Terms in Homeopathy




History of homoeopathy

Homoeopathy is a system of medicine that was discovered and developed by a German physician, Christian Friederich Samuel Hahnemann (Vithoulkas, 1998:94).

Having been commissioned to translate William Cullen’s ‘A Treatise on Materia Medica’ from German into English, Hahnemann became sceptical of the author’sde

assumption that the drug Quinine (Peruvian bark) was an effective anti-malarial agent due to its bitter taste (de Schepper, 2001:xv).

Hahnemann decided to experiment with the author’s theory and began ingesting crude doses of the bark over several days, following which he began to

produce symptoms of malaria (de Schepper, 2001:27). Hahnemann had unofficially “proven” his very first remedy - China officinalis (Bradford, 2004:45).

It was from this momentous experiment that Hahnemann realized that quinine can be used to treat malaria, not because it is bitter tasting, but because it is able to induce symptoms similar to that

of malaria in a healthy person (de Schepper, 2001:27). It was also from this discovery, followed by a subsequent six years of provings, that Hahnemann proclaimed the first and fundamental law of homoeopathic medicine, the Law of Similars or “Like Cures Like” (Bradford, 2004:46). This principle states that if a substance produces symptoms in a healthy person, it can cure the same symptoms in an ill person (de Schepper, 2001:26).

However, the Law of Similars is an age old concept that predates even Hahnemann himself.

Hippocrates mentions that one method of cure is by ‘similarities’, Boulduc states that the purgative quality of rhubarb can be used to treat diarrhea, while

Detharding states that the herb senna cures colic because it produces a similar effect on a healthy person.

It was Hahnemann however, who was the first to truly systematize this law into the field of homoeopathy (O’ Reilly, 1996:57). Scholten states that the Law of Similars is not limited to the system

of homoeopathy and that there are a variety of modern medicines that are able to produce the symptoms that the same medicines are used to treat. These include anti-depressants which can lead to depression, and methylphenidate hydrochloride which is used to treat Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and which can also lead to restlessness (Scholten, 2004:231-232).

Machine-Made Potencies History. (Robert Muentz)


Allopathic: A term coined by Hahnemann to describe conventional medicine, from the Greek allo meaning other, and pathos, meaning suffering or disease, in other words „other therapy‟.

Traditional medicine attempts to deny the veracity of almost 200 years of homoeopathic investigation by thousands of researchers and practitioners, many of whom themselves were conventionally trained. While homoeopathic practitioners know that their medicine works, there is little available scientific data to explain how it works. A discussion of “vital forces” leaves much to be desired in the minds of most scientific investigators, and the hypotheses of energy medicine that are being explored in the far reaches of modern physics have yet to penetrate medical science.

Homoeopathy still faces the problem of explaining the therapeutic action of medicines diluted beyond the theoretical Avogadro limit of molecular presence. The remedy is diluted to such an extent that there is theoretically none of the original solute remaining.

One of the apparently implausible bases of homoeopathy is the law of infinitesimals: the greater the dilution of a remedy, the greater its effect. This holds true only if the remedy is dynamized by succussion or trituration. As unscientific as it may seem, these substances are observed clinically to have an effect.

This raises an interesting question:

What effect does the dynamization process (succussion or trituration) have on the remedy? More specifically, what is the effect of trituration in the manufacturing process?

This question is the foundation out of which this investigation is built. Does the process of trituration produce a remedy that is distinctly different from one that has not been triturated? How does one best measure these differences if they do exist? Research has been conducted with a view to addressing these questions, a brief review of which follows


Direction of Cure a.k.a as Hering’s Laws

Cure is a dynamic process with certain well-defined characteristics. There will be a thought, a feeling and a physical response to cure, and all are important. Physical curative signs generally flow from the inside out, from higher up the body to lower down, from more to less vital organs and in the reverse order of the progress of the patient’s sickness. Not infrequently the patient relives in a mild form all their previous illness history (Chappell, 1994: 90).

Herings Regeln. Illusion (Roland Mehtner)

[Dr. K.N. Mathur]

Brain disease from suppressed eruptions: Cicuta virosa

Heart disease from suppressed hemorrhoids or menses: Collinsonia canadensis

Rheuma from suddenly checked diarrhea or other secretions: Abrotanum

Mania from suppressed neuralgia: Cimicifuga


Principles of Homoeopathy

Law of Similars

Homoeopathic medicines act therapeutically in patients whose clinical picture is closely similar to the pathological effects of the source material of the medicine (Swayne, 1998: 17). The successful remedy will be that substance which is capable of eliciting an immune response most similar to that of the sick person, thus, let likes be cured by likes (Lilley, 1998: 120-128). The Single Dose According to Hahnemann (Hahnemann, 1998: 296,297), aphorism 273 states that “In no case under treatment is it necessary and therefore not permissible to administer to a patient more than one single, simple medicinal substance at one time...it is absolutely not allowed in homoeopathy, the one true, simple and natural art of healing, to give the patient at one time two different medicinal substances” (Hahnemann, 1998: 296-297).

The basic system of homoeopathy, however, predated Hahnemann by many centuries and can be traced back to the Greek physician, Hippocrates (460-350 BC). He realised that a disease is produced by similar things and through the application of the like it is cured. Others to recognise the importance of this principle were Aristotle (384-322 BC), Galen (130-200AD) and Paracelsus. (1493-1541) (Cook, 1989). Aristotle believed that often the simile acts on the similar, Galen used healthy people to test medicinal substances on and Paracelsus believed that every diseased organ had its corresponding remedy in nature. In the 17th Century, a Danish physician known as Dr. G Stahl wrote: “To treat with opposite acting remedies is the reverse of what it ought to be. I am convinced that disease will yield to, and be cured by, remedies that produce similar affection” (Cook, 1989:2).

Any substance that can produce a totality of disease symptoms in a healthy human being: can cure that same totality of symptoms when present in a diseased human being (Vithoulkas, 2002:92).


Materia medica

From the Latin for “medical material”; in homoeopathy it refers to a reference work listing homoeopathic remedies and discussing their therapeutic properties (Yasgur, 2004).

Comparative Materia Medica Candegabe (1997) states that in homoeopathy, information on remedies comes from three different sources: pure materia medica, clinical materia medica and the repertories.

The first source gives a detailed account of the provings, and is valuable for its authenticity and impartiality, but we cannot rely on this source alone as it lacks cohesion and synthesis. The second source is clinical materia medica, which is the knowledge gained by a physician through clinical experience. The third source of knowledge comes from the repertories (Candegabe, 1997).

Every remedy has a “remedy picture” or set of symptoms unique to it, however, there may be a similar group of symptoms found in different remedies, making it difficult to decipher the correct remedy in a case. The selection of a remedy inevitably involves a process of comparing and differentiating between similar remedies. Repertorisation is a mathematical process whereby a comparison of similar remedies can be made. By repertorising homoeopaths can take the remedies that come through and compare them to one another and to the case before them (Candegabe, 1997:1-19).

It is clear that the comparison of remedies is an essential process in finding an accurate remedy. Hahnemann says in aphorism 153 (Organon of the Medical Art) „In this search for a homoeopathic specific remedy, the more striking, singular, uncommon and peculiar (characteristic) signs and symptoms of the case of disease are chiefly and most solely to be kept in view” (O’Reilly, 1996).

One can conclude that two similar remedies can be distinguished by the presence of characteristic symptoms which are unique to one of the remedies.



From the Greek for “preparation of drugs”; a reference book describing the properties, preparation and use of medicines (Yasgur, 2004).


Imponderabilia. (= imponderable remedies) are homoeopathic remedies considered to be manufactured from a dynamically, immaterial energetic source (Goel, 2002:12). These sources have no mass and exist only at a vibrational, energetic level; examples of such remedies include those derived from sunlight (Sol), moonlight (Luna), and electricity (Electricitas) (Yasgur, 2004:122).


In homoeopathy, groups of remedies are often referred to as a family of remedies (Families.).

Grouping of remedies has allowed family pictures to be developed as the family picture is a thematic expression, which all the members of the family have in common.

The family picture will be more generalized, while the pictures of each member will be seen as specializations of the general family picture. For example, the family picture of the Gold series has the theme of responsibility and leadership.

Aurum metallicum (= metallic gold) shares the thematic expression of the Gold series, but with the specialization of maintaining and preserving their power and responsibility, which is not part of the general family picture. Therefore, the family picture is developed first, and then the differentiation between the family members is analyzed (Scholten, 2005:44).

Group analysis can enhance insight and understanding of well known and relatively unknown remedies (Scholten, 1993: 289). It enables the prediction of a remedy picture without actually conducting a proving.

This can accelerate the pace at which remedies are added to the homoeopathic materia medica. Group analysis also expands the number of possible symptoms and expressions of a case, which will enable more cases

to be understood and differential diagnoses can also become simpler and clearer (Scholten, 2005:40).

 [Sankaran] group analysis should be used in conjunction with the traditional homoeopathic learning of homoeopathic materia medica and repertory as this method cannot replace the older methods of learning. It merely gives an opportunity to look at remedies and cases from several viewpoints, as compared to only one viewpoint. Group analysis seems to be a natural and inevitable progression of homoeopathy (Sankaran, 2005b: 667 - 668). the family picture is developed first, and then the differentiation between the family members is analyzed (Scholten, 2005:44).

Jan Scholten: Group analysis according focused on the use of the periodic table in homoeopathy to classify and group mineral remedies. Scholten’s method involves studying groups of chemically related elements where common symptoms are extracted (Scholten, 1993: 11).

For example, Kalium muriaticum (Potassium chloride), Kalium sulphuricum (Potassium sulphate) and Kalium phosphoricum (Potassium phosphate) are minerals that contain the element Potassium. The themes and characteristics that are common to the whole group are distilled out of the overall picture, and subsequently applied to the unknown Kaliums (Potassium salts) (Scholten, 1993: 68).

Jan Scholten: In “Homoeopathy and the elements” developed a theory regarding the use of the periodic table in homoeopathy.

The periodic table consists of seven horizontal rows and eighteen vertical columns. Scholten refers to the horizontal rows as series, while he refers to the vertical columns as stages. Scholten proposes that each row (series) in the periodic table corresponds to a basic life theme or period of development, with a progressive line of development from one series to the next, from conception in row one to disintegration and destruction in row seven. Each series is named after the most prominent element found in the row:

hydrogen series,

            carbon series,

silicum series,

ferrum series,

silver series,

gold series

uranium series

(Scholten, 1996:18 - 28).


Doctrine of Signatures:                 

It was the great Swiss alchemist and physician, Paracelsus (1493: 1541) who first proposed the concept of the doctrine of signatures almost 500 years ago. The concept was originally referred to as „the meaningfulness of resemblance‟ (Pujol, 1990:24). It was only during the time of the European Renaissance however that the concept really developed.

Paracelsus refers to the idea that plants with shapes resembling human organs or structures should be regarded as healing agents for those particular body parts. The doctrine of signature s states that by observation one can determine from the colour of the flowers or leaves, the place of growth, or other signatures just what the plant’s therapeutic purpose was intended to be (Pujol, 1990:24).

The doctrine of signatures was not originally formulated for the medical profession. It began as a spiritual philosophy whereby it was believed that God had marked everything that He created with

a sign. However, in a period where most of the world was largely illiterate, the doctrine was used as a valuable diagnostic tool by many physicians (Pujol, 1990:24). The doctrine enabled doctors to predict the symptoms that would be treatable by looking at the physical attributes of the plant in question, and provided a better understanding of the medicinal substance (Pujol, 1990:24).

The doctrine of signatures is practiced all over the world (S. Africa), by various different cultures. It is known that African herbalists have the ability to recognise the likeliness between plants and man when judging the use of any plant for the treatment of disease (Pujol, 1990:24).



heißt nicht „Schlüsselsymptom“, sondern „Schlüsselnote“, oder „Schlüsselmelodie“. Wie man in der Musik an einer bestimmten Tonfolge das ganze Musikstück erkennen kann, kann man in der

Homöopathie durch solche Erkennungszeichen an das Mittel erinnert werden. Kent hat einen ähnlichen Vergleich gebraucht, den mit dem roten Faden im Tauwerk der britischen Kriegsmarine.

[T.K. Moore, M.D.]

Do not overwork keynotes. They are sign-posts to shorten our research, not to suppress it.


Genus epidemicus.

A specific (almost) for a specific Illness or Syndrome


Kleine und große Arzneimittel.




Trait within a society, family or individual making them susceptible to a particular pattern of morbidity; an inherited or acquired disposition to be ill in a certain way (Swayne, 2000:137).



Die Faktoren, die ein Krankheitsbild verschlechtern oder verbessern können. Sie sind ein wichtiger Hinweis darauf, welches homöopathische Mittel das Passendste ist.

Modalitäten können sehr viele, teils für Laien undurchschaubare, Bereiche umfassen, so zum Beispiel Verschlechterung durch kühle Getränke, Verbesserung zwischen 16 und 20 h., liegen auf einer Körperseite usw. All diese Faktoren wurden durch Beobachtungen ermittelt und bestätigt, sind also keineswegs an den Haaren herbeigezogen.

In vielen Büchern und auf vielen Internetseiten findet man Abkürzungen für das Wort "Verschlechterung" = <, "Verbesserung" = >.




The methodology of dosage in general, by which the size, strength and frequency of repetition of a dose is prescribed.

It is quite immaterial what sensitive part of the body is touched by the medicine in order to develop its whole action…immaterial whether the dissolved medicine enter the stomach or merely remain in the mouth, or be applied to a wound or other part deprived of skin. …Its introduction into the rectum or application to the lining membrane of the nose, fulfils every purpose.

It is only the thicker epidermis covering the external surface of the body that presents some, but not an insurmountable obstacle to the action of medicines…

They still act through it, though somewhat less powerfully. .. The epidermis is however thinner on some parts, and consequently the action is easier in those situations. Among these are the abdominal region, especially the pit of the stomach, the inguinal regions and the inner surface of the axilla, the bend of the arm, the inner surface of the wrist…are the parts most sensitive to the medicine.

[C.M.F. Von Boenninghausen]

Smelling of Medicines

I may now openly confess that in very painful diseases, e, g,, in toothache, tic douloureux, convulsions and the like, where we desire to given relief as quickly as possible, I have for a long time used almost exclusively this method, which often instantaneously brings the desired relief, especially when only the highest potencies are used for this purpose.



Any dummy medical treatment, originally a medical preparation having no specific pharmacological activity against the patients illness or complaint, given solely for the psychophysiological effects

of the treatment; more recently a dummy treatment administered to the control group in a controlled clinical trial in order that the specific and non-specific effects of the experimental treatment can be distinguished (Dorland‟s Medical Dictionary, 1994:1298).

A non-medicated, relatively inert drug or substance administered to a group of individuals (forming the control group) during a controlled clinical trial, in order to establish a contrast between the symptomatology experienced by the verum group from those of the control group (Yasgur, 2004:187). For the purposes of this study, the placebo took the form of lactose powders impregnated with a single drop of 96% ethanol.

Placebo control may be one of the most important requirements in the conducting of modern provings. Due to the multitude of potential variables which govern the response of individuals to particular interventions, this, it seems, is one of the reasons a placebo is necessary. By the administration of placebo, it is possible to keep all the other variables constant, and then examine what additional variance might be explained by the drug intervention. Without both a double-blinding procedure and placebo control, one cannot be certain that the findings are not due to hope, expectancy, spontaneous fluctuation or other variables (Davidson, 1995:63-64).

Placebo control is thought to be the best control for subjectivity and is intended to reduce or eliminate bias by enabling pharmacological or drug related effects (proving symptoms) to be differentiated from environmental and other non-specific effects (the extraneous variables) (Kaptchuk, 1996:240).

In a clinical drug trial, the use of placebo has 3 major benefits which are described by Sherr (1994):

• It distinguishes the pharmacodynam ic effects of a drug from the psychological effects that may arise from the test itself.

• It distinguishes drug effects from fluctuations in disease that occur with time and other external factors.

• It avoids “false negative” conclusions: i.e. the use of placebo tests the efficacy of the trial itself.

Placebos are not given to measure placebo effect, but to raise the alertness of provers and eventually find out how far the quality of proving symptoms under placebo differ from the real proving symptoms (European Committee of Homoeopathy, 2004:17).

Vithoulkas (1980) suggests that 25% of the provers should be given placebos while the rest should receive the active medicine, while Sherr (1994) suggests that 10-20% should receive placebo.

Placebo control is thought to be the best control for subjectivity and is intended to reduce or eliminate bias by enabling pharmacological or drug related effects (proving symptoms) to be differentiated from environmental and other non-specific effects (the extraneous variables) (Kaptchuk, 1996:240).

In a clinical drug trial, the use of placebo has 3 major benefits which are described by Sherr (1994):

• It distinguishes the pharmacodynamic effects of a drug from the psychological effects that may arise from the test itself.

• It distinguishes drug effects from fluctuations in disease that occur with time and other external factors.

• It avoids “false negative” conclusions: i.e. the use of placebo tests the efficacy of the trial itself.

Placebos are not given to measure placebo effect, but to raise the alertness of provers and eventually find out how far the quality of proving symptoms under placebo differ from the real proving symptoms (European Committee of Homoeopathy, 2004:17).

[Vithoulkas] (1980): 25% of the provers should be given placebos while the rest should receive the active medicine, while Sherr (1994) suggests that 10-20% should receive placebo.

[Ross] (2010:7) in his meta-analysis of homoeopathic drug proving at Durban University of Technology between 1999 and 2008 stated that that percentage of provers given placebo in these provings decreased from 50% to 20% whilst in most cases the number of provers given the verum is between 15 and 20 as this is known to yield a useful remedy picture.

[De Schepper] (2001) suggests that preferably a proving should consist of 50 people and that a minimum of at least 12 provers is necessary as a symptom which could otherwise be important for a remedy may be missing entirely if there are only a handful of provers (De Shepper, 2001:34) while Vithoulkas (1980) suggests 50-100 people in a proving. In Sherr’s (1994) opinion a large number of provers will lead to many common symptoms and as a result overcrowd the repertory he suggests that five provers are sufficient for a small project and 15-20 provers produce a full remedy picture (Sherr, 1994:45).

The European Committee for Homoeopathy (2004) guidelines states that 12-15 provers are sufficient to give good proving symptoms. Provings conducted at the Durban University of Technology were conducted on 30-32 provers (Ross, 2010:7).

Effect: A placebo is made of a medicinally inactive substance used in controlled studies for comparison with presumed active drugs or prescribed with the intent to relieve symptoms or meet a patient’s demands i.e. it is a “make believe medicine”, and it is allegedly inert and harmless.

The placebo has shown repeatedly to have effects on patients, involving both improvement and deterioration in functioning. The list of subjective and objective changes due to placebo has been put down to two possible components of the placebo response (Beers and Berkow, 1999:2585-2586).

There are 3 major mechanisms that can explain the placebo effect:

The Opioid Model: release of endorphins (which are the body’s natural pain killers) in response to the placebo stimulus.

The Conditioning Model: a learned response to medical intervention.

The Expectancy Model: a consciously mediated response.

Placebo effect can also result from contact with doctors and other health care providers, a diagnosis, or even attention from a professional alleviates anxiety (Hart, 1999:31-32).

Some patients with severe PMS experience significant and sustained improvement with placebo medication, but the majority report only partial or no improvement (Freeman and Rickels, 1999).

PMS is a common complaint for women and yet very little research has been conducted on the subject due to its non-life-threatening nature.

PMS is however, a condition which does effect most women at some point in their lives.

The effect of PMS is debilitating to some women with days absent or decreased productivity being noted in every menstrual cycle. PMS is a chronic syndrome whose effect is experienced on a mental, emotional and physical level. In some severe cases an example of this is radical behavioural changes to the point of suicidal or homicidal states.

The aetiology of PMS is still unknown and only speculation and clinical experiences have revealed ameliorating treatments.

There are many lifestyle options which can be considered to help alleviate the symptoms of PMS.

There is a potential for homoeopathic treatment to get to the root aetiology of the PMS as homoeopathic simillimum treats a person as a whole and not a singular complaint.

Homoeopathy has proven effective in the treatment of other hormone related complaints.



The process of preparing a homeopathic remedy by repeated dilution and succussion or trituration. It is believed to involve the transfer of information from the original substance onto a carrier.

The scope and strength of the effect of the substance is believed to increase through this process.


the action of shaking up vigorously a liquid dilution of a homoeopathic medicine in its vial/bottle, where each stroke ends with a jolt (on a leather bound book);

usually effected by pounding the hand engaged in the shaking against the palm of the opposite hand.

The homoeopathic process of preparing medicine was introduced by H. in the 5th edition of the Organon, in 1831. It is characterized by 4 distinguishing features (Gaier 1981:456):

1. It is a purely mechanical and mathematico-physical process.

2. The procedure involves neither uncertain, unreliable nor immeasurable factors.

3. The resultant product is stable and can readily be maintained that way.

4. The process is theoretically illimitable, though it becomes laboriously time consuming in the higher range of potencies.

Potentized substances possess certain attributes:

1. Quantitative (chemical) reduction linked to qualitative increment of therapeutic (reactive) property.

2. Physical solubility (even of substances, like metals, believed to have been insoluble).

3. Physiological assimilability and bioavailability.

4. Altered therapeutic activity (suppression of primary (direct), and enhancement of secondary (reactive) effect of drugs.

In homoeopathic potentization three scales are used:

1. The decimal scale where the first potency contains one tenth part of the crude substance and each succeeding potency contains 1/10 part of the potency immediately preceding.

The decimal potency is indicated by the numerals denoting the deconcentration with the suffix D or X.

2. The centesimal scale where the first potency contains 1/100 part of the crude substance and each succeeding potency contains one 1/100 part of the potency immediately preceding.

The decimal potency is indicated by the numerals denoting the deconcentration with the suffix C.

3. The quinquagenimillesimal (50-millesimal) scale, involving a different method of preparation altogether, resulting in each potency level containing one 50/1000 of the preceding level.

represented by the prefix LM or Q. Potency:


The strength, vitality or power of a homoeopathic remedy that arises as a consequence of the succession step in the preparation of the remedy.

Potency: a state of altered remedial activity to which a drug is taken by means of a measured process of deconcentration and the introduction of kinetic energy through succession or trituration.

Three rates of deconcentration are used in preparation of homoeopathic potencies. a state of altered remedial activity to which a drug is taken by means of a measured process of deconcentration and

the introduction of kinetic energy through succession or trituration (see below). Three rates of deconcentration are used in preparation o homoeopathic potencies.


Hahnemann's Final Methods.

[Jacqueline Smith]

Is defined as: “The especially produced capability in a medicine to effect a dynamic stimulus in the appropriate patient (and)… is the stage of remedial activity to which a drug has been taken

by means of a measured process of deconcentration, with succussion, or by trituration, of the medicinal substance, which is thus brought to a state of diminutive or infinitesimal subdivision.”

Extensive investigative studies of recorded pathogenetic experiments were carried out by Henri Voisin to assess the time passed before particular reactions happened in provers and also to

confirm what had already been established by clinical usage. His results were that, in general:

Low potencies are best suited to organic disease;

Medium potencies are most effective for influencing function;

High potencies produce the best response in mental & emotional symptoms.

[Dr. Sayeed Ahmad]

The selection of potency has all along been a burning problem in homoeopathy. To fulfil the highest ideal of cure, not only the selection of the medicine must be correct, its potency and dose must also be accurate.

It has been observed that a medicine may fail to produce any beneficial effect in a patient in low potencies but shows unexpected good result in high potencies. It does not mean that the lower potencies do not act at all in such cases. They do act, but their beneficial effects are not perceptible to us. Of course, if the medicine is repeated several times in lower potencies, its effect may be perceptible but even then very slowly and less distinctly than if applied in high potencies. Similarly, the reverse is also true when high potencies may fail to produce any appreciable change but low potencies act curatively. This is only because of the variation of susceptibility in different patients. We all know that selection of potency depends on the susceptibility of the patient. The higher the susceptibility, the higher should be the potency and vice versa. But the great difficulty is that there is no instrument to measure the susceptibility of an individual. Various factors contribute to assume the susceptibility of a patient. His age, sex, mode of living, nature and depth of the disease, structural changes, various suppressions, vitality, mental and physical reactions to environmental stimuli etc., all contribute to understand the susceptibility. But very often we find difficulty when some factors indicate high susceptibility but some others the reverse, e. g. a tumour being an organic change indicates low susceptibility but the susceptibility of the patient as a whole may be high requring high potency. On the other hand "idiosyncrasy", though indicates high susceptibility, requires low potency and so on. No doubt our knowledge of pathology helps us to a great extent in this respect but final conclusion depends on careful observation of the effect of medicine. For this reason it is better to start with medium potencies in all doubtful cases and then to go high or low observing the effect of the first dose. Routine use of exclusively high or low potencies is not desirable in homoeopathy. This is why we see Hahnemann changing his views about potency from time to time till before his death. He was fully aware of the problem and tried to solve the same all through his life the ultimate outcome of which is the "fifty millesimal potency". I believe the problem of potency may no longer bother us if we all start using 50-millesimal potency in all cases or at least in doubtful, incurable and acute cases. The problem of long gap in the centesimal potency from 30 to 200, 200 to 1M or 1M to 10M etc. may very well be solved by the use of successive higher potencies of 50-millesimal scale.

I request my colleagues (beginners in homoeopathy), to try fifty millesimal potency to see if this may be of any help to solve their potency problem. In India it is our usual practice to prescribe low potencies in acute and high potencies in chronic diseases. This practice is just the reverse of what it should be. In acute disease there is seldom any structural change to start with. Naturally the susceptibility of the patient remains high in such cases. Moreover, the violence of the case, rapidity of progress and acute inflammatory condition suggest high susceptibility of the patient requiring high potency. This is true in case of influenza, dipththeria, measles, pox, whooping cough, typhoid (1st and 2nd week), meningitis, encephalitis etc. Here repeated doses of high potencies are necessary to arrest the progress of the disease and ensure early cure. But we generally prescribe low potencies in such cases resulting in failure or too late recovery which is contrary to the highest ideal of cure. But in acute diseases with lowered vitality, e. g., in severe dehydration, shock, collapse, extreme prostration, severe haemorrhage, typhoid state etc. the patient requires low potencies in repeated doses to gradually overcome the inhibitory state of the vital dynamis. Indiscriminate use of high potencies in such cases may lead to sudden death. Acute manifestations of chronic diseases with gross organic changes require low or medium potencies but require high potencies if the disease still remains in the functional plane or at the beginning of organic changes.

In chronic disease on the other hand susceptibility becomes gradually low because of long continued suffering and organic changes: hence they require low or medium potencies. Carelessness in selecting correct potency in such cases may lead to Dr. Kent’s 1st or 2nd observation which is undoubtedly not at all desirable to any homoeopathic physician. But in chronic diseases without gross organic changes, e.g. migraine, neuralgias, most of the paralysis, neurosis etc., high potencies act curatively if given in single or repeated doses as the case may be. Too low potencies in repeated doses even in organic chronic disease may lead to observation No. 10 while too high potencies in comparison to patient’s susceptibility leads to observation No.3 and the patient may have to pass through grievous suffering before amelioration or cure takes place. Difficult and incurable cases require medium and low potencies to start with. In my opinion 50-millesimal potency is best for this purpose. Even an incurable case may turn to curable stage after the use of few successive potencies in this scale.

In children and young adults there is generally no wear and tear of organs and tissues. As such they require high potencies for an early cure. But in old age the susceptibility becomes generally low because of wear and tear and senile degeneration, hence they generally require low or medium potencies.

Females in villages of our country are generally less exposed to worries, anxieties and complications of life. Hence their nervous system generally is of quiet nature having a moderate degree of susceptibility requiring medium potencies. But irritable, highly strung males possess a high degree of susceptibility requiring generally high potencies. Persons engaged in highly intellectual and mental work, e.g. doctors, lawyers, ministers etc. generally require high potencies because of their high profile and high susceptibility. On the other hand, persons engaged in physical labour without much of mental exertion generally require low or medium potencies because of their low susceptibility.

Disease begins in the dynamic plane and ultimately settles in organs or tissues. As such in all diseases we get functional symptoms to start with followed by secondary organic or pathological symptoms.

Hence the more the disease is in the dynamic plane, the higher should be the potency and the more it is in the organic plane the lower should be the potency. This is why we may be able to abort many violent acute diseases in their beginning stage with repeated doses of high potencies. But the problem arises when we come across to types of susceptibility in a patient at the same time: the susceptibility of the patient as a whole being high while the susceptibility of his affected tissue is low, e. g. in tumour or chronic eczema etc. In such cases it is better to start with medium or low potencies and the moment reaction sets in, the potency should be changed to higher one. The growths or organic changes may not be reversible with the help of these high potencies but the disease process will be cured. The end product of the disease may require surgical interference for their removal so as to avoid mechanical effects of the same.

Primary manifestation of psora, sycosis and syphilis require high potencies in repeated and large doses for an early and permanent cure but the secondary effects of these conditions require medium or low potencies to start with.

In mental diseases the susceptibility is generally very high, but high potencies are contra-indicated in such cases to start with because of the possibility of too violent an aggravation. I have seen a single dose of 30th potency to act curatively in such cases for months together. In diseases like bronchial asthma, organic heart diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cirrhosis of the liver, pre-tubercular and pre-cancerous states, piles, brain tumour, peptic ulcer etc. 50-millesimal potency give wonderful result.

From what has been stated so far, it is probably clear that no hard and fast rule is possible for the selection of potency. Susceptibility is the only guide in this respect.

But to gauge the susceptibility of a patient, it requires thorough knowledge of the allied subjects of medicine including hygiene, unbiased experience, attention in observing, freedom from prejudice and clear conception of the basic principles of homoeopathy including remedy response and second prescription.

Before I conclude I would like to cite few cured cases to substantiate my view that it is not only the selection of medicine but the accuracy of potency and doses that are the prerequisites in arriving at the highest ideal of cure.

A case of acute headache with all the symptoms of Belladonna did not respond at all to 30th or 200th potency, but magically cured with a single dose of Belladonna 10M.

A case of abdominal colic in a girl of 13/14 years of age, persisting for about 2 weeks with all symptoms of Colocynth did not respond to Colocynth 6 and 30 but cured completely with Colocynth 50M: four doses given at an interval of about half an hour.

Case of whooping cough with all symptoms of Drosera did not respond well to Drosera 30 but cured within 3 or 4 days by repeated doses of Drosera 1M and 10M.

Several obstinate skin diseases were cured within few weeks or months with repeated doses of 6th or 12th potency or with 50-millesimal potency when 200th or 1M potency produced only prolonged aggravation without being followed by amelioration or there was no remedy response at all.

Cases of Bell’s Palsy or hemiplegia with all symptoms of Causticum did not respond at all to Causticum 30 but cured within a very short time with repeated (deviated) doses of 1M or 10M potency.

Cases of piles with all symptoms of Nit-ac. or Thuja did not respond satisfactorily to the 200th or 1M but responded nicely to 50-millesimal potency of these drugs.

A case of ascites due to cirrhosis of the liver responded unexpectedly to China in 50-millesimal potency when no satisfactory result had been obtained by prescribing centesimal potency.

A case of neuralgic headache with symptoms of Chel. did not respond to 30th or 200th potency, but cured within 24 hours with 3 or 4 doses of Chel. CM given at intervals of 3/4 hours.

Dummys Guide to LM - Q Potencies. (Manish Bhatia/David Little)

[John Morgan M.R.Pharm. S., R.S. Hom/Helios Pharmacy] Dose, Dilution, LM o. Q Potenz.

LM1 is still rather material in its impact, LM2 and higher have a significant impact on the more spiritual level.

So, using higher LM-potencies will facilitate a swift shift in the patient to more immaterial levels.

The number 5 is supposed to have had special meaning to Hahnemann (see Stoteler), it also represents the 5 extreme points of the human body in a pentacle

Working with C-potencies means working according to the action/reaction principle. LM potencies act with a soft reaction (no or little aggravation) or no reaction. Aggravations can be easily neutralized with a LM potency (§ 253 Organon). It is very important to watch the patient and prevent an aggravation, not only because of the reasons mentioned above in relation to temperature,

but also because of the mental disposition of MS-patients where aggravation might block the awareness and the overall feeling of well-being and might result in further deterioration of the situation of the patient.

Decimal: The concentration scale primarily used in Germanic countries. The dilution steps are 1:10. It may be indicated as DH (decimal Hahnemannian) or D. Homoeopaths often use it interchangeably with the centesimal scale based on equal deconcentrations. Introduced by Schüssler who discovered Biochemic treatment on the basis of tissue remedies. While the organopathic drugs have affinity for the organs of the body, the tissue salts supply Biochemic deficiency which produces diseases. Unlike homoeopathic drugs they were not proved and selected on the basis of the Law of similars but were selected on the basis of experience of Schussler and other pioneers of biochemic system of therapy. Any deficiency in the organic salts must of necessity cause a disturbance in the organism i.e. cause organic matter to become nonfunctional and thrown out through the skin or some orifice or membrane of the body. If these organic or biochemic tissue salts are supplied in optimum doses the balance is restored and the patients recovers from his illness.

[Farokh Master]

The lower degrees of the LM potency are deeper acting then the 6c to 30c but they are also gentler than 200c or 1M on the constitution. They reach a depth of cure without producing the

overly strong primary actions and rapid aggravations like the high centesimals. They have the stability and consistency of the low potencies in centesimal potency but the power to cure deep

chronic diseases and miasms like the high potencies.

However in many chronic cases that I know of, Hahnemann preferred 30c.

In my practice with patients on chemotherapy suffering from advanced cancer or on immunosuppressive drugs with auto immune disease, I prefer either lower potency Cs like 6c,

12c, and 30c.

Or else I use LM 0/1 and go through the LM scale.

Sometimes I need to repeat quite often as chemotherapy, radiation and immunosuppressant’s exhaust the action of our medicines too quickly thereby requiring frequent repetition

which can be safely done with LMs.

These people do not do very well on 200c, 1M, etc. In fact, many of them are only under palliative care and unnecessarily they go into a severe medicinal aggravation because of the centesimal potency.

It is a false claim to say that the LMs cannot aggravate so they can be given daily or every other day for weeks, months and years. The Paris casebooks show that Hahnemann never gave his remedies

in this way. One must always take into account the sensitivity, susceptibility and nature of the disease before selecting the potency. In the footnote to aphorism 246 H. discusses the concept of the daily repetition of the dose. He suggested starting the case with the "lowest degree of potency" and then going to higher potencies.

In 1840 Hahnemann once prescribed 0/10 potency which caused a strong aggravation.

He then gave the patient a placebo and waited and watched. After the aggravation had subsided, Hahnemann lowered the potency degree to avoid further aggravations.

In his last years Hahnemann tended to begin cases with LM 0/1, 0/2 or 0/3 but occasionally opened a case with 0/4., 0/5., 0/6 or 0/7.

Are LM potencies better and deeper acting then centesimal potency?

Let’s start with Hahnemann; he was constantly trying to improve on his selection of potency.

First, he started to dilute the remedies in order to make them less toxic. He started with dilutions of one in five hundred; then he did one in ten thousand and so on. Then he went on to

the decimal scale of potency in which the tissue salts are triturated in the ration of 1/10. They may be given from 1x to 200x on the basis of specific indication of the biochemic deficiency.

Generally 3x to 12x triturations are used fro the treatment of acute diseases in biochemistry.

Dr. Schussler discovered 12 biochemic tissue remedies which were: Schüssler remedies.


Centesimal: The concentration scale originally introduced by Hahnemann. Dilution steps are 1:100. It may be indicated as CH (centesimal Hahnemannian) or C, or it is assumed as the potency scale when no scale is indicated.

LM or Q potency: Quinquagenimillesimal - a homoeopathic potency scale, introduced by H., in which the rate of deconcentration at each potency stage is 1:50 000. Deconcentration is achieved

in two stages; 1:100 and then 1:500

[Wilcher, 1996]

Biphasic response curve: Produced by Kotschau, following the principle of the Arndt-Schultz Law, this effectively validates the Law of the Infinitesimal dose

Dunham. potencies:

Fluxionpotency http://www.remedia.at/de-at/homoeopathie/flickerfahrungen/s1864.html


Pulsatilla. pratensis Anhang



Substanz, bei denen in der Arzneimittelprüfung besonders viele Symptome beobachtet wurden. Diese Arzneimittel treten in allen Erkrankungsbereichen des Menschen auf.

Als Polychrest bezeichnet man Arzneimittel der Materia medica, die zu den nützlichsten in der Praxis zählen. Die Auflistung dieser Mittel ist weder vollständig noch wirklich klar umrissen; sie schwankt von Autor zu Autor: Einige sprechen von einer Anzahl von etwa 30 Mitteln, andere meinen, dass es bis zu etwa 60 Polychreste gibt.

Gesichert ist allerdings, dass Polychreste mehrheitlich den Similiae eines Großteils der Menschen entsprechen oder die wichtigsten Erkrankungen abbilden (nach Ansicht einiger Veterinärmediziner stellt sich die Entsprechung zwischen den Polychresten und Tieren etwas anders dar).

Indem wir diese Arzneimittel gekonnt anwenden, erzielen wir hervorragende Ergebnisse in unserer täglichen medizinischen Praxis. In bestimmten schwierigen oder therapieresistenten Fällen und in Abhängigkeit von unserem Anspruch an eine erfolgreiche Behandlung werden wir bei bestimmten Patienten unsere Wahl verfeinern und unsere Nachforschungen weiter vorantreiben müssen. Wir werden dann, häufig erst im zweiten Anlauf, ein besser passendes, nicht zu den Polychresten gehörendes Mittel finden, das für gewöhnlich als „kleines Mittel“ oder „seltenes Mittel“ bezeichnet wird. Diese Suche dürfte nicht mehr als 10 : 20% der Patienten betreffen.


[Dr Jeetendra Jain, RAIPUR]

Sir what is an intercurrent remedy? When and in which cases should one use it?

Intercurrent remedies are those class of remedies which have the potentiality to dynamize the vital force and reach into the deeper planes of the economy and correct the inherent errors. They are basically Antimiasmatic remedies. Many a times, they either help to clear up the miasmatic obstacle hindering CURE particularly in chronic cases and assist the action of the best selected remedy when it fails to act or the progress gets held midway without any obvious cause or maintaining factor.



Paschero: kam zu der Erkenntnis, dass das Leben nicht statisch ist, da sich jeder Patient von einem bestimmten Ausgangspunkt aus in einer ständigen Dynamik befindet.

Diese Dynamik geht einher mit Reaktionen auf jeweilige Umstände, die den Wechselfällen des Lebens geschuldet sind und die sich zu unterschiedlichen Zeiten und in unterschiedlichen Körperregionen manifestieren. Nachfolgend hat Masi-Elizalde diese „dynamische“ Analyse nicht nur auf den Patienten bezogen, sondern auf das Mittel selbst. Mit einer Neufassung der Materia medica hat er sich daraufhin

der Aufgabe gewidmet, auch die besondere „Dynamik“ eines jeden Mittels zu entdecken. Diese immense Arbeit wird heute in der ganzen Welt -und ganz besonders in Frankreich- von zahlreichen Forschungsgruppen fortgeführt, um das Beste für die Homöopathie und die Patienten zu erreichen.

Dank dieser Meister hat sich die Materia medica beträchtlich erweitert, und es ist nicht mehr üblich, jedes Mittel, sei es klein oder groß, als ein „wahres“ potenzielles Simillimum zu betrachten. Es gibt heute nicht mehr, wie zu Zeiten von Pierre Schmidt, nur konstitutionelle Mittel auf der einen und Akutmittel auf der anderen Seite. Jeder Homöopath denkt daran, seine Verschreibung zu verfeinern. Dadurch kommt es übrigens zu bemerkenswerten Heilungen, die noch vor 20 Jahren undenkbar gewesen wären.

Ich habe nach meinem Ermessen 40 Polychreste aufgeführt, deren Entdeckung (oder Wiederentdeckung) ich Ihnen empfehle. Wenn mir die Zeit zur Verfügung steht, werde ich zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt die Darstellung anderer Mittel fortsetzen. Selbstverständlich ist dieses Werk in keiner Weise eine umfassende Materia medica (mit der manchmal langen Liste von Symptomen). Das ist nicht das erklärte Ziel dieses Buchs, da es hierzu viele Bücher gibt, die ausreichend und manche sogar hervorragend sind.

Mein Anliegen ist es vielmehr, den Schlüssel zu dem jeweiligen Arzneimittel zu geben, der dem tief gehenden Arzneimittelverständnis zugrunde liegt und aus dem sich das charakteristische menschliche Profil erkennen lässt, das dem Mittel entspricht.

Wie lässt sich eine solche Übersicht interessant gestalten? Ich bin in erster Linie Arzt und wie viele meiner Kollegen den ganzen Tag mit medizinischen Fragestellungen beschäftigt, die manchmal komplex sind, aber ich lerne auch manche erstaunliche Lebensgeschichten kennen. Die kleinen und großen Geschichten, die ich Ihnen erzählen möchte, werden genau die Mittel abbilden, die ich darstellen werde. Ich habe bewusst Fälle ausgewählt, denen wir in unserer alltäglichen Praxis normalerweise begegnen, und nicht unbedingt seltene und spektakuläre Fälle. Das Hauptkriterium für die Auswahl der Fälle war die erklärte Absicht, die Arzneimittel als wahre Persönlichkeiten, als Teil der „menschlichen Komödie“, in den ihnen eigenen Genien darstellen zu können und die Wirksamkeit der Homöopathie nicht durch schwerere Krankheiten unter Beweis zu stellen.

Die in den dargestellten Fällen präsentierten Persönlichkeiten sind manchmal anziehend, manchmal weniger, zeitweise interessant oder fesselnd, in anderen Fällen weniger. Der „Kern“ (Nukleus) des passenden Mittels, dessen Thematik oder dessen Ariadnefaden, die hier einem bestimmten Patienten entsprechen, könnten sich auch als zutreffend erweisen, wenn der Patient ein großer Philosoph wäre, ein Arbeiter, ein Astrophysiker, ein Barkeeper, ein Künstler oder ein Hausmeister. Jedes Leben ist einzigartig und wichtig, und ein Rechtsanwalt oder ein Nuklearphysiker können das gleiche Konstitutionsmittel haben wie ein Fußballprofi.

Um ein Mittel darzustellen, bediene ich mich eines Patienten, der mir begegnet Ich möchte einen Punkt verdeutlichen, der für den erfahrenen homöopathischen Arzt offensichtlich ist, möglicherweise weniger für denjenigen, der gerade beginnt, sich mit der Homöopathie zu befassen: Jedes hier vorgestellte Patientenprofil sollte nicht durch die aufgeführten Eigenschaften und Fehler zu einer vorgefassten Meinung verleiten, die zur Sympathie oder Antipathie gegenüber einem Mittel/einer Persönlichkeit führt. Zudem sind die klinischen Fälle keinesfalls das Aushängeschild eines Arzneimittels; sie dienen nur der Darstellung ihres „primum movens“, ihrer Essenz.

Einführung ist, die Beschreibung des Mittels bleibt jedoch niemals auf den beschriebenen Kranken begrenzt.

Ich hoffe, Ihnen dabei zu helfen, tiefer einzutauchen in die Entdeckung der Kleinode, die unsere homöopathische Materia medica birgt, sowie in das Verständnis der menschlichen Natur, das dadurch zutage gefördert wird

Aus den verständlichen Gründen der ärztlichen Schweigepflicht habe ich dafür Sorge getragen, dass keiner meiner Patienten durch irgendjemanden erkannt werden kann.

Im Übrigen kann kein Mittel eine Persönlichkeit in allen Einzelheiten vollständig beschreiben. Jedes Wesen kann der Problematik eines Mittels verbunden sein, unabhängig von seinem soziokulturellen Milieu, seinem Alter, seinem Geschlecht, seiner körperlichen Beschaffenheit, seiner Geschichte, seiner Herkunft, seinem Intelligenzgrad, seinem genetischen Potenzial, seiner Sympathie, die er in mir wachruft, und sogar ... seinem Humor!



The process of preparing a homeopathic remedy by repeated dilution and succussion or trituration. It is believed to involve the transfer of

information from the original substance onto a carrier. The scope and strength of the effect of the substance is believed to increase through this process.

Also known as “dynamisation”; the process of preparing homoeopathic remedies, whereby a substance is subjected to serial dilution together with succession or trituration (Kayne, 1997)



Provings. Theory. Comparison - Dream Proving Methodology - Sherr Proving Methodology - C4 Proving Methodology

[Debora Moore]

Provings have been practised for centuries and date back as far as 129AD,

Galen being one of the first people to test medicinal substances on healthy people.

Paracelsus also performed provings as far back as 1493AD (Walach, 1994:129).

In the footnote to aphorism 108, Hahnemann (Hahnemann, 1996:145) mentions Albreght von Heller as the forefather of the homoeopathic proving.

Von Heller stated in the preface of his pharmacopoeia that a remedy must first be tested on a healthy body and attention should be paid to the effects that ensue (Hahnemann, 1996:145).

Anton Storck, head of a Viennese hospital, who experimented with medicines on himself, is another known to have done provings prior to Hahnemann (Walach, 1994:129).

Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) however was unique in his systematic approach of how he operationalised the law of similars, by proving many curative substances in healthy volunteers and diligently noting all symptoms down, to later be used in clinical prescribing according to the principle of similitude (Walach, 1994:129).

Hahnemann's first homoeopathic proving was conducted by administering a crude dose of Cinchona officionalis (Peruvian bark) to himself, after translating Cullen's '~ Treatise on Materia Medica ", where it postulated that Cinchona officinalis was able to cure malaria because of it's bitter taste. Hahnemann found this hypothesis illogical and improbable and after testing the substance

on himself, found that he developed a disease state similar to malaria. Apart from it being the first homoeopathic proving, the discovery led to the first law of homoeopathy: The Law of Similars

or Like Cures Like (De Schepper, 2001 :xv).

This led him to further experimentation on himself and others and over a period of fifty years conducted further provings on himself and 64 volunteers, investigating the effect of 101 remedies (Louw, 2002:23). Most of the remedies that were proven by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann have become indispensable and are widely used in homoeopathic practise (Taylor, 2004:6).

Contemporary provings based on Hahnemann's original design are continuing daily. David Riley and Jeremy Sherr follow the Hahnemannian method most consistently in terms of application as

well as intent (Kreisberg, 2000:61). According to Sherr (1994:9) the answer is not in the selection of the substance, but in the quality of the proving.



Repertorisieren.: translating important aspects of the patient narrative into symptom rubrics, as found in the repertory (Gordon, 2003:112 - 115).



a book or computer programme designed to aid a homoeopath in selection of a homoeopathic medicine. Each chapter of the repertory contains alphabetically arranged symptom rubrics and subrubrics that are correspondingly assigned to a list of alphabetically arranged remedies (Gordon, 2003:112 - 115).




are traditionally made by placing the herb in an organic solvent and leaving it to soak for weeks. An alternative and faster method is for the solvent to be percolated through the herb (Werbach and Murray, 2002).

For commercial preparations, an alcohol solvent is the most useful, usually ethyl alcohol (= ethanol). In making an extract, the raw herb (and cut) is submerged in an alcohol-water mixture for 2 - 4 weeks, depending on the pharmacopoeia and monograph followed. The liquid is then filtered to separate tincture from the exhausted herb. A water-alcohol mixture ensures the extraction of both the water soluble and alcohol soluble constituents.

Alcohol-based extracts are usually stronger than infusions as alcohol can extract constituents that are water–insoluble (Rotblatt and Zimet, 2002). Alcohol is also a very effective natural preservative. Because a tincture is easily assimilated by the body, it is a very effective way to administer herbal compound.

Tinctures are concentrated and cost-effective (Rotblatt and Zimet, 2002) and they have a longer shelf life.

Water-based: There are vast amounts of literature and research currently available on herbal tinctures in general. However, literature and research on water-based extractions are presently limited (Feiter, 2004).

It is for this reason that water-based extractions are a very under-utilized resource.

Water-based extractions are manufactured as infusions or decoctions. An infusion is used for delicate plant parts such as leaves, flowers, soft stems and fruits (Singh, 2004). The herbal material is placed in a suitable vessel and boiling water is poured over. The infusion is steeped for 5 to 10 minutes. Decoctions are generally more concentrated than infusions, and the method is useful for fibrous plant material such as roots, stems and bark (Singh, 2004).

To manufacture decoctins, the herbal material is placed in a pan, covered with cold water and brought to the boil. It is covered and allowed to simmer for 5 to 10 minutes (Rotblatt and Ziment, 2002).

To manufacture an infusion, the plant material and water is allowed to stand at room temperature overnight before being strained off. This is useful where there are many volatile oils that may be lost if heat is used.

In both these cases, the water acts as a solvent to extract only those constituents that are soluble in water. It may be usefully applied to extract tannins and glycosides, but is not appropriate for the

extraction of resins, volatile and non-volatile oils or alkaloids (Singh, 2002).

Water-based extracts are the safest type of extracts, however, as toxic alkaloids are usually insoluble in water. These extracts have a short shelf life due to bacterial contamination, and thus need to

be refrigerated and discarded after few days. They are also difficult to standardise and are often bitter or unpleasant tasting unless flavouradditives are incorporated (Rotblatt and Zimet, 2002).

Situations exist where water-based extractions are more desirable than conventional alcohol tinctures. One such situation is where alcohol intake is prohibited by religion. The use of alcohol-containing medicines is also undesirable for use in babies and pregnant women (Beard, 2004), as it is not known what the safe level of alcohol intake is during pregnancy (ADF, 2004). Alcohol use during pregnancy may cause foetal alcohol syndrome (Singh, 2004b).

Water-based extractions have methodological advantages over alcohol-based tinctures in terms of anti-microbial studies. Research conducted at the Pretoria University by the Faculty of Medicine Research Committee states that if an extract is to be tested for anti-bacterial properties, the extractant should not inhibit the bioassay procedures. Alcohol itself possesses anti-microbial properties therefore antimicrobial studies using alcohol-based tinctures can be ineffective in determining the antimicrobial properties of the actual plant substance. The alcohol control must always be included when conducting such studies (Singh, 2004b).


Other Methods of Herbal Extractions


This extract is also called acetrata. Vinegar is a reasonably good solvent but the shelf life is only about 3 months (Singh, 2004b). Because of the unpleasant taste the medicine is frequently mixed with honey. It may be useful when administering herbs to a small child with compromised liver function because vinegar is very gentle on the body (Singh, 2004b).


This is called glycerata or glycerol.

Glycerine is a colourless, odourless and viscous fluid with solvent capacities somewhere between alcohol and water. A glycerata is commonly used to preserve fresh expressed plant juices and to make syrup (Singh, 2004b). The taste is sweet and the shelf life is 6 to 12 months.

Fat extractions

Using fat as a solvent will extract those constituents that are fat or alcohol soluble (gums/resins/volatile oils/waxes/alkaloids).

Two methods used:

1. Enfleurage: Fresh plant material (usually flowers) is placed over a layer of fat with a low boiling point (cocoa butter/butter) and allowed to stand for 3 days at room temperature. A mild

organic solvent can then be used to extract the plant constituents from fat (Singh, 2004b).

2. Digestion: This is done in a similar way to effleurage but the fat is heated to about 35° C and maintained at that level for several hours to a few days. The warm oil digests the plant material

and draws out the fat-soluble constituents.



The vigorous shaking of a homoeopathic remedy using a prescribed method, at each dilution stage (Kayne, 1997)

Action of shaking up vigorously a liquid dilution of a homoeopathic medicine in its vial/bottle, where each stroke ends with a jolt;

usually effected by pounding the hand engaged in the shaking against the palm of the opposite hand or like H. on a leather bound book.


Theories of Remedy Mechanisms




Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy:


an analytical method most frequently employed to obtain information about the structure of organic compounds, by measuring the interaction of protons within a magnetic field. Such interaction is recorded as a series of peaks known as a spectrum is concerned with the measurement of the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei. Studying a molecule by NMR spectroscopy enables us to record differences in the magnetic properties of the various nuclei present, and deduce what the positions of these nuclei are within the molecule. This is directly influenced by the environment of

a proton, and thus enables predictions concerning the structure of a liquid.



A healthy volunteer who takes part in a proving or homoeopathic pathogenic trial. The prover reports symptoms that arise from the homoeopathic remedy to which they are

exposed (Yasgur, 2004)

Individuals of average health who are administered repeated doses of a remedy until subjective or objective symptomatology of a disturbance are experienced or appear

(De Schepper, 2001:34).



A homoeopathic medicine produced according to the principles of serial dilution and succession, which is prescribed according to the principle of the “Law of Similars”.

Simillimum: The one remedy which most closely corresponds to the totality of symptoms expressed by a diseased individual, which when found is always

Make Your Own Homeopathic Medicine by Elaine Lewis (not a doctor).

“What’s the value of knowing this? It’s immense! If you’re sea sick, you can make a remedy out of sea water; if you’re sick from vacationing in Mexico, you can make a remedy out of the pathogen-infested local water. If the polluted air or pollens in the air are causing your problem, you can put a saucer of water outside for a few hours or days and let it collect whatever is in the air, and then make a remedy out of that. The list of possibilities is endless; in fact, when you’re desperate, and you’ve seemingly tried everything, there’s your own body to make remedies from: your discharges, your urine, your blood–you’re never really without remedies, are you?”

 “So now, if you’re ready, here are the directions:

Get a small bottle of spring water (any water will do). Pour half the water out (but save the water, don’t pour it down the drain).

Now you have half a bottle of water. Pour in a small amount of what you’re trying to make a remedy of–let’s say for the sake of argument that you want to make “Homeopathic Pepsi Cola”; therefore, your water bottle should now consist of a solution of 90% water and 10% Pepsi –there’s no need to be fussy about your percentages– just guess at what 10% might be.

‘Succuss’ this solution (pound the bottle into your opposite palm) 40 times and after having done that, get a piece of paper and write down “Pepsi 1X”–meaning that you now have Pepsi in the 1X potency, this means you’ve done a one-in-ten dilution with 40 succussions and you’ve done it just once.

Now pour out 90% of this solution–again, no need to be fussy– and refill half way with spring or distilled water, succuss 40 times, and write down “2X” (meaning you’ve now dumped out, refilled, and succussed 40x

twice). Now pour out 90% again and refill half way with water again and succuss 40x again and write down “3X” this time. Keep doing this til you’ve reached either a 6X or a 12X or a 30X–depending on what potency you want. A 6x would have to be taken more often as it’s a lower potency–in a chronic case, two to four times a day; whereas, a 12X would be taken once or twice a day and a 30X as needed–one dose may be enough, depending on what’s wrong.”

The basic idea behind the recipe

“When your remedy bottle is no longer working, you’ll need to raise the potency. The way to do it is this: Pour out 90% of your bottle. Refill with bottled water half way. Succuss (pound the bottle into your opposite palm) 40x. Again, for the second time, pour out 90% of the bottle. Refill with water half way. Succuss 40x. Repeat one more time. You will now have raised the potency by 3°. It should now start working again.”


Complementary: Also known as the “concordant remedy”: can be defined as a remedy which assists or reinforces the action of another remedy.

For example, Sulphur and Nux vomica are considered complements because if Nux vomica is prescribed in a case with minimal results or if the amelioration of the illness cannot be achieved by the use of this one remedy, then Sulphur may be prescribed thereafter in order to complete the therapeutic effects initiated by Nux vomica. (Yasgur, 2004:54)

Polychrest: A remedy which has many widespread uses covering a wide variety of mental, emotional and physical symptomatology expressed through the process of provings and subsequent clinical applications; examples of such remedies include Sulphur, Calcarea carbonicum and Nux vomica (Yasgur, 2004:191). These remedies cover more or less the common symptoms experienced in disease and therefore have the capability to resolve most, if not all, of the presenting clinical picture (De Schepper, 2001:216).

[T.K. Moore, M.D.]

When patients appear to develop a tolerance for remedies, a complementary remedy will sometimes keep the patient from going stale.



A publication that lists symptoms (referred to as “rubrics”) together with homoeopathic remedies that have either elicited these symptoms during a proving or have cured those symptoms in clinical practice (Allen, 1994).



The act of isolating those rubrics which accurately describe a patient's symptomatology.

The homoeopath then identifies the remedy that correlates with the patient's symptoms by referring to a materia medica for additional information (Tiwari, 2006).



An abbreviated symptom, in standardised form, listed in the repertory, followed by a list of remedies associated with that symptom(Allen, 1994).


The Minimum or Infinitesimal Dose

It is the precise selection and quality of the drug employed in homoeopathy that is important and not the quantity (Corea, 1998: 36). The transformation of a homoeopathic remedy is so dynamic, that a minute quantity of the potentised drug is capable of curing various ailments (Chatterjee, 1993: 3). Aphorism 275, according to H., states that “...a medicine given in too large a dose, though completely homoeopathic, will still harm the patient by its quantity and unnecessarily strong action on the vital force” (H., 1998: 298-299).



Tautopathy means the prescribing of a potentised drug or toxin. One prescribes a tautopathic remedy if a patient has the aetiology of ‘never been well since’ taking a drug, poisonous chemical, toxin etc (Watson, 2004:108). Another indication is if a patient presents with the ill-effects of a drug substance. A tautopathic remedy can be prescribed on the symptom picture to alleviate the ill effects of the drug, as long as it is clearly indicated (Watson, 2004:108).

For example, if a person displays symptoms due to the effects caused by cocaine abuse, the tautopathic remedy of cocaine will alleviate the symptoms.

[Jacqueline Smith] Contra-indication Against Administering Simillimum

In a patient, whose disease is terminal and which may be in its final stages, namely where the life force is hopelessly overwhelmed by the forces of disease, or in many emergencies, it is absolutely contra-indicated to prescribe the individual’s simillimum, which would, in these circumstances, only be able to produce an aggravation hastening death. In such an instance functiotropic, organotropic or pathotropic remedies ought to be the homoeopathic drugs of choice, with the intention of inducing a measure of improvement for the limited period remaining to the patient.(29 Therefore, the remedies identified by using predominantly common, general and particular symptoms which have no modalities, will be sufficient when given at the appropriate phase in the disease process and may reflect more the nature of the Genus Epidemicus rather than the simillimum of the individual patient.

Extensive investigative studies of recorded pathogenetic experiments were carried out by Henri Voisin to assess the time passed before particular reactions happened in provers and also to confirm what had already been established by clinical usage. His results were that, in general:

 Low potencies are best suited to organic disease;

 Medium potencies are most effective for influencing function;

 High potencies produce the best response in mental & emotional symptoms.

It is sufficient to assert that it has become accepted practice that lower potencies are often given in repeated doses when prescribing on the basis of morbid anatomy (as recommended by Richard Hughes, 1836-1902), and in some acute diseases provided there is no irreversible tissue destruction. But it should also be remembered that a remedy, if well indicated in terms of the law of similars, would be homoeopathic even without recourse to a potency thereof, as exemplified by the occasional use of mother tinctures, whenever one of these happens to be the most appropriate form of the remedy for the particular case.



Anwendung auf der Basis von Toxinen zur Heilung einer spezifischen physischen Störung: gebraucht werden Absonderungen aus Nase, Ohren, Augen; Durchfall, Schweiß, Hautausschläge



Human beings consist of three interactive spheres, namely the mental plane, emotional plane and physical plane. A crucial and profound conclusion is that the human being is a whole, integrated entity, not fragmented into independent parts. It functions in its totality. Action is characteristic of a living organism and the activity is manifested primarily on the above-mentioned spheres. At any moment, the activity is centered mainly on one of these three and the centre of activity may change frequently, even rapidly, depending on intention or circumstances. Of-course, it is the whole of the person acting, but his awareness is centered upon a particular plane on which he has elected to function. When disease occurs, the first disturbance occurs on the dynamic electromagnetic field of the body, which then activates the defence mechanism.

Since the activity of the defence mechanism originates on the dynamic plane, the most logical therapeutic approach would be one which enhances and strengthens this level, thus increasing the effectiveness of the organisms’ own healing process (Vithoulkas 2, 1998: 19, 20, 87, 89). It is important to know that a presenting problem of a patient is often not an isolated occurrence, but part of a sequence, thus the whole sequence should be treated (Sankaran 4, 1995:1-4).


The Vital Force

Homoeopathy identifies the integrating and harmonizing principle as the ‘vital force’ (Swayne, 1998: 73). A balancing mechanism keeps us in health, provided that the stresses on our constitution are neither too prolonged nor too great. H. (Castro, 1997: 30-31) believed the vital force to be that energetic substance, independent of physical and chemical forces, that gives us life and is absent in our death. A healthy living being is self-regulating, with an innate (protective) tendency to maintain its equilibrium and compensate for disruptive changes. The vital force produces symptoms to counteract stresses and make adjustments, moment by moment throughout our lives to keep us healthy and balanced (Castro, 1997 : 30-31).

This life force or vital force is no more than a metaphor to indicate a dynamic capability, all living creatures are endowed with, in order to give them a better chance of survival (Bellavite and Signorini, 1995: 15-16).



The Greek origin of the word miasm means ‘pollution’ and it suggests some pervasive influence that is the source of all the illness in an individual (Swayne, 1998:80). Discovering that several cases failed to be cured permanently by the similimum remedy, H. developed the concept of chronic miasm (Gunavante, 1994:14).

The value of the miasmatic principle is its classification of disease behaviour and of the homoeopathic medicines, which correspond to particular patterns of disease behaviour.

These patterns can be seen running through the history of individuals and their families, and of populations subject to common pathogenic influences. They have an aetiological role as well as being reflected in the current or recurrent clinical picture (Swayne, 1998: 128-129).

Miasm is derived from the Greek word meaning “pollution or taint” and was first explained by Hippocrates as a term to describe how infectious diseases can be transmitted by air, water and others sources. In the Middle Ages, it was described as an atmospheric influence which caused illnesses. Some practitioners suggested that a miasm is an unknown cause of disease that pollutes a person and produces a permanent disease state (de Schepper, 2001:355).

While treating his patients, H. began to question why seemingly well selected remedies failed to produce any true lasting recovery in chronic diseases, as his patients would relapse. To understand the true nature of chronic diseases, H. decided to study the patterns of disease of his patients and their families. He referred to these patterns as miasms.

H. considered a miasm as an obstacle to cure and it can lie in the background behind all pathologies and bring forth a disease (O’ Reilly, 1991:25 - 30).

If a miasm is not eradicated, it can persist throughout a person’s life and can be transmitted from one generation to another (de Schepper, 2001:356).

At the time, syphilis was considered as the only miasm because the etiology was unknown and sycosis or ‘figwart’ disease was not considered a miasm because it was believed that a person can be cured by removing the condylomata.

Despite this, H. delineated three miasms:

the psoric,

sycotic and

syphilitic miasm (de Schepper, 2001:355).

Later, homoeopaths like C. Burnett added the tubercular miasm and the cancer miasm, the AIDS miasm has been the latest to be added to the existing theory of miasms (de Schepper, 2001: 413).


Views on miasm

Many people have rejected and criticized H.’s theory of miasm. However, homoeopaths such as Hering, Gross, Stapf and Kent found the miasmatic theory beneficial to their practice (de Schepper, 2001:357). Sankaran explains miasm as the way one perceives a situation or as a mode of reaction towards a certain situation (Sankaran, 2005b:263). If the reaction to a certain situation is an instinctive reflex or to escape, the miasm can be acute (Sankaran, 2005b:287). In the sycotic miasm, the reaction to a certain situation can be of acceptance or avoidance (Sankaran, 2005b:265). His view can also be related to the stages found in the periodic table as miasms are an expression of the stages. Mangialovori views miasm as stages of develop ment of a disease.

He believes that remedies are not psoric, but can be in a psoric state (Scholten, 2008). Clinically, a homoeopath can establish the fundamental disease (or miasm) in each case, and then select the appropriate anti-miasmatic remedy to restore the patient to health (Vogel, 2007:6).


Acute Miasm.:

[S.M. Gunavante]

In case taking for acute disease, confine yourself to the acute disease and do not go into the constitutional state of the patient. Mixing chronic and acute, you will become confused and will not find the right remedy. The sensation is experienced as temporary, sudden, dangerous and life-threatening. Even though there is a threat to one’s life, there is hope of recovery.

The person generally reacts instinctively, and can panic or feel helpless (Sankaran, 2005b:268).

Psoric Miasm: A person can perceive a situation as a permanent stress, which often results in an instinctive and automatic response .There is a feeling of struggle and effort with some hope of recovery. Therefore, it is a mixture of self doubt and hope (Sankaran, 2005b:270).

Sycotic Miasm: The sensation is perceived as permanent but is not destructive. The reaction is one of acceptance, avoiding and hiding or covering up.

The person cannot do anything about the situation and tries to hide their incapacity from others (Sankaran, 2005b:272).

Syphilitic Miasm: In the syphilitic miasm, the sensation is deep, permanent and destructive. The situation is perceived as hopeless and destructive.

The reaction is usually desperate and extreme, often violent or drastic like suicidal or homicidal impulses. There is a feeling of complete isolation and hopelessness (Sankaran, 2005b:273).

Typhoid Miasm: This miasm is placed between the Acute and Psoric miasms. There is an experience of a sudden and temporary situation (as in the Acute miasm) but it requires a concentrated effort for a short period of time (as in Psora). The situation is like an intense, short crisis which requires a period of sustained effort (Sankaran, 2005b:274).

Malarial Miasm: This miasm is described as being between the Acute and Sycotic miasms. The sensation is felt as fixed and permanent (as in Sycosis) but there is also an experience of sudden, intermittent attacks (Acute miasm). This gives rise to feelings of being persecuted or hindered (Sankaran, 2005b:275).

Cancer Miasm: This miasm is situated between the Sycotic and Syphilitic miasm. There is the fixed nature of Sycosis together with the destructive nature of the Syphilitic. There is chaos which has to be controlled by a superhuman effort as there are limited resources (Sankaran, 2005b:278).

Leprosy Miasm: A sense of destruction, desperation and hopelessness as seen in the Syphilitic miasm, combined with the desperation and intensity found in the Tubercular miasm. A person can react by being desperate, destructive, isolated and in despair (Sankaran, 2005b:280).

Tubercular Miasm: This miasm lies between the Sycotic and Syphilitic miasms. The characteristics of this miasm are more desperate and oppressive than in the Cancer miasm. There is a sensation of being suffocated or trapped resulting in hectic activity to escape the oppression and break free, but with little hope as destruction is imminent (Sankaran, 2005b:279).

Ringworm Miasm: Placed being between the Psoric and Sycotic miasms. The sensation is fixed and permanent (as in Sycosis) but not irreversible. There is hope of recovery and struggle (as in Psora) with a reaction of intermittent acceptance creating a constant sequence (Sankaran, 2005b:277).

Generally, one always considers each miasm separately. However, a disease state is usually a combination of miasms, with its main focus on one miasm (Sankaran, 1999:45). Therefore, a remedy can belong to one dominant miasm, but have extensions or glimpses of symptoms showing the other miasms (Sankaran, 1999:45).

An example: Calcarea carbonica: a psoric remedy, but has abscesses and polyps (sycotic); swollen cervical glands, nosebleeds and a susceptibility to chest colds (tubercular miasm); as well as syphilitic depression, melancholy and violence with a “Desire to kill” (de Schepper, 2001:367).

Sankaran mentions that miasm and sensation are also inseparable. Where there is a miasm, there has to be a sensation (Sankaran, 2005b:266).

For example, if a person feels caught oppressively, ‘caught’ is the sensation and ‘oppressively’ represents the depth of the miasm (Sankaran, 2005b:283). The sensation and miasm together constitute the disease state as the disease state is the crossing point of the sensation and miasm (Sankaran, 2005b:266).

Sankaran’s method of classifying remedies into miasms, kingdoms and families has revolutionized homoeopathic practice and understanding of poorly represented remedies. In order to apply Sankaran’s method, he does mention that once needs to have a deep, detailed understanding of his methods of classification, ideas and case taking skills etc (Sankaran, 1997: iii).

Therefore, applying Sankaran’s method may challenge new homoeopaths who lack the knowledge and indepth understanding of his work.


Mother tincture = Ø

[Cook, 2000] The liquid produced during the first stage of preparation of homoeopathic remedies (from plants). A process of maceration, extraction, ageing and filtration of the substance provides

the Mother tincture from which oft remedies are prepared



The experimental pathogenesis of homoeopathic medicines, commonly known as proving, investigates the effects of repeated doses of substances in healthy volunteers. These effects are used to identify the pathogenic properties of the substances, and hence its homoeopathic therapeutic repertoire: the pattern of disorder that it may be used to treat homoeopathically. Together with the study of toxicology, and clinical experience, provings provide the Materia Medica of homoeopathic medicines (Swayne, 1998: 170).


Potency and Potentisation

During the pioneering stages of homoeopathy, H. (Kayne, 1997:26) administered substantial doses of medicines to his patients causing aggravations that amounted to dangerous toxic reactions.

He then serially diluted the remedies in an attempt to increase their safety. However with simple serial dilution, the medication became too weak to be effective (Kayne, 1997: 26).

H. (Lilley, 1998: 120-128) then concluded that he must subject each dilution to a period of agitation. Molecular collision was created and mechanical energy imparted to the mixture. This violent agitation of the remedy was termed succussion. He further reduced the toxicity of the original tincture by a process of serial dilution and succussion, whereby each dilution was prepared from the dilution that immediately preceded it, each step being followed by succussion. On using these succussed dilutions it was found that the actions of the remedies were accelerated and more profound. Even more significant was the fact that the further he proceeded with successive serial dilution and succussion, the more potent the remedy became.

He thus called this process of preparation, potentisation and the prepared dilutions, potencies (Lilley, 1998: 120-128).

Potentisation is not a defining characteristic of homoeopathic medicine, it is the process by which the therapeutic activity of the homoeopathic medicine preparation is developed, and the potency is the biophysical active property of the homoeopathic drug conferred by serial dilution with succussion, trituration or fluxation (Swayne, 1998: 214).

In treatment, lower potencies (below 200C) are generally used for local conditions, sensitive patients, and organic or pathological changes, in the elderly, those with weak constitutions and when symptoms are poorly matching. Higher potencies (above 200C) usually used in children, stronger constitutions, functional disease where symptoms are subjective or psychological, and when the similimum is clear (Bernard, 1999: 67, 68).


Clathrates: Small water clusters which occur and multiply during the preparation of homoeopathic potencies.

[Fritz Johann Madel]

It is also believed that in certain cases low potencies stimulate activity (3CH/3CH/4CH), medium·potencies regulate (7CH-9CH), and high potencies slow down (9CH and higher potencies)

(Jounny, 1991).

The use of the homoeopathic preparation of Folliculinum (a homoeopathic preparation of follicle-stimulating hormone) will illustrate this proposal (Julian, 1982: 532).

The normal physiological function of this hormone in the human being causes the development of the follicles in the ovaries (Guyton, 1987:p629-p640).

Follicle-stimulating hormone prepared as a homoeopathic preparation has antagonistic properties.

The homoeopathic preparation in the lower potencies, are stimulating in nature, and are indicated in cases like amenorrhoea, where there is a shortage or inhibition of the secretion of follicle

stimulating hormone. The 7CH is used as a regulator and the 9CH and higher potencies has a restraining effect· (Julian, 1982: 532).

Similarly Thyreotrophic hormone works similar to folliculinum in that the lower potencies will stimulate thyroid secretion while the higher potencies will restrain the secretion of thyroid hormone

(Julian, 1982:234).



Swayne (2000:194) defines the simillimum as the drug picture most like the clinical picture in the patient. It is arrived at through carefully analysis of information found in the homoeopathic case record.

Similimum Treatment

The similimum is the drug picture most like the clinical picture in the patient. It is the most accurate match between characteristics of the patient and the Materia Medica (Swayne, 1998: 216, 217). With the vast number of remedies to choose from, homoeopaths reason that the similimum will fit the patient on a dynamic plane, acting as a template by means of which the disordered vital force can readjust itself. The selected remedy, in order to be the true similimum, must match not only patient symptoms but also the dynamic plane of the disease at the time the patient presents himself for treatment (Weiner and Goss, 1989: 53, 58).


Sources of Homoeopathic Medicine

Potency: The power, strength or vitality imparted too, and possessed by, a homoeopathic medicine through the means of a measured process of de-concentration with either intercurrent stages of succussions or triturations of the chosen medicinal substance in an applicable inert medicinal vehicle (Gaier, 1991:432). The above process can be carried out ad infinitum with the resultant potencies being of an ever increasing strength, yet with ever decreasing concentrations of the chosen crude, medicinal substance (Yasgur, 2004:197).


Homoeopathic medicines are derived from various sources which include plant, mineral and animal; secretions (Sarcodes.) and imponderables. (electricity, x-rays, magnetic forces etc.).

Disease products (nosodes.) and healthy tissue are administered for therapeutic purposes (Sankaran 3, 1995: 101).

The remedies derived from these sources are all highly standardized in their preparation (Vithoulkas 2, 1998: 145).


Preparations of Homoeopathic Medicines

Homoeopathic remedies undergo serial dilution and succussion during preparation that renders the remedies safe and potent. The H.ian method of potentisation provides two scales of dilution, centesimal (1 in 100 dilution) and decimal (1 in 10 dilution). In the centesimal scale one drop of mother tincture or crude substance is added to 99 drops of dilution. In the decimal scale one drop of mother tincture or crude substance is added to 9 drops of diluent. The solution resulting from the admixture of the two liquids is subjected to vigorous shaking or striking with impact. The process renders the first centesimal potency or ICH and the first decimal potency or 1XH (Kayne, 1997: 216).

For subsequent dilutions, one drop of 1CH is added to 99 drops of dilution or one drop of 1XH is added to 9 drops of the diluent and both of these admixtures undergo succession. These resultant potencies are respectively known as the 2CH and 2XH potencies. All other potencies are prepared in the same way where serial dilution is followed by succussion (Kayne, 1997: 26). H. (Shepherd 1, 1989: 9) found that by carrying out these procedures and on administering remedies in this form, the action of the remedy was remarkably and definitely increased.


Homoeopathic Aggravations

The belief that ‘it has to get worse before it gets better’ is often associated with homoeopathic treatment. The phenomenon is not confined to homoeopathy. Some psychotherapies may elicit the same response; so may acupuncture. The homoeopathic principle though, depends on the opposing actions of a substance in quantitatively different doses (Swayne, 1998: 171).


The primary action, as originally described by H. (H., 1998: 149) in aphorism 63 of the Organon, represents the usual pathogenic effect of the substance, exacerbating those features of its drug picture that are present in the patient. This primary action evokes the secondary or counter-action of the organisms’ healing process. Thus a therapeutic aggravation, consisting of an exacerbation of existing symptoms, is the primary phase of the response to the homoeopathic prescription (H., 1998: 149).

Definitive criteria of a good therapeutic aggravation are that it involves current symptoms, and that there is some associated improvement in other symptoms or well-being. The time-scale of an aggravation is unpredictable. Its onset can vary from a few minutes to 3 weeks from the prescription. An aggravation can be distressing, but once it is identified and explained it is usually tolerated better than the same symptoms would be during an ordinary exacerbation, usually because of some associated improvement in well-being (Swayne, 1998: 172).




Initial Consultation

Homoeopathy uses those symptoms in case-taking that are indicative of the disturbed energy field, namely of the individual physiological reaction or expression of reaction. It directs itself according to these symptoms that make the condition unique and at the same time are most expressive of the encompassing wholeness of the individual under observation (Whitmont, 1991: 6).

The initial consultation entails notes on:the main complaint;

physical general symptoms: energy levels, sleep patterns and dreams, environmental preferences, appetite, thirst, food cravings and aversions, perspiration, menstruation, prostate complaints and sexual function; particular symptoms : symptoms pertaining to particular parts of the body; the mental state of the patient (Gunavante, 1994 : 79-80).

Apart from the emotive content of the case-taking, there is other obvious information required.

The homoeopath must enquire about: past history: any serious illness or operations and any unpleasant traumas.

family history: illnesses of family members and the presence of recurring illnesses.

occupational history: any special stresses and interests.

habits : their daily routine and dietary intake.

social history: details of personal life and emotional factors which influence it (Speight, 1979: 3, 8, 19, 20, 80).

Then, for symptoms revealed, questioning must focus on gathering information about its exact locality, its modalities, time of onset, duration, causation and character (Koehler, 1989: 19, 72, 75).

Mental symptoms, or symptoms expressive of the way the personality reacts;

emotional symptoms; the strange; rare and peculiar symptoms, or symptoms that do not logically fit into the expected clinical picture; an overview of body systems and an objective physical examination are also paramount in case-taking.

Good case notes are invaluable for several reasons. Without good notes we cannot confidently recapture the essence and detail of earlier consultations.

We cannot review the march of events, or be alert to changes in detail that may be significant but overlooked if the original observation is not called to mind. We cannot review our judgments, decisions and actions if the indications and rationale are not highlighted. We cannot critically review our work and its outcome, use our experience systematically to learn more, or conduct research if the essential data are not recorded (Swayne, 1998: 65).

Follow-up Consultation:

During the follow-up interview, the homoeopath must decide the following:

Was there a response to the remedy?

Was the response curative, partial or suppressive?

How does the patient feel generally?

Have any symptoms (mental, general or particular) discussed in the first visit improved, worsened or remain unchanged?

Have any new symptoms emerged?

Is another prescription required, should potency be changed, or is it best to wait? (Vithoulkas 2, 1998: 226-227).

Remedy. finding by Passive + Active witnessing

[Rajan Sankaran]

Die Worte, die dem Patienten als Spiegel wiederholt werden, sind wortwörtlich seine eigenen.

Erzählen Sie mir von Ihrem Problem (Hauptbeschwerde).

Das (exakte Wiederholung der Patientenworte) macht Ihnen Sorgen, sind Ihre Beschwerden, ist das so richtig?

Wie macht es Ihnen Beschwerden?

Beschreiben Sie das bitte (Wiederholung der letzten Worte des Patienten).

Beschreiben Sie es genauer, das Empfinden.

Wie fühlt sich das an?

Beschreiben Sie dieses Gefühl (Wiederholung der Patientenworte) etwas mehr.

Einblicke ins Pflanzenreich

Was ist das für ein Empfinden, dies (Wiederholung der Patientenworte)?

Wenn Sie sagen, dass (die letzten Worte), was meinen Sie damit?

Beschreiben Sie bitte das Empfinden des (exakte Wiederholung der Patientenworte).

Wie fühlt sich das (Patientenworte) an?

Was ist das (exakte Wiederholung der Patientenworte)?

Erzählen Sie mir davon.

Und wenn es etwas gibt, das Sie "unbedingt tun müssen", wie fühlt sich das an?

Beschreiben Sie mir das Gegenteil von (exakte Wiederholung der Patientenworte).

Wie fühlt sich das an, wenn Sie das (was der Patient gesagt hat) unbedingt tun müssen?

Und dann?

Wann fühlen Sie sich nicht so (Wiederholung der Patientenworte)?

Erzählen Sie mir davon.

Was für eine Wirkung hatte diese Situation auf Sie?

Was haben Sie dabei (immer) gefühlt?

Sie sagten, es war wie (exakte Wiederholung der Patientenworte) - wie hat sich das für Sie angefühlt?

Was ist das (exakte Wiederholung der Patientenworte) für ein Empfinden?

Was für ein Gefühl hatten Sie in dieser Situation?

Was bewirkte, dass Sie sich in diesen Situationen besser fühlten?

Was verschaffte Ihnen dann am besten Erleichterung?

Was empfinden Sie, wenn Sie das tun (das, was Erleichterung verschafft)?

Welche Sorte Bücher lasen oder lesen Sie?

Ein beispielhafte Fragenliste zum Empfinden

Was für eine Wirkung hatte das auf Sie?

Was für ein Gefühl hatten Sie dabei?

Was für Träume haben Sie?

Gab es in der Vergangenheit irgendetwas besonders Unangenehmes?

Oder etwas besonders Angenehmes?

Irgendwelche Tagträume?

Was sind das für Gefühle? Welche Gefühle kommen dabei auf?

Beschreiben Sie mir dies (exakte Wiederholung der Patientenworte),

Was für Schmerzen hatten Sie dann? Wie hat sich das angefühlt, was haben Sie dabei erlebt?

Was ist das für ein Empfinden?

Beschreiben Sie (das Empfinden).

Beschreiben Sie mir das Empfinden genauer.

Beschreiben Sie mir das (das bisher Beschriebene).

Was ist das Gegenteil?

Wenn Sie davon reden, "sich alles um einen herum positiver anzuschauen", an was für ein Beispiel denken Sie dabei?

In welcher Situation haben Sie das Gefühl gehabt (genaue Wiederholung der Patientenworte)?

Erzählen Sie mir davon (von der bestimmen Situation). - (Man muss jedes Wort als ein Schritt zum nächsten Wort nehmen.)

Welches sind die anderen "schönen Orte" - wenn Sie unter Stress sind?

Beschreiben Sie das näher.

Beschreiben Sie mir den Ort genauer.

Was für ein Empfinden löst das bei Ihnen aus, körperlich, gefühlsmäßig?

Was für ein Gefühl ist das?

Wie fühlt sich das an?

Was ist "gut" für Sie?

Von all den Dingen, die Sie "in Stress bringen", was setzt Ihnen am meisten zu?

Identifying and evaluating change in the patient depends upon comparison not only of the state of the presenting problem before and after treatment, but also of the concomitant and incidental features. The progress of the main complaint is often not the chief criterion of a good response. This may be inferred from change in other symptoms, general condition and body functions, and above all well-being (Swayne, 1998: 44).

Case management:

A homoeopathic remedy correctly selected will gently remove and annihilate disease without manifesting other symptoms. If however on subsequent visits other symptoms occur, the new morbid state must be investigated and another appropriate homoeopathic remedy as close as possible to the new state must be selected. Also, when the dose of the first medicine ceases to have a beneficial effect, a second remedy must be selected in accordance with the new disease state (H., 1998:225, 226, 230, 231).

The process of prescribing and waiting requires the correct remedy, or remedy sequence in some cases, and the persistence to keep on with it not necessarily taking the remedy all the time, until there is real substantial change that is maintained without any further treatment. People are reluctant to stop at the first solid sign of cure, as almost everyone seems to think that more is better.

The homoeopathic remedy will stimulate a curative response and cure will proceed under its own momentum, quickly or slowly according to the vitality of the patient (Chappell, 1994: 221, 227, 228).

Further, the age of the patient; mode of living; diet; occupation; disposition and so forth must be taken into consideration to ascertain whether these present obstacles to treatment (H., 1998: 247).

[Elaine Lewis]

Lyssin (also known as Hydrophobinum) is homeopathic rabies. Here was a case of mine, a child with uncontrollable anger, yelling, throwing, banging things, kicking, poking, hitting…

all the usual bad behaviors….

How did I know it was Lyssin? When the child was 1 year old, he was bitten by a dog and given 8 rabies shots! How many times have I said,

“Etiology over-rules symptomatology”? A very clear etiology here!

Whenever you see violent behavior and a dog bite in the history, think of Lyssin. Something to look for in Lyssin cases: anger, raging, swearing, followed by non-stop apologizing; fear of

water, bathing, dogs, the dark; also, dog-like behavior such as barking and growling. None of this was reported in the above case but the etiology (the cause) was apparent and sufficient.


Repertorisation is the technique of using a repertory to identify the homoeopathic medicines whose Materia Medica corresponds most closely to the clinical picture of the patient and from amongst which the similimum may be chosen. It depends on accurate case analysis of evaluation of symptoms and cannot be depended upon alone to identify the best prescription. It can only suggest possible choices (Swayne, 1998: 213). Those symptoms offered spontaneously; felt intensely and which are clear and unequivocal are ranked highly for repertorisation. When selecting the remedy, it is these symptoms that will lead one to the curative remedy (Gunavante, 1994: 53, 79).


Dilution and potentization. H. discovered that if substances which were toxic in their biological action were administered to an already existing disease state, it would stimulate an aggravation of the condition it was supposed to cure. This led H. to dilute the toxic substance in a manner which reduced its toxic effects, without diminishing the efficacy of the remedy.

This was achieved by mechanically agitating the toxic substance between each dilution (Galego, 2008:62).

This process of serial dilution and addition of kinetic energy to a substance is called potentization (Vithoulkas, 1998:102).

Potentization only alters the qualitative state of a substance, as the more a substance is potentized, the greater the therapeutic effect of it (Vithoulkas, 1998:102). Through potentization, a substance still retains its healing properties as long as it is administered according to the Law of Similars. Therefore, potentization has allowed practitioners to safely prescribe otherwise toxic substances such as Aur-met. (Galego, 2008:63).



Scholten introduced the principle of perfinity, which corresponds to affinity, meaning related. This principle states that similar substances will have similar qualities, and the resemblance in one field or dimension, indicates a resemblance in another field. In homoeopathy, this can be translated as “similar remedies will have similar pictures”.

An example includes the Solanaceae (Nightshade) family which includes members such as Atropa belladonna (Deadly nightshade), Hyoscymus niger (Henbane) and Datura stramonium (Thorn apple).

The botanical study of the forms and structures such as the flowers are alike, and were therefore in the past categorized in one family. Later, it was discovered that the Solanaceae plants share chemical molecules which include characteristic alkaloids such as atropine, hyoscine, scopolamine and solanines.

Research has shown that the DNA of plants from the same family have DNA sequences that are typical of the family.

For instance, intoxication with the plants from the Solanaceae (Nightshade) family produces characteristic symptoms such as paralysis of the parasympathetic system, raised heart rate, rapid respiration and dilated pupils. The symptoms of the individual provings of the remedies which are members of the Solanceae family have been shown to have similar symptoms in the material medica. Therefore, members of the Solanaceae (Nightshade) family have similarity in form, chemicals, DNA, intoxication and materia medica picture (Scholten, 2005:41 - 43).

Perfinity (a principle behind all this. The principle is that similarity in one field or dimension indicates similarity in another field. Similar substances will have similar effects. Scholten has given the principle the name “Perfinity” because I couldn’t find a good word in our language. The nearest is affinity, but that means “related”. Perfinity means that similar substances will have similar qualities, the similarity in one field working “through” (per) in another field. In homeopathy this can be expressed as “similar remedies will have similar pictures”. It’s a principle that is encountered everywhere in science, industry and nature) is an extrapolation of group analysis as substances are grouped according to certain similarities amongst them.


Diadoxis involves Hering’s Law., which is one form of diadoxis (Scholten, 2004:231).


The homoeopathic repertory

The first repertory, through Von Boenninghausen, was one of the earliest methods of categorization and selection of remedies (Somaru, 2008:14).

The usage of a repertory allows the user to list particular remedies that correspond to each symptom presented in a case. It creates a short list of differential remedies that can be used in the case.

The user can compare between all the remedies with similar symptoms as well as to differentiate between them. This process is called repertorization. The aim of a repertorization is to limit the number of possible curative remedies through a process of generalization, comparison and differentiation (Vogel, 2007:7 - 9).

With modern information technology, repertories have been converted into computer software formats for analysis and extraction purposes.

The development of software based homeopathic literature has aided the classification and differentiation of homeopathic remedies, as computer programmes can filter the vast amounts of literature (Wulfsohn, 2005:1).

Computer programs such as Radar 10 (from Archibel S.A. (2005) and ReferenceWorks Pro 5.6 (from Kent Homeopathic Associates, 1998) were utilized in this study.

Radar Synthesis 10 is computer repertory analysis software which is used to search through a vast number of rubrics, and distinguish a desired group of remedies based on common rubrics. It is an important research tool as it allows one to search through large amounts of repertory data (Archibel S.A., 2005).

ReferenceWorks Pro 5.6 is a homoeopathic software that contains over 70.000 remedy descriptions, 3.005 provings, extractions from ten repertories, as well as journal articles and cured cases (Kent Homeopathic Associates, 1998)

With the rapid pace at which homoeopathic knowledge is expanding, not all new materia medica and provings can be included in the current software, such as Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica (Harkhu, 2011:27).

Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica contains various sources from classic authors such as Kent, Allen, and Herring to more recent provings, books and the modern works of George Vithoulkas and Jonathan Shore (Kratimenos, 2001).

However, information from Encyclopaedia Homoeopathica could not be utilized as it did not have the relevant literature required.

The repertory is important in group analysis of remedies as it allows for indepth extraction of similar symptoms which allows the level of analysis to roceed to a complete group analysis.



In homoeopathy, groups of remedies are often referred to as a family of remedies.

Grouping of remedies has allowed family pictures to be developed as the family picture is a thematic expression, which all the members of the family have in common.

The family picture will be more generalized, while the pictures of each member will be seen as specializations of the general family picture. For example, the family picture of the Gold series has the theme of responsibility and leadership.

Aurum metallicum (= metallic gold) shares the thematic expression of the Gold series, but with the specialization of maintaining and preserving their power and responsibility, which is not part of the general family picture. Therefore, the family picture is developed first, and then the differentiation between the family members

is analyzed (Scholten, 2005:44).

Group analysis can enhance our insight and understanding of well known and relatively unknown remedies (Scholten, 1993: 289). It enables the prediction of a remedy picture without actually conducting a proving. This can accelerate the pace at which remedies are added to the homoeopathic materia medica. Group analysis also expands the number of possible symptoms and expressions of a case, which will enable more cases to be understood and differential diagnoses can also become simpler and clearer.

(Scholten, 2005:40).

Sankaran: group analysis should be used in conjunction with the traditional homoeopathic learning of homoeopathic materia medica and repertory as this method cannot replace the older methods of learning. It merely gives an opportunity to look at remedies and cases from several viewpoints, as compared to only one viewpoint.

Group analysis seems to be a natural and inevitable progression of homoeopathy (Sankaran, 2005b: 667 - 668).


Vital Force directs all processes of life in the human being. It adapts to environmental influences, creates emotion, causes thought processes and creativity and conducts spiritual inspiration.

It acts on the mental, physical and emotional planes to create balance. That part of the vital force responsible for balance during disease is known as the defence mechanism (Vithoulkas, 1987:59).



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