Schlaf Anhang Insomnia 2



Homeopathy for Insomnia, Sleeplessness, Sleep Disorders

What is insomnia?

Difficulty in sleeping or inability to fall asleep or to remain asleep long enough to feel rested, especially when this is a problem that continues over time is termed as insomnia.

It is also explained as:

    Inability to sleep,

    Over a period of time;

    Difficulty initiating sleep;

    Difficulty maintaining sleep;

    Early morning awakening;

    Non Restorative sleep.

Types of Insomnia:

    Transient Insomnia (short term),

    Intermittent Insomnia (on and off),

    Chronic  Insomnia (constant).

Transient Insomnia-

Insomnia lasting from a single night to a few weeks is referred to as transient. Temporary insomnia (transient insomnia) usually is due to situational changes, such as travel

and stressful events. It lasts for less than a week or until the stressful event is resolved. Short-term insomnia lasts for 1-3 weeks,

Intermittent Insomnia-

If episodes of transient insomnia occur from time to time, the insomnia is said to be intermittent.

Chronic  Insomnia-

Insomnia is considered to be chronic if it occurs on most nights and lasts a month or more. Chronic insomnia continues for more than 3 weeks.

Insomnia may also be classified into:

Primary insomnia-

            It occurs in the absence of other medical problems

Secondary insomnia

It occurs as a result of a medical condition such as heart disease, arthritis, cancer, or heartburn, etc. causing wakefulness.

Who suffers from Insomnia?

Insomnia is found in males and females of all age groups, although it seems to be more common in females (after menopause) and in the elderly. The ability to sleep, rather

than the need for sleep, appears to decrease with advancing age.

What are the causes of Insomnia?

    Advanced age (insomnia occurs more frequently in those over age 60); the melatonin – a chemical that is needed in order to induce sleep, decreases and, at the age of sixty, very

little is produced by our bodies. Without the presence of this chemical, the amount of sleep that the body receives diminishes. This may either mean rising earlier in the morning or

the inability to sleep at night.

    Female gender affected most; Women tend to be the victims of insomnia more often than their male counterparts. This is partially due to the fact that hormonal changes intrinsic

to females can bring about this particular condition. These changes: PMS, menstruation, pregnancy and menopause. Any number of things can happen when an influx or decrease

of hormones takes place in the body, and insomnia is one of the more common side effects

    A history of depression.

    Stress, anxiety.

    A medical problem or the use of certain medications occur along with the above conditions, insomnia is more likely.

    Various medical conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, asthma, arthritis, allergies, hyperthyroidism and Parkinson’s disease.

    Physical disorder- congestive cardiac failure, pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, nocturnal asthma and nocturnal seizures.

    Painful or uncomfortable syndromes- toothache, arthritis and restless legs syndrome.

    Difficulty in initiating sleep may be due to psychiatric illness such as; anxiety, phobia, schizophrenia and depression.

    Drugs withdrawals such as caffeine, antidepressant, beta blockers, alcohol, sympathomimetics and hypnotics.

    Reversal of sleep rhythm, seen in jet-lag, head injury, encephalitis, sedative misuse, irregular night shift work.

    Nocturnal enuresis [bed wetting in the children], sleep walking, taking while asleep and night terrors can cause sleep disturbance in children.

    Sleep apnoea is a disorder characterized by a reduction or cessation (pause of breathing, airflow) during sleep and may cause sleeplessness.

    The predisposition to insomnia tends to run in family lines. It is believed that genetics play some role in whether or not a person will suffer from this illness; which is unknown

to the medical community

    Transient and intermittent insomnia generally occur in people who are temporarily experiencing one or more of the following- stress, environmental noise, extreme temperatures,

a change in the surrounding environment, sleep/wake schedule problems such as those due to jet lag, or medication side effects.

What are symptoms of insomnia?

Insomnia is not defined by the number of hours of sleep a person gets or how long it takes to fall asleep. Individuals vary normally in their need for, and their satisfaction with, sleep.

Insomnia may cause problems during the day, such as tiredness, a lack of energy, difficulty concentrating, and irritability.

Insomnia patients generally complain of:

    Inadequate or poor-quality sleep.

    Difficulty falling asleep; early wakening, waking frequently during the night, un-refreshing sleep, or a combination of these.

    Waking up frequently during the night with difficulty returning to sleep.

    Waking up too early in the morning.

    Persons without adequate sleep can experience tiredness, lack of energy, and concentration problems.

How is insomnia diagnosed?

            Patients with insomnia are evaluated with the help of a medical history and a sleep history. Specialized sleep studies may be recommended in Secondary insomnia, to find

the medical condition.

Conventional treatment:

Transient insomnia can be treated by altering some changes in the lifestyle, or counseling may help. The treatment of chronic insomnia consists of:

    First, diagnosing and treating underlying medical or psychological problems.

    Identifying behaviors that may worsen insomnia and stopping them.

    Trying behavioral techniques to improve sleep, such as relaxation therapy, sleep restriction therapy, and reconditioning.

    Sleeping pills are often antihistamines. Antihistamines are generally taken for allergies, but also make you feel very sleepy. Sedatives: Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, Imidazopyridine,

and Antihistamines.


Side Effects of Sleeping Pills:

    They impair our consciousness, judgment, memory and intelligence.

    Almost everyone has some risk of becoming dependant on sleep medication.

    Those who use sleeping pills have significantly higher mortality rates than those who do not.

    Sleeping pills do little or nothing to improve chronic insomnia and cause long-term chemical dependency.

    Sleeping pills reduce brain cell activity during the day, affecting short-term memory as well as causing a hangover effect.

    Sleeping pills accentuate the GABA neurotransmitter, which keeps the nerve cells in the lung tissue from firing. This is why an overdose of sleeping pills will cause asphyxiation and

over 1000 overdose related deaths each year.

    GABA actuation is also responsible for impaired physical ability. Each year, thousands of traffic deaths, accidents and falls (especially in the elderly) are attributed to sleeping pills.

    Sleep Apnoea Patients should never take sleeping pills. Sleeping pills increase the pauses and length of pause in breathing. Someone with sleep apnoea could suffer brain or ocular

damage from the lack of oxygen or even death.

    Anyone over the age of 40 should be cautioned against sleeping pills, and anyone over the age of 65 should never take sleeping pills. Studies show that almost all people over 40 have

some symptoms of sleep apnoea, and anyone over 65 would be clinically diagnosed with sleep apnoea.

    Sleeping pills create a hypnotic dependency similar to alcohol and lower inhibitions and fear of pain or consequences. This is one reason why sleeping pills contribute to accidents and

why chronic sleeping pill users are less likely to worry or take care of themselves.

    Sleeping pills are highly addictive. Sleeping pills are similar to barbiturates and are extremely difficult to stop using.

    Although sleeping pills do not improve daytime functioning, people still prefer taking them because of the barbiturate feel-good effect they produce. As with many addictive drugs,

they may not be helpful, but we feel good when we take them.

In general, over-the-counter sleep medications are not a good choice because they:

    Are not intended for long-term use.

    Interfere with mental alertness during the day, so you should avoid driving and other similar tasks. You may also be at risk for falling.

    Reduce the quality of your sleep by reducing time you spend in deep sleep.

    Commonly seen side effects of sleeping pills are, drowsiness the next day, dizziness, lack of coordination , forgetfulness, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision, and dry mouth

and throat.


Homeopathy Treatment & Homeopathic Remedies for Insomnia or Sleep Disorders:

Homeopathy treats the person as a whole. It means that homeopathic treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological condition. The homeopathic medicines are

selected after a full individualizing examination and case-analysis, which includes the medical history of the patient, physical and mental constitution etc. A miasmatic tendency (predisposition/susceptibility) is also often taken into account for the treatment of chronic conditions. The medicines given below indicate the therapeutic affinity but this is not a complete

and definite guide to the treatment of this condition. The symptoms listed against each medicine may not be directly related to this disease because in homeopathy general symptoms and constitutional indications are also taken into account for selecting a remedy.

Homeopathic Treatment

Reportorial rubric

[Kent] Sleep, Sleeplessness

[Murphy] Sleep, Insomnia

[Boericke] Nervous system, Sleep, Insomnia (Sleeplessness)

[Boenninghausen’s] Sleep, Sleeplessness

Homeopathy Remedies for Insomnia:

Homeopathic medicines are selected on the basis of symptoms, cause, family history and constitution of the person affected. Considering all these factors any of the below listed

(or some other) homeopathic medicine may be indicated and helpful in this condition.


    Sleepless from rush of ideas.

    Cannot sleep after 3 h. until towards morning,

    falls asleep when it is time to rise and feels heavy and unrefreshed.

    It is especially for those who drink too much, those who abuse coffee and tea,

    those who are subject to abdominal disorders and a sluggish portal circulation.

    It is curative in cases where sleep is unattainable except from a stimulant.

    > after undisturbed sleep; <: disturbed sleep;

    Sleepless from mental overwork, from too close study (at night).

    Dreams full of bustle and worry.


    Stupefying and unrefreshing sleep

    Sleepy, but cannot sleep.

    Sleepless with acuteness of hearing, clock striking and cocks crowing at great distance keep her awake

    Loss of breath on falling asleep

    Bed feels so hot she cannot lie on it; moves often in search of a cool place; must be uncovered

    Sleepy but cannot sleep with great drowsiness

    Dreams of cat, dog and black forms. Pleasant, fantastic, amorous dream

    Suffocative attacks during sleep like nightmare

Coffea cruda

    Nervous sleeplessness from rush of ideas, mental activity, awakes at or hears every sound after pleasurable excitement.

    In cases where there is excessive agitation of body and mind, and where ideas force themselves on the mind.

    Wide awake, without the slightest inclination to sleep, and all the senses are extremely acute.

    It is the remedy when excitement or good news, joys or night watching causes the insomnia.

    It is well suited to sleeplessness in teething children.

    Sleeplessness from the bad effects of too good news.

    Is indicated in wide-awake condition; impossible to close the eyes; physical excitement through mental exaltation.

    Sleeplessness, on account of excessive mental and bodily activity.

    The greatest mental and physical exhaustion; great restlessness lying awake most of the night. Sensitiveness of vision, of hearing, of smell, of touch; sensitiveness to pain.

    Wakeful, on a constant move. Sleeps until 3 a.m.

    Sleep disturbed by dreams or by itching of anus.

Ambra grisea

    Sleeplessness arising from worriment of mind as from business trouble.

    The patient retires to bed feeling tolerably tired, yet as soon as the head touches the pillow he becomes wakeful.

    He cannot sleep at night, he knows not why.

    For several nights sleeplessness.

    Frequent waking at night.

    Frequent waking, and at 2 h. long uneasiness in the whole body.

    At night he wakes up with headache , which goes off on rising.

    Very early waking, followed by frequently interrupted, but very profound sleep, with eyes fast closed.

    In the morning, in bed, weariness, with feeling in the eyes as if they were too firmly closed. Sleep restless, with anxious dreams.

    Coldness of body and twitching of limbs during sleep.

Hyoscyamus niger

    Sleeplessness from nervous excitement, the brain is full of bewildering ideas and images.

    After long illnesses and the brain cells are poorly nourished.

    Sleeplessness in children, who twitch, cry out frightened and tremble.

    Sleeplessness from overworked minds and without apparent cause may be benefited by Hyoscyamus.


    Sleeplessness from nervous excitement, cutaneous irritations and external heat. The patient is drowsy all day and sleepless at night.

    Sleeps in “cat naps“, wakes frequently.

    Long but unrefreshing sleep, in morning.

    Nightly jerking and twitching in body during.

    Sings during sleep and wakes up with singing.

    Cannot sleep during 2 and 5 h.


    The sleepless conditions calling for Belladonna are due to congestion.

    Frightful images appear on closing the eyes and the patient therefore dreads sleep.

    Children awake from sleep frightened.

    Oftentimes there is a violent throbbing in the brain which prevents sleep.

    Frightful dreams, they constantly awaken the patient.

    Restless sleep during dentition

    Sleeps with eyes partially open; sudden starting, twitching, hot head and dilated pupils will indicate it.

Ignatia amara

    Sleeps so light that he hears everything in it.

    Dreams all night of the same subject.

    Insomnia due to grief, anxious thoughts, sadness or any depressing emotions.

    Deep, stupefying.

    Restless sleep and great restlessness at night with a tremor passing through the body.

    Fixed ideas in his dreams which continue after waking.

    Child awakes from sleep with piercing cries and trembles all over.

Cocculus indicus

    Especially suited to light haired, timid, nervous and bookworm persons.  Sleeplessness due to night watching, with worry and anxiety.

    Thinking of the business of the day prevents sleep.

    Spasmodic yawning.

    Sleepless from mental or physical exhaustion.


    Sleeplessness at night on account of dry heat cannot rest in any posture.

    He cannot get quiet position.

    Nightly sleeplessness with anxiety, dry heat and frequent starting up.

    Anxious dreams.

    Wakes with slightest noise.

Ferrum metallicum.

    It is adapted to young, anemic, pseudo- plethoric persons who look strong but are very weak physically.

    Restless, with anxious tossing.

    Great drowsiness and fatigue, with inability to sleep at night.

    Falls to sleep late in evening.

    Can lie on back only.

Cannabis indica

    In obstinate and intractable forms of insomnia.

    An irregular sleep is more of an indication than absolute insomnia.

    Unconquerable day sleepiness, Unrefreshing night sleep.

    Sleepless at night because of anxiety and heat.

Kalium phosphoricum

    Sleeplessness, especially during the latter part of the night.

    The patient is a nervous due to business worries and excessive mental exertion.


What can be done for preventing insomnia?

    Avoid watching TV, eating, and discussing emotional issues in bed.

    Don’t use bright light in your bedroom.

    Avoid, caffine and smoking.

    Get a massage on your scalp.

    A light snack may be sleep-inducing, but a heavy meal too close to bedtime interferes with sleep. Stay away from protein and stick to carbohydrates or dairy products.

Milk contains the amino acid L-tryptophan, which has been shown in research to help people go to sleep. So milk and cookies or crackers (without chocolate) may be useful

and taste good as well.

    Do not exercise vigorously just before bed.

    Take a warm bath. This often helps.

    Listen light music. Actually, any soothing noise (played softly) in the background may help.

    Sleep with your head facing north (magnetic) and feet facing south.

    Relaxation techniques like yoga and meditation.



[Bertram von Zabern]

Almost 1/3 of our lifetime is clouded in a state of unconsciousness or dream. Sleep powerfully commands us to its domain when, after an extended day, it stops us from continuing earthly work. While scientific research has provided many details of the chemical and electrical activity of the brain, and psychology has offered insights into the subconscious motivations of dream life, neither has revealed much about why this mystery is such a necessary part of existence.

More than any other modern research, Rudolf Steiner’s anthroposophy leads toward an inner understanding of sleep by viewing

its spiritual dimension. Although sleep appears as a dullness of the mind, in its reality it is an enhancement of consciousness our usual intellect does not grasp. We catch a glimpse of the higher dimension of sleep at the uncomfortable moment when we happen to be woken up from deep sleep, say, at 2:30 in the morning. The discomfort is not a physical pain, but rather the feeling of being torn away from an inner state of bliss, to which one would dearly like to return. Once we are ready to rest again, we have to wait patiently until sleep takes us back to its sacred place.     

R.S. pointed out that the spiritual life of the human being, in thinking, and as the source of self-consciousness, engages during daytime in many practical earthly matters and impressions that are alien to its true being. It is at night that the spiritual self returns to its home, the spiritual world, and reconnects with its genius.

While we are awake, we make many errors in how we relate to the world and to the creative powers that govern nature. For example: we eat chaotically, our eyes and brain have to deal with a computer monitor or a TV set, our emotions are caught up

in financial worries or in irrelevant disagreements. All this negatively affects the health of the body we have received from nature, and ultimately destroys it. But there is immeasurable wisdom at work to create and balance the functions of the brain, the heart, liver, kidneys and so on. While we sleep, the wisdom of creation tries to heal the damage caused in body and soul during wakeful life.

About every third person in the U.S. suffers at some time in the course of a year from insomnia and seeks help for it. The cause is usually subtle imbalances rather than illness-related pain or crisis-generated anxiety. Every organ system goes through typical biological rhythms, among which the changes of day and night are especially important. One of the main liver functions, for instance, is assimilation, the building up  of new substances like sugars, essential fats and proteins. This phase becomes predominant in the evening and beyond midnight. During deep sleep, the assimilation phase turns into a phase of elimination, breaking down old substances to be detoxified and excreted through the bile. The latter phase prevails during the second, dream-rich part of sleep, and extends into awakening and the active morning hours.

We are unaware of the subtle turning point between the two phases of liver function at about 3AM, unless it is pushed out of balance by mistakes in nutrition. Therefore, for a patient, who typically wakes up between 2 and 4 o’clock in the morning, it is helpful to have a light supper earlier in the evening without alcohol and to use herbal or homeopathic remedies to support the liver’s function. Similarly, imbalances of other organs need to be considered as causes of poor sleep.

Among different life rhythms, heart beat, blood pressure, fluid elimination, digestion are closely dependent on our daily lifestyle. The answer to imbalances is not an escape from contemporary life and its obligations, but lies rather in improving eating habits, exercise, and timing of sleep. Also, stress reduction is a major challenge that may require professional help and careful inclusion of balancing activities. Invaluable support comes from, music, eurythmy and artistic work.

Knowing about the spiritual essence of sleep, we can try to build up an activity that strengthens our inner equilibrium, such as the evening retrospect meditation, In it, we picture hour by hour in backward sequence the experiences of the day. This exercise reveals a wealth of otherwise lost memory images and helps to bring about a sense of inner reflection, gratitude and peace. This retrospect meditation not only prepares us for good sleep, but it can become a modest part of the restorative work the wisdom of sleep-life accomplishes every night for us.

A healing science of sleep is one that encompasses the life of body, soul and spirit. Our homework in studying it is to try to balance our own lives.

Bryophyllum Mercurio cultum w

Wirkt bei Schlaflosigkeit durch Gedankenandrang


Ars.: Key Symptoms: Always anxious and restless. Anxiety, fear, or worry prevents sleep. Frequent starting or jumping which wakens from sleep. Sleepless from physical exertion.

<: after midnight; >: warmth/warm drinks (little sips at a time);

Disturbed, anxious and restless sleep. Lying awake with restlessness, tossing and turning. Cannot lie still in bed – has to get up and wander around from restlessness. Going from bed to bed to try and sleep. Can only sleep with head raised. Hard to fall asleep after waking.

can not sleep due to worry and fear

Bryo.: Sleepy, tired and cannot sleep caused by to many thoughts

Coff.: Key Symptoms: well known for producing sleeplessness (not always) but because of homeopathy’s ‘like treats like’ effect, it will relieve insomnia when given in crude, or especially homeopathic form.

The type of symptoms it relieves are those produced by coffee. They are: sleeplessness from rapid thoughts or an active mind; constant flow of ideas; physical restlessness; nervous energy; excitement. Can also be used to counteract the effects of a caffeinated product that has been taken too close to bed-time. <: suprises/strong emotions/narcotics;

Unable to sleep from the excitement of a surprise, or good or bad news. Palpitation with sleeplessness. Waking with every sound. Waking from frequent starting. Sleeplessness from an itching anus.

Minor pains seems intolerable.

Gels.: Key Symptoms: Sleepless from anticipatory anxiety. Dull, drowsy mind – hard to think yet difficult to go to sleep. Insomnia from exhaustion. Hard to get fully asleep. Worse for: bad news; thinking about problems.

Yawning with tiredness. Sleeplessness with teething. Sleeplessness from itching on head, face, neck, and shoulders. Sleeplessness during delirium tremens (withdrawal from alcohol).

Ign.: Key Symptoms: Intense, repeated yawning or frequent sighing. Sleeplessness from a recent disappointment or grief. Grieving.

Waking - easily from sleep/from the jerking of a limb. Itching of arms with yawning. Yawning produces tears in the eyes or threatens to dislocate jaw. <: Coffee;

dispute, anger, disappointment, sorrows cannot be solved at daytime

Lyc.: Key Symptoms: Waking from hunger – must get up and eat. Restless sleep and anxious dreams with frequent waking. Feeling unrefreshed in morning.

Unable to get comfortable in any position. Falling asleep late and waking early. Sleepy all day and sleepless at night from an active mind. Children who sleep all day and cry all night. Child wakes terrified with screaming – seems not to recognise anyone (sleep terrors).

Nux-v.: Key Symptoms: Frequent yawning. Irritability from loss of sleep. Falling asleep before normal bedtime and then waking at 3 – 4 h. Waking at 3 – 4 h with alert and active mind and then falling asleep as daylight approaches only to then wake with difficulty, feeling tired, weak, and not wanting to get up. <: stimulants and narcotics

Sleeplessness from the excessive consumption of coffee, alcohol, or drugs (therapeutic or recreational). Tendency to lie on back with arms under head. Sleeplessness from mental strain and stress or excessive study. Drowsy after meals an in early evening. Grogginess on waking in morning. Weeping and talking in sleep.

Passi.: Key Symptoms: Restless, exhaustion, and sleeplessness.

Restless sleeplessness from excessive work. Sleeplessness with exhaustion. Insomnia of infants and the aged. Convulsions with sleeplessness.

Other Comments: Has a long history of use in herbal medicine where its homeopathic effect in the treatment of insomnia has also been exploited. It is effective in either herbal doses or homeopathic potencies.

Phos.: Key Symptoms: Short naps with frequent waking. Frequent waking from feeling too hot. Sleeplessness from excitement or anxiety.

Sleeplessness in old people. Sleepless before midnight. Sleepy all day, sleepless and restless at night. Sleepless with sensation of bubbling in blood. <: lying on left side;

Sulph.: Key Symptoms: Waking between 2 – 5 h. and unable to go back to sleep. Difficulty in falling asleep from itchiness of skin or perspiration. Drowsy by day and sleepless at night. <: becoming hot/atmospheric changes. Wakes up singing from happy dreams. Waking at night from a rush of blood to the head. Sudden waking from sleep. Constant flow of thoughts that prevent sleep. Sleep disturbed by headache. >: dry/warm weather;


Borx.: Conflict: something cannot be said, because it is too disgusting and has hurt (emotions)

Bry.: an uneasy or disgusting experience had been “swallowed” and could not be spoken about.

Cycl.: guilty feelings about one´s mistake.

Hyos.: great jealousy, cannot speak about it at daytime

Stann-met.: sexual conflicts (feels rejected), disharmonious partnership cannot be cleared up at daytime.


[Lia Bello]

Insomnia can be helped by Coff. for alertness when it is time for sleep because they are wired and upset. 

Hylands combination remedies:

“Calms” [Ingredients: Aven. (stress, nervousness) + Cham. (nervous irritability) + Lup. (occasional sleeplessness) + Passi. (restless sleep from exhaustion)]

“Calms Forte”[Ingredients: Pass. (restless or wakeful sleep from exhaustion) + Aven. (stress, nervousness or nervous headache) + Lup. (drowsiness with incomplete sleep) + Cham. (nervous irritability) + Calc-p. + Ferr-p. + Kali-p. + Nat-p. + Mag-p.]



Pellow (2002) conducted a qualitative study which examined the efficacy of the homoeopathic simillimum approach in the treatment of secondary insomnia in peri- and postmenopausal women.

Homoeopathic remedies were prescribed in LM potency, taken once daily, and the patient’s progress was noted over the 3 month duration of the trial.

This consisted of an initial consultation and 6 Follow-Up consultations at 2 week intervals.

According to the study, homoeopathic simillimum treatment helped decrease fatigue and sleepiness in varying degrees in each subject and improved the subjects’ perception of the quality of their sleep. This study produced positive results although there were potential methodological flaws present. It was not a double-blind-placebo-controlled study and the sample size of the study was

small (n =10).

LM potencies used, may have been restrictive.

Each participant was asked to success the bottle each day before taking a dose, giving the bottle eight hard blows against the palm of the hand.

One teaspoon of the remedy was then stirred into 100ml of water and taken once a day. The use of this method of administration of the remedy may have led to difficulties with compliance.

Unrestricted simillimum studies, however, would allow for the use of remedies in any potency, including LM potencies.

In cases where the remedy’s action appeared to aggravate the insomnia, participants were advised, by Pellow, to stop taking the remedy until the

aggravation had passed. In cases where the participants were not responding adequately to the remedy, as reported by the participant and perceived by the researcher, they were advised to increase the frequency of the dose.

This results in significant inconsistencies in treatment administration in the study.

Participants using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were not excluded, as subjects with insomnia despite HRT were considered suitable, by the researcher, for the study.

Oestrogen has powerful effects on several biological factors that directly influence sleep, including body temperature regulation and circadian

rhythms. Oestrogen therapy most likely improves sleep as it alleviates vasomotor symptoms (Moe, 1999).

Boyle and Murrihy (2001), reported that women who use HRT have decreased anxiety, less insomnia and fewer somatic symptoms.

Therefore, it is difficult to assess whether the homoeopathic treatment or a combination of the homoeopathic treatment and HRT was effective in alleviating secondary insomnia in the study.

The study made use of the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) (Hoddes, Zarcone, Smythe, Phillips and Dement, 1973) and a Sleep Diary.

The SSS was used to determine each participant’s subjective assessment of sleepiness in the morning, at lunchtime and in the evening every day for the duration of the study. The scale consists of seven statements that range from being wide awake and alert to being almost in a state of sleep (Hoddes, et al.1973). Participants were asked to record the number between one and seven that best described their level of sleepiness.

A Sleep Diary provided an indication of perceived total sleep time per night and number of nightly awakenings. The information given in each

questionnaire was evaluated and was used together with information obtained at each consultation to compile a descriptive study of individual cases. There was no use of statistical analysis of the SSS and Sleep Diary readings,

which would have expanded the subjective perceptions of the improved quality of sleep following homoeopathic intervention.

According to Neuman (2000: 418), qualitative data analysis is less standardized.

The wide variety in possible approaches to qualitative research is matched by the many approaches to data analysis. Quantitative researchers, on the other hand, choose from a standardized set of data analysis techniques.

Quantitative analysis is highly developed and builds on applied mathematics (Neuman, 2000: 418).

Due to the paucity of quantitative, double-blind-placebo-controlled clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of homoeopathic simillimum in the treatment of chronic primary insomnia; there is a need for further studies.



Roohani (1997) showed that Avena Sativa Comp® decreased fatigue and evening sleepiness and improved subjective perception of sleep quality in self-diagnosed secondary insomniacs.

Avena Sativa Comp® is manufactured by the pharmaceutical company, PharmaNatura (Pty) Ltd and comes in 100ml dropper bottles:

Avena sativa (Ø) 25 ml

Humulus lupulus D 1 4 ml

Passiflora incarnate (Ø) 7,5 ml

Valeriana officinalis (Ø 30 ml

Coffea tosta D60 15 ml

Nominal Ethanol content 45% v/v

Ten male subjects complaining of secondary insomnia formed the sample group.

They underwent a 14 day screening period, during which time they completed questionnaires relating to sleep.

The measurement tools used included a Sleep Diary, a Profile of Mood States (POMS) (McNair, Lorr and Droppelman, 1971: 27) form to assess psychological status, and an assessment of day-time sleepiness using the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) (Hoddes, et al.1973).

Analogue scales were used to indicate the subjective assessments of quality of the previous nights sleep (morning form) and to give an indication of the subject’s anxiety levels during the day (evening form).

Each participant was required to complete a Sleep Diary for the duration of the study, to provide an indication of total sleep time per night and the number of nightly awakenings. The POMS (McNair, Lorr and Droppelman, 1971: 27) was used to determine the mood states of the subjects, including tension - anxiety, depression - dejection, anger - hostility, vigour, fatigue and confusion - bewilderment. Scores were

determined for each scale of the POMS questionnaire using the POMS scoring system.

The SSS (Hoddes, et al. 1973) was used to determine daily subjective assessments of sleepiness in the morning, at lunchtime and in the evening for the 42 days of the study.

Participants were admitted to the study provided they had a minimum of four sleep deprived nights in the 14 day screening period. There

after the participants entered a double-blind crossover trial when the homoeopathic complex or placebo was administered nightly, for 14 days.

Statistical analysis using Instat, Instant Statistics, Sandiego, California, Version 2.0. was conducted using all measurement tools.

The Friedman test, combined with the Dunn’s statistical test to identify the origin of significance were used.

Significance was set at p≤ 0.05.

The study concluded that

Avena Sativa Comp® helped decrease fatigue (p<0.0001) and evening sleepiness, and improved the subject’s perception of the quality of their sleep.

This study produced positive results although there were potential methodological flaws present. Expansion of the sample size, as well as the

inclusion of females into the study may have further validated the results. The placebo and treatment was administered by placing ten drops in

½ glass of water after supper in the evening and just before going to bed. Participants could also take the medication if they awoke during the night. They were requested to record this information

in their Sleep Diary. This results in significant inconsistencies in treatment administration in the study.

According to Lavery (1997: 28 – 36), there are many causes of secondary insomnia.


MEDICAL CAUSES such as: Non-prescription drugs e.g. caffeine, nicotine and „diet pills’

Prescription drugs e.g. Ritalin®, Ventolin®, Cardioquin® and Cylert®


Pain from any source or cause


Dyspnoea from any cause

Drug or alcohol intoxication or withdrawal


Post-traumatic stress disorder

Mania or hypomania

The sample group in Roohani’s study may not have been a homogenous group due to the various causes of secondary insomnia.

Although the findings of the study were positive, the administration of complex homoeopathic remedies is in conflict with the principle of single remedy prescription (Kayne, 1997: 27).

It is not necessary, and therefore not permissible to administer more than one, single homoeopathic medicinal substance to a patient (Vithoulkas, 1998: 217).

All drug pictures in the material medica have been determined on this basis. Provings have not been carried out on complexes of remedies and it is not known how and if remedies interact

(Kayne, 1997: 28).



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