He has a headache and fear of death. Cold water generally brings relief. ACONITE particularly indicated when the symptoms

caused by getting cold or from having cold feet.

 

Vergleich: Mel. (A positive effect of honey on hepatitis A patients was found after ingestion of clover and rape honey, causing a decrease of alanine aminotranferase activity (by 9 - 13x)

and of bilirubin production by 2.1 to 2.6x).

 Siehe: Nosoden allgemein

 

Antidotiert von: Ferr-met. Stann-met.

 

[Andrew Pengelly]

    Introduction

    Principles for treatment of liver disorders

    Dietary principles

    Herbal remedies for hepatitis

        St.Mary's Thistle (Silybum marianum)

        Dandelion (Taraxacum officinalis)

        Artichoke (Cynara scolymus)

        Schizandra (Schizandra sinensis)

        Reishi Mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum)

        Phyllanthus (Phyllanthus amarus, P.gasstroemii)

        Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

    Further information and assistance (for Australians)

Hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver, and is usually but not always the result of a virus. Most of the publicity we hear these days concerns the spread of Hepatitis C. In fact hepatitis can be caused by alcohol and chemicals as well as many different viruses. Most of the cases of viral hepatitis in Australia are classified as types A, B or C. Types A and B were discovered over 20 years ago but type C (HVC) was discovered as recently as 1988. HVC is now considered to be the most prevalent type in Australia. Over 1500 cases have been notified in the Hunter Valley alone, 0x more prevalent than the HIV virus. At least 6 are known strains of HVC and a mixture of strains may occur in an infected person.

While it is known that HVC is spread by blood, through such agents as hypodermic needles, blood transfusions (before 1990) and through cuts and scratches, almost half infected patients don't know the source of the infection. The disease is further complicated since carriers can take up to 20 years before aquiring liver damage, and many cases remain symptomless. In fact cases of clinically acute hepatitis are relatively rare. The long duration between infection and illness represents an opportunity for the individual to seek alternative or complementary treatments, and to adopt lifestyle and dietary changes which will enhance liver performance and overall health status.

Whatever the cause of the hepatitis its treatment will follow similar principles, whichever system of medicine is used. In many Asian countries there have been treatments available within their traditional healing systems for centuries. TCM and Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias contain numerous references to specific medicines and formulas, usually used in conjunction with other techniques such as acupuncture and dietary therapy. Presently a clinical trial is underway using a Chinese herbal formula with HVC patients at the John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, under its director of gastroenterology Professor Bob Batey. The results are eagerly awaited. When it comes to western medicine there is very little on offer for hepatitis sufferers, apart from blood tests and biopsies. The only treatment available is interferon, which is very expensive (up to $5000 for a course), ineffective in many cases, and has possible side effects including headaches, depression and flu-like symptoms.

This article reviews the treatment of hepatitis using western, Chinese and Ayurvedic herbs, and offers some dietary advice and sources of support and information about this much feared and misunderstood condition.

PRINCIPLES FOR TREATMENT OF LIVER DISORDERS.

The liver is clearly one of the largest and most important organs in our bodies, and it is not suprising therefore that inflammation of the organ can lead to numerous unpleasant symptoms and loss of vitality. In the long term it can cause liver cirrhosis and death. However most carriers of the disease will experience less severe symptoms including pain around the liver, nausea, anorexia and fatigue. Digestion of fats is impaired and alcohol cannot be tolerated. The first indication is often jaundiced skin and dark urine- these signs can be confirmed by a blood test that measures levels of the enzyme ALT (alanine aminotransferase) which are elevated in acute hepatitis, but are often normal in chronic cases. Blood tests also reveal the presence of antibodies to specific viruses. Any person suspecting they may have hepatitis should immediately seek a medical diagnosis- the earlier the detection of the disease the more successful subsequent treatment is likely to be.

The presence of blood abnormalities, ie. raised liver enzymes and presence of viral anti-bodies, point to two ways in which herbal treatments can be of assistance.

1th there are a number of herbal remedies which protect liver cells from damage by poisons and viruses, and there are ample published reports of animal studies and clinical trials which have demonstrated an ability of a herb to lower levels of liver enzymes (including ALT) in affected individuals. Some of these studies are listed in the bibliography. A medicine with the ability to protect liver cells in this way is referred to as a hepatoprotective. In a recent article in the Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism (email: ajmh.hunterlink.net.au) I identified 26 common herbs for which hepatoprotective properties have been demonstrated in controlled studies.

2nd The means by which herbal remedies can be of help is in supporting the immune systems efforts to fight off the virus. In some cases (eg. Phyllanthus) specific antiviral properties have been demonstrated. In other cases (eg. Echinacea) the action is non-specific and involves a boost to the whole immune system.

It must be pointed out that herbal treatments are not designed for acute stages of hepatitis. In this case bed rest and low fat diet, along with gentle herbal diaphoretics such as elderflowers (Sambucus nigra) and catnip (Nepeta cataria) are the limit of treatment recommended. The more widespread and longer lasting chronic stages of hepatitis lend themselves to treatments with herbal remedies and other natural therapies. Herbalists believe strongly in the need for bitter compounds as food and medicines in order to stimulate production of gastric juices and bile from the liver. Herbs which stimulate bile flow are known as choleretics, while those that stimulate excretion of bile from the gall bladder are known as cholagogues. Many herbs have both properties and these are extremely useful in correcting digestive disorders in general, and for helping detoxify the liver in particular. Herbs with these properties include gentian (Gentiana lutea), wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) and horehound (Marrubium vulgare). Traditional compounds such as the well-known Swedish Bitters have similar effects.

I have found the use of herbal decoctions to be of great assistance in hepatitis cases. Although less concentrated than fluid extracts and tinctures they have the advantage of being free of alcoholic solvents, an important consideration in any liver disorder. Some people will object to the taste, however the bitterness is an important aspect of the treatment as noted above. Ingestion of herbal tablets and capsules does not give this effect.

DIETARY PRINCIPLES

There is no doubting the importance of low fat diets for hepatitis sufferers. One of the main roles of bile (which the liver manufactures) is to break down fats so the body can absorb them, as well as to convert fat soluable toxins and wastes into water soluable compounds the body can eliminate. These functions are severely impaired when the liver is inflammed so that avoidance of fatty foods is a way of resting the liver. Foods to be avoided or taken in moderation are full fat dairy protects, fried foods, red meats and vegetable oils. A dessertspoon of olive oil on a daily basis can be of benefit so long as it is well tolerated. Its digestibility is assisted by combining with lemon juice. Protein intake on the other hand is necessary to assist the liver in the process of cell regeneration. White meats (fish and chicken) are preferred to red meats for their lower fat content, while vegetable proteins are best taken in combinations of pulses (beans, peas, lentils, tofu) with wholgrains such as rice, wheat and barley.

Just as bitter herbs are prescribed to correct liver sluggishness, so are bitter foods added to the diet to improve digestive function. Wild greens such as dandelion, plantain and dock leaves can be added to meals and sandwiches, or cultivated greens such as chicory and endive. In traditional Asian systems of healing there is also emphasis placed on balancing the five tastes- sweet, salty, sour, bitter and pungent (hot). It is unwise to have an excess or deficiency of these flavours in the diet. There are also several foods and spices which are known to have hepatoprotective properties. These include the globe artichoke which can be easily cultivated, both for their leaves which are used in medicines, and their edible and delicious hearts. Spices containing hepatoprotective compounds are turmeric, garlic and black pepper.

HERBAL REMEDIES FOR HEPATITIS

Card-m. = Silybum marianum = St. Mary's Thistle.

Also known as milk thistle and variegated thistle, it is a common weed of pastures in Eastern Australia as well as in Europe and North America. It is regarded as the standard amongst hepatoprotective herbs and remains the most well studied (up to 50 studies and clinical trials).

Constituents: Flavonolignans. These are unusual polyphenolic compounds referred to collectively as silymarin.

Actions and use: Early studies conducted by Vogel and others demonstrated the dual effect of the flavonolignans from Silybum on the liver, ie. a membrane stabilizing effect (protecting liver cells from destruction by toxins) via anti-oxidant action, and protein synthesis enhancing effect, whereby the protected cells act as regeneration centres for new cells. The studies on silymarin conclusively show its effectiveness in protecting the liver against a wide range of toxins, from carbon tetrachloride to ethanol. It even prevents poisoning from the deadly Amanita or death cap mushroom if administered quickly enough.

Thistle seed preparations are ideal for chronic and post-acute stages of hepatitis, rapidly bringing an improvement in appetite and well-being. It is also used in fatty degeneration and even cirrhosis of the liver. The seeds can be gathered (use gloves!) and made into decoctions, or ground up and used quite safely as foods. Avoid gathering in areas where chemical sprays are used.

Tarax. = Taraxacum officinalis = Dandelion.

This is one of the most well known herbs and universal weed. Dandelion has a long history of use for liver ailments, and its nutrient content is outstanding. While the leaves tend to act as potent diuretics it is the roots that are used specifically to promote bile and restore liver function.

Constituents: Vitamins- esp. beta carotine (vit.A) and ascorbic acid.; minerals including potassium and calcium; inulin and pectin; sterols.

Actions and use: Dandelion is classes as a choleretic, cholagogue, diuretic and mild laxative. It increases appetite and improves digestion. Its alkalising effect is beneficial in all detoxification treatments. The dried roots can be roasted and taken instead of coffee. However unroasted roots are more therapeutic. They can be taken in decoction form. Fresh juice of leaves and roots can be taken in 5 ml doses. This is the most bitter preparation.

Cynara scolymus = Artichoke..

Globe artichoke is a popular food originating in Europe which can be easily cultivated in Australia. It has a long history of use as a bitter digestive herb and is a major remedy for liver and gall bladder disorders. It is the leaf that contains these properties.

Constituents: Cynarin and other phenolic acids; sesquiterpene lactones; flavonoids; inulin. Minerals, vitamins and enzymes.

Actions and use: Choleretic; digestive tonic; diuretic; hypocholesterolemic; hepatoprotective.

A safe and reliable herb for all liver disturbances including hepatitis. Helps lower cholesterol (made in the liver) and assists weight reduction. It can be made into a leaf decoction and take alone or in combination with the above two remedies. Artichoke, St.Mary's thistle and dandelion all belong to the Asteraceae family and work well in combination.

Schizandra sinensis = Schizandra.

The dried fruits derived from an aromatic, woody vine that grows in China and north-east Asia. It is a member of the Magnolia family. The fruits are sour tasting, subsequently stimulating bile production.

Constituents: Lignans known as schizandrins. Also contains essential oil, fatty oil and mucilage.

Actions and use: Tonic; astringent; sedative; hepatoprotective.

Studies show it decreases liver enzymes rapidly in various forms of hepatitis. In mice it protects liver cells from toxins and viruses, and promotes liver protein synthesis.

Schizandra is beneficial for insomnia, memory loss and vision impairment. Chinese herbalists make a decoction of the dried berries, though they are sometimes eaten. The herb is generally taken as part of a specific formula.

Ganoderma lucidum = Reishi Mushroom.).

This is a polyphore mushroom known in China as Ling-Zhi. It is rated as one of the greatest of all medicines, even rivalling the legendary ginseng. The wild fungus is now hard to find, but extensive cultivation occurs in many Asian countries so it is readily available though quite expensive.

Constituents: Triterpenes including ganoderic acid; polysaccharides; organic germanium; adenosine.

Actions and use: Antiviral; antioxidant; antitumor; immuno-stimulant; hypoglycaemic; cardiotonic; anti-inflammatory. Hepatoprotective action in mice. Hepatitis patients show improved symptoms and less tiredness in clinical trials. In China it is frequently used for chronic hepatitis. It can be obtained in the dried form or in tablets. Daily doses range between 2 and 10g. This herb should to be taken under the supervision of a suitably qualified practitioner.

Phyllanthus amarus, P.gasstroemii = Phyllanthus.

Low shrubs common across southern Asia and Australia. In parts of India the herb is renowned for its success in treating hepatitis and jaundice. It has achieved international status since the publication of a clinical trial with hepatitis B(HVB) patients.

Constituents: Ellagitannins including geraniin; lignans- phyllanthin; flavanoids; alkaloids.

Actions and use: Astringent; diuretic; cholagogue; antiviral; hepatoprotective.

Direct antiviral effects have been demonstrated in human and animal HVB studies, which could be measured by a reduction in the virus surface antigen. Several Australian species have also shown antiviral properties in animal studies on HVB but no clinical data is available. In India fresh roots are considered the most effective for jaundice. Australian use is restricted to prescription by medical herbalists.

Glycyrrhiza glabra = Liquorice.

One of the most widely used herbs throughout the world, liquorice is regarded by herbalists as a harmoniser or balancing agent. It certainly improves the flavour of herbal compounds but its properties extend much further than flavouring.

Constituents: Glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid saponin; isoflavones

Actions and use: Demulcent; expectorant; antiulcer; tonic; antiviral; antiinflammatory; hepatoprotective.

Chinese teaching hospitals found its effective rate in treatments of chronic HVB over 70%. The herb has a mineralcorticoid effect and can cause oedema and hypertension in some people. The popular liquorice stick candies are of little use therapeutically, since the percentage of liquorice is small while the sugar content is high. Pure liquorice root can be obtained in bulk , it has a distinct yellow colour due to its flavonoid content. Manufacturers use thick liquorice concentrates which are included into a wide range of products. Liquorice should not be used over long times unless under supervision of a practitioner.

 

[Christiane Petras]

Hepatitis-Nosode

Meistens benutze ich eine Kombination aus der Hepatitis A und der Hepatitis B Nosode, weniger aufgrund von Vorerkrankungen, die bei Hepatitis A nicht immer bekannt sind, aufgrund der Impfung gegen Hepatitis B.

Negative, missmutige Stimmung (über die Leber gelaufen...)

Reizbarkeit

Dumpfe Kopfschmerzen

Beschwerden der Atemwege: Engegefühl; tiefes Durchatmen fällt schwer.

Ausgesprochen zäher Schleim bei Erkrankungen der Atemwege oder der Nebenhöhlen, kaum abzusondern

Wesentliche Symptome betreffen natürlich den Verdauungstrakt, aber auch andere Beschwerden gehen häufig mit Auffälligkeiten in diesem Bereich einher:

Völlegefühl; Verstopfung

klebriger, heller Stuhl

Schmerzhaft entzündliche Gelenkerkrankungen, v. a. der kleineren Gelenke, in Verbindung mit Verdauungsbeschwerden

Verspannungen im Schulter/Nacken Bereich

Verspannungen/Verkrampfungen der Brustmuskulatur

Ödeme, das Wasser versackt in den Beinen; geschwollene Knöchel an Händen +/o. Füßen

Quälender Juckreiz, auch ohne sichtbares Ekzem

Blutergüsse ohne erkennbaren Anlass; kleine Wunden bluten stark.

Auffällige Rötung der Hände (Handflächen)

Die Hepatitis-Nosode ergänzt sich gut mit anderen Impfnosoden und wird gut gefolgt von X-Ray oder Radium bromatum.

 

 

Hepatitis A

 

Kinder: Matt/müde/Bauchweh

Akut: 3 Tage Fasten, danach reife Papaya + Yoghurt bis Ausheilung,

körperliche Schonung/Nahrung fett-/eiweißarm/kein Alkohol;

 

Antidotiert von: Akut: Berb. (fahl/müde).

          Card. (rund/gutmutig/dick).

          Chel. (blass/dünn/ eingegangen). immer Phos. zusätzlich

Septisch: Lach (LeberschwelLUNG).

          Crot-h. (heftige/schwarze Blutung/Kaffeesatz erbrechen)

Vorbeugung: Chion. (trockenem Klima o. Sumpfgebiete)

                       Nat-s. (feuchtem/heißem/schwülem Klima)

Impfung möglich

 

Allerlei : Ansteckung durch andere Infizierten/Nahrungsmittel (Austern/Muscheln)/Wasser/Getränke

Spontanheilung oft nach 4 - 6 Wochen

Gelbsucht + vergrößerte/druckempfindliche Leber, Urin dunkel + Stuhl hell

 

 

Hepatitis B

 

[Zeit-Online]

Impfbefürworter

[Alina Schadwinkel/Sven Stockrahm]

Impfen gegen chronische Beschwerden und Leberschäden

    als Säugling× Injektion× lebenslanger Schutz× Viren×

300.000 bis 650.000 Menschen in Deutschland haben dauerhaft Hepatitis B. Übelkeit und Erbrechen gehören zum Krankheitsbild, je länger das Virus aktiv ist, desto häufiger sind Leberschäden.

Deshalb ist vor allem auch unter jungen Patienten die Wahrscheinlichkeit größer, dass Beschwerden chronisch werden: Bei infizierten Neugeborenen liegt sie bei 90%, bei Kleinkindern bei 40 – 70%.

Wer sollte geimpft sein? Seit 1995 wird eine Impfung für alle Säuglinge, Kleinkinder und Jugendlichen empfohlen. Nach Angaben des Robert-Koch-Instituts jedoch schwanken die Impfquoten je nach Bundesland zwischen rund 79% in Baden-Württemberg und rund 97% beispielsweise in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

Wann?

Die Impfung im Säuglingsalter besteht aus vier Teilimpfungen. Die erste ist ab dem vollendeten zweiten Lebensmonat möglich, mit vollendetem dritten Lebensmonat folgt die zweite, ab dem vollendeten vierten Lebensmonat die dritte und die letzte wird Ende des ersten Lebensjahres gegeben (11.-14. Lebensmonat). Wird alles eingehalten, ist nach jetziger Kenntnis keine weitere Impfung im Laufe des Lebens nötig.

Risiken? Keine Wirkung ohne Nebenwirkungen: Wie bei jedem Medikament reagiert der Körper auf die Impfung. Wie stark, ist sehr unterschiedlich. Die meisten Menschen -Säugling und junge Kleinkind- haben keine Beschwerden, bei weniger als einem von 10.000 kommt es zu einem Fieberkrampf. Langfristige Folgen sind nicht bekannt. Zur Grundimmunisierung kann gleichzeitig auch gegen Tetanus, Diphtherie, Kinderlähmung (Polio), Keuchhusten (Pertussis), und Hib geimpft werden (= 7fach Impfung). Das senkt die Zahl der Impfspritzen, reduziert Schmerzen für das Kleinkind, spart Zeit und auch Kosten.

 

Akut: 3 Tage Fasten, danach reife Papaya + Yoghurt bis Ausheilung;

Chronisch: Leberzirrhose ;

 

Vergleich: Siehe: Nosoden allgemein + Impfungen.

 

Antidotiert von: Akut: Berb. (fahl/müde).

          Card. (rund/gutmutig/dick).

          Chel. (blass/dünn/ eingegangen). immer Phos zusätzlich

Septisch: Lach (LeberschwelLUNG).

          Crot-h. (heftige/schwarze Blutung/Kaffeesatz erbrechen)

Vorbeugung: Chion (trockenem Klima o. Sumpfgebiete)

                       Nat-s. (feuchtem/heißem/schwülem Klima)

Impfung möglich

 

Allerlei: Ansteckung durch Blut(-transfusion/-produkten)/Sex/unsaubere Nadeln (piercing usw.)/medizinische Personal

90% heilt in bis 4 Monate

Gelbsucht + vergrößerte/druckempfindliche Leber, Urin dunkel + Stuhl hell

Kinder: matt/müde/Bauchweh

Mit Gentechnik. hergestellt Vaccin Hepatitis B

 

Phytologie: Lentinus edodes

 

 

Hepatitis C

 

Akut: Grippeähnliche Anfang/Müde/Gelenkschmerz;

Keine Impfung möglich

 

Allerlei: Spontanheilung bis 20%/Ausheilung mit Interferon. Dauer 1 Jahr

 

Standort: science.ORF.at / Meldung: "Heilung von Hepatitis C möglich, aber unleistbar"

Creatix - Fotolia.com

Heilung von Hepatitis C möglich, aber unleistbar

Eine "ethische Katastrophe" sei der Preis der Pharmakonzerne für die Behandlung von Hepatitis C, sagt der Wiener Hepatologe Peter Ferenci. In Österreich übernehmen die Krankenkassen

die Therapiekosten erst bei schweren Leberschäden. Die Hepatitis Hilfe Österreich fordert eine EU-weite Lösung.

Kategorie: Medizin Erstellt am 16.07.2014.

Die Pharmaindustrie verlange derzeit 84.000 Euro für eine zwölfwöchige, weitgehend nebenwirkungsfreie Behandlung mit 90-prozentiger Erfolgschance.

Neue Medikamentenkombination

Mit den neuen, oral einzunehmenden Hepatitis C-Medikamenten kann die Infektion binnen weniger Wochen bei 94 bis 99,1 Prozent der Patienten beseitigt werden. Das erfolgt bei manchen Arzneimittelkombinationen faktisch ohne Nebenwirkungen. Die alten Therapien mit zu injizierendem Peg-Interferon alpha und Ribavirin haben hingegen deutlich weniger Wirkung, zudem

dauert diese Therapie 24 bis 72 Wochen und ist für die meisten Patienten mit schweren Nebenwirkungen verbunden. Dies betonte der Wiener Hepatologie-Experte Peter Ferenci bei einer

Pressekonferenz.

Doch die Kehrseite der Medaille sind laut dem Experten exzessive Preise für die neuen Arzneimittel: Eine zwölfwöchige Therapie mit den auch in Österreich bereits zugelassenen Substanzen (Kombination) Sofosbuvir (Hersteller Gilead) und Simeprevir (Janssen) kostet rund 84.000 Euro. Die Herstellungskosten der Medikamente betragen laut Ferenci nur einen Bruchteil davon.

Mindestens 40.000 Menschen hätten in Österreich Bedarf am Medikament. Österreich ist eines von fünf zahlenden EU-Ländern

Die Krankenkassen übernehmen die Behandlungskosten nur in fünf Staaten Europas. Eines davon ist Österreich, und das sei lobenswert. Allerdings wird die Therapie erst bezahlt, wenn im

Rahmen einer chronischen Hepatitis deutliche bis schwere Leberschäden aufgetreten sind bzw. wenn die alte Behandlungsform mittels Interferon und Ribavirin nicht vertragen wird. "Ich finde

es persönlich eine ethische Katastrophe, wenn ich einem Patienten mit einer neu diagnostizierten Hepatitis C vor mir sitzen habe und sagen muss: 'Du musst erst noch zehn Jahre warten, bis ich

dir die Therapie geben kann."

Die chronische Hepatitis C ist durch Leberentzündung, fortschreitende Zirrhose, Leberversagen und/oder Karzinome gekennzeichnet.

In den USA haben erst vor kurzem zwei Senatoren den Pharmahersteller Gilead aufgefordert, zu begründen, warum er für eine einzige Tablette Sofosbuvir 1.000 US-Dollar verlange.

Die Vorsitzende der Hepatitis Hilfe Österreich, Angelika Widhalm wies auf eine Aktion der französischen Gesundheitsministerin Marisol Touraine hin, im Verbund mit 13 anderen europäischen

Staaten das Problem anzugehen. Die Hepatitis C und die neuen Therapien könnten zur "Nagelprobe" dafür werden, wie in Zukunft die Preisgestaltung der internationalen Pharmaindustrie aussieht.

"Der Titel für mich ist: 'Was ist wichtiger, die Interessen der Aktionäre oder jene der erkrankten Patienten'?", betonte Ferenci. Das aktuelle Beispiel könnte in Zukunft auch für viele andere

medizinische Fachgebiete Vorbildcharakter haben.

Keine Untersuchung der Leberwerte

In Sachen chronischer Lebererkrankungen dürfte es in Österreich auch auf anderem Gebiet finanziell wenig verständliche Mängel geben, sagt der Wiener Spezialist Arnulf Ferlitsch. So seien

die Laboruntersuchungen auf erhöhte Leberwerte aus der Gesundenuntersuchung herausgekippt. Leicht durchführbare Ultraschall-ähnliche Screeninguntersuchungen ("Fibroscan") würden

von den Krankenkassen nicht bezahlt.

 

 

Hepatitis D

 

Nur möglich bei Hepatitis B-träger

Impfung möglich

 

 

Hepatitis E

 

Ist Hepatitis A ähnlich

Gefährlich in 4e - 6e Schwangerschaftsmonat (tödlich)

 

 

Hepatitis F

 

Nur in Indien

 

 

Hepatitis G

 

Ist Hepatitis C ähnlich. 1% - 2% der Weltbevölkerung wird angesteckt und 20% der Hepatitis C Patienten.

Keine Impfung möglich/notwendig

 

 

Vorwort/Suchen                                Zeichen/Abkürzungen                                   Impressum