(Sarla Sonawala/Roland Schule) + Zähne und Fluor (Dr. Grätz)
Halitosis = an unpleasant odour to the breath (Berkow et al. 1995: 757)
[Aziza Muhammed Randeree]
The efficacy of homoeopathic simillimum treatment of oral malodour = Halitosis:
From the Latin word, halitus -meaningexhalation- of offensive breath from the oral cavity, called also fetor ex ore, fetor oris and stomatodysdodia (Dorland and Newman 1994: 729).
Halitosis is derived from the Latin word 'halitus' meaning bad breath and the Greek word 'osis' meaning disease or condition (Iwu and Akpata. 1990).
Halitosis defined as an unpleasant oral malodour has become a health concern among the general public (Iwakura et al. 1994).
Halitosis affects a large proportion of the population and may be the cause of significant social and psychological handicap to those who suffer from it (Bosy et al. 1994).
Oral malodour is a common social and economical problem (industrialised countries).
In a national survey in Japan carried out in 1993, for example, 24% of the examined persons above the age of 30 years complained about bad breath (Quirynen et al. 1998).
More than half of the U.S. population will at some time be affected by halitosis. Annual sales of mouthwashes and related over the counter products in the U.S. exceed 500 million
dollars (Replogle and Beebe. 1996.)
Oral malodour may be caused by a number of factors both intra- and extra-orally. In most cases bad breath originates from the oral cavity itself (Quirynen et al. 1998).
Halitosis of oral aetiology may result from periodontal disease, poor saliva flow, improper dental restorations, excessive microbial colonization of the tongue, or unclean dentures.
Non-oral aetiologies include upper and lower respiratory tract conditions, gastrointestinal and neurological disorders, various systemic diseases and use of certain drugs. (Rosenberg et. al. 1991.)
One of the most intriguing problems regarding bad breath is the apparent inability of knowing whether one has it, and to what extent.
Many people emit bad breath for years without at all being aware of it. Others greatly overestimate their own oral malodour and are consequently prone to obsessive behaviour such as to avoid
social interaction and may even contemplate suicide. (Rosenberg et al.1995.)
For the assessment of oral malodour, 2 methods are generally used.
One method is subjective organoleptic examination and the other is quantitative measurement of volatile sulphide compounds, i.e., gas chromatography and portable sulphide monitor (Shimura
et al. 1996).
Rosenberg et al (1992) and Yaekagi and Sanada (1992) conducted studies on two-phase oil water mouth rinses.
These proved effective in reducing oral malodour for a short period of time.
Although mouth rinses have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing oral malodour parameters in a variety of studies, few investigations have been conducted using other kinds of oral products
To date there has been only one controlled homoeopathic research study done on halitosis. [Neumann (1997)] conducted a clinical trial on the effect of a halitosis complex (consisting of potentised
homoeopathic remedies (Arnica Montana C 4 + Carbo vegetabilis C 4 + Arsenicum album C 4 + Bryonia alba C 4 + Nitricum acidum C 4 and Mercurius solubilise C 4 on oral malodour.
Volatile sulphur compounds were measured by a portable sulphide monitor and organoleptically by 3 odour judges who then recorded their results on a visual analogue scale (Aker 1995).
Non-parametric tests were used to analyse the results. The results showed a significant decrease in volatile sulphur compounds over a three-week period, however an increase in the amount of volatile
sulphur compounds was observed during the 4th week of the trial.
The method of treatment used in that study = the complex method, did not provide long term relief in patients.
A shortfall of that study is that the homoeopathic principle of individualised treatment was intentionally overlooked.
The Law of Similars states that any substance which can produce a totality of symptoms in a healthy human being can cure the totality of symptoms in a sick human being (Vithoulkas 1986:98).
Thus the researcher was presented with the opportunity of assessing the value of a single homoeopathic remedy as compared to a complex (Neumann 1997) in the treatment of halitosis.
The aim of this placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy of the homoeopathic simillimum treatment in halitosis, in terms of the quality of mouth air assessed organoleptically and the concentration of the volatile sulphur compounds in the oral cavity measured quantitatively by a portable sulphide monitor.
The potential benefit of the study was most importantly the improvement of the psychological state of the patient and a subsequent improvement in the individual sense of well being.
The exact pathophysiological mechanism is not clear, but several conditions have been deemed responsible for septic or putrefactive changes in the mouth, nose, nasal sinuses, or lungs.
Smoking or ingestion of garlic, onions or paraldehyde, whose volatile products are excreted by the lungs or in saliva maybe causes of bad breath.
There are also some psychiatric cases in which the patients suffer from imaginary halitosis (Tiomny et al. 1992.)
Halitosis is caused mainly by volatile sulphur compounds (= VSC) including hydrogen sulphides, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulphide (Yaekagi and Sanada. 1992).
VSC increases the permeability of the oral mucosa and collagen solubility and decrease protein and collagen synthesis.
Microbiological studies have demonstrated that periodontal pathogenic microorganisms contribute to increased VSC production, in particular that of methyl mercaptan, in the oral cavity.
Therefore it has been suggested that Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis and other microorganisms have important roles in the pathogenesis of halitosis. (Yaekagi and Sanada.1992.).
Halitosis is a condition that is easy to recognise but the cause can be difficult to discover.
The commonest causes are found in the mouth.
If they are not present in the mouth then an extra oral source should be sought. (Symposium. 1990.)
A recent report on experience gained in a Multidisciplinary Breath Odour Clinic indicated that in 87% of the consulting patients, oral malodour could be related to an oral cause (Quirynen
et al. 1998).
Chronic periodontal disease and gingivitis are perhaps the most common causes of halitosis.
These conditions flourish in a confined, anaerobic environment, protected from the flow of saliva.
Periodontal disease and gingivitis are therefore conducive to bacterial overgrowth.
Stomatitis and glossitis resulting from underlying systemic disease, medication or vitamin deficiencies may cause odour when ulcers or fissures develop trapping food particles
and desquamated tissue. (Replogle and Beebe. 1996.)
Saliva from individuals with periodontitis putrefies more rapidly and the odour is more disagreeable in comparison to saliva in healthy individuals.
This is attributable in part to the degradation of blood and host cellular products that provide substrates for generation of volatile sulphur compounds. (Bosy et al. 1994.)
Reduced salivary flow leading to a dry mouth (= xerostomia) contributes to conditions favouring oral malodour production. Decrease in saliva can be caused by many factors; for example,
dehydration, aging, anemia, metabolic disease, autoimmune disease of the salivary glands, malignancy and medication. (McDowell et al. 1993.)
Chronic xerostomia may also cause caries, infection, mucosal dehydration and atrophy. The bacteria on the tongue also correlate strongly with malodour.
A growing body of research indicates that tongue coating also plays a significant role in odour formation. (Quirynen et al 1998.)
Tobacco smokers and garlic eaters may have peculiar breath of varying intensity, which is made more objectionable if the individuals oral hygiene is also poor (Iwu and Akpata. 1990).
Ozostomia = a putrid smell that is detected from the mouth but derived from the upper respiratory tract (nasal and sinus cavities, pharynx and larynx).
Thus the aetiologies include rhinitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis and nasal polyp or carcinoma.
Foul breath from the mouth originating from the lower respiratory tract, a.k.a. stornadysdodia may be caused by infective or necrotic processes of the lower respiratory tract.
For example, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, carcinoma of the lung, lung abscess, emphysema and pulmonary infarcts. (Touyz.1993.)
In older literature, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract have been mentioned as possible causes along with pyloric stenosis and gastrocolic fistulas.
In a study conducted by Tiomny et al (1992), subjects suffering from halitosis and with evidence of Helicobacter pylori were treated with a course of colloidal bismuth subcitrate.
The halitosis had disappeared along with eradication of the organism in all subjects.
Persons suffering from dyspepsia, reflux, hiatus hernia, gastric cancer, malabsorption syndrome and enteric infections may also have halitosis.
Systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, several liver disorders, gallbladder dysfunctions and blood dyscrasias (leukemia) may cause bad breath. (Replogle and Beebe. 1996.)
THE HALITOSIS SOCIAL HANDICAP
There are apparently healthy individuals who complain of having bad breath which no one else can smell and for which no local or systemic condition can be found (Iwu and Akpata. 1990).
Some patients may suffer from halitophobia or imaginary bad breath.
Although various –psychological states have been used to describe this-population, (e.g. delusion, hypochondria, obsessive compulsive disorder, olfactory reference syndrome),
none are satisfactory.
The current success rate in dealing with such individuals appears low and indicates the need for collaboration with psychological +/o. psychiatric counseling. (Quirynen et al. 1998.)
Halitophobics are driven to social isolations, may have their teeth extracted and occasionally even commit suicide (Rosenberg et al. 1995).
ASSESSMENT OF HALITOSIS
For the assessment of oral malo dour in scientific investigations, reliable methods of measurements are required.
Previous methods of assessing oral malodour have been based upon subjective, organoleptic scales or quantitative measurement of volatile sulphur compounds or both.
Quantitative measurements by gas chromatography, cryoscopy and culture of plaque and periodontal exudates require laboratory facilities, are time consuming and expensive.
Recent studies have investigated the use of a simple, rapid technique for measurement of halitosis related sulphides by using a portable sulphide monitor. (Rosenberg et al. 1991.)
Shimura et al. (1996) conducted a study on a new volatile sulphide compound (= VSC) monitor with a zinc-oxide, thin film semiconductor sensor by comparing it with other means
They reported its characteristics as rapid in warming up, simple to handle with high reproducibility and a good specificity and sensitivity.
The volatile sulphide monitor, which is small in size, simple to handle and has sensitive correspondence to the organoleptic assessment, can be used to measure halitosis without
much restriction (Shimura et al. 1997).
MANAGEMENT OF HALITOSIS
Since halitosis often originates in the oral cavity, proper oral hygiene must be stressed.
Patients should be instructed to brush their teeth at least 2x daily and floss once a day.
Tongue brushing, as well as palatal brushing, is an important method of reducing mouth odour.
Regular dental consultations may be appropriate. (Replogle and Beebe. 1996.)
Dental health care is mandatory and dentures should not be worn during sleep, but kept clean by overnight soaking.
Strict attention should be given to diet and the elimination if possible, of smoking and alcohol intake. (Symposium. 1990.)
Much research has been reported on mouthwashes eliminating oral bacteria and therefore reducing oral malodour. Yaekagi and Sanada (1992)
experimented with an oil-water mouthwash to determine the effect on sulphides in mouth air, showing that volatile sulphides are consistently reduced.
Rosenberg et al. (1991) used chlorexidene mouth rinse regimens to show reductions in mouth odour.
Chlorexidene was effective in reducing microbial levels for longer than hours as measured by the rinsing technique.
The Department of National Health and Population and Development (1994) suggest that antiseptic mouthwashes reduce the bacterial count by letting in oxygen, which
is toxic to the Gram-negative bacteria, thereby retarding bacterial growth.
Aromatic mouthwashes can also temporarily mask malodour and stimulate salivation.
In a study conducted by Greenstein et al. (1997), the anti malodour properties of oxidising lozenges was compared to breath mints and chewing gum.
It was concluded that sucking of a full strength lozenge with oxidising properties reduces tongue dorsum malodour for 3 hours following use.
Most mouthwashes only mask odours for a short time and alcohol containing mouthwashes can dry oral tissues (Replogle and Beebe. 1996).
However, in America, over the counter "cure" (mouth rinses, chewing gum, mints and sprays) for those seeking temporary solutions for their breath
Problem have created a billion dollar industry (Meskin. 1996).
Perspectives in Homoeopathy in Halitosis Management
A double-blind study conducted by Neumann (1997) demonstrated that the use of a homoeopathic complex led to a reduction in volatile sulphur compounds in mouth
air and a significant improvement in oral malodour.
However this study (Neumann 1997) was conducted over a short period of time and it was a recommendation by the researcher that a long-term treatment be investigated.
As far as it could be ascertained no other research has been done in the field of treating halitosis homoeopathically.
Information from provings of homoeopathic remedies in the Materia Medicae indicate that bad breath can be treated depending on similarity of symptoms to the remedy
(Jouanny 1984:38/Boericke 1990:77/Morrison 1993:46).
Bad breath is a cause of concern, embarrassment and frustration on the part of the general public.
Oral malodour, whether real or perceived, can lead to social isolation and even contemplation of suicide.
Considering human preoccupation with pleasing social appearances, a permanent treatment for halitosis could prove a landmark breakthrough in medical science.
Homoeopathy is a safe and effective therapeutic method as it acts by stimulating the body's immunological system to initiate healing (Ullman 1991:99).
It is therefore very effective in the treatment of psychosocial conditions like halitosis.
This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the homoeopathic simillimum in the management of halitosis.
The most popular remedies used were Mercurius solubilise (4 patients), Nitricum acidum (3 patients) and Phosphorus (3 patients).
Schwellungen und Schmerzen der Zunge
K/S 9 + KG 23
Entzündungen unter der Zunge
K/S 9 + BI 23
Lähmungen der Zunge und Sprachstörungen
3E1 + LG 14
3E1 + LG 14
Dry Mouth: This can be caused by common antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications, antihistamines, anti-inflammatory drugs and narcotics in addition to drugs used for glaucoma and bladder
spasms and urinary retention as well as antihypertensives. When the mouth is chronically dry, the teeth, oral mucosa and soft tissue are easily inflamed, painful and prone to infection.
This environment commonly leads to tooth decay and necrosis of the nerves innervating the teeth.
Tooth Discoloration: a common side effect of some antibiotics.
Gingival Hyperplasia: a condition defined as overgrowth of the gum tissue. It is commonly caused by seizure medications, heart medications, medications for high blood pressure and
Oral Lesions: This is defined as soft tissue discoloration and inflammation. This can be caused by drugs used for blood pressure, immunosuppressants, oral contraceptives and chemotherapy drugs.
Abnormal Bleeding: This can be caused by drugs such as aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs), steroids and anticoagulants, which are used to thin the blood in common conditions
associated with strokes and certain diseases associated with the heart and arrhythmias.
Jaw Clenching and Teeth Grinding: These can be side effects of antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications. A diet rich in sugars and sugar-forming foods cultivate the growth of parasites, viruses
and bacteria. This affects our metabolism and stimulates the nervous system causing it to be "over charged" and resulting in the clinging and grinding of the jaw.
Eine tief gefurchte, auf der Oberfläche wie zerrissen wirkende Zunge ist nach Hahnemann eines der Symptome für eine zurückliegende Psora-Infektion.
Doctrine of Signatures: William Coles' Table of Appropriations Mouth: Medlar, Mulberry, Mint, Purslane, Goldenrod
Dry Mouth: Fleawort
Teeth: Pine, Pomegranate, Mastick, Masterwort, Coral, Coralwort, Restharrow, Henbane, Wild Tansy
Vergleich. Psora - Sykose - Syphillinie - Tuberkulinie
1st Tuberculinics (those predisposed):
2nd person subject to colds (person who have cold after cold, coryza after coryza during the winter);
3rd dental patients (persons predisposed to tuberculous seem to make a rendezvous with the dentist's chair);
4th constipated persons;
* Psora: ————– Dryness
* Syphilis: ———— Wet on edges of tongue
* Sycosis: ———— Mucus
* Psora: ———- Diffused coating
* Syphilis: ——– Clean
* Sycosis: ——– Thickly coated
[H.N. Guernsey/M.L. Tyler]
Acet-ac.: Violent burning pain in stomach and chest followed by coldness of skin and cold sweat on forehead. (30C)
Ichth.: Bad effects of Alcoholism when nothing will stay in the stomach. Early morning diarrhea. Nausea. (30C)
Panacea arvensis: sensitiveness over gastric region with hunger but an aversion to food. (6C-200C)
Rhus-g.: Aphthous stomatitis. Spongy gums. (Q)
Sul-ac.: Ulcerative stomatitis. 200C
Kreos.: Gums painful, swollen, dark red or blue and the teeth decay as soon as they are born. Keynotes of Kreosotum are hot excoriating discharges, pulsation all over
the body, profuse bleeding of small wounds. Ulceration, burning pain. Painful dentition with anger and capriciousness similar to Chamomilla.
Tongue: Absin. Acet-ac. Acon-c. Acon. Aesc. Aeth. Agar. Agarin. Ail. Alco-s. All-s. Alumn. Am-c. Ambr. Amyg-p. Anac. Anan. Anis. Ant-c. Ant-t. Apis, Arg-n. Arn. Ars-h. Ars. Arum-t. Arund.
Asar. Aster. Aur-m-n. Aur-m. Aur-met. Bapt. Bar-c. Bell. Berb. Bism. Bor-ac. Bor. Both-l. Bry. Caj. Calc-f. Calc. Camph. Cann-i. Canth. Caps. Carb-ac. Carb-an. Carb-v. Card-m. Cast-eq. Caust. Cham. Chel. Chin-ar. Chion. Chr-ac. Cina, Cinch. Cinnb. Cist. Coca, Cocc. Colch. Coloc. Con. Crot-h. Cupr-ar. Cupr-s. Cupr-met. Cur. Cycl. Daph. Dig. Diph. Dipod. Dulc. Echi. Ferr-p. Ferr-pic. Ferr-met.
Fl-ac. Frag. Gal. Gels. Glon. Gua. Guai. Gymn. Ham. Hedeo. Helo. Hydr-ac. Hydr. Hyos. Ign. Indol. Ip. Iris, Jal. Kali-ar. Kali-bi. Kali-c. Kali-chl. Kali-cy. Kali-i. Kali-m. Kali-p. Kali-s. Kali-tel. Lac-c. Lacer. Lach. Lath. Leon. Lept. Lob-pur. Lob. Lyc. Mag-p. Mang-met. Med. Merc-c. Merc-cy. Merc-d. Merc-i-f. Merc-i-r. Merc-s. Merc-v. Merc. Merl. Mez. Morph. Mur-ac. Mygal. Myris. Nat-m. Nat-p. Nat-s. Nicol. Nit-ac. Nit-m-ac. Nux-m. Nux-v. Oena. Olnd. Op. Ostrya, Ox-ac. Par. Petr. Ph-ac. Phel. Phos. Phys. Phyt. Plat-met. Plb-acet. Plb-m. Plb-met. Podo. Ptel. Puls. Pyrog. Rad-br. Ran-s. Rheum. Rhus-t. Rhus-v. Rumx. Ruta, Sang. Sanguin-n. Sanic. Sapon. Sec. Semp. Sep. Sil. Sin-n. Spong. Stram. Strych-g. Sul-ac. Sulfon. Sulph. Syph. Tarax. Tart-ac. Ter. Thuj. Verat-v. Verat. Vesp. Vib-pr.
Vip. Yuc. Zinc-s.
Biting: Absin. Anis. Hydr. Hyos. Ign. Ph-ac. Sec.
Burning: Acon. Apis, Ars. Arum-t. Bapt. Bar-c. Bell. Berb. Calc. Canth. Caps. Carb-an. Caust. Coloc. Iris, Lath. Lyc. Merc-c. Mez. Mur-ac. Nat-m. Ph-ac. Phys. Podo.
Ran-s. Sang. Sanic. Sin-n. Sulph. Ter.
Burning, smarting scalded feeling: Acon. Apis, Ars. Arum-t. Bapt. Bell. Berb. Canth. Caps. Carb-an. Caust. Coloc. Coloc. Iris, Iris, Lyc. Merc-c. Mez. Mur-ac. Nat-m. Ph-ac. Podo. Ran-s. Sang. Sanic.
---------- tip: Ars. Bar-c. Calc. Caps. Iris, Iris, Lath. Phys. Sang. Ter.
Coating-colour: Acon. Aesc. Ail. All-s. Am-c. Amyg-p. Ant-c. Ant-t. Apis, Arg-n. Arn. Ars. Arum-t. Asar. Bapt. Bell. Bism. Bor-ac. Bry. Calc. Camph. Canth. Carb-v. Card-m. Caust. Cham. Chel.
Chin-ar. Chion. Cina, Cinch. Coca, Crot-h. Cupr-ar. Cupr-s. Cycl. Daph. Dig. Diph. Dipod. Echi. Ferr-pic. Ferr. Frag. Gels. Glon. Guai. Gymn. Hedeo. Hydr. Hyos. Indol. Ip. Jal. Kali-bi. Kali-c. Kali-chl. Kali-m. Kali-p. Kali-s. Lac-c. Lach. Lept. Lob. Lyc. Mag-p. Med. Merc-c. Merc-cy. Merc-d. Merc-i-f. Merc-s. Merc-v. Merc. Mez. Morph. Mur-ac. Myris. Nat-m. Nat-p. Nat-s. Nit-ac. Nux-m. Nux-v. Op. Ostrya, Ox-ac. Par. Petr. Phos. Phyt. Plb-acet. Plb-m. Podo. Ptel. Puls. Pyrog. Ran-s. Rhus-t. Rhus-v. Rumx. Sang. Sanic. Sapon. Sec. Sep. Spong. Stram. Sulph. Tarax. Tart-ac. Ter. Verat-v. Verat. Vip. Yuc.
---------------- blackish: Ars. Bapt. Camph. Lach. Lyc. Merc-c. Merc-cy. Merc-d. Merc-v. Op. Phos. Rhus-t. Vip.
---------------- bluish, livid, pale: Ars. Cupr-s. Dig. Gymn. Merc-cy. Morph. Morph. Mur-ac. Op. Sec. Verat. Vip.
---------------- brownish: Ail. Am-c. Ant-t. Ars. Bapt. Bry. Cupr-ar. Echi. Hyos. Kali-p. Lach. Med. Merc-cy. Morph. Morph. Mur-ac. Nat-s. Phos. Plb-m. Rhus-t. Sec. Spong.
---------------- brownish, centre: Bapt. Phos. Plb-m.
---------------- brownish, dry: Ail. Ant-t. Ars. Bapt. Bry. Kali-p. Lach. Rhus-t. Spong. Tart-ac. Vip.
---------------- clean: Ars. Asar. Cina, Cinch. Dig. Dipod. Ip. Mag-p. Nit-ac. Nux-v. Pyrog. Rhus-t. Sep.
---------------- clean anteriorly, coated posteriorly: Nux-v.
---------------- clean, at menstrual nisus, foul after flow ceases: Sep.
---------------- dark streak in centre, typhoid tongue: Arn. Bapt. Mur-ac.
---------------- flabby, moist, with imprints of teeth: Ars. Chel. Hydr. Kali-bi. Merc-c. Merc-d. Merc-s. Nat-p. Podo. Pyrog. Rhus-t. Sanic. Stram. Yuc.
---------------- frothy, with bubbles on side: Nat-m.
---------------- furred: Ant-t. Ars. Bapt. Canth. Card-m. Chin-ar. Coca, Ferr-pic. Ferr-pic. Gels. Guai. Lyc. Myris. Nux-v. Puls. Rumx.
---------------- greenish: Nat-s. Plb-acet.
---------------- greyish-white base: Kali-m.
---------------- mapped: Ant-c. Ant-c. Ars. Kali-bi. Lach. Merc-v. Nat-m. Nit-ac. Ox-ac. Phyt. Ran-s. Rhus-t. Tarax. Ter.
---------------- mapped, with red, insular patches: Nat-m.
---------------- red: Acon. All-s. Amyg-p. Ant-t. Apis, Arg-n. Ars. Arum-t. Bapt. Bell. Bor-ac. Canth. Card-m. Caust. Chel. Crot-h. Cycl. Diph. Echi. Gels. Hyos. Jal.
Kali-bi. Lac-c. Lach. Lyc. Merc-c. Merc-i-f. Merc. Mez. Nit-ac. Nux-m. Nux-v. Phos. Phyt. Podo. Ptel. Pyrog. Ran-s. Rhus-t. Rhus-v. Sulph. Tarax. Ter. Verat-v.
---------------- red, centre, or streaks, in: Ant-t. Ars. Caust. Crot-h. Verat-v.
---------------- red, dry, especially centre: Ant-t. Rhus-t.
---------------- red, edges: Amyg-p. Ant-t. Ars. Bapt. Bell. Canth. Card-m. Chel. Echi. Kali-bi. Lac-c. Lach. Merc-c. Merc-i-f. Merc. Nit-ac. Podo. Rhus-t. Rhus-v. Sulph. Tarax.
---------------- red, edges, white centre: Bell. Rhus-t.
---------------- red, papillae pale, effaced: All-s.
---------------- red, pappilae prominent: Ant-t. Arg-n. Ars. Bell. Kali-bi. Lyc. Mez. Nux-m. Ptel. Ter.
---------------- red, raw: Ars. Arum-t. Canth. Tarax.
---------------- red, shining, glossy, as if varnished: Apis, Canth. Crot-h. Jal. Kali-bi. Lach. Nit-ac. Phos. Pyrog. Rhus-t. Ter.
---------------- red, spots, sensitive: Ran-s. Tarax. Ter.
---------------- red, tip: Amyg-p. Arg-n. Ars. Cycl. Merc-i-f. Phyt. Rhus-t. Rhus-v. Sulph.
---------------- red, wet, central furrow: Nit-ac.
---------------- strawberry: Bell. Frag. Sapon.
---------------- unilateral: Daph. Lob. Rhus-t.
---------------- white-furred, slimy, pasty: Acon. Aesc. Aesc. Ant-c. Ant-c. Ant-t. Arg-n. Arn. Bapt. Bell. Bism. Bry. Calc. Carb-v. Carb-v. Card-m. Chel. Cinch. Cycl. Ferr. Glon. Hedeo. Hydr. Ip. Kali-c.
Kali-chl. Kali-m. Lac-c. Lob. Lyc. Merc-c. Merc. Mez. Nat-m. Nux-v. Ox-ac. Par. Petr. Phos. Puls. Sep. Sulph. Tarax. Verat-v.
---------------- yellow patch in centre: Bapt. Phyt.
---------------- yellow, dirty, thick coating: Aesc. Aesc. Bapt. Bry. Carb-v. Carb-v. Cham. Chel. Chion. Cinch. Ferr. Hydr. Indol. Kali-bi. Kali-s. Lept. Lyc. Merc-d. Merc-i-f.
Merc. Myris. Nat-p. Nat-s. Nux-v. Ostrya, Podo. Puls. Sang. Sulph. Yuc.
---------------- coldness: Acet-ac. Camph. Carb-v. Carb-v. Cist. Helo. Hydr-ac. Sec. Verat.
---------------- dryness: Acon. Ail. Ant-t. Apis, Ars. Bapt. Bell. Bry. Calc. Colch. Hyos. Kali-bi. Kali-c. Lach. Leon. Merc-c. Merc. Morph. Morph. Mur-ac. Nat-m. Nux-m. Par.
Ph-ac. Phos. Puls. Pyrog. Rhus-t. Sulph. Ter. Verat-v. Vip.
eruptions: Alumn. Am-c. Ambr. Anan. Apis, Arg-n. Ars-h. Ars. Arum-t. Arund. Aur-m-n. Aur-m. Aur. Bapt. Bell. Berb. Bor-ac. Bor. Bry. Calc. Canth. Carb-ac. Carb-an. Cast-eq. Cham. Chr-ac. Cinnb. Crot-h. Ferr-p. Fl-ac. Gal. Ham. Hydr. Kali-bi. Kali-chl. Kali-cy. Lacer. Lach. Leon. Lyc. Mang. Merc-s. Merc. Merl. Mez. Mur-ac. Nat-m. Nat-p. Nit-ac. Nit-m-ac. Phyt. Plb-acet. Pyrog. Ran-s. Rhus-t. Rhus-v. Sanguin-n. Sanic. Semp. Strych-g. Sul-ac. Sulph. Syph. Thuj. Vib-pr.
eruptions, growths: Alumn. Am-c. Ambr. Anan. Apis, Arg-n. Ars-h. Ars. Arum-t. Arund. Aur-m-n. Aur-m. Aur. Bapt. Bell. Berb. Bor-ac. Bor. Bry. Calc. Canth. Carb-ac. Carb-an.
Cast-eq. Cham. Chr-ac. Cinnb. Crot-h. Ferr-p. Fl-ac. Gal. Ham. Hydr. Kali-bi. Kali-chl. Kali-cy. Lacer. Lach. Leon. Lyc. Mang. Merc-s. Merc. Merl. Mez. Mur-ac. Nat-m. Nat-p.
Nit-ac. Nit-m-ac. Phyt. Plb-acet. Pyrog. Ran-s. Rhus-t. Rhus-v. Sanguin-n. Sanic. Semp. Strych-g. Sul-ac. Sulph. Syph. Thuj. Vib-pr.
--------------------- cancer: Alumn. Apis, Ars. Aur-m-n. Aur-met. Crot-h. Gal. Kali-chl. Kali-cy. Mur-ac. Semp. Strych-g. Thuj. Vib-pr.
--------------------- cracks, excoriations: Anan. Ars. Arum-t. Arund. Bapt. Bell. Bor-ac. Bor. Bor. Bry. Cham. Kali-bi. Lach. Leon. Nat-m. Nit-ac. Phyt. Plb-acet. Pyrog. Ran-s. Rhus-t. Rhus-v. Semp.
--------------------- epithelioma: Ars. Carb-ac. Carb-ac. Chr-ac. Hydr. Kali-cy. Mur-ac. Thuj.
--------------------- furrows lengthwise, in upper part: Merc.
--------------------- nodules: Ars-h. Aur-m-n. Aur. Cast-eq. Gal. Mur-ac. Nit-ac. Thuj.
--------------------- psoriasis: Cast-eq. Kali-bi. Mur-ac.
--------------------- ranula: Ambr. Calc. Ferr-p. Fl-ac. Merc-s. Nit-ac. Thuj.
--------------------- ring worm: Nat-m. Sanic.
--------------------- ulcerations: Apis, Arg-n. Ars-h. Ars. Aur. Bapt. Cinnb. Fl-ac. Kali-bi. Lach. Lyc. Merc. Mez. Mur-ac. Nit-ac. Nit-m-ac. Sanguin-n. Semp. Syph. Thuj.
--------------------- ulcerations, syphilitic: Aur-met. Cinnb. Fl-ac. Kali-bi. Lach. Merc. Mez. Nit-ac.
--------------------- veins, varicose: Ambr. Ham. Thuj.
--------------------- vesicles, blisters: Am-c. Apis, Berb. Bor. Bor. Canth. Carb-an. Lacer. Lyc. Merl. Mur-ac. Nat-m. Nat-p. Nit-ac. Phyt. Rhus-t. Sul-ac. Sulph. Thuj.
--------------------- warts: Aur-m. Mang.
hard, indurated: Alumn. Aur-met. Calc-f. Mur-ac. Semp. Sil.
heaviness: Caust. Colch. Gels. Gua. Merl. Mur-ac. Nux-v.
inflammation (glossitis): Acon. Apis, Ars. Bell. Canth. Crot-h. Lach. Merc-c. Merc. Mur-ac. Ox-ac. Phyt. Ran-s. Sul-ac. Vip.
numbness, tingling: Acon. Con. Con. Echi. Gels. Ign. Lath. Merl. Nat-m. Nux-m. Nux-v. Plat. Rad-br. Rheum, Sec.
pain: Acon. Ars. Arum-t. Bell. Kali-ar. Kali-i. Merc-v. Nit-ac. Phyt. Ruta, Semp. Thuj.
paralysis: Acon-c. Acon. Anac. Arn. Ars. Bar-c. Bell. Both-l. Cann-i. Caust. Cocc. Con. Con. Cupr-met. Cur. Dulc. Gels. Gua. Hyos. Lach. Lob-pur. Mur-ac. Nux-m. Olnd. Op. Plb-m. Sec. Stram. Zinc-s.
protrusion: Absin. Anac. Apis, Ars. Calc. Caust. Crot-h. Cupr-met. Dulc. Gels. Gua. Hyos. Lach. Lyc. Merc. Mur-ac. Mygal. Nat-m. Plb-m. Pyrog. Sanic. Stram. Sulfon. Ter. Vip.
------------ difficult: Anac. Apis, Ars. Calc. Caust. Crot-h. Dulc. Gels. Gua. Hyos. Lach. Merc. Mur-ac. Mygal. Nat-m. Plb-m. Pyrog. Stram. Sulfon. Ter.
------------ snake-like: Absin. Crot-h. Cupr. Lach. Lyc. Merc. Sanic. Vip.
rawness, roughness: Apis, Ars. Arum-t. Canth. Dulc. Nit-ac. Phyt. Ran-s. Tarax.
sensation as if: Absin. Aeth. All-s. Anac. Crot-h. Kali-bi. Nat-m. Nux-v. Ptel. Puls. Sil.
“As if, hair on tongue”: All-s. Kali-bi. Nat-m. Sil.
“As if swollen, enlarged”: Absin. Aeth. Aeth. Anac. Crot-h. Nux-v. Ptel. Puls.
soreness: Apis, Arum-t. Cist. Kali-c. Merc-c. Mur-ac. Nit-ac. Ox-ac. Phel. Phys. Ran-s. Rhus-t. Semp. Sep. Sil. Ter. Thuj.
spasm: Acon. Bell. Ruta, Sec.
stiffness: Con. Con. Dulc. Hyos. Lac-c. Merc-i-r. Nicol. Sec. Stram.
swelling: Acon. Apis, Ars. Arum-t. Aster. Bapt. Bell. Bism. Caj. Canth. Crot-h. Diph. Frag. Kali-tel. Lach. Mag-p. Merc-c. Mez. Mur-ac. Oena. Ox-ac. Ruta, Thuj. Vesp. Vip.
trembling: Absin. Agar. Agarin. Apis, Ars. Bell. Camph. Caust. Cham. Gels. Lach. Merc. Plb-met. Stram.
[Dr Constantine Hering/presented by Sylvain Cazalet]
[Dr Constantine Hering/presented by Sylvain Cazalet]
Bad taste in the mouth.
If the taste in the mouth is altered and the other symptoms are not sufficient for the selection of the proper remedy, consult the following list:
Bitter taste in the morning: Sulph. Merc. Bry. Calc. Sil.
When solid food tastes bitter: Sulph. Bry. Rheum. Rhus-t. Hep. Coloc. Ferr-met.
Food and drink both bitter: Puls. Chin.
bitter taste after eating or drinking: Puls. Bry. Ars.
in the morning or evening: Puls. Arn.
at different times, or continually, besides the above medicines: Acon. Bell. Verat. Nux-v. Cham. Ant-c. Carb-v.
For sweet taste: Merc-v. Sulph. Cupr-met. Bell. Puls. Bry. Chin. Ferr-met. Spong.
in the morning: Sulph.
when bread tastes sweet: Merc-v.
blood-like, sweetish taste: Ferr-met. Sulph.
when like nuts: Coff.
For salt taste: Carb-v. Rheum. Ph-ac. Nux-v. Sulph. Ars. Nat-m. Cupr-met.
when food tastes salty: Carb-v. Sulph.
salty taste when coughing: Carb-v. Cocc.
For sour taste: Rheum. Ph-ac. Nux-v. Chin. Sulph. Caps. Calc. Nat-m. Cocc. Cupr-met.
food tastes sour: Chin. Calc.
after meals: Puls. Nux-v. Carb-v. Nat-m. Cocc. Sil.
after drinking water: Nux-v. Sulph.
after drinking milk: Carb-v. Sulph.
in the morning: Nux-v. Sulph.
Acrid, biting taste: Verat. Rhus-t.
Brunt, smoky taste: Puls. Nux-v. Sulph.
taste like herbs: Verat. Nux-v.
taste like peppermint: Verat.
Earthy taste: Puls. Hep. Chin.
insipid taste: Puls. Rheum. Staph. Bry. Chin. Sulph. Dulc. Rhus-t. Ip. Caps.
slimy taste: Bell. Rheum. Arn. Rhus-t. Plat-met.
Greasy, oily taste: Sil. Caust.
greasy taste: Caust.
sticky taste: Ph-ac.
watery taste: Staph. Chin. Caust.
Putrid taste: Arn. Merc-v. Bell. Bry. Cham. Puls. Acon. Verat. Ph-ac. Sulph. Rhus-t. Nat-m. Cupr-met. Caust.
in the morning: Sulph. Rhus-t.
after meals: Rhus-t.
taste like pus: Puls.
When tobacco has a sharp taste: Staph.
when bitter: Cocc.
disagreeable: Ign. Puls. Nux-v. Arn. Calc. Cocc.
When food has no flavor: Merc. Puls. Staph. Bry. Nux-v. Ars.
absence of taste: Verat. Bell. Puls. Rheum. Bry. Hep. Hyos.
in chronic cases: Sil. Nat-m.
[Dr. Douglas Borland]
Nat-m.: shiny red broken by patches of white. Salty taste.
Nat-ars.: Flabby, toneless, with visid mucus in mouth. Bitter taste.
Nat-c.: Sensitive, slightly inflamed, small blisters on margins, bright red tip. Burning in mouth.
Nat-p.: Thickly coated and white or yellow at the root. Sour taste in mouth.
Nat-s.: Dirty, thickly coated (dirty yellow or brown). Much mucus. Blisters on the cheek or inside of the lips, rather than the tongue. Loss of taste.
Ulcer on the Tongue
Merc-i-r. is in general the best remedy, except for patients who have been overdosed with Mercury/Amalgam – Nit-ac. [in potency] both internally and as a gargle?, should be prescribed.
Bad breath is caused by problems of the teeth or gums or indigestion or chronic respiratory diseases. The cause should be sought and treated very fast as it is a real problem with many people.
Arn. + sore, beaten-up feeling in the whole body.
Aur-met. (old persons/adolescent girls) with restlessness and very sad nature.
Merc. with bitter or metallic taste in the mouth, excessive salivation and intense thirst for large quantities of cold water. Tongue thick and shows imprint of teeth.
Nervous trembling and profuse, offensive perspiration. odor very offensive, smells all over the room.
Nit-ac. + spongy, bleeding gums and loose teeth. Tongue clean and red. Nervous, general weakness, strong-smelling urine and dry, cracked skin.
Nux-v. with swollen gums, ulcerated lips or tongue and sour taste in the mouth. An over-sensitive nature, frequent ineffectual desire for stools and tends to catch colds.
Puls. with dry tongue and sweetish taste in the mouth. Thirstless and a weeping nature.
Agri. = Odermennig/= Bubenläuse/= Fünfblatt/= Kaiserkraut/= Leberkraut/= Klettenkraut/= Natternzunge/= immortal crane/= Brustwurz/= Schafklette/= Magenkraut/= Steinkraut/= Kirchturm/= Milzblüh/B.B.
Asplenium. scolopendrium = Hirschzungenfarn
Chelo. = Balmony/= Snakehead/= white turtlehead/= fishmouth
Cyn-d. = dog’s tooth gras/= devil’s gras
Galeopsis = gelber Hohlzahn Phytologie: Lungen Lamiales.x
Labiatae. Flowers resembling the lips of a mouth and four-lobed ovaries.
Lap. = Grindwurz/= Ochsenzunge/= Scheißblättchen/= Saukraut/= Altes Ross
Lina. = Frauenflachs/= Lin sauvage/= Toad-flax-Snap Dragon/= Common toadflax/= Froschkraut/= Löwe maul
Ruscus hypoglossum = Zungenblatt/= Zäpfleinkraut/= Hadernblatt Asparagales.: Organ: Zäpflein
Ruta. = Weinraute/= Rue/= bitterwort/= dogtooth daisy/= Tränen der Helena
Scolo-v.: = Hirschzunge
Salz. wird Säugling bei der Taufe im Mund gegeben
„two-faced.“ = doppeltzüngig/= heuchlerisch
Loxodonta africana. = ivory/= Elfenbein
Stach. = Ziest/= Betonie/= Betony
wood/= Echte Betonie/= Flohblume/= Pfaffenblume/= Zahnkraut/= Zehrkraut.
Stach. = Ziest/= Betonie/= Betony wood/= Echte Betonie/= Flohblume/= Pfaffenblume/= Zahnkraut/= Zehrkraut.
Bad Taste in the Mouth
Bitter taste in the morning: Sulph. Merc-v. Bry. Calc. Sil.
When solid food tastes bitter: Sulph. Bry. Rheum. Rhus-t. Hep. Coloc. Ferr-met.
Food and drink both bitter: Puls. Chin.
Bitter taste after eating or drinking: Puls. Bry. Ars.
For sweet taste: Merc-v. Sulph. Cupr-met. Bell. Puls. Bry. Chin. Ferr-met. Spong.
For salty taste: Carb-v. Rheum. Ph-ac. Nux-v. Sulph. Ars. Nat-m. Cupr-met.
When food tastes salty: Carb-v. Sulph.
Salt taste when coughing: Carb-v. Coc-i.
For sour taste: Rheum. Ph-ac. Nux-v. Chin. Sulph. Caps. Calc. Nat-m. Coc-i. Cupr-met.
Acrid, biting taste: Verat. Rhus-t.
Burnt, smoky taste: Puls. Nux-v. Sulph.
Taste like herbs: Verat. Nux-v.
Taste like peppermint: Verat.
„Hat die Katze deine Zunge gefressen“
Atharva Veda/ancient Greeks associated lips anointed with honey with the gift of eloquence.
‡ Beziehung zwischen Eisen und Sprache anämie. ‡
[Dr. Trevor Cook]
The make-up of the tongue
A vital, highly active, sensitive organ, the beginning and the only visible part of the digestive tract. Sometimes called the mirror of the stomach. It can prove to be a key-factor in determining many conditions and the overall health.
The tongue is a flexible muscular organ of the mouth. It is meant for tasting, moisturising, licking, kissing, mastication of food, swallowing and speech. Its muscles are attached to the lower jaw and to a bone above the larynx.
Its rough texture produced by tiny nodules or papillae projecting from its upper surface. Sensory nerves or taste buds situated at the sides and the base of the tongue and the motor nerve distributed across the muscular substance.
Ask to protrude the tongue and check for any deviation, discomfort or tremors. Examine the dorsum of the colour and any coating or furring. Enlarged or flabby? Note the condition of the papillae.
Any cracks, fissures or patches on the tongue? Ask the client to elevate the tip with the mouth wide open. Camine the undersurface of the anterior tongue. While conducting this examination it is pertinent to study the lips, teeth, gums, palate, fauces (the passage from the mouth pharynx), tonsils and pharynx.
The healthy tongue is free of any discomfort, such as pain, stinging, burning, swelling, excrescences or numbness. It is moist, with a rough surface, and has an evenly coloured pink surface overlaying pale red. Inspection of the client’s tongue is, therefore, a very useful starting point in most consultations. -
Cuts: The tongue is considered to be the fastest healing organ in the body. Wounds should respond within 48 hours with correct treatment, otherwise consult a physician.
May be treated with a mouthwash of Calendula mother tincture or a mixture of equal volumes of Calen. and Hyper. mother tinctures (Hypercal), 10 drops in ½ cup of water.
If there is suppuration, Hep. 6 C also.
Bites/bitten Tongue: Ledum 6 C for puncture wounds with imprints of teeth, or as for cuts. Hydr. Merc-c. Mer-s. or Rhus-t. may also be considered. All in 6 C or 30 C.
Red Tip of Tongue: Usually a dietary problem with excessively acid foods. Reduce acidity by increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables: Nat-c. 6 C, Bell. 6 C, Nat-p. 6 C, Arg-n. 6 C, Rhus-t. 6 C or Sulph.30 C.
White Salivation and bad, slimy taste. White ‘thrush’ tongue. Kali-c. 6 C or Kali-m. 6 C. Bry. 6 C or Tarax. 6 C might also be useful. For white patches, Tarax. 2 C.
Dry. thick white Coating is a sign of toxification.
drainage remedies. Berb. 6 C for kidney dysfunction, Chel. 6 C for liver dysfunction, or Kali-s. 6 C or Tarax. 2 C. Water intake should be increased.
Also consider Bapt. 6 C or Ars. 6 C. Senna for constipation.
Greyish-white mapped tongue Swelling. Tongue feels dryish or slimy. Kali-m. 6 C or Nat-m. 6 C.
Smooth, pale tongue May suggest a nutrional deficinecy; the healthy tongue is rough. A healthy, balanced diet is necessary. the biochemic remedy Kali-p. 6 C.
Purple Lach. 30 C. Consider also Petr. 30 C.
Red edges Merc-s. 6 C Consider also Ars. 6 C, Chel. 6 C or Lyc. 30 C
Reddish with pale edges: (and possibly tiny white spots). Indicates a liver problem. Nat-s. 6 C, Chel. 6 C, Berb. 6 C or Solid. 6 C.
Black or blackish: Consider Merc-s. 6 C, Carb-v. 6 C, or Ars. 6 C.
Black at the centre: Phos. 30 C.
The tongue can also be brushed gently night and morning using a Calendula mouthwash.
Blue Ant-t. 6 C or Ars. 6 C.
Possible heart condition. Lips may be blue. Dig. 6 C or 30 C. Consider Conv. 6 C or Crat. in mother tincture.
Brown Ars. 6 C or Bapt. 6 C. If worse in the morning, Rhus-t. 6 C.
Red Bell. 6 C. If swollen, Rhus-t. 6 C. If fiery red, Apis. 6 C. Rhus-t. has fiery red triangular tip. A strawberry tongue indicates Bell.
Grey or greyish-yellow Ambros. 6 C
Grey-green Nat-s. 6 C or Nat-p. 6 C. A thick grey-green coating may suggest severe constipation. drainage remedies, including Senna 6 C and increase water intake to 2 litres
Yellow thick, dirty coating Chel. 30 C if a liver problem is suspected. Consider Rhus-t. Kali-bi. or Spig. all in a 6 C potency.
Multicoloured Lach. 6 C
Color of Saliva
A blue color has been observed in slow poisoning by lead.
Yellow, even greenish saliva has been found in liver complaints and jaundice.
Appearance of saliva:
Mapped tongue Nat-m. 6 C but see Coloration
Twitching tongue Glon. 6 C or 30 C.
Trembling tongue Lach. 6 C or Mer-s. 6 C. If the tongue is protruded and trembling, the Lach. Accompanied by stammering choose Stram. 30 C or Arg-n. 6 C.
Tongue tremor This condition could indicate hyperthyrodism, and a blood test would be required (incl. weight loss, bulging eyes, insomnia, restlessness and
depression). Meanwhile Kali-p. 6 C can be given.
Wrinkled tongue Consider Calc-p. 6 C or Phos. 6 C.
Swollen tongue An enlarged tongue may indicate thyroid enlargement, an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism). Other symptoms include weight gain
Fuc. 6 C, prepared from sea kelp (high in I, the major constituent of thyrodine). Alternatively Iod. 6 C. Remedies to be considered are Anac. and Puls. both at 6 C.
Tongue swollen, flabby where the teeth leave marks would indicate Mer-s. 6 C.
Smooth tongue Accompanied by redness and soreness. Indicating anemia (iron deficiency anemia). There may be an earthy taste. Ferr-p. 6 C.
In the morning or on waking, Op. 30 C, Puls. or Rhus-t.
At night, Nux-m. 30 C (‘Sensation as if dry’).
Dry Tongue may be caused by stress or nervousness (before addressing an audience/before an examination). Feels tongue-tied, unable to speak. Arg-n. 6 C the night before and 1 hour before the event or consider Gels. 6 C or 30 C. Drink plenty of water.
Itching Apis. 6 C. Dulc. 6 C or Sulph. 30 C.
Tongue in constant motion Loquacious, but in motion even when not talking. Tongue may be protruded. Phyt. 6 C or Hyos. 6 C and follow with Lach. 6 C or Phos. 6 C.
Sticky Arg-n. 6 C. Sep. 30 C or Nux-m. 30 C.
Bitter, Chel. 6 C.
Pain in tongue:
On swallowing Calc-p. 6 C or Phyt. 6 C.
On talking Kalm. 6 C or Lyc. 6 C.
On puffing out Phyt. 6 C or 30 C.
Burning pain (smarting) Ars. Iris. Sang. or Verat-v. (all 6 C). Acon. could be given initially (one dose).
Soreness Nit-ac. 6 C or Thuj. 6 C.
Paralysis Difficult articulation of speech. Caus. 6 C or 30 C, Gels. 30 C, Lyc. 30 C or Op. 200 C (left side). See also Trembling tongue.
Tip of tongue Crot-t. 6 C. If the tip is sensitive and red choose Ars. 6 C, Phyt. 6 C or Sulph. 30 C
Whole tongue Tarax. 2 C
Blisters Gums may bleed. Zinc-met. 6 C.
Numb Nat-m. 6 C is indicated (+ tingling sensation). Also consider Gels. 6 C or Acon. (initially).
Hot Bell. 6 C Apis. 6 C.
Inflamed Apis. Lach. Crot-c. all 30 C.
Frothy with bubbles on side of tongue. Nat-m. 6 C. See also Coloration.
Greyish film May be caused by excessive use of antibiotics. Ambros. 6 C or Kali-c. 6 C or Chel. 6 C.
White: Kali-i. 6 C. Tongue may have greyish-white coating.
Small. Merc-s. 6 C. May be the result of stress. A vitamin C supplement may be helpful. Possibly follow up with Psor. 1M.
Bleeding: Merc-s. 6 C or 30 C. Ulcers at edges of tongue may be treated with Nit-ac. 6 C or, if under the with Lyc. 30 C.
Schistocerca americana.: = American bird grasshopper/= Heuschrecke/= Zähne des Windes
Amor-r. = Teufelszunge/= Tränenbaum
[Dr. Colin Lessell]
Temporomandibular Joint- Disorders of:
Cracking of the joint – Rhus-t.
Painful cracking of joint – Gran.
Pain in joint on swallowing – Arum-t.